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References in Research – Types, Examples and Writing Guide

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References in Research

References in Research

Definition:

References in research are a list of sources that a researcher has consulted or cited while conducting their study. They are an essential component of any academic work, including research papers, theses, dissertations, and other scholarly publications.

Types of References

There are several types of references used in research, and the type of reference depends on the source of information being cited. The most common types of references include:

References to books typically include the author’s name, title of the book, publisher, publication date, and place of publication.

Example: Smith, J. (2018). The Art of Writing. Penguin Books.

Journal Articles

References to journal articles usually include the author’s name, title of the article, name of the journal, volume and issue number, page numbers, and publication date.

Example: Johnson, T. (2021). The Impact of Social Media on Mental Health. Journal of Psychology, 32(4), 87-94.

Web sources

References to web sources should include the author or organization responsible for the content, the title of the page, the URL, and the date accessed.

Example: World Health Organization. (2020). Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) advice for the public. Retrieved from https://www.who.int/emergencies/disease/novel-coronavirus-2019/advice-for-public

Conference Proceedings

References to conference proceedings should include the author’s name, title of the paper, name of the conference, location of the conference, date of the conference, and page numbers.

Example: Chen, S., & Li, J. (2019). The Future of AI in Education. Proceedings of the International Conference on Educational Technology, Beijing, China, July 15-17, pp. 67-78.

References to reports typically include the author or organization responsible for the report, title of the report, publication date, and publisher.

Example: United Nations. (2020). The Sustainable Development Goals Report. United Nations.

Formats of References

Some common Formates of References with their examples are as follows:

APA (American Psychological Association) Style

The APA (American Psychological Association) Style has specific guidelines for formatting references used in academic papers, articles, and books. Here are the different reference formats in APA style with examples:

Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of book. Publisher.

Example : Smith, J. K. (2005). The psychology of social interaction. Wiley-Blackwell.

Journal Article

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume number(issue number), page numbers.

Example : Brown, L. M., Keating, J. G., & Jones, S. M. (2012). The role of social support in coping with stress among African American adolescents. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 22(1), 218-233.

Author, A. A. (Year of publication or last update). Title of page. Website name. URL.

Example : Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020, December 11). COVID-19: How to protect yourself and others. https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/prevent-getting-sick/prevention.html

Magazine article

Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day of publication). Title of article. Title of Magazine, volume number(issue number), page numbers.

Example : Smith, M. (2019, March 11). The power of positive thinking. Psychology Today, 52(3), 60-65.

Newspaper article:

Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day of publication). Title of article. Title of Newspaper, page numbers.

Example: Johnson, B. (2021, February 15). New study shows benefits of exercise on mental health. The New York Times, A8.

Edited book

Editor, E. E. (Ed.). (Year of publication). Title of book. Publisher.

Example : Thompson, J. P. (Ed.). (2014). Social work in the 21st century. Sage Publications.

Chapter in an edited book:

Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of chapter. In E. E. Editor (Ed.), Title of book (pp. page numbers). Publisher.

Example : Johnson, K. S. (2018). The future of social work: Challenges and opportunities. In J. P. Thompson (Ed.), Social work in the 21st century (pp. 105-118). Sage Publications.

MLA (Modern Language Association) Style

The MLA (Modern Language Association) Style is a widely used style for writing academic papers and essays in the humanities. Here are the different reference formats in MLA style:

Author’s Last name, First name. Title of Book. Publisher, Publication year.

Example : Smith, John. The Psychology of Social Interaction. Wiley-Blackwell, 2005.

Journal article

Author’s Last name, First name. “Title of Article.” Title of Journal, volume number, issue number, Publication year, page numbers.

Example : Brown, Laura M., et al. “The Role of Social Support in Coping with Stress among African American Adolescents.” Journal of Research on Adolescence, vol. 22, no. 1, 2012, pp. 218-233.

Author’s Last name, First name. “Title of Webpage.” Website Name, Publication date, URL.

Example : Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. “COVID-19: How to Protect Yourself and Others.” CDC, 11 Dec. 2020, https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/prevent-getting-sick/prevention.html.

Author’s Last name, First name. “Title of Article.” Title of Magazine, Publication date, page numbers.

Example : Smith, Mary. “The Power of Positive Thinking.” Psychology Today, Mar. 2019, pp. 60-65.

Newspaper article

Author’s Last name, First name. “Title of Article.” Title of Newspaper, Publication date, page numbers.

Example : Johnson, Bob. “New Study Shows Benefits of Exercise on Mental Health.” The New York Times, 15 Feb. 2021, p. A8.

Editor’s Last name, First name, editor. Title of Book. Publisher, Publication year.

Example : Thompson, John P., editor. Social Work in the 21st Century. Sage Publications, 2014.

Chapter in an edited book

Author’s Last name, First name. “Title of Chapter.” Title of Book, edited by Editor’s First Name Last name, Publisher, Publication year, page numbers.

Example : Johnson, Karen S. “The Future of Social Work: Challenges and Opportunities.” Social Work in the 21st Century, edited by John P. Thompson, Sage Publications, 2014, pp. 105-118.

Chicago Manual of Style

The Chicago Manual of Style is a widely used style for writing academic papers, dissertations, and books in the humanities and social sciences. Here are the different reference formats in Chicago style:

Example : Smith, John K. The Psychology of Social Interaction. Wiley-Blackwell, 2005.

Author’s Last name, First name. “Title of Article.” Title of Journal volume number, no. issue number (Publication year): page numbers.

Example : Brown, Laura M., John G. Keating, and Sarah M. Jones. “The Role of Social Support in Coping with Stress among African American Adolescents.” Journal of Research on Adolescence 22, no. 1 (2012): 218-233.

Author’s Last name, First name. “Title of Webpage.” Website Name. Publication date. URL.

Example : Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. “COVID-19: How to Protect Yourself and Others.” CDC. December 11, 2020. https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/prevent-getting-sick/prevention.html.

Author’s Last name, First name. “Title of Article.” Title of Magazine, Publication date.

Example : Smith, Mary. “The Power of Positive Thinking.” Psychology Today, March 2019.

Author’s Last name, First name. “Title of Article.” Title of Newspaper, Publication date.

Example : Johnson, Bob. “New Study Shows Benefits of Exercise on Mental Health.” The New York Times, February 15, 2021.

Example : Thompson, John P., ed. Social Work in the 21st Century. Sage Publications, 2014.

Author’s Last name, First name. “Title of Chapter.” In Title of Book, edited by Editor’s First Name Last Name, page numbers. Publisher, Publication year.

Example : Johnson, Karen S. “The Future of Social Work: Challenges and Opportunities.” In Social Work in the 21st Century, edited by John P. Thompson, 105-118. Sage Publications, 2014.

Harvard Style

The Harvard Style, also known as the Author-Date System, is a widely used style for writing academic papers and essays in the social sciences. Here are the different reference formats in Harvard Style:

Author’s Last name, First name. Year of publication. Title of Book. Place of publication: Publisher.

Example : Smith, John. 2005. The Psychology of Social Interaction. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.

Author’s Last name, First name. Year of publication. “Title of Article.” Title of Journal volume number (issue number): page numbers.

Example: Brown, Laura M., John G. Keating, and Sarah M. Jones. 2012. “The Role of Social Support in Coping with Stress among African American Adolescents.” Journal of Research on Adolescence 22 (1): 218-233.

Author’s Last name, First name. Year of publication. “Title of Webpage.” Website Name. URL. Accessed date.

Example : Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2020. “COVID-19: How to Protect Yourself and Others.” CDC. https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/prevent-getting-sick/prevention.html. Accessed April 1, 2023.

Author’s Last name, First name. Year of publication. “Title of Article.” Title of Magazine, month and date of publication.

Example : Smith, Mary. 2019. “The Power of Positive Thinking.” Psychology Today, March 2019.

Author’s Last name, First name. Year of publication. “Title of Article.” Title of Newspaper, month and date of publication.

Example : Johnson, Bob. 2021. “New Study Shows Benefits of Exercise on Mental Health.” The New York Times, February 15, 2021.

Editor’s Last name, First name, ed. Year of publication. Title of Book. Place of publication: Publisher.

Example : Thompson, John P., ed. 2014. Social Work in the 21st Century. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Author’s Last name, First name. Year of publication. “Title of Chapter.” In Title of Book, edited by Editor’s First Name Last Name, page numbers. Place of publication: Publisher.

Example : Johnson, Karen S. 2014. “The Future of Social Work: Challenges and Opportunities.” In Social Work in the 21st Century, edited by John P. Thompson, 105-118. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Vancouver Style

The Vancouver Style, also known as the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals, is a widely used style for writing academic papers in the biomedical sciences. Here are the different reference formats in Vancouver Style:

Author’s Last name, First name. Title of Book. Edition number. Place of publication: Publisher; Year of publication.

Example : Smith, John K. The Psychology of Social Interaction. 2nd ed. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell; 2005.

Author’s Last name, First name. Title of Article. Abbreviated Journal Title. Year of publication; volume number(issue number):page numbers.

Example : Brown LM, Keating JG, Jones SM. The Role of Social Support in Coping with Stress among African American Adolescents. J Res Adolesc. 2012;22(1):218-233.

Author’s Last name, First name. Title of Webpage. Website Name [Internet]. Publication date. [cited date]. Available from: URL.

Example : Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. COVID-19: How to Protect Yourself and Others [Internet]. 2020 Dec 11. [cited 2023 Apr 1]. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/prevent-getting-sick/prevention.html.

Author’s Last name, First name. Title of Article. Title of Magazine. Year of publication; month and day of publication:page numbers.

Example : Smith M. The Power of Positive Thinking. Psychology Today. 2019 Mar 1:32-35.

Author’s Last name, First name. Title of Article. Title of Newspaper. Year of publication; month and day of publication:page numbers.

Example : Johnson B. New Study Shows Benefits of Exercise on Mental Health. The New York Times. 2021 Feb 15:A4.

Editor’s Last name, First name, editor. Title of Book. Edition number. Place of publication: Publisher; Year of publication.

Example: Thompson JP, editor. Social Work in the 21st Century. 1st ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications; 2014.

Author’s Last name, First name. Title of Chapter. In: Editor’s Last name, First name, editor. Title of Book. Edition number. Place of publication: Publisher; Year of publication. page numbers.

Example : Johnson KS. The Future of Social Work: Challenges and Opportunities. In: Thompson JP, editor. Social Work in the 21st Century. 1st ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications; 2014. p. 105-118.

Turabian Style

Turabian style is a variation of the Chicago style used in academic writing, particularly in the fields of history and humanities. Here are the different reference formats in Turabian style:

Author’s Last name, First name. Title of Book. Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication.

Example : Smith, John K. The Psychology of Social Interaction. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, 2005.

Author’s Last name, First name. “Title of Article.” Title of Journal volume number, no. issue number (Year of publication): page numbers.

Example : Brown, LM, Keating, JG, Jones, SM. “The Role of Social Support in Coping with Stress among African American Adolescents.” J Res Adolesc 22, no. 1 (2012): 218-233.

Author’s Last name, First name. “Title of Webpage.” Name of Website. Publication date. Accessed date. URL.

Example : Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. “COVID-19: How to Protect Yourself and Others.” CDC. December 11, 2020. Accessed April 1, 2023. https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/prevent-getting-sick/prevention.html.

Author’s Last name, First name. “Title of Article.” Title of Magazine, Month Day, Year of publication, page numbers.

Example : Smith, M. “The Power of Positive Thinking.” Psychology Today, March 1, 2019, 32-35.

Author’s Last name, First name. “Title of Article.” Title of Newspaper, Month Day, Year of publication.

Example : Johnson, B. “New Study Shows Benefits of Exercise on Mental Health.” The New York Times, February 15, 2021.

Editor’s Last name, First name, ed. Title of Book. Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication.

Example : Thompson, JP, ed. Social Work in the 21st Century. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 2014.

Author’s Last name, First name. “Title of Chapter.” In Title of Book, edited by Editor’s Last name, First name, page numbers. Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication.

Example : Johnson, KS. “The Future of Social Work: Challenges and Opportunities.” In Social Work in the 21st Century, edited by Thompson, JP, 105-118. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 2014.

IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) Style

IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) style is commonly used in engineering, computer science, and other technical fields. Here are the different reference formats in IEEE style:

Author’s Last name, First name. Book Title. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of publication.

Example : Oppenheim, A. V., & Schafer, R. W. Discrete-Time Signal Processing. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2010.

Author’s Last name, First name. “Title of Article.” Abbreviated Journal Title, vol. number, no. issue number, pp. page numbers, Month year of publication.

Example: Shannon, C. E. “A Mathematical Theory of Communication.” Bell System Technical Journal, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 379-423, July 1948.

Conference paper

Author’s Last name, First name. “Title of Paper.” In Title of Conference Proceedings, Place of Conference, Date of Conference, pp. page numbers, Year of publication.

Example: Gupta, S., & Kumar, P. “An Improved System of Linear Discriminant Analysis for Face Recognition.” In Proceedings of the 2011 International Conference on Computer Science and Network Technology, Harbin, China, Dec. 2011, pp. 144-147.

Author’s Last name, First name. “Title of Webpage.” Name of Website. Date of publication or last update. Accessed date. URL.

Example : National Aeronautics and Space Administration. “Apollo 11.” NASA. July 20, 1969. Accessed April 1, 2023. https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/apollo/apollo11.html.

Technical report

Author’s Last name, First name. “Title of Report.” Name of Institution or Organization, Report number, Year of publication.

Example : Smith, J. R. “Development of a New Solar Panel Technology.” National Renewable Energy Laboratory, NREL/TP-6A20-51645, 2011.

Author’s Last name, First name. “Title of Patent.” Patent number, Issue date.

Example : Suzuki, H. “Method of Producing Carbon Nanotubes.” US Patent 7,151,019, December 19, 2006.

Standard Title. Standard number, Publication date.

Example : IEEE Standard for Floating-Point Arithmetic. IEEE Std 754-2008, August 29, 2008

ACS (American Chemical Society) Style

ACS (American Chemical Society) style is commonly used in chemistry and related fields. Here are the different reference formats in ACS style:

Author’s Last name, First name; Author’s Last name, First name. Title of Article. Abbreviated Journal Title Year, Volume, Page Numbers.

Example : Wang, Y.; Zhao, X.; Cui, Y.; Ma, Y. Facile Preparation of Fe3O4/graphene Composites Using a Hydrothermal Method for High-Performance Lithium Ion Batteries. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2012, 4, 2715-2721.

Author’s Last name, First name. Book Title; Publisher: Place of Publication, Year of Publication.

Example : Carey, F. A. Organic Chemistry; McGraw-Hill: New York, 2008.

Author’s Last name, First name. Chapter Title. In Book Title; Editor’s Last name, First name, Ed.; Publisher: Place of Publication, Year of Publication; Volume number, Chapter number, Page Numbers.

Example : Grossman, R. B. Analytical Chemistry of Aerosols. In Aerosol Measurement: Principles, Techniques, and Applications; Baron, P. A.; Willeke, K., Eds.; Wiley-Interscience: New York, 2001; Chapter 10, pp 395-424.

Author’s Last name, First name. Title of Webpage. Website Name, URL (accessed date).

Example : National Institute of Standards and Technology. Atomic Spectra Database. https://www.nist.gov/pml/atomic-spectra-database (accessed April 1, 2023).

Author’s Last name, First name. Patent Number. Patent Date.

Example : Liu, Y.; Huang, H.; Chen, H.; Zhang, W. US Patent 9,999,999, December 31, 2022.

Author’s Last name, First name; Author’s Last name, First name. Title of Article. In Title of Conference Proceedings, Publisher: Place of Publication, Year of Publication; Volume Number, Page Numbers.

Example : Jia, H.; Xu, S.; Wu, Y.; Wu, Z.; Tang, Y.; Huang, X. Fast Adsorption of Organic Pollutants by Graphene Oxide. In Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Environmental Science and Technology, American Chemical Society: Washington, DC, 2017; Volume 1, pp 223-228.

AMA (American Medical Association) Style

AMA (American Medical Association) style is commonly used in medical and scientific fields. Here are the different reference formats in AMA style:

Author’s Last name, First name. Article Title. Journal Abbreviation. Year; Volume(Issue):Page Numbers.

Example : Jones, R. A.; Smith, B. C. The Role of Vitamin D in Maintaining Bone Health. JAMA. 2019;321(17):1765-1773.

Author’s Last name, First name. Book Title. Edition number. Place of Publication: Publisher; Year.

Example : Guyton, A. C.; Hall, J. E. Textbook of Medical Physiology. 13th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders; 2015.

Author’s Last name, First name. Chapter Title. In: Editor’s Last name, First name, ed. Book Title. Edition number. Place of Publication: Publisher; Year: Page Numbers.

Example: Rajakumar, K. Vitamin D and Bone Health. In: Holick, M. F., ed. Vitamin D: Physiology, Molecular Biology, and Clinical Applications. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Springer; 2010:211-222.

Author’s Last name, First name. Webpage Title. Website Name. URL. Published date. Updated date. Accessed date.

Example : National Cancer Institute. Breast Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version. National Cancer Institute. https://www.cancer.gov/types/breast/patient/breast-prevention-pdq. Published October 11, 2022. Accessed April 1, 2023.

Author’s Last name, First name. Conference presentation title. In: Conference Title; Conference Date; Place of Conference.

Example : Smith, J. R. Vitamin D and Bone Health: A Meta-Analysis. In: Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research; September 20-23, 2022; San Diego, CA.

Thesis or dissertation

Author’s Last name, First name. Title of Thesis or Dissertation. Degree level [Doctoral dissertation or Master’s thesis]. University Name; Year.

Example : Wilson, S. A. The Effects of Vitamin D Supplementation on Bone Health in Postmenopausal Women [Doctoral dissertation]. University of California, Los Angeles; 2018.

ASCE (American Society of Civil Engineers) Style

The ASCE (American Society of Civil Engineers) style is commonly used in civil engineering fields. Here are the different reference formats in ASCE style:

Author’s Last name, First name. “Article Title.” Journal Title, volume number, issue number (year): page numbers. DOI or URL (if available).

Example : Smith, J. R. “Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Sustainable Drainage Systems in Urban Areas.” Journal of Environmental Engineering, vol. 146, no. 3 (2020): 04020010. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)EE.1943-7870.0001668.

Example : McCuen, R. H. Hydrologic Analysis and Design. 4th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education; 2013.

Author’s Last name, First name. “Chapter Title.” In: Editor’s Last name, First name, ed. Book Title. Edition number. Place of Publication: Publisher; Year: page numbers.

Example : Maidment, D. R. “Floodplain Management in the United States.” In: Shroder, J. F., ed. Treatise on Geomorphology. San Diego, CA: Academic Press; 2013: 447-460.

Author’s Last name, First name. “Paper Title.” In: Conference Title; Conference Date; Location. Place of Publication: Publisher; Year: page numbers.

Example: Smith, J. R. “Sustainable Drainage Systems for Urban Areas.” In: Proceedings of the ASCE International Conference on Sustainable Infrastructure; November 6-9, 2019; Los Angeles, CA. Reston, VA: American Society of Civil Engineers; 2019: 156-163.

Author’s Last name, First name. “Report Title.” Report number. Place of Publication: Publisher; Year.

Example : U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. “Hurricane Sandy Coastal Risk Reduction Program, New York and New Jersey.” Report No. P-15-001. Washington, DC: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers; 2015.

CSE (Council of Science Editors) Style

The CSE (Council of Science Editors) style is commonly used in the scientific and medical fields. Here are the different reference formats in CSE style:

Author’s Last name, First Initial. Middle Initial. “Article Title.” Journal Title. Year;Volume(Issue):Page numbers.

Example : Smith, J.R. “Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Sustainable Drainage Systems in Urban Areas.” Journal of Environmental Engineering. 2020;146(3):04020010.

Author’s Last name, First Initial. Middle Initial. Book Title. Edition number. Place of Publication: Publisher; Year.

Author’s Last name, First Initial. Middle Initial. “Chapter Title.” In: Editor’s Last name, First Initial. Middle Initial., ed. Book Title. Edition number. Place of Publication: Publisher; Year:Page numbers.

Author’s Last name, First Initial. Middle Initial. “Paper Title.” In: Conference Title; Conference Date; Location. Place of Publication: Publisher; Year.

Example : Smith, J.R. “Sustainable Drainage Systems for Urban Areas.” In: Proceedings of the ASCE International Conference on Sustainable Infrastructure; November 6-9, 2019; Los Angeles, CA. Reston, VA: American Society of Civil Engineers; 2019.

Author’s Last name, First Initial. Middle Initial. “Report Title.” Report number. Place of Publication: Publisher; Year.

Bluebook Style

The Bluebook style is commonly used in the legal field for citing legal documents and sources. Here are the different reference formats in Bluebook style:

Case citation

Case name, volume source page (Court year).

Example : Brown v. Board of Education, 347 U.S. 483 (1954).

Statute citation

Name of Act, volume source § section number (year).

Example : Clean Air Act, 42 U.S.C. § 7401 (1963).

Regulation citation

Name of regulation, volume source § section number (year).

Example: Clean Air Act, 40 C.F.R. § 52.01 (2019).

Book citation

Author’s Last name, First Initial. Middle Initial. Book Title. Edition number (if applicable). Place of Publication: Publisher; Year.

Example: Smith, J.R. Legal Writing and Analysis. 3rd ed. New York, NY: Aspen Publishers; 2015.

Journal article citation

Author’s Last name, First Initial. Middle Initial. “Article Title.” Journal Title. Volume number (year): first page-last page.

Example: Garcia, C. “The Right to Counsel: An International Comparison.” International Journal of Legal Information. 43 (2015): 63-94.

Website citation

Author’s Last name, First Initial. Middle Initial. “Page Title.” Website Title. URL (accessed month day, year).

Example : United Nations. “Universal Declaration of Human Rights.” United Nations. https://www.un.org/en/universal-declaration-human-rights/ (accessed January 3, 2023).

Oxford Style

The Oxford style, also known as the Oxford referencing system or the documentary-note citation system, is commonly used in the humanities, including literature, history, and philosophy. Here are the different reference formats in Oxford style:

Author’s Last name, First name. Book Title. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication.

Example : Smith, John. The Art of Writing. New York: Penguin, 2020.

Author’s Last name, First name. “Article Title.” Journal Title volume, no. issue (year): page range.

Example: Garcia, Carlos. “The Role of Ethics in Philosophy.” Philosophy Today 67, no. 3 (2019): 53-68.

Chapter in an edited book citation

Author’s Last name, First name. “Chapter Title.” In Book Title, edited by Editor’s Name, page range. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication.

Example : Lee, Mary. “Feminism in the 21st Century.” In The Oxford Handbook of Feminism, edited by Jane Smith, 51-69. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2018.

Author’s Last name, First name. “Page Title.” Website Title. URL (accessed day month year).

Example : Jones, David. “The Importance of Learning Languages.” Oxford Language Center. https://www.oxfordlanguagecenter.com/importance-of-learning-languages/ (accessed 3 January 2023).

Dissertation or thesis citation

Author’s Last name, First name. “Title of Dissertation/Thesis.” PhD diss., University Name, Year of Publication.

Example : Brown, Susan. “The Art of Storytelling in American Literature.” PhD diss., University of Oxford, 2020.

Newspaper article citation

Author’s Last name, First name. “Article Title.” Newspaper Title, Month Day, Year.

Example : Robinson, Andrew. “New Developments in Climate Change Research.” The Guardian, September 15, 2022.

AAA (American Anthropological Association) Style

The American Anthropological Association (AAA) style is commonly used in anthropology research papers and journals. Here are the different reference formats in AAA style:

Author’s Last name, First name. Year of Publication. Book Title. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Example : Smith, John. 2019. The Anthropology of Food. New York: Routledge.

Author’s Last name, First name. Year of Publication. “Article Title.” Journal Title volume, no. issue: page range.

Example : Garcia, Carlos. 2021. “The Role of Ethics in Anthropology.” American Anthropologist 123, no. 2: 237-251.

Author’s Last name, First name. Year of Publication. “Chapter Title.” In Book Title, edited by Editor’s Name, page range. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Example: Lee, Mary. 2018. “Feminism in Anthropology.” In The Oxford Handbook of Feminism, edited by Jane Smith, 51-69. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Author’s Last name, First name. Year of Publication. “Page Title.” Website Title. URL (accessed day month year).

Example : Jones, David. 2020. “The Importance of Learning Languages.” Oxford Language Center. https://www.oxfordlanguagecenter.com/importance-of-learning-languages/ (accessed January 3, 2023).

Author’s Last name, First name. Year of Publication. “Title of Dissertation/Thesis.” PhD diss., University Name.

Example : Brown, Susan. 2022. “The Art of Storytelling in Anthropology.” PhD diss., University of California, Berkeley.

Author’s Last name, First name. Year of Publication. “Article Title.” Newspaper Title, Month Day.

Example : Robinson, Andrew. 2021. “New Developments in Anthropology Research.” The Guardian, September 15.

AIP (American Institute of Physics) Style

The American Institute of Physics (AIP) style is commonly used in physics research papers and journals. Here are the different reference formats in AIP style:

Example : Johnson, S. D. 2021. “Quantum Computing and Information.” Journal of Applied Physics 129, no. 4: 043102.

Example : Feynman, Richard. 2018. The Feynman Lectures on Physics. New York: Basic Books.

Example : Jones, David. 2020. “The Future of Quantum Computing.” In The Handbook of Physics, edited by John Smith, 125-136. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Conference proceedings citation

Author’s Last name, First name. Year of Publication. “Title of Paper.” Proceedings of Conference Name, date and location: page range. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Example : Chen, Wei. 2019. “The Applications of Nanotechnology in Solar Cells.” Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Nanotechnology, July 15-17, Tokyo, Japan: 224-229. New York: AIP Publishing.

Example : American Institute of Physics. 2022. “About AIP Publishing.” AIP Publishing. https://publishing.aip.org/about-aip-publishing/ (accessed January 3, 2023).

Patent citation

Author’s Last name, First name. Year of Publication. Patent Number.

Example : Smith, John. 2018. US Patent 9,873,644.

References Writing Guide

Here are some general guidelines for writing references:

  • Follow the citation style guidelines: Different disciplines and journals may require different citation styles (e.g., APA, MLA, Chicago). It is important to follow the specific guidelines for the citation style required.
  • Include all necessary information : Each citation should include enough information for readers to locate the source. For example, a journal article citation should include the author(s), title of the article, journal title, volume number, issue number, page numbers, and publication year.
  • Use proper formatting: Citation styles typically have specific formatting requirements for different types of sources. Make sure to follow the proper formatting for each citation.
  • Order citations alphabetically: If listing multiple sources, they should be listed alphabetically by the author’s last name.
  • Be consistent: Use the same citation style throughout the entire paper or project.
  • Check for accuracy: Double-check all citations to ensure accuracy, including correct spelling of author names and publication information.
  • Use reputable sources: When selecting sources to cite, choose reputable and authoritative sources. Avoid sources that are biased or unreliable.
  • Include all sources: Make sure to include all sources used in the research, including those that were not directly quoted but still informed the work.
  • Use online tools : There are online tools available (e.g., citation generators) that can help with formatting and organizing references.

Purpose of References in Research

References in research serve several purposes:

  • To give credit to the original authors or sources of information used in the research. It is important to acknowledge the work of others and avoid plagiarism.
  • To provide evidence for the claims made in the research. References can support the arguments, hypotheses, or conclusions presented in the research by citing relevant studies, data, or theories.
  • To allow readers to find and verify the sources used in the research. References provide the necessary information for readers to locate and access the sources cited in the research, which allows them to evaluate the quality and reliability of the information presented.
  • To situate the research within the broader context of the field. References can show how the research builds on or contributes to the existing body of knowledge, and can help readers to identify gaps in the literature that the research seeks to address.

Importance of References in Research

References play an important role in research for several reasons:

  • Credibility : By citing authoritative sources, references lend credibility to the research and its claims. They provide evidence that the research is based on a sound foundation of knowledge and has been carefully researched.
  • Avoidance of Plagiarism : References help researchers avoid plagiarism by giving credit to the original authors or sources of information. This is important for ethical reasons and also to avoid legal repercussions.
  • Reproducibility : References allow others to reproduce the research by providing detailed information on the sources used. This is important for verification of the research and for others to build on the work.
  • Context : References provide context for the research by situating it within the broader body of knowledge in the field. They help researchers to understand where their work fits in and how it builds on or contributes to existing knowledge.
  • Evaluation : References provide a means for others to evaluate the research by allowing them to assess the quality and reliability of the sources used.

Advantages of References in Research

There are several advantages of including references in research:

  • Acknowledgment of Sources: Including references gives credit to the authors or sources of information used in the research. This is important to acknowledge the original work and avoid plagiarism.
  • Evidence and Support : References can provide evidence to support the arguments, hypotheses, or conclusions presented in the research. This can add credibility and strength to the research.
  • Reproducibility : References provide the necessary information for others to reproduce the research. This is important for the verification of the research and for others to build on the work.
  • Context : References can help to situate the research within the broader body of knowledge in the field. This helps researchers to understand where their work fits in and how it builds on or contributes to existing knowledge.
  • Evaluation : Including references allows others to evaluate the research by providing a means to assess the quality and reliability of the sources used.
  • Ongoing Conversation: References allow researchers to engage in ongoing conversations and debates within their fields. They can show how the research builds on or contributes to the existing body of knowledge.

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Reference sources are generally the place to begin your research, especially when you're starting out with an unfamiliar field. But they're also where you return when you need to look up formulas, facts, definitions, and other standard details; they tend to pack a lot of information into simple, easy-to-use packages.

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Because Wikipedia content is anonymous and lacks a formal review process, it's not considered a "scholarly source," and most professors don't accept Wikipedia citations in papers. That said, Wikipedia does increasingly cite sources, so you can use it to lead you to sources which you can cite.

Encyclopedias attempt to provide comprehensive summaries of knowledge in either a specific field (subject encyclopedias) or "everything" (general encyclopedias). Encyclopedias are typically divided into a collection of articles on discrete topics. Academically oriented encyclopedias will often include short bibliographies, making them a good resource for identifying key books and articles on a topic.

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references definition in research

Definition: References in research are a list of sources that a researcher has consulted or cited while conducting their study. They are an essential component of any academic work, including research papers, theses, dissertations, and other scholarly publications. Types of References

The references in research papers are usually in the form of a list at the end of the paper. The essential difference between citations and references is that citations lead a reader to the source of information, while references provide the reader with detailed information regarding that particular source. Bibliography in research papers:

References provide the information necessary for readers to identify and retrieve each work cited in the text. Check each reference carefully against the original publication to ensure information is accurate and complete. Accurately prepared references help establish your credibility as a careful researcher and writer.

footnotes, endnotes, reference list or bibliography. (The format and terms used depend on the citation style.) The terms reference list and bibliography are sometimes used to mean the same thing, that is, the complete list of references or bibliographic details for the sources you have cited. However, bibliography can be

Reference sources are generally the place to begin your research, especially when you're starting out with an unfamiliar field. But they're also where you return when you need to look up formulas, facts, definitions, and other standard details; they tend to pack a lot of information into simple, easy-to-use packages. Physical Media

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Suffolk County reaches settlement in police misconduct case, court papers show

Suffolk County Police vehicle on July 17, 2023 in Amityville

Suffolk County Police vehicle on July 17, 2023 in Amityville Credit: James Carbone

  • Suffolk County has reached a settlement with a woman who alleged in a federal lawsuit that she was sexually assaulted in 2017 by a police officer in a precinct interrogation room while another cop falsified entries in a prisoner log to cover up for his partner, court papers show.

In the letter to Chief District Judge Margo K. Brodie and Magistrate Judge Peggy Kuo filed on Wednesday, Assistant County Attorney Stacy Skorupa said the county has reached a “settlement in principle” with the woman, who alleged in her lawsuit that former Suffolk officer Christopher McCoy had forced her to perform oral sex on him following a March 16, 2017, arrest in Wyandanch.

Skorupa’s letter does not outline the details of the settlement, but the letter said the agreement must be approved by the Ways and Means Committee of the Suffolk County Legislature. The county attorney’s office will submit the settlement to lawmakers for approval on Feb. 29, the letter said.

A spokesman for Suffolk County Executive Ed Romaine and a spokeswoman for the Suffolk County Police Department both declined to comment on the settlement. Attorney Michael Brown of Central Islip, one of the plaintiff’s lawyers, also declined to discuss the case on Thursday.

WHAT TO KNOW

  • Assistant County Attorney Stacy Skorupa said the county has reached a “settlement in principle” with the woman.
  • The details of the settlement, which must be approved by the Ways and Means Committee of the Suffolk County Legislature, were not outlined in court papers.

Newsday is not identifying the plaintiff by name because she is a victim of a sexual assault. Her case was detailed in a Newsday series that reported how the internal affairs bureaus of the Nassau and Suffolk police departments have allowed officers to evade discipline even in cases where their conduct led to death or serious harm.

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The lawsuit, which was scheduled to go to trial in September, was filed in the Eastern District of New York two months after the plaintiff said she was assaulted by McCoy. It named him and his partner, Mark Pav, and Suffolk County as defendants and seeking $40 million in compensatory damages, plus punitive damages and legal fees.

McCoy was suspended and ultimately resigned from the department. He pleaded guilty to a federal misdemeanor of depriving the woman of her civil rights, and served a year in prison. Suffolk refused to represent McCoy in the lawsuit and he defaulted, meaning that he did not mount a defense. Brodie dismissed Suffolk County as a defendant in the case in March 2022, according to court documents, leaving Pav as the single defendant.

The lawsuit said the woman reported the incident to the FBI because she feared Suffolk police would do nothing, or retaliate against her for reporting it.

The lawsuit alleged the woman was a passenger in a sedan driven by a friend on Straight Path in Wyandanch on the morning of March 16, 2017, when the vehicle was stopped by McCoy and Pav, who were assigned to the First Precinct’s Community Support Unit, which allowed them to proactively patrol anywhere within Babylon Town.

The plaintiff told Newsday she believed she and her friend were pulled over because they are both Black. McCoy told the woman there were outstanding warrants for her arrest relating to traffic violations, according to the lawsuit. She was ordered out of the car, the lawsuit said.

McCoy groped the woman’s breast as he frisked her before putting her in the back of a police cruiser, the lawsuit said, and then drove her to the First Precinct in West Babylon. At the precinct house, McCoy rubbed his private parts against her, the lawsuit alleged. He also asked her to perform oral sex.

McCoy and Pav later moved the woman to another room, where McCoy again demanded oral sex. “Let’s go, don’t make this hard,” he told the plaintiff, according to the lawsuit.

Pav later thanked the woman for “being cooperative with the officers,” the lawsuit said.

Suffolk Internal Affairs investigators later found that Pav had violated department regulations by failing to accurately observe and log the woman’s condition as required. The department’s “Prisoner Activity Log” requires officers to list all movements of prisoners within and outside the precinct. 

Nine of the 13 entries Pave made, Newsday reported, were fabricated, including entries that said she was in an open holding area or was being strip-searched by a female officer during the period McCoy assaulted her.

Pav told investigators that he had no knowledge of McCoy’s crime even as he admitted that he had falsified the prisoner log. He said he was forced to backfill the document after McCoy left it incomplete. Internal Affairs cleared Pav of more serious violations and he escaped discipline, Newsday’s investigation found.

Michael O'Keeffe covers Suffolk County police and other Long Island law enforcement agencies. He is an award-winning journalist and the co-author of two books, "The Card" and "American Icon."

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Essay On Police

500 words essay on police.

In this world, we must have laws to maintain peace. Thus, every citizen must follow these laws. However, there are some people in our society who do not follow them and break the laws . In order to keep a check on such kinds of people, we need the police. Through essay on police, we will learn about the role and importance of police.

essay on police

Importance of Police

The police are entrusted with the duty of maintaining the peace and harmony of a society. Moreover, they also have the right to arrest and control people who do not follow the law. As a result, they are important as they protect our society.

Enforcing the laws of the land, the police also has the right to punish people who do not obey the law. Consequently, we, as citizens, feel safe and do not worry much about our lives and property.

In other words, the police is a saviour of the society which makes the running of society quite smooth. Generally, the police force has sound health. They wear a uniform and carry a weapon, whether a rifle or pistol . They also wear a belt which holds their weapons.

Get the huge list of more than 500 Essay Topics and Ideas  

Role of Police

The police play many roles at police stations or check posts. They get a posting in the town or city depending on the crime rate in the area. When public demonstrations and strikes arise, the police plays a decisive role.

Similarly, when they witness the crowd turning violent during protests or public gatherings, it is their responsibility to prevent it from becoming something bigger. Sometimes, they also have to make use of the Lathi (stick) for the same reason.

If things get worse, they also resort to firing only after getting permission from their superiors. In addition, the police also offer special protection to political leaders and VIPs. The common man can also avail this protection in special circumstances.

Thus, you see how the police are always on duty round the clock. No matter what day or festival or holiday, they are always on duty. It is a tough role to play but they play it well. To protect the law is not an easy thing to do.

Similarly, it is difficult to maintain peace but the police manage to do it. Even on cold winter nights or hot summer afternoons, the police is always on duty. Even during the pandemic, the police was on duty.

Thus, they keep an eye on anti-social activities and prevent them at large. Acting as the protector of the weak and poor, the police play an essential role in the smooth functioning of society.

Conclusion of Essay On Police

Thus, the job of the police is very long and tough. Moreover, it also comes with a lot of responsibility as we look up to them for protection. Being the real guardian of the civil society of a nation, it is essential that they perform their duty well.

FAQ on Essay On Police

Question 1: What is the role of police in our life?

Answer 1: The police performs the duties which the law has assigned to them. They are entrusted to protect the public against violence, crime and other harmful acts. As a result, the police must act by following the law to ensure that they respect it and apply it in a manner which matches their level of responsibility.

Question 2: Why do we need police?

Answer 2: Police are important for us and we need it. They protect life and property, enforce criminal law, criminal investigations, regulate traffic, crowd control, public safety duties, search for missing persons, lost property and other duties which concern the public order.-*//**9666666666666666666666+9*63*

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Trump opts against Supreme Court appeal on civil immunity claim over Jan. 6 lawsuits

Then-President Donald Trump

WASHINGTON — Lawsuits seeking to hold Donald Trump personally accountable for his role in the Jan. 6 attack on the Capitol can move forward after the former president chose not to take his broad immunity claim to the Supreme Court.

Trump had a Thursday deadline to file a petition at the Supreme Court contesting an appeals court decision from December that rejected his immunity arguments, but he did not do so.

The appeals court made it clear that Trump could still claim immunity later in the proceedings in three cases brought by Capitol Police officers and members of Congress.

"President Trump will continue to fight for presidential immunity all across the spectrum," said Steven Cheung, a Trump spokesman.

The civil lawsuits against Trump are separate from the criminal case against him that also arose from Jan. 6. On Monday, Trump asked the justices to put that case on hold on immunity grounds.

Trump's lawyers argued that any actions he took on Jan. 6 fall under the scope of his responsibilities as president, thereby granting him immunity from civil liability. The U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia rejected that argument, ruling that Trump was acting in his role as a political candidate running for office, not as president.

But the court added that when the cases move forward in district court, Trump "must be afforded the opportunity to develop his own facts on the immunity question" in order to show he was acting in his official capacity. He then could again seek to have the lawsuits dismissed, the court said.

“We look forward to moving on with proving our claims and getting justice for our Capitol Police officer clients who were injured defending our democracy from Defendant Trump,” said Kristy Parker, a lawyer for plaintiffs in one of the cases.

The lead plaintiff in the civil immunity case is James Blassingame, a Capitol Police officer who was injured in the Jan. 6 riot. Fellow plaintiffs in several lawsuits that were consolidated on appeal include lawmakers who were at the Capitol that day.

The legal arguments being made by Trump are similar to those he is making in his criminal case as he seeks to prevent a trial from taking place before the November election.

In rejecting Trump's immunity claim in the criminal case, a different panel of judges in the same appeals court did not directly address whether Trump's actions were official acts. The court instead assumed that they likely were official acts and found that, even then, Trump could not claim immunity.

police officer essay in urdu

Lawrence Hurley covers the Supreme Court for NBC News.

Urdu Novels Ghar is displaying

Hero Police Officer Based Romantic Urdu Novels List Free Download Pdf

Download Hero Police Officer Based Urdu Novels Complete pdfs, Download Urdu Novels pdf, Also , Here Available For Download Urdu Novel List by Writers.

Villain by Aashu Saleem

Villain by Aashu Saleem

Darma e dil by Syeda Jaweria Shabbir

Darma e dil by Syeda Jaweria Shabbir

Dasht e Ishq By Namish Shah

Dasht e Ishq By Namish Shah

Khawab Nagar Ka Humrahi By Abeera Hasan

Khawab Nagar Ka Humrahi By Abeera Hasan

Love of the beast by Sidra Younas

Love of the beast by Sidra Younas

Man Ishq Sodai By Janan Shah

Man Ishq Sodai By Janan Shah

Mera Mehboob Mera Pyar by Umme Habiba

Mera Mehboob Mera Pyar by Umme Habiba

Mohabbat ik jugnoo by Tasneem Tahir

Mohabbat ik jugnoo by Tasneem Tahir

Qurbat E Dilbaram By Uzma Mujahid

Qurbat E Dilbaram By Uzma Mujahid

Hasil e Zeest By Nadia Ahmed

Hasil e Zeest By Nadia Ahmed

Haya by Fakhra Waheed

Haya by Fakhra Waheed

Farz Aur Mohabbat By Sajal Ali

Farz Aur Mohabbat By Sajal Ali

Ghag by mahwish urooj

Ghag by mahwish urooj

Din lagen gy by khalida nisar

Din lagen gy by khalida nisar

Dil ka soda hua chandni rat mein by samreen yahqoob

Dil ka soda hua chandni rat mein by samreen yahqoob

Dil hai ke manta nahi by Faiza Ahmed

Dil hai ke manta nahi by Faiza Ahmed

Meri mohabbat ho tum by Iqra Sheikh

Meri mohabbat ho tum by Iqra Sheikh

Mein sharminda hon by nabila aziz

Mein sharminda hon by nabila aziz

Jo bikhron main sahara tu by meerab hayat

Jo bikhron main sahara tu by meerab hayat

Junoon e ishq ki roothi rut by sadia abid

Junoon e ishq ki roothi rut by sadia abid

Kese manaon piya by sajida taj

Kese manaon piya by sajida taj

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Main ki kar yaar manawan by nabila abrar raja

Makafaat e amal by haadi khan

Makafaat e amal by haadi khan

Mehndi laga ky rakhna by zarnain arzoo

Mehndi laga ky rakhna by zarnain arzoo

Hum Bhi Wafa Nibhain Gay by Farzana Mughal

Hum Bhi Wafa Nibhain Gay by Farzana Mughal

Dil sambhal ja zra by kiran chaudhary

Dil sambhal ja zra by kiran chaudhary

Iqrar e mohabbat by jana mubeen

Iqrar e mohabbat by jana mubeen

Deedar e ishqam by areej shah

Deedar e ishqam by areej shah

Chahatain aisi by laraib momin

Chahatain aisi by laraib momin

Bandhy ek dor se by Alisha Naz

Bandhy ek dor se by Alisha Naz

Amarbail By Umera Ahmed

Amarbail By Umera Ahmed

Ab to yeh zindagi muskurai by shazia Mustafa

Ab to yeh zindagi muskurai by shazia Mustafa

Mohabbat hasil e zeest by huma amir

Mohabbat hasil e zeest by huma amir

Ishq raz e asat by Samina Iftikhar

Ishq raz e asat by Samina Iftikhar

Mohabbat lamehdood hoti hai by kanwal riaz

Mohabbat lamehdood hoti hai by kanwal riaz

Jana tujhe jab jana by Neelam Riasat

Jana tujhe jab jana by Neelam Riasat

Sunehra aks by saba eshal

Sunehra aks by saba eshal

Mosmi by rakhi chaudhary

Mosmi by rakhi chaudhary

Mujhe aitbar e wafa mile by nabeela abar raja

Mujhe aitbar e wafa mile by nabila abar raja

Sahil sahil zanjeer hoey by farhana naz

Sahil sahil zanjeer hoey by farhana naz

Palkon per thehray khwab by habiba umair

Palkon per thehray khwab by habiba umair

Rahe Hayat Ke Silsile By Nabila Abar Raja

Rahe Hayat Ke Silsile By Nabila Abar Raja

Tere naam ka shajar by ayesha aftab

Tere naam ka shajar by ayesha aftab

Dil ke ander ek rasta hay by samra bukhari

Dil ke ander ek rasta hay by samra bukhari

‘Ultimate sacrifice’: 2 officers, paramedic killed in Burnsville; suspected shooter dead

Burnsville Shooting Incident

Updated 6:15 p.m.

Two Burnsville police officers and a paramedic were shot and killed early Sunday morning while responding to a call for help about a man armed and barricaded in a home with seven children inside.

The men killed were identified by the city as officers Paul Elmstrand and Matthew Ruge, both age 27, and 40-year-old firefighter-paramedic Adam Finseth. Another officer, Sgt. Adam Medlicott, was injured and taken to a hospital with what are believed to be non-life-threatening injuries.

Burnsville officers and firefighters

Officials said the shooter is dead and there is no ongoing threat. They didn’t say how he died. The man’s name is expected to be disclosed following an autopsy planned for Monday. The Minnesota Bureau of Criminal Apprehension is investigating.

The children, ages 2 to 15, were able to leave the house safely after the incident ended, authorities said. But the deaths of three public servants shot and killed in the line of duty gripped Burnsville and the entire community of firefighters and law enforcement on Sunday.

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At an emotional late-afternoon press conference, Burnsville officials spoke of the men as heroes dedicated to their communities and to keeping people safe.

“Today, three members of our team made the ultimate sacrifice for this community,” Tanya Schwartz, Burnsville’s police chief, told reporters. In the world of public safety, people sign up understanding they may someday have to give up their lives, she added, “and they do it anyways.”

“There are no words to describe what these public safety families are going through right now,” added Fire Chief BJ Jungmann. Finseth, he said, was a paramedic trained for crisis situations — badge No. 83. Those in public safety work understand the worst might happen, but “no one expects it to happen.”

Burnsville Shooting Incident

Report of a man armed, barricaded

Burnsville police were called at 1:50 a.m. to the 12600 block of 33rd Avenue South on a report of a “domestic situation where a man reported to be armed was barricaded with family members. After arriving, the situation escalated into gunfire with responders,” the city said in a statement.

Bureau of Criminal Apprehension Superintendent Drew Evans told reporters the shooter had multiple guns, a lot of ammunition and shot at first responders from several locations in the house. One of the officers, he said, was in the house when he was shot.

Having young children inside the home made the situation even more harrowing, he added.

The initial call for help, he said, came from someone inside the house. The suspect was already barricaded in the home when officers arrived and they spent “a lot of time” negotiating with him.

Burnsville Shooting Incident

Several officers did return fire but the exact exchange of gunfire that occurred still hasn’t been pieced together, Evans said as he asked for patience while the BCA pursued its investigation.

Burnsville officials said Elmstrand joined the department in August 2017 as a community service officer and was promoted to officer in July 2019. He was part of the department’s mobile command staff and served on its honor guard.

Ruge joined the department in April 2020 and was part of its crisis negotiations team.

Finseth had been a Burnsville firefighter and paramedic since February 2019.

‘Heard 40 or 50 gunshots’

Neighbors on Sunday described awakening to the sounds of early morning gunshots.

Alex Martinez and Carmen Schaffer said their house, which sits across from where the shooting happened, was hit by gunfire several times. They said they saw children later being brought out of the house and they seemed to be OK.

Neighbor Chuck Kriss said at around 5 a.m. he and his family heard sounds they first thought were knocking sounds before realizing later they were gunshots.

“We went to our back window and we saw ... a flash, which we learned later on it seems like it was flash bangs and we probably heard 40 or 50 gunshots up and back.”

Burnsville Shooting Incident

Anna Edmunds said she heard popping sounds before 5 a.m. but couldn’t see anything right away.

“Even like a couple of minutes later it was like there were a couple more popping sounds and then everything just kind of stopped,” Edmunds said. “And all of a sudden there’s police everywhere and there’s like literally every corner, there’s like a fire truck or there’s like a police [or] ATV.”

Edmunds said she got a shelter in place message from the Burnsville Police Department about an hour after first hearing shots.

Burnsville officials asked people to stay away from the scene as investigators do their work.

Burnsville Shooting Incident

‘Heartbroken’

At Hennepin Healthcare hospital in Minneapolis, the region’s major trauma care facility, streets were blocked off in the late morning by law enforcement, with Burnsville fire trucks outside along with more than 100 law enforcement vehicles from around the metro area.

A procession of law enforcement and first responders later accompanied the bodies of the officers and paramedic as they were driven to the office of the Hennepin County Medical Examiner.

Gov. Tim Walz has ordered flags to be flown at half staff in the state beginning Monday at sunrise.

News of the killings on Sunday prompted an outpouring of messages of grief and condolences from across Minnesota’s political spectrum and its law enforcement community.

  • Killed or wounded by gunfire Recent incidents against law enforcement officers in Minnesota, neighboring states

Minnesota Police and Peace Officers Association Executive Director Brian Peters said, “We are heartbroken. Our law enforcement community is heartbroken. We’re just devastated at the horrific loss. These heroes leave behind loved ones and a community who will forever remember their bravery and dedication to keeping Minnesotans safe.”

Gregg Lindberg, Burnsville’s city manager, called it a “difficult and emotional day here for our community and our team. Words can’t express how hard today has been.”

Watch: Burnsville officials, BCA brief reporters

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