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How to write an essay: Body

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Body paragraphs

The essay body itself is organised into paragraphs, according to your plan. Remember that each paragraph focuses on one idea, or aspect of your topic, and should contain at least 4-5 sentences so you can deal with that idea properly.

Each body paragraph has three sections. First is the topic sentence . This lets the reader know what the paragraph is going to be about and the main point it will make. It gives the paragraph’s point straight away. Next – and largest – is the supporting sentences . These expand on the central idea, explaining it in more detail, exploring what it means, and of course giving the evidence and argument that back it up. This is where you use your research to support your argument. Then there is a concluding sentence . This restates the idea in the topic sentence, to remind the reader of your main point. It also shows how that point helps answer the question.

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Starting an Essay

Essay structure, writing a thesis statement, introduction paragraphs, body paragraphs, conclusions.

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Almost every course you will encounter in college will include writing assignments. One of the most common writing assignments is known as an essay. While the content and style of  essay projects will vary across the disciplines, there are a number of key components that all good essays include. This section of the guide walks you through some of the basic components of the essay genre.  Here are some general thoughts before you get started.  

  • A good essay is well-organized and structured. Good essays have a clear introduction, thesis, and conclusion. Body paragraphs in the essay connect back to the thesis. 
  • In college, we are no longer tied to a five-paragraph essay (unless an instructor specifically asks for this). Our essays in college can range in length. Some projects may be more than 10 pages, so it would be impossible to use only 5 paragraphs for an essay of this length. 
  • Because we are no longer tied to a 5-paragraph essay, we do not have to include "three points" in our thesis statement as we may have done in other courses. 
  • Essays should be cohesive and have a good flow. We can create this flow by using transition words and phrases to connect one point to the next. 
  • Remember to the review the directions before you start. One can produce a wonderfully-written essay, but if it does not meet the project's parameters, it will not usually receive a passing grade.
  • Schedule a meeting with your instructor or tutor before you begin. Visit  http://baker.mywconline.com/  to schedule a meeting with a professional tutor. 

components of essay body

  • Parts of an Essay This handout breaks down an essay into it core parts. This short video will provide you with essay structure help.
  • Creating a Strong Thesis Statement Here are some brief tips about how to write a strong thesis statement for your college writing project.
  • How to Write an Excellent Introduction This handout leads you through a number of successful strategies to garner reader interest and transition into your thesis statement.
  • Creating Body Paragraphs This resource walks you through paragraph creation including how to implement good topic sentences, proper organization, and excellent development.
  • Crafting a Strong Conclusion We often focus on creating a strong introduction, but crafting a well-written conclusion is just as important.
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What are the parts of an essay, how do i write an introduction, how do i write the body of my essay, how do i write the conclusion, how do i create a reference list, how do i improve my essay.

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  • Introduction
  • Each is made up of one or several paragraphs.
  • The purpose of this section is to introduce the topic and why it matters, identify the specific focus of the paper, and indicate how the paper will be organized.
  • To keep from being too broad or vague, try to incorporate a keyword from your title in the first sentence.
  • For example, you might tell readers that the issue is part of an important debate or provide a statistic explaining how many people are affected.  
  • Defining your terms is particularly important if there are several possible meanings or interpretations of the term.
  • Try to frame this as a statement of your focus. This is also known as a purpose statement, thesis argument, or hypothesis.
  • The purpose of this section is to provide information and arguments that follow logically from the main point you identified in your introduction. 
  • Identify the main ideas that support and develop your paper’s main point.
  • For longer essays, you may be required to use subheadings to label your sections.
  • Point: Provide a topic sentence that identifies the topic of the paragraph.
  • Proof: Give evidence or examples that develop and explain the topic (e.g., these may come from your sources).
  • Significance: Conclude the paragraph with sentence that tells the reader how your paragraph supports the main point of your essay.
  • The purpose of this section is to summarize the main points of the essay and identify the broader significance of the topic or issue.
  • Remind the reader of the main point of your essay (without restating it word-for-word).
  • Summarize the key ideas that supported your main point. (Note: No new information or evidence should be introduced in the conclusion.) 
  • Suggest next steps, future research, or recommendations.
  • Answer the question “Why should readers care?” (implications, significance).
  • Find out what style guide you are required to follow (e.g., APA, MLA, Chicago) and follow the guidelines to create a reference list (may be called a bibliography or works cited).
  • Be sure to include citations in the text when you refer to sources within your essay.
  • Cite Your Sources - University of Guelph
  • Read assignment instructions carefully and refer to them throughout the writing process.
  • e.g., describe, evaluate, analyze, explain, argue, trace, outline, synthesize, compare, contrast, critique.
  • For longer essays, you may find it helpful to work on a section at a time, approaching each section as a “mini-essay.”
  • Make sure every paragraph, example, and sentence directly supports your main point.
  • Aim for 5-8 sentences or ¾ page.
  • Visit your instructor or TA during office hours to talk about your approach to the assignment.
  • Leave yourself time to revise your essay before submitting.
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  • Parts of an Academic Essay
  • The Writing Process
  • Rhetorical Modes as Types of Essays
  • Stylistic Considerations
  • Literary Analysis Essay - Close Reading
  • Unity and Coherence in Essays
  • Proving the Thesis/Critical Thinking
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Test Yourself

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In a way, these academic essays are like a court trial.  The attorney, whether prosecuting the case or defending it, begins with an opening statement explaining the background and telling the jury what he or she intends to prove (the thesis statement).  Then, the attorney presents witnesses for proof (the body of the paragraphs).  Lastly, the attorney presents the closing argument (concluding paragraph).

The Introduction and Thesis

There are a variety of approaches regarding the content of the introduction paragraph such as a brief outline of the proof, an anecdote, explaining key ideas, and asking a question.  In addition, some textbooks say that an introduction can be more than one paragraph.  The placement of the thesis statement is another variable depending on the instructor and/or text.  The approach used in this lesson is that an introduction paragraph gives background information leading into the thesis which is the main idea of the paper, which is stated at the end.

The background in the introductory paragraph consists of information about the circumstances of the thesis. This background information often starts in the introductory paragraph with a general statement which is then refined to the most specific sentence of the essay, the thesis. Background sentences include information about the topic and the controversy. It is important to note that in this approach, the proof for the thesis is not found in the introduction except, possibly, as part of a thesis statement which includes the key elements of the proof. Proof is presented and expanded on in the body.

Some instructors may prefer other types of content in the introduction in addition to the thesis.  It is best to check with an instructor as to whether he or she has a preference for content. Generally, the thesis must be stated in the introduction.

The thesis is the position statement. It must contain a subject and a verb and express a complete thought. It must also be defensible. This means it should be an arguable point with which people could reasonably disagree. The more focused and narrow the thesis statement, the better a paper will generally be.

If you are given a question in the instructions for your paper, the thesis statement is a one-sentence answer taking a position on the question.

If you are given a topic instead of a question, then in order to create a thesis statement, you must narrow your analysis of the topic to a specific controversial issue about the topic to take a stand. If it is not a research paper, some brainstorming (jotting down what comes to mind on the issue) should help determine a specific question.

If it is a research paper, the process begins with exploratory research which should show the various issues and controversies which should lead to the specific question.  Then, the research becomes focused on the question which in turn should lead to taking a position on the question.

These methods of determining a thesis are still answering a question. It’s just that you pose a question to answer for the thesis.  Here is an example.

Suppose, one of the topics you are given to write about is America’s National Parks. Books have been written about this subject. In fact, books have been written just about a single park. As you are thinking about it, you may realize how there is an issue about balancing between preserving the wilderness and allowing visitors. The question would then be Should visitors to America’s National Parks be regulated in order to preserve the wilderness?

One thesis might be There is no need for regulations for visiting America’s National Parks to preserve the wilderness.

 Another might be There should be reasonable regulations for visiting America’s National Parks in order to preserve the wilderness.

Finally, avoid using expressions that announce, “Now I will prove…” or “This essay is about …” Instead of telling the reader what the paper is about, a good paper simply proves the thesis in the body. Generally, you shouldn’t refer to your paper in your paper.

Here is an example of a good introduction with the thesis in red:

Not too long ago, everyday life was filled with burdensome, time-consuming chores that left little time for much more than completing these tasks.  People generally worked from their homes or within walking distance to their homes and rarely traveled far from them.  People were limited to whatever their physical capacities were.  All this changed dramatically as new technologies developed.  Modern technology has most improved our lives through convenience, efficiency, and accessibility.

Note how the background is general and leads up to the thesis.   No proof is given in the background sentences about how technology has improved lives.

Moreover, notice that the thesis in red is the last sentence of the introduction. It is a defensible statement.

A reasonable person could argue the opposite position:  Although modern technology has provided easier ways of completing some tasks, it has diminished the quality of life since people have to work too many hours to acquire these gadgets, have developed health problems as a result of excess use, and have lost focus on what is really valuable in life.

Quick Tips:

The introduction opens the essay and gives background information about the thesis.

Do not introduce your supporting points  (proof) in the introduction unless they are part of the thesis; save these for the body.

The thesis is placed at the end of the introductory paragraph.

Don’t use expressions like “this paper will be about” or “I intend to show…”

For more information on body paragraphs and supporting evidence, see Proving a Thesis – Evidence and Proving a Thesis – Logic, and Logical Fallacies and Appeals in Related Pages on the right sidebar.

Body paragraphs give proof for the thesis.  They should have one proof point per paragraph expressed in a topic sentence. The topic sentence is usually found at the beginning of each body paragraph and, like a thesis, must be a complete sentence. Each topic sentence must be directly related to and support the argument made by the thesis.

After the topic sentence, the rest of the paragraph should go on to support this one proof with examples and explanation. It is the details that support the topic sentences in the body paragraphs that make the arguments strong.

If the thesis statement stated that technology improved the quality of life, each body paragraph should begin with a reason why it has improved the quality of life.  This reason is called a  topic sentence .  Following are three examples of body paragraphs that provide support for the thesis that modern technology has improved our lives through convenience, efficiency, and accessibility:

     Almost every aspect of our lives has been improved through convenience provided by modern technology.  From the sound of music from an alarm clock in the morning to the end of the day being entertained in the convenience of our living room, our lives are improved.  The automatic coffee maker has the coffee ready at a certain time.  Cars or public transportation bring people to work where computers operate at the push of a button.  At home, there’s the convenience of washing machines and dryers, dishwashers, air conditioners, and power lawn mowers.  Modern technology has made life better with many conveniences.

     Not only has technology improved our lives through convenience, it has improved our lives through efficiency. The time saved by machines doing most of the work leaves more time for people to develop their personal goals or to just relax.  Years ago, when doing laundry could take all day, there wasn’t time left over to read or go to school or even just to take a leisurely walk.  Nowadays, people have more time and energy than ever to simply enjoy their lives and pursue their goals thanks to the efficiency of modern technology.

     Accessibility to a wide range of options has been expanded through modern technology.  Never before could people cross a continent or an ocean in an afternoon.  Travel is not the only way technology has created accessibility.  Software which types from voice commands has made using computers more accessible for school or work.  People with special needs have many new options thanks to modern technology such as special chairs or text readers.  Actually, those people who need hearing aids as a result of normal aging have access to continued communication and enjoyment of entertainment they did not previously have.  There are many ways technology has improved lives through increased accessibility.

Notice how these proof paragraphs stick to one proof point introduced in the topic sentences in red. These three paragraphs, not only support the original thesis, but go on to give details and explanations which explain the proof point in the topic sentence.

Quick Tips on Body Paragraphs

The body of your essay is where you give your main support for the thesis.

Each body paragraph should start with a Topic Sentence that is directly related to and supports the thesis statement.

Each body paragraph should also give details and explanations that further support the poof point for that paragraph.

Don’t use enumeration such as first, second, and third. The reader will know by the topic sentence that it is a new proof point.

See Proving the Thesis in Related Pages on the right sidebar for more information on proof.

The Conclusion

Instructors vary of what they expect in the conclusion; however, there is general agreement that conclusions should not introduce any new proof points, should include a restatement of the thesis, and should not contain any words such as “In conclusion.”

Some instructors want only a summary of the proof and a restatement of the thesis. Some instructors ask for a general prediction or implication of the information presented without a restatement of thesis. Still others may want to include a restatement along with a general prediction or implication of the information presents. Be sure to review assignment instructions or check with instructor.  If your assignment instructions don’t specify, just sum up the proof and restate the thesis.

Example which sums up proof and restates thesis :

Modern technology has created many conveniences in everyday from waking up to music to having coffee ready to getting to work and doing a day’s work.  The efficiency provided by technology gives people more time to enjoy life and pursue personal development, and the accessibility has broadened options for travel, school, and work.  Modern technology has improved our lives through convenience, efficiency, and accessibility.

See how the thesis statement was restated in red. The two major arguments about the possible locations proven to be incorrect were also included to remind the reader of the major proof points made in the paper.

Example which makes a general prediction or implication of the information presented:

Modern technology has created many conveniences in everyday life from waking up to music to having coffee ready to getting to work and doing a day’s work.  The efficiency provided by technology gives people more time to enjoy life and pursue personal development, and the accessibility has broadened options for travel, school, and work.  Without it, everyday life would be filled with burdensome tasks and be limited to our neighborhood and our physical capacity. Here’s an example of a conclusion with a general prediction or implication statement with a restatement of thesis.

Modern technology has created many conveniences in everyday life from waking up to music to having coffee ready to getting to work and doing a day’s work.  The efficiency provided by technology gives people more time to enjoy life and pursue personal development, and the accessibility has broadened options for travel, school, and work.  Without it, everyday life would be filled with burdensome tasks and be limited to our neighborhood and our physical capacity. Modern technology has improved our lives through convenience, efficiency, and accessibility.

Quick Tips for Conclusions

  • The conclusion brings the essay to an end and is typically the shortest paragraph.
  • It is important to not introduce new ideas or information here.
  • Unless otherwise specified in your assignment, just sum up the proof and restate the conclusion.
  • Some instructors may want the concluding paragraph to contain a general prediction or observation implied from the information presented.
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Essay Body – How to Write It Right

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Are you unsure how to write a good essay body? If so, you have come to the right place. Writing an effective college essay includes understanding how to craft body paragraphs that provide proof and evaluation in support of your thesis statement. This article will discuss what an essay body entails and how to create a perfect one.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

  • 1 In a Nutshell: Essay Body
  • 2 Definition: Informal writing
  • 3 Essay Body: Structure
  • 4 Essay Body: Differences
  • 5 Essay Body: How to start writing
  • 6 Essay Body: What’s important?
  • 7 Essay Body: Checklist

In a Nutshell: Essay Body

  • Writing strong body paragraphs is crucial to writing a solid college paper.
  • The six components of a standard essay body paragraph are a subject sentence, supporting details, and a conclusion .
  • Avoiding repetition and transitioning smoothly between paragraphs are two of the most important paragraphing principles.

Definition: Informal writing

Informal writing is a relaxed and conversational writing style. It features a casual tone. It is not bound to any rules and conversions as compared to formal writing. It typically consists of short sentences and is commonly applied in contexts like writing to a friend, sharing stories, creative writing, and in everyday conversations.

This writing style helps you convey ideas and feelings in relatable and direct ways. Therefore, it is a powerful academic writing tool for engaging readers.

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Essay Body: Structure

Each paragraph in the body should naturally lead into the next, creating an easy-to-follow structure. So, it’s important to consider the following;

Number of Paragraphs

First, an essay body often consists of numerous paragraphs, each of which develops a distinct point of view on the issue at hand. Paragraphs should include an introductory subject sentence that states the major idea, followed by many phrases that elaborate on that point using evidence or examples.

Transitional Sentences

Also, Paragraphs must have transitional phrases between them to help the reader understand the essay’s organization and flow.

Here’s one possible structure for the essay body about the merits of physical activity:

  • Paragraph 1: Introduction to the benefits of exercise.
  • Paragraph 2: Physical benefits such as weight loss and improved cardiovascular health.
  • Paragraph 3: Mental benefits such as reduced stress and improved mood.
  • Paragraph 4: Social benefits such as increased social interaction and sense of community.
  • Paragraph 5: Conclusion summarizing the benefits of exercise.

By following a clear and concise structure , the body of your essay can effectively convey the writer’s arguments and ideas to the reader.

Essay Body: Differences

Despite the diversity of essays, most may be grouped into one of four broad groups.

Essay Body: How to start writing

Before you begin writing an essay, create a basic framework outlining the primary arguments and the sequence in which you want to present them. As a result, this will assist you keep in mind the connections that each section of your essay body should have with one another.

However, remember that the layout isn’t fixed in stone, so feel free to rearrange things as needed. Preparation for writing an essay includes planning its structure, which continues throughout the writing process and even after the initial outline is complete.

If you have an idea for another part of the essay while you are working on a specific part, write it down in your outline. Similarly, you can make a note of how you plan to organize the academic essay .

First draft

By the end of the first draft, you should be able to refine your initial thoughts into logical arguments. Also, flesh out those claims and visualize the outcome. Here are tips you should consider;

  • Approach each concept separately: There should be one main point in every paragraph, supported by relevant examples and arguments.
  • Never take anything out: If you start to despise a certain piece or perhaps the whole essay, don’t just throw it out! You may copy and paste it into a new document, but retain what you have even if you don’t intend to use it.
  • Eliminate perfectionism: Avoid letting little things hold you down while you are composing a first draft. Write down your thoughts right away, then refine them. Also, mark any words, sentences, or arguments that you’re not happy with in the draft so you can go back and fix them later.

Second draft

When working on a second draft, it’s important to evaluate your progress so far and make any necessary changes. So, there will be some rewriting and some new material added to the essay. Always consider the following tips;

  • Compare your thoughts to your thesis statement: Your essay should be the basis for all your writing. If the body of your essay disagrees with the point you set out to make in your introduction, you may need to revise your thesis statement.
  • Verify the structure: When you have finished writing the essay’s major points and are satisfied with them, you should review the essay’s structure. It’s important to follow a logical progression and avoid excessive reiteration.

Essay Body: What’s important?

There are four crucial factors to consider while writing the essay’s body: cohesion, clarity, relevancy, and supporting evidence.

  • Cohesion : Paragraphs should build on one another and not stray too far from the main point.
  • Clarity : By clarity, we imply that the concepts in the essay are straightforward and simple to follow.
  • Relevancy : To be relevant, the evidence must be relevant to the discussion and lend credibility to the claims being made.
  • Evidence : Finally, your argument needs proof, which might take the form of facts, figures or instances.

Essay Body: Checklist

Making use of an essay checklist can help you make sure all the bases are covered while writing an essay body. First, think about what you need to do to complete the assignment. Next, you should draft an outline and your paper’s thesis . The best essays have an engaging opening, coherent and convincing body paragraphs that brings everything together.

Lastly, check for typos, grammatical problems and sentence structure before submitting. Get more a detailed essay checklist here .

How long should the essay body be?

An essay body paragraphs length often ranges from 200 to 300 words. The most crucial thing is that they are long enough to include everything mentioned above.

What should the essay body consist of?

The body of your essay is where your argument is presented. There should be a clear progression from one paragraph to the next, with each paragraph representing a different argument until the reader reaches your final verdict.

Are questions allowed inside an essay body?

In an essay, questions are acceptable if they are answered or lead to more discussion.

Where do body paragraphs fit in?

A body paragraph aims to examine and develop one of the points you made in your thesis.

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What Are the Parts of an Essay?

What Are the Parts of an Essay

Components of an Essay

An essay is a piece of writing that is written to provide information about a certain topic or simply to convince the reader. In every effective essay writing , there are three major parts: introduction , body , and essay conclusion .

  • The introduction.  This is where the subject or topic is introduced. The big picture, points, and ideas are briefly written here.
  • The body.  All the main ideas, topics, and subject are discussed here in details. This also includes evidence or information that support the essay.
  • The conclusion.  The last part of an essay and usually summarizes the overall topic or ideas of an essay.

How to Write the Introduction Essay?

The introduction is the door to the whole essay outline . It must be convincing enough to get the attention of the readers. The following are the guidelines for writing the introduction of the essay.

  • It must contain an attention-getter sentence or statement.
  • The introduction must sound interesting to capture the attention of the reader.
  • You can quote a statement about a topic or something related to the whole point of your essay.
  • The intro must move from general to specific.
  • At the end, there must be a thesis statement that gives an insight to the author’s evidence.

What Does the Body of an Essay Contain?

The body is the longest part of the essay and commonly highlights all the topics and ideas. The body must include the following:

  • The evidence and supporting details of the expository essay in addition to the author’s ideas.
  • A topic or sentences that link the discussion back to the thesis statement.
  • The logical ordering of the ideas. The chronological of time, ideas, and evidence.
  • A set of transition statements or sentences to create a good flow of the essay.
  • Sufficient examples, evidence, data, and information that must be relevant to the particular topic of the essay.

The Conclusion of the Essay

The conclusion is the last part of the essay, and should:

  • Emphasize on the major takeaways of the essay.
  • Wrap up and summarize the essay, as well as the arguments, ideas, and points.
  • Restate the main arguments in a simplified and clear manner that must be understood by the reader.
  • Guarantee that the reader is left with something to think about, especially the main point of your essay.

The Elements of an Essay

  • Thesis statement.  It is the main proposition of an essay. The thesis statement must be arguable that differentiates it from a fact and must be in a persuasive writing style.
  • Problem or question.  The problem statements or the important issue of the essay that must be defined and described in the essay.
  • Motive.  The reason for writing the essay.
  • Evidence.  The facts and data or information that supports the whole essay and prove the main point of the essay.
  • Analysis & reflection.  In which the writer turns the evidence into an arguable statement that provides the reader how the evidence supports, develops, or explained the essay’s thesis statement.
  • Structure.  The work that the writer does to organize the idea, the series of sub-topics and sections through which it is explained and developed.

components of essay body

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When you write strong, clear paragraphs, you are guiding your readers through your argument by showing them how your points fit together to support your thesis. The number of paragraphs in your essay should be determined by the number of steps you need to take to build your argument. To write strong paragraphs, try to focus each paragraph on one main point—and begin a new paragraph when you are moving to a new point or example.

A strong paragraph in an academic essay will usually include these three elements:

  • A topic sentence. The topic sentence does double duty for a paragraph. First, a strong topic sentence makes a claim or states a main idea that is then developed in the rest of the paragraph. Second, the topic sentence signals to readers how the paragraph is connected to the larger argument in your paper. Below is an example of a topic sentence from a paper by Laura Connor ‘23 that analyzes rhetoric used by Frederic Douglass, Mary Wollstonecraft, and Karl Marx. In her paper, Connor argues that Marx’s rhetoric was most effective in driving social change. In his numerous writings, Marx critiques capitalism by identifying its flaws.  This topic sentence makes a claim that will then need to be supported with evidence: readers can expect that the sentence will be followed by a discussion of what Marx saw as the flaws in capitalism, which will in turn help them understand Connor’s thesis about how these three authors used their rhetoric to effect social change. A topic sentence signals to your readers what idea is most important in that paragraph—and it also helps you know if you’ve effectively made your point. In this case, Connor has set up the expectation for readers that by the end of the paragraph, they will understand Marx’s view of the flaws in capitalism. Imagine that, instead of writing “Marx critiques capitalism by identifying its flaws,” Connor had begun that paragraph with a descriptive sentence. For example, she could have written something like this: “Marx wrote a critique of capitalism.” While that sentence describes something that happened, it does not give readers information about what will be in the rest of the paragraph—and it would not have helped Connor figure out how to organize the paragraph.
  • Evidence. Once you’ve made a claim in your topic sentence, you’ll need to help your readers see how you arrived at that claim from the evidence that you examined. That evidence may include quotations or paraphrased material from a source, or it may include data, results, or primary source material. In the paragraph that follows Connor’s topic sentence above, she offers several quotations from Marx that demonstrate how he viewed the flaws in capitalism. 
  • Analysis. It’s not enough to provide evidence to support a claim. You have to tell your readers what you want them to understand about that evidence. In other words, you have to analyze it. How does this evidence support your claim? In Connor’s paragraph, she follows her presentation of evidence with sentences that tell readers what they need to understand about that evidence—specifically that it shows how Marx pointed to the flaws in capitalism without telling his own readers what to think about it, and that this was his strategy. It might be tempting to end your paragraph with either a sentence summarizing everything you’ve just written or the introduction of a new idea. But in a short paragraph, your readers don’t need a summary of all that you’ve just said. And introducing a new point in the final sentence can confuse readers by leaving them without evidence to support that new point. Instead, try to end your paragraph with a sentence that tells readers something that they can now understand because they’ve read your paragraph. In Connor’s paragraph, the final sentence doesn’t summarize all of Marx’s specific claims but instead tells readers what to take away from that evidence. After seeing what Marx says about capitalism, Connor explains what the evidence she has just offered suggests about Marx’s beliefs.

Below, you’ll find Connor’s complete paragraph marked with topic sentence, evidence, and Connor’s analysis of the evidence.

Image version

Anatomy of a Body Paragraph

TOPIC SENTENCE/ In his numerous writings, Marx critiques capitalism by identifying its flaws. ANALYSIS OF EVIDENCE/ By critiquing the political economy and capitalism, Marx implores his reader to think critically about their position in society and restores awareness in the proletariat class. EVIDENCE/ To Marx, capitalism is a system characterized by the “exploitation of the many by the few,” in which workers accept the exploitation of their labor and receive only harm of “alienation,” rather than true benefits ( MER 487). He writes that “labour produces for the rich wonderful things – but for the worker it produces privation. It produces palaces—but for the worker, hovels. It produces beauty—but for the worker, deformity” (MER 73). Marx argues capitalism is a system in which the laborer is repeatedly harmed and estranged from himself, his labor, and other people, while the owner of his labor – the capitalist – receives the benefits ( MER 74). And while industry progresses, the worker “sinks deeper and deeper below the conditions of existence of his own class” ( MER 483).  ANALYSIS OF EVIDENCE/ But while Marx critiques the political economy, he does not explicitly say “capitalism is wrong.” Rather, his close examination of the system makes its flaws obvious. Only once the working class realizes the flaws of the system, Marx believes, will they - must they - rise up against their bourgeois masters and achieve the necessary and inevitable communist revolution.

Not every paragraph will be structured exactly like this one, of course. But as you draft your own paragraphs, look for all three of these elements: topic sentence, evidence, and analysis.

  • picture_as_pdf Anatomy Of a Body Paragraph

How to Write the Perfect Body Paragraph

Matt Ellis

A body paragraph is any paragraph in the middle of an essay , paper, or article that comes after the introduction but before the conclusion. Generally, body paragraphs support the work’s thesis and shed new light on the main topic, whether through empirical data, logical deduction, deliberate persuasion, or anecdotal evidence. 

Some English teachers will tell you good writing has a beginning, middle, and end, but then leave it at that. And that’s true—almost all good writing follows an introduction-body-conclusion format. But what no one seems to talk about is that the vast majority of your writing will be middle . That puts a lot of significance on knowing how to write a body paragraph. 

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Don’t get us wrong—introductions and conclusions are crucial. They fulfill additional responsibilities of preparing the reader and sending them off with a lasting impression, which is why every good writer knows how to write an introduction and how to write a conclusion . But in terms of volume , body paragraphs comprise almost all of your work. 

We explain precisely how to write a body paragraph so your writing has substance through and through. After all, it’s what’s on the inside that counts! 

Structure of a body paragraph

Think of individual paragraphs as microcosms of the greater work; each paragraph has its own miniature introduction, body, and conclusion in the form of sentences. 

Let’s break it down. A good body paragraph contains the following four elements, some of which you may recognize from our ultimate guide to paragraphs :

  • Transitions: These are a few words at the beginning or end of a paragraph that connect the body paragraph to the others, creating a coherent flow throughout the entire piece.
  • Topic sentence: A sentence—almost always the first sentence—introduces what the entire paragraph is about. 
  • Supporting sentences: These make up the “body” of your body paragraph, with usually one to three sentences that develop and support the topic sentence’s assertion with evidence, logic, persuasive opinion, or expert testimonial. 
  • Conclusion (Summary): This is your paragraph’s concluding sentence, summing up or reasserting your original point in light of the supporting evidence. 

To understand how these components make up a body paragraph, let’s look at a sample from literary icon Kurt Vonnegut Jr. In it, he himself looks to other literary phenoms William Shakespeare and James Joyce. The following sample comes from Vonnegut’s essay “ How to write with style .” It’s a great example of how a body paragraph supports the thesis, which in this case is: To write well, “keep it simple.” 

As for your use of language: Remember that two great masters of language, William Shakespeare and James Joyce, wrote sentences which were almost childlike when their subjects were most profound. “To be or not to be?” asks Shakespeare’s Hamlet. The longest word is three letters long. Joyce, when he was frisky, could put together a sentence as intricate and as glittering as a necklace for Cleopatra, but my favorite sentence in his short story “Eveline” is this one: “She was tired.” At that point in the story, no other words could break the heart of a reader as those three words do.

In this sample, Vonnegut demonstrates the four main elements of body paragraphs in a way that makes it easy to identify them. Let’s take a closer look at each.  

As for your use of language: 

Rather than opening the paragraph with an abrupt change of topic, Vonnegut uses a simple, even generic, transition that softy guides the reader into a new conversation. The point of transitions is to remove any jarring distractions when moving from one paragraph to the next. They don’t need to be complicated; sometimes a quick phrase like “on the other hand” or even a single word like “however” will suffice. 

Topic sentence

Remember that two great masters of language, William Shakespeare and James Joyce, wrote sentences which were almost childlike when their subjects were most profound. 

Here, Vonnegut puts forth his main point, that even the greatest writers sometimes use simple language to convey complex ideas—the thesis of this particular body paragraph.  

Supporting sentences

“To be or not to be?” asks Shakespeare’s Hamlet. The longest word is three letters long. Joyce, when he was frisky, could put together a sentence as intricate and as glittering as a necklace for Cleopatra, but my favorite sentence in his short story “Eveline” is this one: “She was tired.” 

To support his thesis, Vonnegut pulls two direct quotes from respected writers and then dissects the wording to support his initial claim. Notice how there are a few different sentences with each exploring their own points, but they all relate to and support the paragraph’s main thesis. 

At that point in the story, no other words could break the heart of a reader as those three words do.

Vonnegut ends the paragraph with a pithy statement claiming that complex language would have been less effective, reaffirming his central claim that great writers know simple language works best. 

How to start a body paragraph

Often the hardest sentence to write, the first sentence of your body paragraph should act as the topic sentence, introducing the main point of the entire paragraph. Also known as the “paragraph leader,” the topic sentence opens the discussion with an underlying claim (or sometimes a question). 

After reading the opening sentence, the reader should know, in no uncertain terms, what the rest of the paragraph is about. That’s why topic sentences should always be clear, concise, and to the point. Avoid distractions or tangents—there will be time for elaboration in the supporting sentences. At times you can be coy and mysterious to build suspense, opening with a question that ultimately gets answered later in the paragraph. Nonetheless, you should still reveal enough information to set the stage for the rest of the sentences. 

More often than not, your first sentence should also contain a transition to bridge the gap from the preceding paragraph. Under special circumstances, you may also put a transition at the end of the sentence, but in general, putting it at the beginning is better for readability. 

Don’t let transitions intimidate you; they can be quite simple and even easy to apply. Usually, a single word or short phrase will do the job. Just be careful not to overuse the same transitions one after another. To help expand your transitional vocabulary, our guide to connecting sentences collects some of the most common transition words and phrases for inspiration. 

How to end a body paragraph

Likewise, the concluding sentence to your body paragraph holds extra weight. Because the reader takes a momentary pause at the end of each paragraph, that last sentence will “echo” just a bit longer in their minds while their eyes find the beginning of the next paragraph. You can take advantage of those extra milliseconds to leave a lasting impression on your reader. 

In form, your concluding sentence should summarize the thesis of your topic sentence while incorporating the supporting evidence—in other words, it should wrap things up. 

It’s useful to end on a meaningful or even emotional point to encourage the reader to reflect on what was discussed. Vonnegut’s conclusion from our sample makes a strong and forceful statement, invoking heartbreak (“break the heart”) and using absolute language (“no other words”). Powerful language like this might be too climactic for the supporting sentences, but in a conclusion, it fits perfectly. 

How to write a body paragraph

First and foremost, double-check that your body paragraph supports the main thesis of the entire piece, much like the paragraph’s supporting sentences support the topic sentence. Don’t forget your body paragraph’s place in the greater work. 

When it comes to actually writing a body paragraph, as always we recommend planning out what you want to say beforehand, which is a good reason to learn how to write an outline . Crafting a good body paragraph involves organizing your supporting sentences in the optimal order—but you can’t do that if you don’t know what those sentences will be! 

A lot of times, your supporting sentences will dictate their own logical progression, with one naturally leading into the next, as is often the case when building an argument. Other times, you’ll have to make a choice about which evidence to present first and last, as Vonnegut did when choosing between his Shakespeare and Joyce examples. Also as with Vonnegut’s example, your choice of conclusion may help determine the best order. 

This can be a lot of take in, especially if you’re still learning the fundamentals of writing. Luckily, you don’t have to do it alone! Grammarly offers suggestions beyond spelling and grammar, helping you hone clarity, tone, and conciseness in your writing. With Grammarly, ensure your writing is clear, engaging, and polished, wherever you type.

components of essay body

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This resource outlines the generally accepted structure for introductions, body paragraphs, and conclusions in an academic argument paper. Keep in mind that this resource contains guidelines and not strict rules about organization. Your structure needs to be flexible enough to meet the requirements of your purpose and audience.

Body paragraphs: Moving from general to specific information

Your paper should be organized in a manner that moves from general to specific information. Every time you begin a new subject, think of an inverted pyramid - The broadest range of information sits at the top, and as the paragraph or paper progresses, the author becomes more and more focused on the argument ending with specific, detailed evidence supporting a claim. Lastly, the author explains how and why the information she has just provided connects to and supports her thesis (a brief wrap-up or warrant).

This image shows an inverted pyramid that contains the following text. At the wide top of the pyramid, the text reads general information introduction, topic sentence. Moving down the pyramid to the narrow point, the text reads focusing direction of paper, telling. Getting more specific, showing. Supporting details, data. Conclusions and brief wrap up, warrant.

Moving from General to Specific Information

The four elements of a good paragraph (TTEB)

A good paragraph should contain at least the following four elements: T ransition, T opic sentence, specific E vidence and analysis, and a B rief wrap-up sentence (also known as a warrant ) –TTEB!

  • A T ransition sentence leading in from a previous paragraph to assure smooth reading. This acts as a hand-off from one idea to the next.
  • A T opic sentence that tells the reader what you will be discussing in the paragraph.
  • Specific E vidence and analysis that supports one of your claims and that provides a deeper level of detail than your topic sentence.
  • A B rief wrap-up sentence that tells the reader how and why this information supports the paper’s thesis. The brief wrap-up is also known as the warrant. The warrant is important to your argument because it connects your reasoning and support to your thesis, and it shows that the information in the paragraph is related to your thesis and helps defend it.

Supporting evidence (induction and deduction)

Induction is the type of reasoning that moves from specific facts to a general conclusion. When you use induction in your paper, you will state your thesis (which is actually the conclusion you have come to after looking at all the facts) and then support your thesis with the facts. The following is an example of induction taken from Dorothy U. Seyler’s Understanding Argument :

There is the dead body of Smith. Smith was shot in his bedroom between the hours of 11:00 p.m. and 2:00 a.m., according to the coroner. Smith was shot with a .32 caliber pistol. The pistol left in the bedroom contains Jones’s fingerprints. Jones was seen, by a neighbor, entering the Smith home at around 11:00 p.m. the night of Smith’s death. A coworker heard Smith and Jones arguing in Smith’s office the morning of the day Smith died.

Conclusion: Jones killed Smith.

Here, then, is the example in bullet form:

  • Conclusion: Jones killed Smith
  • Support: Smith was shot by Jones’ gun, Jones was seen entering the scene of the crime, Jones and Smith argued earlier in the day Smith died.
  • Assumption: The facts are representative, not isolated incidents, and thus reveal a trend, justifying the conclusion drawn.

When you use deduction in an argument, you begin with general premises and move to a specific conclusion. There is a precise pattern you must use when you reason deductively. This pattern is called syllogistic reasoning (the syllogism). Syllogistic reasoning (deduction) is organized in three steps:

  • Major premise
  • Minor premise

In order for the syllogism (deduction) to work, you must accept that the relationship of the two premises lead, logically, to the conclusion. Here are two examples of deduction or syllogistic reasoning:

  • Major premise: All men are mortal.
  • Minor premise: Socrates is a man.
  • Conclusion: Socrates is mortal.
  • Major premise: People who perform with courage and clear purpose in a crisis are great leaders.
  • Minor premise: Lincoln was a person who performed with courage and a clear purpose in a crisis.
  • Conclusion: Lincoln was a great leader.

So in order for deduction to work in the example involving Socrates, you must agree that (1) all men are mortal (they all die); and (2) Socrates is a man. If you disagree with either of these premises, the conclusion is invalid. The example using Socrates isn’t so difficult to validate. But when you move into more murky water (when you use terms such as courage , clear purpose , and great ), the connections get tenuous.

For example, some historians might argue that Lincoln didn’t really shine until a few years into the Civil War, after many Union losses to Southern leaders such as Robert E. Lee.

The following is a clear example of deduction gone awry:

  • Major premise: All dogs make good pets.
  • Minor premise: Doogle is a dog.
  • Conclusion: Doogle will make a good pet.

If you don’t agree that all dogs make good pets, then the conclusion that Doogle will make a good pet is invalid.

When a premise in a syllogism is missing, the syllogism becomes an enthymeme. Enthymemes can be very effective in argument, but they can also be unethical and lead to invalid conclusions. Authors often use enthymemes to persuade audiences. The following is an example of an enthymeme:

If you have a plasma TV, you are not poor.

The first part of the enthymeme (If you have a plasma TV) is the stated premise. The second part of the statement (you are not poor) is the conclusion. Therefore, the unstated premise is “Only rich people have plasma TVs.” The enthymeme above leads us to an invalid conclusion (people who own plasma TVs are not poor) because there are plenty of people who own plasma TVs who are poor. Let’s look at this enthymeme in a syllogistic structure:

  • Major premise: People who own plasma TVs are rich (unstated above).
  • Minor premise: You own a plasma TV.
  • Conclusion: You are not poor.

To help you understand how induction and deduction can work together to form a solid argument, you may want to look at the United States Declaration of Independence. The first section of the Declaration contains a series of syllogisms, while the middle section is an inductive list of examples. The final section brings the first and second sections together in a compelling conclusion.

Argumentative Essay – Outline, Form, and Examples

Daniel Bal

What is an argumentative essay?

An argumentative essay requires the writer to investigate a specific topic by collecting and evaluating evidence to establish a position on the subject matter.

When preparing to compose a good argumentative essay, utilize the following steps:

Step 1: Select a topic.

Step 2: Identify a position.

Step 3: Locate appropriate resources.

Step 4: Identify evidence supporting the position. ( NOTE: If there is little evidence in support of the claim, consider re-examining the main argument.)

Steps to write an argumentative essay

When gathering evidence, use credible sources . To determine the credibility of the source, consider authority, currency, accuracy, and objectivity:

Who is the author ? Are they an expert in the field? Has a reputable publisher published the work?

How current is the information in the source? Does the currency of the source matter? Does the age of the source impact the content? Is there newer information that disproves the source’s information?

Can other sources verify the accuracy of the information? Does the information contradict that found in other commonly accepted sources?

Is there any evidence of bias, or is the source objective ? Is the research sponsored by an organization that may skew the information?

The following are typically recognized as providing appropriate, credible research material:

Peer-reviewed journals/research papers

Government agencies

Professional organizations

Library databases

Reference books

Credible sources

Writers should avoid using the following sources:

Social media posts

Out-of-date materials

Step 5: Utilize the research to determine a thesis statement that identifies the topic, position, and support(s).

Step 6: Use the evidence to construct an outline, detailing the main supports and relevant evidence.

Steps to write an argumentative essay

Argumentative essay outline

After gathering all of the necessary research, the next step in composing an argumentative essay focuses on organizing the information through the use of an outline:

Introduction

Attention Grabber/Hook

Background Information: Include any background information pertinent to the topic that the reader needs to know to understand the argument.

Thesis: State the position in connection to the main topic and identify the supports that will help prove the argument.

Topic sentence

Identify evidence in support of the claim in the topic sentence

Explain how the evidence supports the argument

Evidence 3 (Continue as needed)

Support 2 (Continue as needed)

Restate thesis

Review main supports

Concluding statement

Invite the audience to take a specific action.

Identify the overall importance of the topic and position.

Argumentative essay outline

How to write an argumentative essay

Regardless of the writer’s topic or point of view, an argumentative essay should include an introductory paragraph, body paragraphs, a conclusion, and works cited.

Background information

Body Paragraphs

Analysis of evidence

Rephrased thesis

Review of main ideas

Call to action

Works Cited

Components of an argumentative essay

Argumentative essay introduction

The introduction sets the tone for the entire paper and introduces the argument. In general, the first paragraph(s) should attract the reader’s attention, provide relevant context, and conclude with a thesis statement.

To attract the reader's attention , start with an introductory device. There are several attention-grabbing techniques, the most common of which consist of the following:

The writer can emphasize the topic’s importance by explaining the current interest in the topic or indicating that the subject is influential.

Pertinent statistics give the paper an air of authority.

There are many reasons for a stimulating statement to surprise a reader. Sometimes it is joyful; sometimes it is shocking; sometimes it is surprising because of who said it.

An interesting incident or anecdote can act as a teaser to lure the reader into the remainder of the essay. Be sure that the device is appropriate for the subject and focus of what follows.

Provide the reader with relevant context and background information necessary to understand the topic.

Conclude with a thesis statement that identifies the overall purpose of the essay (topic and position). Writers can also include their support directly in the thesis, which outlines the structure of the essay for the reader.

Avoid the following when writing the introduction to argumentative writing:

Starting with dictionary definitions is too overdone and unappealing.

Do not make an announcement of the topic like “In this paper I will…” or “The purpose of this essay is to….”

Evidence supporting or developing the thesis should be in the body paragraphs, not the introduction.

Beginning the essay with general or absolute statements such as “throughout history...” or “as human beings we always...” or similar statements suggest the writer knows all of history or that all people behave or think in the same way.

Argumentative essay thesis

The thesis statement is the single, specific claim the writer sets out to prove and is typically positioned as the last sentence of the introduction . It is the controlling idea of the entire argument that identifies the topic, position, and reasoning.

When constructing a thesis for an argumentative paper, make sure it contains a side of the argument, not simply a topic. An argumentative thesis identifies the writer’s position on a given topic. If a position cannot be taken, then it is not argumentative thesis:

Topic: Capital punishment is practiced in many states.

Thesis: Capital punishment should be illegal.

While not always required, the thesis statement can include the supports the writer will use to prove the main claim. Therefore, a thesis statement can be structured as follows:

TOPIC + POSITION (+ SUPPORTS)

No Supports: College athletes (TOPIC) should be financially compensated (POSITION).

Supports: College athletes (TOPIC) should be financially compensated (POSITION) because they sacrifice their minds and bodies (SUPPORT 1), cannot hold

Argumentative essay body paragraphs

Body paragraphs can be of varying lengths, but they must present a coherent argument unified under a single topic. They are rarely ever longer than one page, double-spaced; usually they are much shorter.

Lengthy paragraphs indicate a lack of structure. Identify the main ideas of a lengthy paragraph to determine if they make more sense as separate topics in separate paragraphs.

Shorter paragraphs usually indicate a lack of substance; there is not enough evidence or analysis to prove the argument. Develop the ideas more or integrate the information into another paragraph.

The structure of an argumentative paragraph should include a topic sentence, evidence, and a transition.

The topic sentence is the thesis of the paragraph that identifies the arguable point in support of the main argument. The reader should know exactly what the writer is trying to prove within the paragraph by reading the first sentence.

The supporting evidence and analysis provide information to support the claim. There should be a balance between the evidence (facts, quotations, summary of events/plot, etc.) and analysis (interpretation of evidence). If the paragraph is evidence-heavy, there is not much of an argument; if it is analysis-heavy, there is not enough evidence in support of the claim.

The transition can be at the beginning or the end of a paragraph. However, it is much easier to combine the transition with the concluding observation to help the paragraphs flow into one another. Transitions in academic writing should tell the reader where you were, where you are going, and relate to the thesis.

Some essays may benefit from the inclusion of rebuttals to potential counterarguments of the writer’s position.

Argumentative essay conclusion

The conclusion should make readers glad they read the paper. It can suggest broader implications that will not only interest readers but also enrich their understanding in some way. There are three aspects to follow when constructing the conclusion: rephrase the thesis, synthesize information, and call the reader to action.

Rephrased the thesis in the first sentence of the conclusion. It must be in different words; do not simply write it verbatim.

Synthesize the argument by showing how the paper's main points support the argument.

Propose a course of action or a solution to an issue. This can redirect the reader's thought process to apply the ideas to their life or to see the broader implications of the topic.

Avoid the following when constructing the conclusion:

Beginning with an unnecessary, overused phrase such as "in conclusion," "in summary," or "in closing;" although these phrases can work in speeches, they come across as trite in writing

Introducing a new idea or subtopic in the conclusion

Making sentimental, emotional appeals that are out of character with the rest of the paper

Including evidence (quotations, statistics, etc.) that should be in the body of the paper

Argumentative essay examples

Examples of argumentative essays vary depending upon the type:

Academic essays differ based upon the topic and position. These essays follow a more traditional structure and are typically assigned in high school or college. Examples of academic argumentative essay topics include the following:

Advantages or disadvantages of social media

Animal testing

Art education

Benefit or detriment of homework

Capital punishment

Class warfare

Immigration

School uniforms

Universal healthcare

Violence in video games

Argumentative literary essays are typically more informal and do not follow the same structure as an academic essay. The following are popular examples of argumentative literary essays:

“Letter from Birmingham Jail” by Martin Luther King, Jr.

“Death of the Moth” by Virginia Woolf

“Shooting an Elephant” by George Orwell

“Thoughts for the Times on War and Death” by Sigmund Freud

“Does the Truth Matter? Science, Pseudoscience, and Civilization” by Carl Sagan

“Self-Reliance” by Ralph Waldo Emerson

4 arrested in suspected love triangle body parts case on Long Island

Four people have been arrested in connection with the body parts found at three locations across Long Island, New York, according to the Suffolk County Police Department.

The four suspects, Steven Brown, Jeffrey Mackey, Amanda Wallace and Alexis Nieves, all pleaded not guilty in court Wednesday to concealment of a corpse, tampering with physical evidence and hindering prosecution.

They were released with GPS monitors on orders to remain in Suffolk County and report to probation officers weekly.

Prosecutors told NBC New York the "evidence is very strong" and includes cutting tools, meat cleavers and video surveillance.

The defense lawyer for Brown told NBC New York his client "did not kill anyone and did not take part in any of this." Mackey "maintains his innocence," according to his defense lawyer.

Information on attorneys for Wallace and Nieves was not immediately available.

Three of the suspects, Brown, Mackey and Wallace, lived at the home on Railroad Avenue in Amityville that investigators searched on Monday.

Nieves does not have a known address, according to police, but the court hearing indicated he lived with the other three suspects.

The arrest comes a day after the Suffolk County Police Department announced their investigation into three locations: the Amityville home, a wooded area across from Lakeway Drive in West Babylon and Bethpage State Park in Farmingdale.

Additional human remains were found Tuesday in Farmingdale and West Babylon, Suffolk County police said in a news release. None were found Monday during a search of the home in Amityville.

The first body parts were discovered Thursday morning after a student walking to school found a “severed left arm” at Southards Pond Park . A cadaver dog discovered a leg and another arm in the area. A head, parts of a leg and a third arm were recovered later. 

Investigators believe the body parts found last week and the human remains discovered Tuesday are those of the same victims.

One of the victims, a 59-year-old woman, has been identified, police said. Her name is being withheld until relatives are notified. The other victim, a 53-year-old man, has been tentatively identified.

“Their last known address was the same location in Yonkers, however, it’s unclear when they last resided there,” police said in the news release.

Two sources familiar with the matter told NBC New York Tuesday that investigators were looking into whether a love triangle was the motive.

The suspect allegedly chopped up his girlfriend and the man he believed she cheated with, the two sources said. It was not immediately clear whether other people helped the killer dispose of the body parts.

Although the four suspects are out on supervised release, they are not bail-eligible due to the New York State legislature's "Bail Reform" passed in 2019, according to Suffolk County District Attorney Raymond Tierney.

"Charges relating to the mutilation and disposal of murdered corpses are no longer bail-eligible, meaning my prosecutors cannot ask for bail," Tierney said in a statement. "This is yet another absurd result thanks to ‘Bail Reform’ and a system where the Legislature in Albany substitutes their judgment for the judgment of our judges and the litigants in court."

"We will work with the Suffolk County Police Department to resolve this investigation as soon as possible and implore our Legislature to make common sense fixes to this law."

The investigation is ongoing. Police said the case "appears to be an isolated incident with no threat to the public."

Katherine Itoh is a news associate for NBC News.

components of essay body

Jonathan Dienst is chief justice contributor for NBC News and chief investigative reporter for WNBC-TV in New York.

Greg Cergol is the Long Island Reporter for WNBC-TV in New York.

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4 are charged with concealing a corpse, evidence tampering in Long Island body parts case

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BABYLON, N.Y. (AP) — Four people were charged Wednesday with concealing a human corpse and tampering with evidence in connection with the discovery of body parts in parks on Long Island.

The four — Amanda Wallace, 40, Jeffrey Mackey, 38, Steven Brown, 44, all of Amityville, and Alexis Nieves, 33, who police said is homeless — have not been charged with killing the victims, identified as a 53-year-old man and a 59-year-old woman. All four defendants pleaded not guilty to hindering prosecution, tampering with physical evidence and concealing a human corpse and were released without bail.

According to police, a girl walking to school last Thursday found a severed arm on the side of the road at Southards Pond Park in Babylon, about 25 miles (40 kilometers) east of New York City. Police later discovered another arm and a leg. All of those remains appeared to belong to the 53-year-old man, police said.

The next day, a cadaver dog located the head, an arm and parts of two legs. Those remains appeared to be from the 59-year-old woman, police said.

Additional remains found Tuesday in nearby West Babylon and in a state park were from the same two people, police said. The victims’ names have not been released.

Military officers and delegates leave the Great Hall of the People after attending the second plenary session of the National People's Congress (NPC) in Beijing, Friday, March 8, 2024. (AP Photo/Andy Wong)

The four defendants were arrested after police executed a search warrant at the Amityville home that Wallace, Mackey and Brown share.

Newsday reported that during separate arraignments in Suffolk County District Court on Wednesday, Assistant District Attorney Frank Schroeder said authorities have significant evidence against the four, including meat cleavers, butcher knives, blood and video surveillance. He did not specify where the weapons and blood were found.

Mackey’s defense attorney, John Halvorson, said, “We look forward to fighting these charges.”

Brown’s attorney, Ira Weissman, said, “Steven Brown didn’t kill anybody.” Weissman said he could not comment on the specific charges Brown faces, as he has not seen the evidence.

Wallace’s attorney, Keith O’Halloran, said his client “looks forward to defending herself in court.”

A message seeking comment was sent to Nieves’ attorney.

components of essay body

4 are charged with concealing a corpse, evidence tampering in Long Island body parts case

Four people have been charged with concealing a human corpse and tampering with evidence in connection with the discovery of body parts in parks on Long Island

BABYLON, N.Y. -- Four people were charged Wednesday with concealing a human corpse and tampering with evidence in connection with the discovery of body parts in parks on Long Island.

The four — Amanda Wallace, 40, Jeffrey Mackey, 38, Steven Brown, 44, all of Amityville, and Alexis Nieves, 33, who police said is homeless — have not been charged with killing the victims, identified as a 53-year-old man and a 59-year-old woman. All four defendants pleaded not guilty to hindering prosecution, tampering with physical evidence and concealing a human corpse and were released without bail.

According to police, a girl walking to school last Thursday found a severed arm on the side of the road at Southards Pond Park in Babylon, about 25 miles (40 kilometers) east of New York City. Police later discovered another arm and a leg. All of those remains appeared to belong to the 53-year-old man, police said.

The next day, a cadaver dog located the head, an arm and parts of two legs. Those remains appeared to be from the 59-year-old woman, police said.

Additional remains found Tuesday in nearby West Babylon and in a state park were from the same two people, police said. The victims' names have not been released.

The four defendants were arrested after police executed a search warrant at the Amityville home that Wallace, Mackey and Brown share.

Newsday reported that during separate arraignments in Suffolk County District Court on Wednesday, Assistant District Attorney Frank Schroeder said authorities have significant evidence against the four, including meat cleavers, butcher knives, blood and video surveillance. He did not specify where the weapons and blood were found.

Mackey's defense attorney, John Halvorson, said, “We look forward to fighting these charges.”

Brown's attorney, Ira Weissman, said, “Steven Brown didn't kill anybody.” Weissman said he could not comment on the specific charges Brown faces, as he has not seen the evidence.

Wallace's attorney, Keith O'Halloran, said his client “looks forward to defending herself in court.”

A message seeking comment was sent to Nieves' attorney.

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Four people arrested after body parts of Yonkers residents found in Long Island case

components of essay body

Four people were arrested on Long Island Wednesday after the body parts of two Yonkers residents were found scattered across Suffolk County last week.

Suffolk County Police said roommates Steven Brown, 44, Jeffrey Mackey, 38 and Amanda Wallace, 40, all of Amityville, along with Alexis Nieves, 33, who is homeless, were charged with hindering prosecution in the first degree, tampering with physical evidence and concealment of a human corpse Wednesday.

Search warrants were issued at the roommates' residence on 25 Railroad Ave. in Amityville Monday after body parts were found at Southards Pond Park in Babylon on Feb. 29.

They have not been officially charged in the killing of the two victims.

Police say a student was walking to school Thursday, Feb. 29 around 8:40 a.m. when she discovered a severed arm at Seagal Boulevard between Park and Mason avenues. Other body parts, including a severed leg, were found at the park shortly after.

Police say the victims were a 59-year-old woman and a 53-year-old man, but their names will not be released as the investigation is ongoing. The victims' last home address was in Yonkers, but police say it is unclear how long they lived there or where they were last seen.

No human remains were found in the Amityville home during the initial search Monday, but other remains were found in a wooded area across from 103 Lakeway Drive in West Babylon and Bethpage State Park on Tuesday.

The four suspects will be arraigned in First District Court in Central Islip on Wednesday.

4 people arrested, more remains found in Long Island as police investigate severed body parts

components of essay body

Four people were arrested, and more remains were found as authorities continue to investigate the incident involving the discovery of human body parts in a park in Long Island, New York, authorities said Wednesday.

The Suffolk County Police, in a news release, said three individuals aged 38 to 44, were arrested from the same address in Amityville, in the Town of Babylon, along with one homeless person. They were charged with hindering prosecution, tampering with physical evidence and concealing a human corpse. They were scheduled to be arraigned in court on March 6.

Police said a search was also conducted at the suspects' residence in Amityville on Monday but no human remains were located.

More human remains found

However, more human remains were found in a wooded area in West Babylon and at the Bethpage State Park on Tuesday, said the police adding that they are "believed to belong to the same victims from the February 29 discovery."

"The scene was processed by the Suffolk County Police Homicide Squad and the Office of the Suffolk County Medical Examiner," said the police, in the news release.

The Amityville residence is approximately 8 miles from Bethpage State Park and 7 miles from Southards Pond Park.

Police withhold identification

One of the victims, a 59-year-old woman, has been identified, while the 53-year-old male has been tentatively identified. Police said that they are withholding the woman's name as the next of kin are being notified.

"Their last known address was the same location in Yonkers, however, it’s unclear when they last resided there," said the police.

When were the human remains on Long Island discovered?

The initial remains of the two victims were first discovered on Thursday morning by a group of Long Island students, who spotted them while walking to school. The students were walking around Southards Pond Park in Babylon Village around 8:40 a.m. when one of them noticed an arm on the side of the road, police said. The student called her father, who came to the scene and called the police.

Once police arrived, they cordoned off the area and conducted an extensive search, involving dogs. Multiple body parts, including a severed head, right arm, left leg from the knee down, and a right upper leg were discovered during the search.

Death investigation begins: Student walking to school finds severed arm in New York

The police department said the incident appears to be an isolated one, based on investigation, with no threat to the public.

Anyone with information relating to the incident is asked to call the Suffolk County Police Homicide Squad at 631-852-6392 or Crime Stoppers at 1-800-220-TIPS.

Contributing: Saleen Martin, USA TODAY

Saman Shafiq is a trending news reporter for USA TODAY. Reach her at [email protected] and follow her on X, formerly Twitter, at @saman_shafiq7.

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Local News | State officials pass blame after Long Island body parts suspects freed without bail

Governor Kathy Hochul (Darren McGee/Office of Governor)

State officials are pointing fingers after four suspects arrested in connection with body parts found throughout Long Island over the past week were freed without bail on Wednesday.

“Maybe the DA should have done a more thorough investigation and brought murder charges or conspiracy-to-commit murder, or even assault charges, because all of [those charges] are bail-eligible,” Gov. Hochul told FOX 5’s “Good Day New York” on Thursday.

Steven Brown, 44, Jeffrey Mackey, 38, Amanda Wallace, 40, and Alexis Nieves, 33, were charged with hindering prosecution , tampering with physical evidence and concealing a human corpse — then set free on supervised release while awaiting trial. They have not been charged with killing the victims.

Their arrests followed the discovery of arms, a leg, a head and other remains from two victims in Babylon’s Southards Pond Park last Thursday. Body parts believed to belong to the same victims — identified only as a 53-year-old man and 59-year-old woman — were also located Tuesday in a wooded area of West Babylon and in Bethpage State Park in Farmingdale.

Prosecutors later said they had significant evidence to support their case against the suspects, including meat cleavers, butcher knives and blood, but did not specify where the weapons and blood were found.

After the suspects were sprung, Suffolk County District Attorney Raymond Tierney blamed the New York State Legislature for 2019 “bail reform” that prohibited law enforcement from holding the foursome, since “charges related to the mutilation and disposal of murdered corpses are no longer bail-eligible.”

Hochul fired back that might not be the case if the district attorney’s office had been more aggressive in pursuing the charges she recommended.

“I encourage the DA’s office to go back and build your case, because if you bring any of those charges, which I think would be appropriate, that’s absolutely bail-eligible,” she said. “Those people would not be out on the street.”

But the DA’s office took exception with the governor’s claims.

“Gov. Hochul is either completely clueless or being deceitful about how the criminal justice system works,” Tierney wrote in a statement on Thursday. “Prosecutors have a duty to bring only charges that are supported by evidence. Anything else would be unethical.”

Tierney defended his office and investigators for quickly taking the four suspects into custody and collecting evidence as prosecutors continue to solidify their case.

“It would be helpful if the governor confined her comments to subjects she knows something about,” the DA said.

Suffolk County District Attorney Raymond Tierney speaks at a news conference to announce the identity of a victim investigators had called the "Jane Doe No. 7," as Karen Vergata, Friday, Aug. 4, 2023, in Hauppauge, New York. Law enforcement authorities said Friday they have identified a woman whose remains were found as far back as 1996 in different spots along the Long Island coast, some of them near the Gilgo Beach locations of bodies investigators believe were left by a serial killer. (AP Photo/John Minchillo)

Hochul claimed proper execution of the state’s new bail reform laws requires an “education process” that includes judges and prosecutors learning to adapt to the changing landscape.

Louis Civello, vice president of the Suffolk County Police Benevolent Association, also took issue with the governor’s comments.

“Does the governor truly believe you should be able to conceal a human head in a park where children can find it and walk out free?” his office asked. “Instead of using this opportunity to fix New York’s reckless bail reform law, the governor decided to attack law enforcement.”

Hochul earned her law degree from the Catholic University of America’s Columbus School of Law in 1983 and worked at a Washington, D.C., law firm before going into politics. She became New York’s first female governor in 2021.

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  • How to write an argumentative essay | Examples & tips

How to Write an Argumentative Essay | Examples & Tips

Published on July 24, 2020 by Jack Caulfield . Revised on July 23, 2023.

An argumentative essay expresses an extended argument for a particular thesis statement . The author takes a clearly defined stance on their subject and builds up an evidence-based case for it.

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Table of contents

When do you write an argumentative essay, approaches to argumentative essays, introducing your argument, the body: developing your argument, concluding your argument, other interesting articles, frequently asked questions about argumentative essays.

You might be assigned an argumentative essay as a writing exercise in high school or in a composition class. The prompt will often ask you to argue for one of two positions, and may include terms like “argue” or “argument.” It will frequently take the form of a question.

The prompt may also be more open-ended in terms of the possible arguments you could make.

Argumentative writing at college level

At university, the vast majority of essays or papers you write will involve some form of argumentation. For example, both rhetorical analysis and literary analysis essays involve making arguments about texts.

In this context, you won’t necessarily be told to write an argumentative essay—but making an evidence-based argument is an essential goal of most academic writing, and this should be your default approach unless you’re told otherwise.

Examples of argumentative essay prompts

At a university level, all the prompts below imply an argumentative essay as the appropriate response.

Your research should lead you to develop a specific position on the topic. The essay then argues for that position and aims to convince the reader by presenting your evidence, evaluation and analysis.

  • Don’t just list all the effects you can think of.
  • Do develop a focused argument about the overall effect and why it matters, backed up by evidence from sources.
  • Don’t just provide a selection of data on the measures’ effectiveness.
  • Do build up your own argument about which kinds of measures have been most or least effective, and why.
  • Don’t just analyze a random selection of doppelgänger characters.
  • Do form an argument about specific texts, comparing and contrasting how they express their thematic concerns through doppelgänger characters.

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An argumentative essay should be objective in its approach; your arguments should rely on logic and evidence, not on exaggeration or appeals to emotion.

There are many possible approaches to argumentative essays, but there are two common models that can help you start outlining your arguments: The Toulmin model and the Rogerian model.

Toulmin arguments

The Toulmin model consists of four steps, which may be repeated as many times as necessary for the argument:

  • Make a claim
  • Provide the grounds (evidence) for the claim
  • Explain the warrant (how the grounds support the claim)
  • Discuss possible rebuttals to the claim, identifying the limits of the argument and showing that you have considered alternative perspectives

The Toulmin model is a common approach in academic essays. You don’t have to use these specific terms (grounds, warrants, rebuttals), but establishing a clear connection between your claims and the evidence supporting them is crucial in an argumentative essay.

Say you’re making an argument about the effectiveness of workplace anti-discrimination measures. You might:

  • Claim that unconscious bias training does not have the desired results, and resources would be better spent on other approaches
  • Cite data to support your claim
  • Explain how the data indicates that the method is ineffective
  • Anticipate objections to your claim based on other data, indicating whether these objections are valid, and if not, why not.

Rogerian arguments

The Rogerian model also consists of four steps you might repeat throughout your essay:

  • Discuss what the opposing position gets right and why people might hold this position
  • Highlight the problems with this position
  • Present your own position , showing how it addresses these problems
  • Suggest a possible compromise —what elements of your position would proponents of the opposing position benefit from adopting?

This model builds up a clear picture of both sides of an argument and seeks a compromise. It is particularly useful when people tend to disagree strongly on the issue discussed, allowing you to approach opposing arguments in good faith.

Say you want to argue that the internet has had a positive impact on education. You might:

  • Acknowledge that students rely too much on websites like Wikipedia
  • Argue that teachers view Wikipedia as more unreliable than it really is
  • Suggest that Wikipedia’s system of citations can actually teach students about referencing
  • Suggest critical engagement with Wikipedia as a possible assignment for teachers who are skeptical of its usefulness.

You don’t necessarily have to pick one of these models—you may even use elements of both in different parts of your essay—but it’s worth considering them if you struggle to structure your arguments.

Regardless of which approach you take, your essay should always be structured using an introduction , a body , and a conclusion .

Like other academic essays, an argumentative essay begins with an introduction . The introduction serves to capture the reader’s interest, provide background information, present your thesis statement , and (in longer essays) to summarize the structure of the body.

Hover over different parts of the example below to see how a typical introduction works.

The spread of the internet has had a world-changing effect, not least on the world of education. The use of the internet in academic contexts is on the rise, and its role in learning is hotly debated. For many teachers who did not grow up with this technology, its effects seem alarming and potentially harmful. This concern, while understandable, is misguided. The negatives of internet use are outweighed by its critical benefits for students and educators—as a uniquely comprehensive and accessible information source; a means of exposure to and engagement with different perspectives; and a highly flexible learning environment.

The body of an argumentative essay is where you develop your arguments in detail. Here you’ll present evidence, analysis, and reasoning to convince the reader that your thesis statement is true.

In the standard five-paragraph format for short essays, the body takes up three of your five paragraphs. In longer essays, it will be more paragraphs, and might be divided into sections with headings.

Each paragraph covers its own topic, introduced with a topic sentence . Each of these topics must contribute to your overall argument; don’t include irrelevant information.

This example paragraph takes a Rogerian approach: It first acknowledges the merits of the opposing position and then highlights problems with that position.

Hover over different parts of the example to see how a body paragraph is constructed.

A common frustration for teachers is students’ use of Wikipedia as a source in their writing. Its prevalence among students is not exaggerated; a survey found that the vast majority of the students surveyed used Wikipedia (Head & Eisenberg, 2010). An article in The Guardian stresses a common objection to its use: “a reliance on Wikipedia can discourage students from engaging with genuine academic writing” (Coomer, 2013). Teachers are clearly not mistaken in viewing Wikipedia usage as ubiquitous among their students; but the claim that it discourages engagement with academic sources requires further investigation. This point is treated as self-evident by many teachers, but Wikipedia itself explicitly encourages students to look into other sources. Its articles often provide references to academic publications and include warning notes where citations are missing; the site’s own guidelines for research make clear that it should be used as a starting point, emphasizing that users should always “read the references and check whether they really do support what the article says” (“Wikipedia:Researching with Wikipedia,” 2020). Indeed, for many students, Wikipedia is their first encounter with the concepts of citation and referencing. The use of Wikipedia therefore has a positive side that merits deeper consideration than it often receives.

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An argumentative essay ends with a conclusion that summarizes and reflects on the arguments made in the body.

No new arguments or evidence appear here, but in longer essays you may discuss the strengths and weaknesses of your argument and suggest topics for future research. In all conclusions, you should stress the relevance and importance of your argument.

Hover over the following example to see the typical elements of a conclusion.

The internet has had a major positive impact on the world of education; occasional pitfalls aside, its value is evident in numerous applications. The future of teaching lies in the possibilities the internet opens up for communication, research, and interactivity. As the popularity of distance learning shows, students value the flexibility and accessibility offered by digital education, and educators should fully embrace these advantages. The internet’s dangers, real and imaginary, have been documented exhaustively by skeptics, but the internet is here to stay; it is time to focus seriously on its potential for good.

If you want to know more about AI tools , college essays , or fallacies make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples or go directly to our tools!

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An argumentative essay tends to be a longer essay involving independent research, and aims to make an original argument about a topic. Its thesis statement makes a contentious claim that must be supported in an objective, evidence-based way.

An expository essay also aims to be objective, but it doesn’t have to make an original argument. Rather, it aims to explain something (e.g., a process or idea) in a clear, concise way. Expository essays are often shorter assignments and rely less on research.

At college level, you must properly cite your sources in all essays , research papers , and other academic texts (except exams and in-class exercises).

Add a citation whenever you quote , paraphrase , or summarize information or ideas from a source. You should also give full source details in a bibliography or reference list at the end of your text.

The exact format of your citations depends on which citation style you are instructed to use. The most common styles are APA , MLA , and Chicago .

The majority of the essays written at university are some sort of argumentative essay . Unless otherwise specified, you can assume that the goal of any essay you’re asked to write is argumentative: To convince the reader of your position using evidence and reasoning.

In composition classes you might be given assignments that specifically test your ability to write an argumentative essay. Look out for prompts including instructions like “argue,” “assess,” or “discuss” to see if this is the goal.

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David French

The Supreme Court Just Erased Part of the Constitution

A black and white photo of the U.S. Supreme Court with a flag flying at half staff.

By David French

Opinion Columnist

As of Monday, March 4, 2024, Section 3 of the 14th Amendment of the Constitution is essentially a dead letter, at least as it applies to candidates for federal office. Under the U.S. Supreme Court’s ruling that reversed the Colorado Supreme Court’s decision striking Donald Trump from the state’s primary ballot, even insurrectionists who’ve violated their previous oath of office can hold federal office, unless and until Congress passes specific legislation to enforce Section 3.

In the aftermath of the oral argument last month, legal observers knew with near-certainty that the Supreme Court was unlikely to apply Section 3 to Trump. None of the justices seemed willing to uphold the Colorado court’s ruling, and only Justice Sonia Sotomayor gave any meaningful indication that she might dissent. The only real question remaining was the reasoning for the court’s decision. Would the ruling be broad or narrow?

A narrow ruling for Trump might have held, for example, that Colorado didn’t provide him with enough due process when it determined that Section 3 applied. Or the court could have held that Trump, as president, was not an “officer of the United States” within the meaning of the section. Such a ruling would have kept Trump on the ballot, but it would also have kept Section 3 viable to block insurrectionists from the House or Senate and from all other federal offices.

A somewhat broader ruling might have held that Trump did not engage in insurrection or rebellion or provide aid and comfort to the enemies of the Constitution. Such a ruling would have sharply limited Section 3 to apply almost exclusively to Civil War-style conflicts, an outcome at odds with the text and original public meaning of the section. It’s worth noting that, by not taking this path, the court did not exonerate Trump from participating in an insurrection.

But instead of any of these options, the court went with arguably the broadest reasoning available: that Section 3 isn’t self-executing, and thus has no force or effect in the absence of congressional action. This argument is rooted in Section 5 of the amendment, which states that “Congress shall have power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article.”

But Section 5, on its face, does not give Congress exclusive power to enforce the amendment. As Justices Elena Kagan, Sotomayor and Ketanji Brown Jackson pointed out in their own separate concurring opinion, “All the Reconstruction amendments (including the due process and equal protection guarantees and prohibition of slavery) ‘are self-executing,’ meaning that they do not depend on legislation.” While Congress may pass legislation to help enforce the 14th Amendment, it is not required to do so, and the 14th Amendment still binds federal, state and local governments even if Congress refuses to act.

But now Section 3 is different from other sections of the amendment. It requires federal legislation to enforce its terms, at least as applied to candidates for federal office. Through inaction alone, Congress can effectively erase part of the 14th Amendment.

It’s extremely difficult to square this ruling with the text of Section 3. The language is clearly mandatory. The first words are “No person shall be” a member of Congress or a state or federal officer if that person has engaged in insurrection or rebellion or provided aid or comfort to the enemies of the Constitution. The section then says, “But Congress may by a vote of two-thirds of each house, remove such disability.”

In other words, the Constitution imposes the disability, and only a supermajority of Congress can remove it. But under the Supreme Court’s reasoning, the meaning is inverted: The Constitution merely allows Congress to impose the disability, and if Congress chooses not to enact legislation enforcing the section, then the disability does not exist. The Supreme Court has effectively replaced a very high bar for allowing insurrectionists into federal office — a supermajority vote by Congress — with the lowest bar imaginable: congressional inaction.

As Kagan, Sotomayor and Jackson point out, this approach is also inconsistent with the constitutional approach to other qualifications for the presidency. We can bar individuals from holding office who are under the age limit or who don’t meet the relevant citizenship requirement without congressional enforcement legislation. We can enforce the two-term presidential term limit without congressional enforcement legislation. Section 3 now stands apart not only from the rest of the 14th Amendment, but also from the other constitutional requirements for the presidency.

In one important respect, the court’s ruling on Monday is worse and more consequential than the Senate’s decision to acquit Trump after his Jan. 6 impeachment trial in 2021. Impeachment is entirely a political process, and the actions of one Senate have no bearing on the actions of future Senates. But a Supreme Court ruling has immense precedential power. The court’s decision is now the law.

It would be clearly preferable if Congress were to pass enforcement legislation that established explicit procedures for resolving disputes under Section 3, including setting the burden of proof and creating timetables and deadlines for filing challenges and hearing appeals. Establishing a uniform process is better than living with a patchwork of state proceedings. But the fact that Congress has not acted should not effectively erase the words from the constitutional page. Chaotic enforcement of the Constitution may be suboptimal. But it’s far better than not enforcing the Constitution at all.

The Times is committed to publishing a diversity of letters to the editor. We’d like to hear what you think about this or any of our articles. Here are some tips . And here’s our email: [email protected] .

Follow the New York Times Opinion section on Facebook , Instagram , TikTok , X and Threads .

David French is an Opinion columnist, writing about law, culture, religion and armed conflict. He is a veteran of Operation Iraqi Freedom and a former constitutional litigator. His most recent book is “Divided We Fall: America’s Secession Threat and How to Restore Our Nation .” You can follow him on Threads ( @davidfrenchjag ).

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  1. How to Write the Body of an Essay

    The body is always divided into paragraphs. You can work through the body in three main stages: Create an outline of what you want to say and in what order. Write a first draft to get your main ideas down on paper. Write a second draft to clarify your arguments and make sure everything fits together.

  2. Essay Structure: The 3 Main Parts of an Essay

    Basic essay structure: the 3 main parts of an essay. Almost every single essay that's ever been written follows the same basic structure: Introduction. Body paragraphs. Conclusion. This structure has stood the test of time for one simple reason: It works. It clearly presents the writer's position, supports that position with relevant ...

  3. How to Structure an Essay

    The second principle is that background information should appear towards the beginning of your essay. General background is presented in the introduction. If you have additional background to present, this information will usually come at the start of the body. The third principle is that everything in your essay should be relevant to the thesis.

  4. 5 Main Parts of an Essay: An Easy Guide to a Solid Structure

    What are the 5 parts of an essay? Explore how the introduction, body paragraphs, and conclusion parts of an essay work together.

  5. PDF Parts of an Essay

    Body—An essay includes body paragraphs, which develop the main idea (thesis or claim) of the essay. An effective body paragraph should: Work together with the other body paragraphs to create a clear, cohesive paper (clarity and coherence can be achieved through the use of transitions). Conclusion—An essay ends with a brief conclusion, which ...

  6. How to write an essay: Body

    Body paragraphs. The essay body itself is organised into paragraphs, according to your plan. Remember that each paragraph focuses on one idea, or aspect of your topic, and should contain at least 4-5 sentences so you can deal with that idea properly. Each body paragraph has three sections. First is the topic sentence.

  7. Example of a Great Essay

    The structure of an essay is divided into an introduction that presents your topic and thesis statement, a body containing your in-depth analysis and arguments, and a conclusion wrapping up your ideas. The structure of the body is flexible, but you should always spend some time thinking about how you can organize your essay to best serve your ...

  8. Key Components of an Essay

    This section of the guide walks you through some of the basic components of the essay genre. Here are some general thoughts before you get started. A good essay is well-organized and structured. Good essays have a clear introduction, thesis, and conclusion. Body paragraphs in the essay connect back to the thesis.

  9. Guides: Write a University Essay: Parts of an essay

    e.g., describe, evaluate, analyze, explain, argue, trace, outline, synthesize, compare, contrast, critique. Make an outline of your main sections before you write. For longer essays, you may find it helpful to work on a section at a time, approaching each section as a "mini-essay.". Make sure every paragraph, example, and sentence directly ...

  10. Parts of an Academic Essay

    Overview. In a way, these academic essays are like a court trial. The attorney, whether prosecuting the case or defending it, begins with an opening statement explaining the background and telling the jury what he or she intends to prove (the thesis statement). Then, the attorney presents witnesses for proof (the body of the paragraphs).

  11. PDF Components of a Good Essay Intro

    adequately informed, the essay must include several important components to make it flow in a logical way. The main parts (or sections) to an essay are the intro, body, and conclusion. In a standard short essay, five paragraphs can provide the reader with enough information in a short amount of space.

  12. Essay Body ~ How To Write It Right

    In a Nutshell: Essay Body. Writing strong body paragraphs is crucial to writing a solid college paper. The six components of a standard essay body paragraph are a subject sentence, supporting details, and a conclusion. Avoiding repetition and transitioning smoothly between paragraphs are two of the most important paragraphing principles.

  13. How to Write a Strong Body Paragraph for an Essay

    How to Write a Strong Body Paragraph for an Essay. Written by MasterClass. Last updated: Jun 7, 2021 • 2 min read. From magazines to academic essays, you can find body paragraphs across many forms of writing. Learn more about how to write engaging body paragraphs that support the central idea of your writing project. From magazines to ...

  14. The Basic Essay Structure and Many Alternatives: Learn How ...

    Essay body structure. Your paper's body is a hub of facts, expert thoughts, contrasts, debates, and situations. That is the biggest of all components of an essay, and it is your chance to provide solid argumentation, tell a story, explain a phenomenon, and engage with your audience better. How should an essay be structured in this section?

  15. Essay Structure

    It may have three body paragraphs or have ten. The number of body paragraphs depends on the purpose and required length of each assignment. All academic body paragraphs, however, do have a few things in common: Each body paragraph focuses on one main idea. Paragraphs can be seen as pieces of the overall essay. Each piece is one part of the ...

  16. What Are the Parts of an Essay?

    An essay is a piece of writing that is written to provide information about a certain topic or simply to convince the reader. In every effective essay writing, there are three major parts: introduction, body, and essay conclusion. The introduction. This is where the subject or topic is introduced. The big picture, points, and ideas are briefly ...

  17. Anatomy of a Body Paragraph

    A strong paragraph in an academic essay will usually include these three elements: A topic sentence. The topic sentence does double duty for a paragraph. First, a strong topic sentence makes a claim or states a main idea that is then developed in the rest of the paragraph. Second, the topic sentence signals to readers how the paragraph is ...

  18. Body Paragraphs: How to Write Perfect Ones

    A body paragraph is any paragraph in the middle of an essay, paper, or article that comes after the introduction but before the conclusion.Generally, body paragraphs support the work's thesis and shed new light on the main topic, whether through empirical data, logical deduction, deliberate persuasion, or anecdotal evidence.

  19. Body Paragraphs

    Body paragraphs: Moving from general to specific information. Your paper should be organized in a manner that moves from general to specific information. Every time you begin a new subject, think of an inverted pyramid - The broadest range of information sits at the top, and as the paragraph or paper progresses, the author becomes more and more ...

  20. What is the structure of an essay?

    The structure of an essay is divided into an introduction that presents your topic and thesis statement, a body containing your in-depth analysis and arguments, and a conclusion wrapping up your ideas. The structure of the body is flexible, but you should always spend some time thinking about how you can organize your essay to best serve your ...

  21. Argumentative Essay

    Components of an argumentative essay Argumentative essay introduction. The introduction sets the tone for the entire paper and introduces the argument. In general, the first paragraph(s) should attract the reader's attention, provide relevant context, and conclude with a thesis statement. ... Argumentative essay body paragraphs. Body ...

  22. 4 arrested in suspected love triangle body parts case on Long Island

    Investigators believe the body parts found last week and the human remains discovered Tuesday are those of the same victims. One of the victims, a 59-year-old woman, has been identified, police said.

  23. 4 are charged with concealing a corpse, evidence tampering in Long

    BABYLON, N.Y. (AP) — Four people were charged Wednesday with concealing a human corpse and tampering with evidence in connection with the discovery of body parts in parks on Long Island.. The four — Amanda Wallace, 40, Jeffrey Mackey, 38, Steven Brown, 44, all of Amityville, and Alexis Nieves, 33, who police said is homeless — have not been charged with killing the victims, identified as ...

  24. 4 are charged with concealing a corpse, evidence tampering in Long

    BABYLON, N.Y. -- Four people were charged Wednesday with concealing a human corpse and tampering with evidence in connection with the discovery of body parts in parks on Long Island. The four ...

  25. Sheldon Johnson, justice advocate, arrested for body parts in freezer

    4 friends. 3 deaths, 2 months later:What killed Kansas City Chiefs fans remains a mystery Body parts found in freezer during welfare check. Police said officers responded to Small's Bronx home to ...

  26. Four arrested in connection to body parts of Yonkers pair found on LI

    Other body parts, including a severed leg, were found at the park shortly after. Police say the victims were a 59-year-old woman and a 53-year-old man, but their names will not be released as the ...

  27. More remains found in Long Island, New York; 4 arrested in Babylon

    Once police arrived, they cordoned off the area and conducted an extensive search, involving dogs. Multiple body parts, including a severed head, right arm, left leg from the knee down, and a ...

  28. Officials pass blame after LI body parts suspects freed without bail

    Body parts believed to belong to the same victims — identified only as a 53-year-old man and 59-year-old woman — were also located Tuesday in a wooded area of West Babylon and in Bethpage ...

  29. How to Write an Argumentative Essay

    Make a claim. Provide the grounds (evidence) for the claim. Explain the warrant (how the grounds support the claim) Discuss possible rebuttals to the claim, identifying the limits of the argument and showing that you have considered alternative perspectives. The Toulmin model is a common approach in academic essays.

  30. The Supreme Court Just Erased Part of the Constitution

    As of Monday, March 4, 2024, Section 3 of the 14th Amendment of the Constitution is essentially a dead letter, at least as it applies to candidates for federal office. Under the U.S. Supreme Court ...