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English for Writing Research Papers

  • Adrian Wallwork 0

English for Academics, Pisa, Italy

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At least two-thirds of published scientific papers are written by researchers whose first language is not English

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Table of contents (20 chapters)

Front matter, writing skills, planning and preparation.

Adrian Wallwork

Structuring a Sentence: Word Order

Structuring paragraphs, breaking up long sentences, being concise and removing redundancy, avoiding ambiguity, repetition, and vague language, clarifying who did what, highlighting your findings, discussing your limitations, hedging and criticising, plagiarism and paraphrasing, sections of a paper, introduction, review of the literature.

  • prepare and structure a manuscript
  • increase readability and reduce the number of mistakes you make in English by writing concisely, with no redundancy and no ambiguity
  • write a title and an abstract that will attract attention and be read
  • decide what to include in the various parts of the paper (Introduction, Methodology, Discussion etc)
  • highlight your claims and contribution
  • avoid plagiarism
  • discuss the limitations of your research
  • choose the correct tenses and style
  • satisfy the requirements of editors and reviewers
  • Research papers
  • preparing and structuring a manuscript
  • readability
  • avoiding mistakes
  • redundancy and ambiguity
  • introductions
  • review of the literature
  • highlighting results

Book Title : English for Writing Research Papers

Authors : Adrian Wallwork

Series Title : English for Academic Research

DOI : https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-26094-5

Publisher : Springer Cham

eBook Packages : Social Sciences , Social Sciences (R0)

Copyright Information : Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

eBook ISBN : 978-3-319-26094-5 Published: 02 March 2016

Series ISSN : 2625-3445

Series E-ISSN : 2625-3453

Edition Number : 2

Number of Pages : XX, 377

Topics : English , Language Education , Popular Science in Linguistics , Grammar

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  • v.7(9); 2021 Sep

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Evidence-based reading interventions for English language learners: A multilevel meta-analysis

Associated data.

Data included in article/supplementary material/referenced in article.

The number of English Language Learners (ELLs) has been growing worldwide. ELLs are at risk for reading disabilities due to dual difficulties with linguistic and cultural factors. This raises the need for finding practical and efficient reading interventions for ELLs to improve their literacy development and English reading skills. The purpose of this study is to examine the evidence-based reading interventions for English Language Learners to identify the components that create the most effective and efficient interventions. This article reviewed literature published between January 2008 and March 2018 that examined the effectiveness of reading interventions for ELLs. We analyzed the effect sizes of reading intervention programs for ELLs and explored the variables that affect reading interventions using a multilevel meta-analysis. We examined moderator variables such as student-related variables (grades, exceptionality, SES), measurement-related variables (standardization, reliability), intervention-related variables (contents of interventions, intervention types), and implementation-related variables (instructor, group size). The results showed medium effect sizes for interventions targeting basic reading skills for ELLs. Medium-size group interventions and strategy-embedded interventions were more important for ELLs who were at risk for reading disabilities. These findings suggested that we should consider the reading problems of ELLs and apply the Tier 2 approach for ELLs with reading problems.

English language learners, Evidenced-based intervention, Meta-analysis, Reading.

1. Introduction

There is a growing body of literature that recognizes the importance of quality education for learners who study in a language other than their native language ( Estrella et al., 2018 ; Ludwig et al., 2019 ). As cultural, racial, ethnic, and linguistic diversification takes place globally, the number of students studying a second language different from their native language is also increasing worldwide. In the United States, nearly 5 million learners who are not native speakers of English are currently attending public schools, and this figure has increased significantly over the past decade ( NCES, 2016 ). As the number of children whose native language is not English increased, the need for educational support also increased. Furthermore, the implementation of NCLB policy emphasizes the need for quality education for all students included in all schools. Accordingly, NCLB has emerged as a critical policy for learners to study in their second language. In other words, there is an urgent need to ensure that non-native English speakers receive appropriate education due to NCLB, which has not only increased the demand for education but also led to the practice of enhanced education for learners whose English is not their native language.

ELLs (English language learners) refer to the education provided for learners whose native language is not English in English-speaking countries ( National Center for Education Statistics, 2021 ). The education provided to these ELLs is called ESL (English as a second language), ESOL (English to speakers of other languages), EFL (English as a foreign language), and so on. Each term is adopted differently depending on the policy, purpose, and status of operation of the state and/or school district. While a variety of terms have been suggested, this paper uses the term ‘ELLs’ to refer to learners who are not native speakers of English and uses the terms ‘the English education program’ and the ‘ELL program’ to refer to the English education program provided to ELLs.

To ensure quality education, students identified as ELLs can participate in supportive programs to improve their English skills. These ELL programs can be broadly divided into two methods: “pull-out” and “push-in” ( Honigsfeld, 2009 ). In the pull-out program, students are taken to a specific space other than the classroom at regular class time and are separately taught English. In the push-in program, the ELL teacher joins the mainstream ELLs’ classroom and assists them during class time. Through these educational supports, ELLs are required to achieve not only English language improvements addressed in Title III of NCLB but also language art achievements appropriate to their grade level addressed in Title I of NCLB. ELLs are expected to achieve the same level of academic achievement as students of the same grade level, as well as comparable language skills.

A considerable amount of literature has been published on the achievement and learning status of ELLs ( Ludwig, 2017 ; Soland and Sandilos, 2020 ). These studies revealed that despite the intensive, high-quality education support for ELLs, they encounter difficulties learning and academic achievement. The National Reading Achievement Test (NAEP) results show that the achievement gap between non-ELLs and ELLs is steadily expanding in the areas of both mathematics and reading ( Polat et al., 2016 ). Ultimately, ELLs are reported to have the highest risk of dropping out of school ( Sheng et al., 2011 ). These difficulties are not limited to early school age. Fry (2007) reported that the results from a national standardized test of 8th-grade students found that ELLs performed lower than white students in both reading and math. Callahan and Shifrer (2016) analyzed data from a nationally representative educational longitudinal study in 2002 and found that, despite taking into account language, socio-demographic and academic factors, ELLs still have a large gap in high school academic achievement. Additionally, research has suggested that ELLs are less likely to participate in higher education institutions compared to non-ELL counterparts ( Cook, 2015 ; Kanno and Cromley, 2015 ).

Factors found to influence the difficulties of ELLs in learning have been explored in several studies ( Dussling, 2018 ; Thompson and von Gillern, 2020 ; Yousefi and Bria, 2018 ). There are two main reasons for these difficulties. First, ELLs face many challenges in learning a new language by following the academic content required in the school year ( American Youth Policy Forum, 2009 ). Moreover, language is an area that is influenced by sociocultural factors, and learning academic contents such as English language art and math are also influenced by sociocultural elements and different cultural backgrounds, which affects the achievement of ELLs in school ( Chen et al., 2012 ; Orosco, 2010 ). Second, it is reported that the heterogeneity of ELLs makes it challenging to formulate instructional strategies and provide adequate education for them. Due to the heterogeneous traits in the linguistic and cultural aspects of the ELL group, there are limitations in specifying and guiding traits. Therefore, properly reflecting their characteristics is difficult.

The difficulties for ELLs in academic achievement raise the necessity for searching practical and efficient reading interventions for ELLs to improve English language and academic achievement, including ELLs' English language art achievement. These needs and demands led to the conduct of various studies that analyze the difficulties of ELLs. Over the past decade, these studies have provided important information on education for ELLs. The main themes of the studies are difficulties in academic achievement and interventions for ELLs, including reading ( Kirnan et al., 2018 ; Liu and Wang, 2015 ; Roth, 2015 ; Shamir et al., 2018 ; Tam and Heng, 2016 ), writing ( Daugherty, 2015 ; Hong, 2018 ; Lin, 2015 ; nullP ) or both reading and math ( Dearing et al., 2016 ; Shamir et al., 2016 ). The influences of teachers on children's guidance ( Kim, 2017 ; Daniel and Pray, 2017 ; Téllez and Manthey, 2015 ; Wasseell, Hawrylak, Scantlebuty, 2017 ) and the influences of family members ( Johnson and Johnson, 2016 ; Walker, Research on 2017 ) are also examined.

Reading is known to function as an important predictor of success not only in English language art itself but also in overall school life ( Guo et al., 2015 ). This is because reading is conducted throughout the school years, as most of the activities students perform in school are related to reading. Furthermore, reading is considered one of the major fundamental skills in modern society because it has a strong relationship with academic and vocational success beyond school-based learning ( Lesnick et al., 2010 ). In particular, for ELLs, language is one of the innate barriers; thereafter, reading is one of the most common and prominent difficulties in that it is not done in their native language ( Rawian and Mokhtar, 2017 ; Snyder et al., 2017 ). In this respect, several studies have investigated reading for ELLs. These studies explore effective interventions and strategies ( Kirnan et al., 2018 ; Mendoza, 2016 ; Meredith, 2017 ; Reid and Heck, 2017 ) and suggest reading development models or predictors for reading success ( Boyer, 2017 ; Liu and Wang, 2015 ; Rubin, 2016 ). For these individual studies to provide appropriate guidance to field practitioners and desirable suggestions for future research, aggregation of the overall related studies, not only of the individual study, and research reflections based on them are required. Specifically, meta-analysis can be an appropriate research method. Through meta-analysis, we can derive conclusions from previous studies and review them comprehensively. Furthermore, meta-analysis can ultimately contribute to policymakers and decision-makers making appropriate decisions for rational strategies and policymaking.

Although extensive research has been carried out on the difficulties of ELLs and how to support them, a sufficiently comprehensive meta-analysis of these studies has not been carried out. Some studies have focused on specific interventions, such as morphological interventions ( Goodwin and Ahn, 2013 ), peer-mediated learning ( Cole, 2014 ), and video game-based instruction ( Thompson and von Gillern ). Ludwig, Guo, and Georgiou (2019) demonstrated the effectiveness of reading interventions for ELLs. However, they divided reading-related variables into “reading accuracy”, “reading fluency”, and “reading comprehension” and examined the effectiveness of the reading-related attributes in each of the variables. Therefore, the study has limitations for exploring the various aspects of reading and their effectiveness for reading interventions.

Individual studies have their characteristics and significance. However, for individual studies to be more widely adopted in the field and to be a powerful source for future research, it is necessary to analyze these individual studies more comprehensively. Meta-analysis reviews past studies related to the topic by 'integrating' previous studies, analyzes and evaluates them through 'critical analysis', provides implications to the field, and gives rise to intellectual stimulation to future studies by ‘identifying issues’ ( Cooper et al., 2019 ). Through this, meta-analysis can be a useful tool for diagnosing the past where relevant research has been conducted, taking appropriate treatment for the present, and providing intellectual stimulation for future studies.

Therefore, the purposes of this study are to examine evidence-based reading interventions for ELLs presented in the literature to analyze their effects and to identify the actual and specific components for creating the most effective and efficient intervention for ELLs. The findings of this study make a major contribution to research on ELLs by demonstrating the implications for the field and future study.

2.1. Selection of studies

A meta-analysis of peer-reviewed articles on ELL reading interventions published between January 2008 and March 2018 was conducted. According to the general steps of a meta-analysis, data related to reading interventions for English language learners were collected as follows. First, educational and psychological publication databases, such as Google Scholar ( https://scholar.google.co.kr ), ERIC ( https://eric.ed.gov/ ), ELSEVIER ( http://www.elsevier.com ), and Springer ( https://www.springer.com/gp ) were used to find the articles to be analyzed using the search terms “ELLs,” ESL,” “Reading,” “Second language education,” “Effectiveness,” and “Intervention” separately and in combination with each other. We reviewed the results of the web-based search for articles and included all relevant articles on the preliminary list. We selected the final list of the articles to be analyzed by applying inclusion and exclusion criteria to the preliminary list of articles. Studies were included in the final list based on three primary criteria. First, each study should evaluate the effectiveness of a school-based reading intervention using an experimental or quasi-experimental group design. In this process, single case, qualitative, and/or descriptive studies for ELLs were excluded from the analysis. Second, we included all types of reading-related interventions (i.e., phonological awareness, word recognition, reading fluency, vocabulary, and reading comprehension). Third, each study needed to report data in a statistical format to calculate an effect size. Fourth, we only included studies whose subjects were in grades K-12. The preliminary list had 75 articles, but since some of these studies did not meet the inclusion criteria, we excluded them from the final list for analysis. In total, this meta-analysis included 28 studies with 234 effect sizes (see Figure 1 ).

Figure 1

Prisma flow diagram.

2.2. Data analysis

2.2.1. coding procedure.

To identify the relevant components of the evidence-based reading interventions for ELLs, we developed an extensive coding document. Our interest was in synthesizing the effect sizes and finding the variables that affect the effectiveness of reading interventions for ELLs. The code sheet was made based on a code sheet used in Vaughn et al. (2003) and Wanzek et al. (2010) . All studies were coded for the following: (a) study characteristics, including general information about the study, (b) student-related variables, (c) intervention-related variables, (d) implementation-related variables, (e) measurement-related variables, and (f) quantitative data for the calculation of effect sizes.

Within the study characteristics category, we coded the researchers’ names, publication year, and title from each study to identify the general information about each study. For the student-related variables, mean age, grade level(s), number of participants, number of males, number of females, sampling method, exceptionality type (reading ability level), identification criteria in case of learning disabilities, race/ethnicity, and SES were coded. We divided grade level(s) into lower elementary (K-2), upper elementary (3–5), and secondary (6–12). When students with learning disabilities participated in the study, we coded the identification criteria reported in the study. For race/ethnicity, we coded white, Hispanic, black, Asian, and others. Within intervention-related variables, we coded for the title of the intervention, the key instructional components of the intervention, the type of intervention, and the reading components of the intervention. The reading components coded were phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, reading comprehension, listening comprehension, and others. If an intervention contained multiple reading components, all reading components included in the intervention were coded. Fourth, within implementation-related variables, we coded group size, duration of the intervention (weeks), the total number of sessions, frequency of sessions per week, length of each session (minutes), personnel who provided the intervention (i.e., teacher, researchers, other), and the setting. Fifth, in measurement-related variables, we coded the title of the measurement, reliability coefficient, validity coefficient, type of measurement, type of reliability, and type of validity. We also coded quantitative data such as the pre- and posttest means, the pre- and posttest standard deviations, and the number of participants in the pre- and posttests for both the treatment and control groups. These coding variables are defined in Table 1 . The research background and sample information are in Appendix 1 .

Table 1

Coding variables.

2.2.2. Coding reliability

The included articles were coded according to the coding procedure described above. Two researchers coded each study separately and reached 91% agreement. Afterward, the researchers reviewed and discussed the differences to resolve the initial disagreements.

2.2.3. Data analysis

First, we calculated 234 effect sizes from the interventions included in the 28 studies. The average effect size was calculated using Cohen's d formula. In addition, we conducted a two-level meta-analysis through multilevel hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) using the HLM 6.0 interactive mode statistical program to analyze the computed effect sizes and find the predictors that affect the effect sizes of reading interventions. HLM is appropriate to quantitatively obtain both overall summary statistics and quantification of the variability in the effectiveness of interventions across studies as a means for accessing the generalizability of findings. Moreover, HLM easily incorporates the overall mean effect size using the unconditional model, and HLM is useful to explain variability in the effectiveness of interventions between studies in the conditional model. The aim of the current study is to provide a broad overview of interventions for ELLs. To achieve this aim, we conducted an unconditional model for overall mean effect size and conducted a conditional model to identify factors that have an impact on the strength of effect sizes. In regard to variables related to the effectiveness of interventions, we conducted a conditional model with student-related, measurement-related, intervention-related, and implementation-related variables. In the case of quantitative meta-analyses, it is assumed that observations are independent of one another ( How and de Leeuw, 2003 ). However, this assumption is usually not applied in social studies if observations are clustered within larger groups ( Bowman, 2003 ) because each effect size within a study might not be homogeneous ( Beretvas and Pastor, 2003 ). Thus, a two-level multilevel meta-analysis using a mixed-effect model was employed because multiple effect sizes are provided within a single education study. To calculate effect size (ES) estimates using Cohen's d, we use the following equation [1]:

The pooled standard deviation, SD pooled , is defined as

In HLM, the unconditional model can be implemented to identify the overall effect size across all estimates and to test for homogeneity. If an assumption of homogeneity is rejected by an insignificant chi-square coefficient in the unconditional model, this means that there are differences within and/or between studies. This assumption must go to the next step to find moderators that influence effect sizes. This step is called a level two model or a conditional model. A conditional model is conducted to investigate the extent of the influence of the included variables.

The level one model (unconditional model) was expressed as [3], and the level two model (the conditional model was expressed as [4].

In equation (3) , δ j represents the mean effect size value for study j, and e j is the within-study error term assumed to be theoretically normally distributed with a mean of 0 and a variance of V j . In the level two model equation [4], γ 0 represents the overall mean effect size for the population, and u j represents the sampling variability between studies presumed to be normally distributed with a mean of 0 and a variance τ .

Regarding publication bias, we looked at the funnel plot with the 'funnel()' command of the metafor R package ( Viechtbauer, 2010 ), and to verify this more statistically, we used the dmetar R package ( Harrer et al., 2019 ). Egger's regression test ( Egger et al., 1997 ) was conducted using the 'eggers.test()' command to review publication bias. Egger's regression analysis showed that there was a significant publication error (t = 3.977, 95% CI [0.89–2.54], p < .001). To correct this, a trim-and-fill technique ( Duval and Tweedie, 2000 ) was used. As a result, the total effect size corrected for publication bias was also calculated. The funnel plot is shown in [ Figure 2 ].

Figure 2

Funnel plot.

We analyzed 28 studies to identify influential variables that count for reading interventions for ELLs. Before performing the multilevel meta-analysis, the effect size of 28 studies was analyzed by traditional meta-analysis. The forest plots for the individual effect sizes of 28 studies are shown in Appendix 2. We present our findings with our research questions as an organizational framework. First, we showed an unconditional model for finding the overall mean effect size. Then, we described the variables that influenced the effect size of reading interventions for ELLs using a conditional model.

3.1. Unconditional model

An unconditional model of the meta-analysis was tested first. In the analysis, restricted maximum likelihood estimation was used. This analysis was conducted to confirm the overall mean effect size and to examine the variability among all samples. The results are shown in Table 2 .

Table 2

Results of the unconditional model analysis.

∗∗∗ p < 0.001, df: degree of freedom.

The intercept coefficient in the fixed model is the overall mean effect size from 234 effect sizes. This means that the effect of reading intervention for English language learners is medium based on Cohen's d. Cohen's d is generally interpreted as small d = 0.2, medium d = 0.5 and large d = 0.8. The variance component indicates the variability among samples. The estimate was 0.589 and remained significant (χ 2 = 1245.90, p < . 001). This statistical significance means that moderator analysis with dominant predictors in a model is required to explore the source of variability.

3.2. Conditional model

Moderator analysis using the conditional model was expected to identify factors that have an impact on the strength of effect sizes. In this study, the moderator analysis was administered by nine critical variable categories: students’ grade, exceptionality, SES, reading area, standardized test, test reliability, intervention type, instructor, and group size. Variables in each category were coded by dummy coding. Dummy coding was used to identify the difference in dependent variables between the categories of independent variables. For example, we used four dummy variables to capture the five dimensions. The parameter estimates capture the differences in effect sizes between the groups that are coded 1 and a reference group that is coded 0. From a mathematical perspective, it does not matter which categorical variable is used as the referenced group ( Frey, 2018 ). We labeled one variable in each category as a reference group to make the interpretation of the results easier. We used an asterisk mark to denote the reference group for each category; if a word has an asterisk next to it, this indicates that it is the reference group for that category.

  • 1) Student-related variables

The results of the conditional meta-analysis for students' grade variables are presented in Table 3 . In Table 3 , the significant coefficients mean that mean effect sizes are significantly larger for studies in reference conditions. For student grades, upper elementary students showed significantly larger mean effect sizes than secondary students (2.720, p = 0.000), but preschool students showed significantly lower mean effect sizes than secondary students (-0.103, p = 0.019). The Q statistic was significant for students’ grades ( Q = 27.20, p < 0.001) (see Table 4 ).

Table 3

Results of the moderator analysis for student grade.

df: degree of freedom.

Table 4

Results of the moderator analysis for exceptionality.

For the student-related variables, students with low achievement showed significantly larger mean effect sizes scores than general students (0.707, p = 0.001). However, there was no significant difference between students with low achievement and general students. The Q statistic was significant for students’ exceptionality ( Q = 0.0278, p < 0.001).

Table 5 shows that low and low-middle SES was not significantly different from students with no information about SES (0.055, p = 0.666). Moreover, students with middle and upper SES did not have significantly smaller effect sizes than students with nonresponse (-0.379, p = 0.444). The Q statistic was significant for students’ SES ( Q = 68.50, p < 0.001).

Table 5

Results of the moderator analysis for SES.

  • 2) Measurement-related variables

Table 6 shows the results of the moderator analysis for measurement types. The coefficient for the standardized measurement-related variable was not significant. The Q statistic was significant for the standardization of measurement tools ( Q = 5.28, p < 0.001).

Table 6

Results of the moderator analysis for standardization of measurement tools.

Table 7 shows the results of the moderator analysis for the reliability of the measurement tools. The coefficient for the measurement reliability-related variable was significant (0.409, p = 0.003), which means that the effect sizes of measurements that reported reliability (ES = 0.770) were significantly larger than the effect sizes of measurements that had information about reliability (ES = 0.361). The Q statistic was significant for the reliability of the measurement tools ( Q = 5.82, p < 0.001) (see Table 8 ).

Table 7

Results of the moderator analysis for reliability.

Table 8

Results of the moderator analysis for content of the intervention.

  • 3) Intervention-related variables

The content of the intervention was divided into phonological awareness, reading fluency, vocabulary, reading comprehension, listening comprehension, and other areas. Studies measured other areas that functioned as a reference group. For the measurement area, all reading areas were significantly larger than other areas. Reading fluency (1.150, p = 0.001), reading comprehension (0.971, p = 0.000) and listening comprehension (0.834, p = 0.002) were significantly larger than those in the other areas. However, phonological awareness and vocabulary were significantly larger than other areas but lower than reading fluency, reading comprehension, and listening comprehension (0.528, p = 0.013; 0.442, p = 0.000). The Q statistic was significant for the content of the intervention ( Q = 24.005, p < 0.001).

For intervention types, strategy instruction, peer tutoring, and computer-based learning were compared to other methods, which were fixed as a reference group. Table 9 shows that strategy instruction was significantly larger than other methods in mean effect sizes (0.523, p = 0.001). However, studies that applied peer tutoring and computer-based learning showed lower than other methods, but these differences were not statistically significant (-0.113, p = 0.736; -0114, p = 0.743). The Q statistic was significant for intervention types ( Q = 73.343, p < 0.001).

Table 9

Results of the moderator analysis for intervention types.

  • 4) Implementation-related variables

For instructor-related variables, other instructor-delivered instructions were assigned as a reference group. Table 10 shows that the teacher and researcher groups showed significantly larger than the other instructors. Moreover, the teacher group showed larger than the researcher group (0.909, p = 0.000). The Q statistic was significant for instructor-related variables ( Q = 14.024, p < 0.001).

Table 10

Results of the moderator analysis for instructor.

For group size, mixed groups were fixed as a reference group. Group size variables were divided into a small group (1 or more and 5 or less), a middle group (6 or more and 15 or less), and a large group or class size (16 or more). Table 11 shows that the middle group (6 or more and 15 or less) and the small group (1 or more and 5 or less) were significantly larger than the mixed group (0.881, p = 0.000; 0.451, p = 0.006). However, the difference between the large group and the mixed group was not significant (0.120, p = 0.434). The Q statistic was significant for group size variables ( Q = 17.756, p < 0.001).

Table 11

Results of the moderator analysis for group size.

4. Discussion

The purpose of this meta-analysis was to explore the effects of reading interventions for ELLs and to identify research-based characteristics of effective reading interventions for enhancing their reading ability. To achieve this goal, this study tried to determine the answers to two research questions. What is the estimated mean effect size of reading interventions for ELLs in K-12? To what extent do student-, intervention-, implementation-, and measurement-related variables have effects on improving the reading ability of ELLs in K-12? Therefore, our study was limited to recent K-12 intervention studies published between January 2008 and March 2018 that included phonological awareness, fluency, vocabulary, reading comprehension, and listening comprehension as intervention components and outcome measures. A total of 28 studies were identified and analyzed. To inquiry the two main research questions, a two-level meta-analysis was employed in this study. For the first research question, the unconditional model of HLM was conducted to investigate the mean effect size of reading interventions for ELLs. The conditional model of HLM was conducted to determine which variables have significant effects on reading interventions for ELLs. Below, we briefly summarized the results of this study and described the significant factors that seem to influence intervention effectiveness. These findings could provide a better understanding of ELLs and support implications for the development of reading interventions for ELLs.

4.1. Effectiveness of reading interventions for ELLs

The first primary finding from this meta-analysis is that ELLs can improve their reading ability when provided appropriate reading interventions. Our findings indicated that the overall mean effect size of reading interventions of ELLs yielded an effect size of 0.653, which indicates a medium level of effect. From this result, we can conclude that the appropriate reading interventions generally have impacts on reading outcomes for ELLs in K-12. This is consistent with prior syntheses reporting positive effects of reading interventions for ELLs ( Vaughn et al., 2006 ; Abraham, 2008 ).

Effect size information is important to understand the real effects of the intervention. Therefore, this finding indicated that supplementary reading interventions for ELLs will be developed and implemented. This finding also showed that states are required to develop a set of high-quality reading interventions for ELLs. Language interventions for ELLs have become one of the most important issues in the U.S. Increasing numbers of children in U.S. schools have come from homes in which English is not the primary language spoken. NCES (2016) showed that 4.9 million students, or 9.6% of public school students, were identified as ELLs, which was higher than the 3.8 million students, or 8.1%, identified in 2000 ( NCES, 2016 ). While many students of immigrant families succeed in their academic areas, too many do not. Some ELLs lag far behind native English speakers in the school because of the strong effect of language factors on the instruction or assessment. Although English is not their native language, ELLs should learn educational content in English. This leads to huge inequity in public schools. Thus, improving the English language and literacy skills of ELLs is a major concern for educational policymakers. This finding can support practitioners’ efforts and investments in developing appropriate language interventions for ELLs.

4.2. The effects of moderating variables

The second primary finding of this meta-analysis relates to four variable categories: student-, intervention-, implementation-, and measurement-related variables. Effective instruction cannot be designed by considering one factor. The quality of instruction is the product of many factors, including class size, the type of instructions, and other resources. This finding showed which factors affected the effectiveness of reading interventions. Specifically, we found that the variables that proved to have significant effects on reading outcomes of ELLs were as follows: upper elementary students, reliable measurement tools, reading and listening comprehension-related interventions, strategy instruction, and the middle group consisting of 6 or more and 15 or less. Teachers and practitioners in the field may choose to adopt these findings into their practices. ELL teachers may design their instruction as strategy-embedded instruction in middle-sized groups.

We found that grades accounted for significant variability in an intervention's effectiveness. Specifically, we found that reading interventions were substantially more effective when used with upper elementary students than secondary students. This means that the magnitude of an intervention's effectiveness changed depending on when ELLs received reading interventions. Specifically, the larger effect sizes on upper elementary students than secondary schools showed the importance of early interventions to improve ELLs' language abilities. Students who experience early reading difficulty often continue to experience failure in later grades. ELLs, or students whose primary language is other than English and are learning English as a second language, often experience particular challenges in developing reading skills in the early grades. According to Kieffer (2010) , substantial proportions of ELLs and native English speakers showed reading difficulties that emerged in the upper elementary and middle school grades even though they succeeded in learning to read in the primary grades.

Regarding students’ English proficiency and academic achievement, there was no statistically significant difference between students with low achievement and general students. Given the heterogeneity of the English language learner population, interventions that may be effective for one group of English language learners may not be effective with others ( August and Shanahan, 2006 ). This result is similar to the results achieved by Lovett et al. (2008) . Lovett et al. (2008) showed that there were no differences between ELLs and their peers who spoke English as a first language in reading intervention outcomes or growth intervention. This finding suggests that systematic and explicit reading interventions are effective for readers regardless of their primary language.

For students' socioeconomic status (SES), there was no significant difference between the low-middle group and the nonresponse group. However, we cannot find that students' SES is critical for implementing reading interventions. Low SES is known to increase the risk of reading difficulties because of the limited access to a variety of resources that support reading development and academic achievement ( Kieffer, 2010 ). Many ELLs attend schools with high percentages of students living in poverty ( Vaughn et al., 2009 ). These schools are less likely to have adequate funds and resources and to provide appropriate support for academic achievement ( Donovan and Cross, 2002 ). Snow, Burns and Griffin (1998) highlighted multiple and complex factors that contribute to poor reading outcomes in school, including a lack of qualified teachers and students who come from poverty. Although this study cannot determine the relationship between the effectiveness of reading interventions and the SES of students, more studies are needed. In addition, these results related to students’ characteristics showed that practitioners and teachers can consider for whom to implement some interventions. Researchers should provide a greater specification of the student samples because this information will be particularly critical for English language learners.

Although many of the studies measured a variety of outcomes across all areas of reading, interventions that focused on improving reading comprehension and listening comprehension obtained better effects than other reading outcomes. This result is similar to those discussed in previous findings ( Wanzek and Roberts, 2012 ; Carrier, 2003 ).

With regard to effective intervention types, the findings indicated that strategy instruction was statistically significant for improving the reading skills of ELLs. However, computer-based interventions, which are frequently used for reading instruction for ELLs in recent years, showed lower effect sizes than mixed interventions. Strategy instructions are known as one of the effective reading interventions for ELLs ( Proctor et al., 2007 ; Begeny et al., 2012 ; Olson and Land, 2007 ; Vaughn et al., 2006 ). These strategies included activating background knowledge, clarifying vocabulary meaning, and expressing visuals and gestures for understanding after reading. Some studies have shown that computer-based interventions are effective for ELLs ( White and Gillard, 2011 ; Macaruso and Rodman, 2011 ), but this study does not. Therefore, there is little agreement in the research literature on how to effectively teach reading to ELLs ( Gersten and Baker, 2000 ). Continued research efforts must specify how best to provide intervention for ELLs.

With respect to the implementation of the intervention, teachers and researchers as instructors would produce stronger effects than other instructors. In this study, multiple studies showed that various instructors taught ELLs, including teachers, graduate students, and researchers. The professional development of instructors is more important than that of those who taught ELLs. This finding is consistent with Richards-Tutor et al. (2016) . They also did not find differences between researcher-delivered interventions and school personnel-delivered interventions. Continuing professional development should build on the preservice education of teachers, strengthen teaching skills, increase teacher knowledge of the reading process, and facilitate the integration of newer research on reading into the teaching practices of classroom teachers ( Snow et al., 1998 ). Overall, professional development is the key factor in strengthening the reading skills of ELLs.

This study showed that medium-sized groups of 6 or more and 15 or less had larger effect sizes than the mixed groups. In addition, the medium-sized group showed a larger effect size than the small group of 5 or less. This finding showed that a multi-tiered reading system should be needed in the general classroom. This finding is linked to the fact that the reaction to intervention (RTI) approach is more effective for ELLs. Linan-Thompson et al. (2007) pointed out that RTI offers a promising alternative for reducing the disproportionate representation of culturally and linguistically diverse students in special education by identifying students at risk early and providing preventive instruction to accelerate progress. Regarding interventions for ELLs who are struggling with or at risk for reading difficulties, Ross and Begeny (2011) compared the effectiveness between small group interventions and implementing the intervention in a 1/1 context for ELLs. They showed that nearly all students benefitted from the 1/1 intervention, and some students benefitted from the small group intervention. This finding is commensurate with a previous study investigating the comparative differences between group sizes and suggests research-based support for the introduction of the RTI approach.

However, most implementation-related variables, including duration of intervention, the total number of sessions, frequency per week, length of each session, settings, and instructor, did not have any significant effect on the reading ability of ELLs. That is, ELLs are able to achieve their reading improvement regardless of the duration of intervention, where they received the reading intervention, and who taught them. This finding is similar to those discussed by Snyder et al. (2017) . They also synthesized the related interventions for ELLs and showed that the length of intervention did not seem to be directly associated with overall effect sizes for reading outcomes. This finding is also the same as recent research on intervention duration with native English speakers ( Wanzek et al., 2013 ). Wanzek and colleagues examined the relationship between student outcomes and hours of intervention in their meta-analysis. The findings showed no significant differences in student outcomes based on the number of intervention hours. Elbaum et al. (2000) stated that the intensity of the interventions is most important for effectiveness. Our results somewhat support these researchers’ opinions, but we cannot be certain that a brief intervention would have the same overall effect on reading outcomes as a year-long intervention. Thus, we should consider the intervention intensity, such as student attendance at the sessions, with the duration of the intervention.

4.3. Implications for practice and for research

The most effective and efficient education refers to education that is made up in the right ways, that includes proper content, and that is delivered on time so that the students can benefit the most. To implement this, research to identify a particular framework based on the synthesis of research results through meta-analysis, such as this study, must be conducted. Furthermore, the implications based on the results must be deeply considered. In this respect, important implications for the practice and research of practitioners, researchers, and policymakers on enhancing reading competence for ELLs of this study are as follows.

First, reading interventions for ELLs are expected to be the most efficient when conducted on a medium-sized group of 6–15 students. This indicates that implementing reading interventions for ELLs requires a specially designed group-scale configuration rather than simply a class-wide or one-to-one configuration. Second, the implementation of reading interventions for ELLs is most effective when conducted for older elementary school students. This is in contrast to Morgan and Sideridis (2006) , who demonstrated the characteristics of students with learning disabilities using multilevel meta-analysis and showed that age groups were irrelevant in the effect size of reading interventions for students with learning disabilities. Therefore, it can be seen that the ELLs group, unlike the learning disability group, the students of which have reading difficulty due to their disabilities, is in the normal development process but has reading difficulty due to linguistic differences. Accordingly, it can be seen that the senior year of elementary school, in which a student has been exposed to the academic environment for a sufficiently long time and language is sufficiently developed, is the appropriate time for learning English for ELLs. Third, effective reading interventions for ELLs should be performed with a strategy-embedded instruction program. This is based on the fact that strategic instructions are effective for vocabulary or concepts in unfamiliar languages ( Carlo et al., 2005 ; Chaaya and Ghosn, 2010 ).

The above implications require the implementation of Tier 2 interventions for reading interventions for ELLs in practice. In Tier 2 interventions, students can participate in more intensive learning through specially designed interventions based on their personal needs ( Ortiz et al., 2011 ). In other words, in policymaking and administrative decision-making, intensive education programs for ELLs who have been exposed to the academic environment for a certain period but still have reading difficulties, including having achievements that fall short of the expected level, are needed.

Considering further applications, these findings could guide practitioners and policymakers to develop effective evidence-based reading programs or policies. The significant variables in this study can be considered to develop new programs for ELLs.

Declarations

Author contribution statement.

All authors listed have significantly contributed to the development and the writing of this article.

Funding statement

This work was supported by the Ministry of Education of the Republic of Korea and the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF-2020S1A3A2A02103411).

Data availability statement

Declaration of interests statement.

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Additional information

No additional information is available for this paper.

Appendix A. Supplementary data

The following is the supplementary data related to this article:

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  • Tong F., Irby B.J., Lara-Alecio R., Yoon M., Mathes P.G. Hispanic English learners' responses to longitudinal English instructional intervention and the effect of gender: a multilevel analysis. Elem. Sch. J. 2010; 110 (4):542–566. [ Google Scholar ]
  • Tong F., Lara-Alecio R., Irby B.J., Mathes P.G. The effects of an instructional intervention on dual language development among first-grade Hispanic English-learning boys and girls: a two-year longitudinal study. J. Educ. Res. 2011; 104 (2):87–99. [ Google Scholar ]
  • Townsend D., Collins P. Academic vocabulary and middle school English learners: an intervention study. Read. Writ. 2009; 22 (9):993–1019. [ Google Scholar ]
  • Vadasy P.F., Sanders E.A. Efficacy of supplemental phonics-based instruction for low-skilled kindergarteners in the context of language minority status and classroom phonics instruction. J. Educ. Psychol. 2010; 102 (4):786–803. [ Google Scholar ]
  • Vadasy P.F., Sanders E.A. Efficacy of supplemental phonics-based instruction for low-skilled first graders: how language minority status and pretest characteristics moderate treatment response. Sci. Stud. Read. 2011; 15 (6):471–497. [ Google Scholar ]
  • Van Staden A. Reading in a second language: considering the 'simple view of reading' as a foundation to support ESL readers in Lesotho, Southern Africa. Per Linguam: J. Lang. Learn. 2016; 32 (1):21–40. [ Google Scholar ]
  • Yeung S.S., Siegel L.S., Chan C.K. Effects of a phonological awareness program on English reading and spelling among Hong Kong Chinese ESL children. Read. Writ. 2013; 26 (5):681–704. [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ]
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What the Research Says on Instruction for English Learners Across Subject Areas

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It takes multiple years for English learners to gain a high enough level of language proficiency to perform on par with their native English‐speaking peers. English learners cannot wait until they are fluent in English to learn grade‐level content. Instead, they must continue to develop their math and reading skills as well as their knowledge of social studies and science, even while learning English. This can happen through a variety of program models.

Our librarians recently compiled this list of recent studies and articles on teaching practices, programs and protocols for English learner instruction to help students meet the academic demands of state standards and close the achievement gap.

Check out the research-based principles we share in a companion resource titled, “What All Teachers Should Know About Instruction For English Language Learners.” See additional principles that apply to teachers in specific subject areas: language arts , mathematics , social studies and science .

For Teaching in All Classrooms

Teaching academic content and literacy to english learners in elementary and middle school (2014).

This practice guide from the Institute of Education Sciences (IES) and the What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) provides four recommendations that address reading and content area instruction for English learners.

Each recommendation includes extensive examples of activities that can be used to support students as they build the language and literacy skills needed to be successful in school, including examples of how the recommendations align with Common Core and other contemporary state standards. The recommendations also summarize and rate supporting evidence. This guide is geared toward teachers, administrators and other educators who want to improve instruction in academic content and literacy for English learners in elementary and middle school.

High-Leverage Principles of Effective Instruction for English learners. From College and Career Ready Standards to Teaching and Learning in the Classroom: A Series of Resources for Teachers (2016)

The purpose of this resource is to provide teachers of English learner students with effective, high-leverage learning and teaching principles that can be incorporated into daily instructional plans and routines. Instruction that addresses students' needs should include four key considerations included in the resource.

A Review of the Literature on Teaching Academic English to English Language Learners (2014)

Academic English refers to the language used in school to help students acquire and use knowledge. This article reviews current literature to determine what is known about the nature of academic English within the context of K–12 schooling with a focus on English learners. The article raises critical challenges in defining and operationalizing academic English for instruction and suggests areas for further inquiry.

Converging Recommendations for Culturally Responsive Literacy Practices: Students with Learning Disabilities, English Language Learners and Socioculturally Diverse Learners (2015)

This study examines culturally responsive pedagogy across the fields including multicultural literacy education and teaching English learners. Educators are encouraged to adopt a critical and responsive stance that incorporates students' cultural knowledge and lived experiences when implementing these recommendations. Creating classrooms that promote culturally responsive and effective instruction is grounded in the definition of literacy as a social practice and leads to more equitable learning opportunities in all areas.

Principles of Effective English Language Learner Pedagogy (2012)

This literature review identifies the most effective instructional principles for English learners as documented by prominent researchers in the field and existing research reviews. The review lists the most effective principles for English learner instruction and documents the supporting research evidence for those principles.

Unlocking the Research on English Learners: What We Know—and Don't Yet Know—about Effective Instruction (2013)

In calling for students to read complex texts, college and career ready standards place an even greater emphasis on content knowledge and literacy skills than prior state standards. This review of available research will help educators bolster the efforts of English learners to understand more-demanding academic content as they also learn English.

For Teaching Reading, Writing and Language Arts

Effective literacy and english language instruction for english learners in the elementary grades (2007).

This IES/WWC practice guide provides five evidence-based recommendations for improving the reading achievement and English language development of elementary-level English learner students. The target audience for this guide is a broad spectrum of school practitioners such as administrators, curriculum specialists, coaches, staff development specialists and teachers who face the challenge of providing effective literacy instruction for English language learners in the elementary grades. The guide also aims to reach district-level administrators who develop practice and policy options for their schools.

Bridging English Language Learner Achievement Gaps through Effective Vocabulary Development Strategies (2016)

This research paper conducted a review of philosophical and scholarly literature which displayed evidence that vocabulary development is a major section that educators should consider focusing for better achievement with English as Second Language students. Implementing educational practices that promote high-frequency vocabulary learning were found to be effective strategies. The paper includes recommendations for administrators and education professionals in various learning environments.

The Effectiveness of Reading Interventions for English Learners: A Research Synthesis (2016)

This article reviews published experimental studies from 2000 to 2012 that evaluated the effects of providing reading interventions to English learners who were at risk for experiencing academic difficulties, including students with learning disabilities. The interventions in these studies included explicit instruction and 10 used published intervention programs. Moderator variables, such as group size, minutes of intervention and type of personnel delivering the intervention, were not significant predictors of outcomes.

Developing Literacy in English Language Learners: Findings From a Review of the Experimental Research (2014)

This commentary reviews the available data on optimal approaches to reading instruction for ELL students, covering the components of literacy (decoding, oral reading fluency, vocabulary and writing) as well as key issues such as differentiating instruction, repetition and reinforcement, scaffolding and capitalizing on a student's first language strengths. We conclude with implications for school psychologists, who are often among the first professionals to be consulted as schools attempt to identify and provide appropriate educational services for these students.

Effective Practices for Developing Literacy Skills of English Language Learners in the English Language (2012)

This literature review presents instructional strategies that have proven to be effective in envisioning what "all" teachers need to know and be able to do to teach English language arts to English learners. Three areas of effective practice are emphasized. The first area is that teachers should recognize that literacy skills in English learners' native languages might influence the ways in which they process linguistic information in English. The second area highlights the argument that teachers should find ways to facilitate English learners' mastery of academic vocabulary. The third area covers the significance of enhancing English learners metacognitive reading skills. The review also discusses two broad pedagogical skills that emerge from both the normative and empirical studies reviewed and are closely related: (a) the teachers' ability to help ELLs construct meaning from the texts or speech represented in the language arts classroom and (b) the teachers' ability to engage English learners in actively learning to read and write.

For Teaching Math, Science and Social Studies

Sheltered instruction observation protocol - what works clearinghouse intervention report (2013).

The Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol is a framework for planning and delivering instruction in content areas such as science, history and mathematics to English learners as well as other students. This review focuses on research that examines its impact on the learning of English language learners in grades K-8.

Instruction for English Language Learners in the Social Studies Classroom: A Meta-synthesis (2016)

This paper reviews the extant literature on English learners in the social studies classroom. Discussion of the findings provides three primary implications: (1) the need for linguistically and culturally responsive instruction for English learners in social studies classes, (2) the need for increased training for inservice and preservice social studies teachers in preparation for teaching English learners and (3) the need for future research among English learners in the social studies context.

Language Challenges in Mathematics Education: A literature Review (2016)

It is now accepted that language and mathematics are connected in mathematics learning and teaching and, the potential challenges of language in mathematics have been investigated by a number of researchers. This paper reviews research by applied linguists and mathematics educators to highlight the linguistic challenges of mathematics and suggests pedagogical strategies to help learners in mathematics classrooms. Research on pedagogical practices supports developing mathematics knowledge through attention to the way language is used, suggesting strategies for moving students from informal, everyday ways of talking about mathematics into the registers that construe more technical and precise meanings.

Teacher Education That Works: Preparing Secondary-Level Math and Science Teachers for Success with English Language Learners through Content-Based Instruction (2014)

This article reports on the effects of a program restructuring that implemented coursework specifically designed to prepare pre-service and in-service mathematics, science and ESL teachers to work with English learners in their content and ESL classrooms through collaboration between mainstream STEM and ESL teachers, as well as effective content and language integration. The article presents findings on teachers' attitudes and current practices related to the inclusion of English learners in the secondary-level content classroom and their current level of knowledge and skills in collaborative practice.

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How to write a Research Paper – Step by Step Guide

How to write a research paper step by step

A Step-by-Step Guide to writing a research paper

Introduction:

Writing a research paper is a job that we all have to do in our academic life. A research paper represents the ideas of the person who writes it. In simple words, a research paper presents an original idea and substantiates it with logical arguments. Writing a research paper in the domain of English literature is very different compared to writing research articles in other domains. Literature inclines towards abstract thinking. In other subjects, one has to stick to the facts. Howsoever you try, disputing an idea of science becomes very difficult. On the other hand, to contradict an idea in the purview of literature, you just need a systematic flow of arguments (logical and valid) and it’s done! So, writing a research paper in the field of English literature becomes easy if arguments are strong, in a sequence and wisely crafted.

Step 1: Choose the topic of your research paper:

This is one of the most vital parts. Choosing a topic is a crucial choice to make and it has to be taken seriously. You have to choose the area of your interest in English literature and then narrow it down to the area of your expertise. You cannot write a paper on the topics which are wider than a Doctoral thesis! So, you have to be precise and wise while choosing your topic.

An example: Suppose a person has adequate knowledge about Matthew Arnold. Can he write a research article on Arnold alone? No! He will need to bring the topic to some specific idea related to Arnold. The possibilities may be in his prose or poetry writing. In certain states in India, students work on topics like “Matthew Arnold as a poet” and “Matthew Arnold as a great prose writer” which is invalid, injustice and academically a sin. It should not be encouraged! Someone being a poet cannot be a subject of a research article. Any special quality of someone’s poetry writing can certainly be an interesting topic of a research paper – now you must have the idea. ‘Hopelessness and Despair in the poetry of Matthew Arnold’ can be a topic for a brilliant research paper. The hint is very simple – narrow it down to the speciality and you will have your topic ready!

Read in detail – How to choose a research topic? 

Step 2: Collect information – primary and secondary sources:

Now that you have selected a topic for your research paper, you should find ‘credible sources’ that substantiate your ‘paper’s purpose’. Sources are divided into two major categories – primary and secondary. Primary sources are the materials produced by the people who feature in your topic. In the case of our example above, poetry by Matthew Arnold and other writings by him will be primary sources. Secondary sources are the writings ‘about the topic and anything related to the topic’. Therefore, you have to browse the internet, visit a library, check your bookshelves and do anything that will bring you information about the topic and anything that relates to the topic.

Step 3: Plan your research article:

Before you begin writing the paper, it’s always wise to have a clear plan in your mind. Planning a research paper in the domain of English literature should always begin with a clear ‘purpose of research’ in your mind. Why are you writing this paper? What point do you want to make? How significant is that point? Do you have your arguments to support the point (or idea) that you want to establish? Do you have enough credible sources that support the arguments you want to make in the body of the paper? If all the answers are positive, move to the next step and begin writing the drafts for your paper.

Step 4: Writing the first draft of your research paper:

Now it comes to writing the paper’s first draft. Before you begin writing, have a clear picture of your paper in your mind. It will make the job easier. What does a research paper look like? Or, rather, what’s the ideal structure of a research paper?

Beginning – Introduce your idea that drives the research paper. How do you approach that idea? What is your paper – an analysis, review of a book or two ideas compared or something else. The introduction must tell the story of your research in brief – ideas, a highlight or arguments and the glimpse of conclusion. It is generally advised that the introduction part should be written in the end so that you have the final research paper clearly justified, introduced and highlighted at the beginning itself.

Middle – And here goes the meat of your paper. All that you have to emphasise, euphemise, compare, collaborate and break down will take place in the middle or the body of your research paper. Please be careful once you begin writing the body of your paper. This is what will impact your readers (or the examiners or the teachers) the most. You have to be disciplined, systematic, clever and also no-nonsense. Make your points and support them with your arguments. Arguments should be logical and based on textual proofs (if required). Analyse, compare or collaborate as required to make your arguments sharp and supportive to the proposition that you make. The example topic of a research paper that we chose somewhere above in this article – Hopelessness and Despair in the Poetry of Matthew Arnold will require the person writing this paper to convince the readers (and so on) that actually Arnold’s poetry gives a sign of the two negative attitudes picked as the topic. It would be wise to analyse the works (and instances from them, to be specific) The Scholar Gypsy, Empedocles on Etna, Dover Beach and others that support the proposition made in the topic for research. You can use primary and secondary sources and cite them wisely as required. You have to convince the readers of your paper that what you propose in the purpose of the research paper stands on the ground as a logical and valid proposition.

End – Or the conclusion of a research paper that should be written wisely and carefully. You can use a few of your strongest arguments here to strike the final balance and make your proposition justified. After a few of your strongest arguments are made, you can briefly summarise your research topic and exhibit your skills of writing to close the lid by justifying why you are proposing that you have concluded what you began. Make sure that you leave the least possible loopholes for conjecture after you conclude your paper.

Reference: You can use two of the most used styles (or rather only used) to give a list of references in your paper – APA or MLA. Whatever you choose needs to be constant throughout the paper.

To summarise, here is what a research paper should look like:

  • Introduction
  • A list of References

Step 5: Read & re-read your draft: It gives you the chance to judge your research paper and find the possible shortcomings so that you can make amends and finalise your paper before you print it out for your academic requirements. While you read your first draft, treat it with a purpose to find contradictions and conjecture points as much as possible. Wherever you find the chances of contradiction possible, you have to make those arguments forceful and more logical and substantiate them to bypass the fear of being contradicted (and defeated). Let us be clear – it is English literature we are dealing with and there will be contradictions. Don’t fear it. However, make sure your arguments are not defeated. The defeat means your paper will not hold up to the scrutiny of the experts. And this is why you need to read and re-read the first draft of your literature research paper.

Step 6: Finalise & print your research paper: After reading your paper 1 or 2 times, you should be sure what needs to be changed and otherwise. Finalise it so that it appears the best and sounds good to be the final version. Print your work in the best possible quality and you are done! If there is a verbal question-answer associated with the paper you prepare, make sure you understand it completely and are ready for the questions from any possible side of your topic.

This was our step-by-step guide to writing a research paper in the field of English literature. We hope you have found it useful. We will write more articles associated with the concept – such as choosing a research topic, building arguments, writing powerful introductions. Make sure you subscribe to our website so that you are notified whenever we post a new article on English Literature Education! All the best with your paper!

More guides on How to Subjects: 

How to Study Poetry?

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9 Comments . Leave new

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Thank you so much, explanation about research work is a nice manner. (private information retracted)

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Very well written article! Thanks for this. I was confused about my research paper. I am sure I can do it now.

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Quite resourceful. thank you.

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Very nice reseach paper

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It was very nice reading, helpful for writing research paper.

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Thanks for your kind sharing of the information

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Normally, I don’t leave any replies after reading a blog, but I couldn’t help this time. I found this blog very useful. So, I’m writing my research paper and I’ve been racking my brain and the internet for a good topic, plus trying to learn how to write a research paper. Thank you so much for putting this up!

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I want to work on The French Revolution and its impact on romantic poetry. Please help in this regard.

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Thanks a lot for the information.

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211 Research Topics in Linguistics To Get Top Grades

research topics in linguistics

Many people find it hard to decide on their linguistics research topics because of the assumed complexities involved. They struggle to choose easy research paper topics for English language too because they think it could be too simple for a university or college level certificate. All that you need to learn about Linguistics and English is sprawled across syntax, phonetics, morphology, phonology, semantics, grammar, vocabulary, and a few others. To easily create a top-notch essay or conduct a research study, you can consider this list of research topics in English language below for your university or college use. Note that you can fine-tune these to suit your interests.

Linguistics Research Paper Topics

If you want to study how language is applied and its importance in the world, you can consider these Linguistics topics for your research paper. They are:

  • An analysis of romantic ideas and their expression amongst French people
  • An overview of the hate language in the course against religion
  • Identify the determinants of hate language and the means of propagation
  • Evaluate a literature and examine how Linguistics is applied to the understanding of minor languages
  • Consider the impact of social media in the development of slangs
  • An overview of political slang and its use amongst New York teenagers
  • Examine the relevance of Linguistics in a digitalized world
  • Analyze foul language and how it’s used to oppress minors
  • Identify the role of language in the national identity of a socially dynamic society
  • Attempt an explanation to how the language barrier could affect the social life of an individual in a new society
  • Discuss the means through which language can enrich cultural identities
  • Examine the concept of bilingualism and how it applies in the real world
  • Analyze the possible strategies for teaching a foreign language
  • Discuss the priority of teachers in the teaching of grammar to non-native speakers
  • Choose a school of your choice and observe the slang used by its students: analyze how it affects their social lives
  • Attempt a critical overview of racist languages
  • What does endangered language means and how does it apply in the real world?
  • A critical overview of your second language and why it is a second language
  • What are the motivators of speech and why are they relevant?
  • Analyze the difference between the different types of communications and their significance to specially-abled persons
  • Give a critical overview of five literature on sign language
  • Evaluate the distinction between the means of language comprehension between an adult and a teenager
  • Consider a native American group and evaluate how cultural diversity has influenced their language
  • Analyze the complexities involved in code-switching and code-mixing
  • Give a critical overview of the importance of language to a teenager
  • Attempt a forensic overview of language accessibility and what it means
  • What do you believe are the means of communications and what are their uniqueness?
  • Attempt a study of Islamic poetry and its role in language development
  • Attempt a study on the role of Literature in language development
  • Evaluate the Influence of metaphors and other literary devices in the depth of each sentence
  • Identify the role of literary devices in the development of proverbs in any African country
  • Cognitive Linguistics: analyze two pieces of Literature that offers a critical view of perception
  • Identify and analyze the complexities in unspoken words
  • Expression is another kind of language: discuss
  • Identify the significance of symbols in the evolution of language
  • Discuss how learning more than a single language promote cross-cultural developments
  • Analyze how the loss of a mother tongue affect the language Efficiency of a community
  • Critically examine how sign language works
  • Using literature from the medieval era, attempt a study of the evolution of language
  • Identify how wars have led to the reduction in the popularity of a language of your choice across any country of the world
  • Critically examine five Literature on why accent changes based on environment
  • What are the forces that compel the comprehension of language in a child
  • Identify and explain the difference between the listening and speaking skills and their significance in the understanding of language
  • Give a critical overview of how natural language is processed
  • Examine the influence of language on culture and vice versa
  • It is possible to understand a language even without living in that society: discuss
  • Identify the arguments regarding speech defects
  • Discuss how the familiarity of language informs the creation of slangs
  • Explain the significance of religious phrases and sacred languages
  • Explore the roots and evolution of incantations in Africa

Sociolinguistic Research Topics

You may as well need interesting Linguistics topics based on sociolinguistic purposes for your research. Sociolinguistics is the study and recording of natural speech. It’s primarily the casual status of most informal conversations. You can consider the following Sociolinguistic research topics for your research:

  • What makes language exceptional to a particular person?
  • How does language form a unique means of expression to writers?
  • Examine the kind of speech used in health and emergencies
  • Analyze the language theory explored by family members during dinner
  • Evaluate the possible variation of language based on class
  • Evaluate the language of racism, social tension, and sexism
  • Discuss how Language promotes social and cultural familiarities
  • Give an overview of identity and language
  • Examine why some language speakers enjoy listening to foreigners who speak their native language
  • Give a forensic analysis of his the language of entertainment is different to the language in professional settings
  • Give an understanding of how Language changes
  • Examine the Sociolinguistics of the Caribbeans
  • Consider an overview of metaphor in France
  • Explain why the direct translation of written words is incomprehensible in Linguistics
  • Discuss the use of language in marginalizing a community
  • Analyze the history of Arabic and the culture that enhanced it
  • Discuss the growth of French and the influences of other languages
  • Examine how the English language developed and its interdependence on other languages
  • Give an overview of cultural diversity and Linguistics in teaching
  • Challenge the attachment of speech defect with disability of language listening and speaking abilities
  • Explore the uniqueness of language between siblings
  • Explore the means of making requests between a teenager and his parents
  • Observe and comment on how students relate with their teachers through language
  • Observe and comment on the communication of strategy of parents and teachers
  • Examine the connection of understanding first language with academic excellence

Language Research Topics

Numerous languages exist in different societies. This is why you may seek to understand the motivations behind language through these Linguistics project ideas. You can consider the following interesting Linguistics topics and their application to language:

  • What does language shift mean?
  • Discuss the stages of English language development?
  • Examine the position of ambiguity in a romantic Language of your choice
  • Why are some languages called romantic languages?
  • Observe the strategies of persuasion through Language
  • Discuss the connection between symbols and words
  • Identify the language of political speeches
  • Discuss the effectiveness of language in an indigenous cultural revolution
  • Trace the motivators for spoken language
  • What does language acquisition mean to you?
  • Examine three pieces of literature on language translation and its role in multilingual accessibility
  • Identify the science involved in language reception
  • Interrogate with the context of language disorders
  • Examine how psychotherapy applies to victims of language disorders
  • Study the growth of Hindi despite colonialism
  • Critically appraise the term, language erasure
  • Examine how colonialism and war is responsible for the loss of language
  • Give an overview of the difference between sounds and letters and how they apply to the German language
  • Explain why the placement of verb and preposition is different in German and English languages
  • Choose two languages of your choice and examine their historical relationship
  • Discuss the strategies employed by people while learning new languages
  • Discuss the role of all the figures of speech in the advancement of language
  • Analyze the complexities of autism and its victims
  • Offer a linguist approach to language uniqueness between a Down Syndrome child and an autist
  • Express dance as a language
  • Express music as a language
  • Express language as a form of language
  • Evaluate the role of cultural diversity in the decline of languages in South Africa
  • Discuss the development of the Greek language
  • Critically review two literary texts, one from the medieval era and another published a decade ago, and examine the language shifts

Linguistics Essay Topics

You may also need Linguistics research topics for your Linguistics essays. As a linguist in the making, these can help you consider controversies in Linguistics as a discipline and address them through your study. You can consider:

  • The connection of sociolinguistics in comprehending interests in multilingualism
  • Write on your belief of how language encourages sexism
  • What do you understand about the differences between British and American English?
  • Discuss how slangs grew and how they started
  • Consider how age leads to loss of language
  • Review how language is used in formal and informal conversation
  • Discuss what you understand by polite language
  • Discuss what you know by hate language
  • Evaluate how language has remained flexible throughout history
  • Mimicking a teacher is a form of exercising hate Language: discuss
  • Body Language and verbal speech are different things: discuss
  • Language can be exploitative: discuss
  • Do you think language is responsible for inciting aggression against the state?
  • Can you justify the structural representation of any symbol of your choice?
  • Religious symbols are not ordinary Language: what are your perspective on day-to-day languages and sacred ones?
  • Consider the usage of language by an English man and someone of another culture
  • Discuss the essence of code-mixing and code-switching
  • Attempt a psychological assessment on the role of language in academic development
  • How does language pose a challenge to studying?
  • Choose a multicultural society of your choice and explain the problem they face
  • What forms does Language use in expression?
  • Identify the reasons behind unspoken words and actions
  • Why do universal languages exist as a means of easy communication?
  • Examine the role of the English language in the world
  • Examine the role of Arabic in the world
  • Examine the role of romantic languages in the world
  • Evaluate the significance of each teaching Resources in a language classroom
  • Consider an assessment of language analysis
  • Why do people comprehend beyond what is written or expressed?
  • What is the impact of hate speech on a woman?
  • Do you believe that grammatical errors are how everyone’s comprehension of language is determined?
  • Observe the Influence of technology in language learning and development
  • Which parts of the body are responsible for understanding new languages
  • How has language informed development?
  • Would you say language has improved human relations or worsened it considering it as a tool for violence?
  • Would you say language in a black populous state is different from its social culture in white populous states?
  • Give an overview of the English language in Nigeria
  • Give an overview of the English language in Uganda
  • Give an overview of the English language in India
  • Give an overview of Russian in Europe
  • Give a conceptual analysis on stress and how it works
  • Consider the means of vocabulary development and its role in cultural relationships
  • Examine the effects of Linguistics in language
  • Present your understanding of sign language
  • What do you understand about descriptive language and prescriptive Language?

List of Research Topics in English Language

You may need English research topics for your next research. These are topics that are socially crafted for you as a student of language in any institution. You can consider the following for in-depth analysis:

  • Examine the travail of women in any feminist text of your choice
  • Examine the movement of feminist literature in the Industrial period
  • Give an overview of five Gothic literature and what you understand from them
  • Examine rock music and how it emerged as a genre
  • Evaluate the cultural association with Nina Simone’s music
  • What is the relevance of Shakespeare in English literature?
  • How has literature promoted the English language?
  • Identify the effect of spelling errors in the academic performance of students in an institution of your choice
  • Critically survey a university and give rationalize the literary texts offered as Significant
  • Examine the use of feminist literature in advancing the course against patriarchy
  • Give an overview of the themes in William Shakespeare’s “Julius Caesar”
  • Express the significance of Ernest Hemingway’s diction in contemporary literature
  • Examine the predominant devices in the works of William Shakespeare
  • Explain the predominant devices in the works of Christopher Marlowe
  • Charles Dickens and his works: express the dominating themes in his Literature
  • Why is Literature described as the mirror of society?
  • Examine the issues of feminism in Sefi Atta’s “Everything Good Will Come” and Bernadine Evaristos’s “Girl, Woman, Other”
  • Give an overview of the stylistics employed in the writing of “Girl, Woman, Other” by Bernadine Evaristo
  • Describe the language of advertisement in social media and newspapers
  • Describe what poetic Language means
  • Examine the use of code-switching and code-mixing on Mexican Americans
  • Examine the use of code-switching and code-mixing in Indian Americans
  • Discuss the influence of George Orwell’s “Animal Farm” on satirical literature
  • Examine the Linguistics features of “Native Son” by Richard Wright
  • What is the role of indigenous literature in promoting cultural identities
  • How has literature informed cultural consciousness?
  • Analyze five literature on semantics and their Influence on the study
  • Assess the role of grammar in day to day communications
  • Observe the role of multidisciplinary approaches in understanding the English language
  • What does stylistics mean while analyzing medieval literary texts?
  • Analyze the views of philosophers on language, society, and culture

English Research Paper Topics for College Students

For your college work, you may need to undergo a study of any phenomenon in the world. Note that they could be Linguistics essay topics or mainly a research study of an idea of your choice. Thus, you can choose your research ideas from any of the following:

  • The concept of fairness in a democratic Government
  • The capacity of a leader isn’t in his or her academic degrees
  • The concept of discrimination in education
  • The theory of discrimination in Islamic states
  • The idea of school policing
  • A study on grade inflation and its consequences
  • A study of taxation and Its importance to the economy from a citizen’s perspectives
  • A study on how eloquence lead to discrimination amongst high school students
  • A study of the influence of the music industry in teens
  • An Evaluation of pornography and its impacts on College students
  • A descriptive study of how the FBI works according to Hollywood
  • A critical consideration of the cons and pros of vaccination
  • The health effect of sleep disorders
  • An overview of three literary texts across three genres of Literature and how they connect to you
  • A critical overview of “King Oedipus”: the role of the supernatural in day to day life
  • Examine the novel “12 Years a Slave” as a reflection of servitude and brutality exerted by white slave owners
  • Rationalize the emergence of racist Literature with concrete examples
  • A study of the limits of literature in accessing rural readers
  • Analyze the perspectives of modern authors on the Influence of medieval Literature on their craft
  • What do you understand by the mortality of a literary text?
  • A study of controversial Literature and its role in shaping the discussion
  • A critical overview of three literary texts that dealt with domestic abuse and their role in changing the narratives about domestic violence
  • Choose three contemporary poets and analyze the themes of their works
  • Do you believe that contemporary American literature is the repetition of unnecessary themes already treated in the past?
  • A study of the evolution of Literature and its styles
  • The use of sexual innuendos in literature
  • The use of sexist languages in literature and its effect on the public
  • The disaster associated with media reports of fake news
  • Conduct a study on how language is used as a tool for manipulation
  • Attempt a criticism of a controversial Literary text and why it shouldn’t be studied or sold in the first place

Finding Linguistics Hard To Write About?

With these topics, you can commence your research with ease. However, if you need professional writing help for any part of the research, you can scout here online for the best research paper writing service . There are several expert writers on ENL hosted on our website that you can consider for a fast response on your research study at a cheap price. As students, you may be unable to cover every part of your research on your own. This inability is the reason you should consider expert writers for custom research topics in Linguistics approved by your professor for high grades.

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190 Best English Research Topics and Ideas

Table of Contents

What are the best English Research Topics? Do you want to write an impressive research paper on a unique English research topic? In general, when it comes to writing a research paper on English, there are numerous topics you can research about. However, out of them all, choosing an interesting topic that will help you grab the attention of the readers is challenging.

If you are confused about how to choose a good English research topic and write a brilliant English research paper, then continue reading this blog and learn how to get started. Also, explore the suggested list of the top English research paper topics and ideas for writing an A+ English assignment.

English Research Paper Topic Selection

Every student needs to know how to select a good topic for writing an academic essay or research paper. No matter whether it is an English research paper or the research papers of any other subject, whenever you are assigned a task to write a research paper by selecting a topic on your own, this is what you should do.

  • First, identify the topic of your interest.
  • Conduct background research and brainstorm different ideas related to your area of interest.
  • Note down various keywords that will help you narrow down the essay topic.
  • Finally, analyze and get different perspectives on the topic by raising questions such as what, why, who, and when.
  • Based on your answers to the variety of questions, prepare an outline of how your content would look like.
  • Before finalizing your research topic, keep in mind the length, and due date, and also check whether or not your topic meets all the assignment requirements shared by your instructor.

For choosing the best English research topic, you don’t need to be so focused on a specific topic. Instead, you can modify your topic and generate new interesting research ideas to deal with by analyzing the different perspectives of the topic.

Remember, the research topic you choose is said to be good only if it is interesting and exciting to you and your readers. Also, it is advisable to go with a topic you are familiar with and have a wide research scope and different reference sources. So, when generating research paper topic ideas, keep these aspects in mind and make sure to pick a unique topic that will help you earn an A+ grade.

Read More – Learn and Understand the Common English Techniques

English Research Topics

List of English Research Topics and Ideas

As said earlier, English is a broad subject with a variety of research topics. If you are asked to write an English research paper, you can choose any topic from categories that are related to English literature, technology, drugs and alcohol, politics, culture, religion, gender discrimination, and activism.

Usually, searching and finding a good research topic consumes a lot of time and effort. Hence, to make your search process easier and to help you save time, here we have recommended a list of the top English Research Topics and Ideas.

Go through the entire list of ideas and pick a research topic that is comfortable for you to perform research and write a top-quality English research paper.

Outstanding English Research Topics

  • Examine American Literature
  • How have women contributed to literature?
  • Advantages of studying internationally versus locally
  • What is the prevalence of discrimination at work today?
  • How do alcohol and drug addiction lead to suicide?
  • Ways of improving race relations
  • How have novels impacted political issues?
  • Should corporal punishment be allowed?
  • Analyze terrorism and its impact on business
  • Should drug testing be mandatory for student-athletes?
  • How effective is the No Child Left Behind Act?
  • The effect of cell phones and texting
  • The impact of tenure on teaching quality
  • The impact of tariffs on domestic jobs
  • The issue of accessibility of contraceptives for high school students

Amazing English Research Paper Topics

  • Should people sell their organs to get money?
  • Ways of reducing human trafficking in America
  • The role of technology in economics
  • Psychological factors that influence consumer choice
  • Biblical allegories in modern literature
  • The democratic political system along with its benefits and limitations
  • Difference between authoritarianism, democracy, and monarchy
  • Biblical hermeneutics
  • Manuscripts of the New Testament
  • Textual Criticism of the New Testament
  • Controversies related to Euthanasia
  • Describe the contributions of Indian writers to English literature.
  • Explain the theme of racism in Heart of Darkness by Josef Conrad.
  • The manifestation of non-standard usage of English among University Students.
  • Describe the personal happiness versus societal norms in Victorian literature.

Also read: Top 12 Longest Words in the English Language

Intriguing English Research Paper Topics

  • Find and compare the same characters in Japanese Myths and anime series
  • How has Miguel de Cervantes ridiculed chivalrous ideals, and why is it now essential for society?
  • The consequences of negativity in modern literature.
  • How can hunting become a necessary means in some cases?
  • Provide a detailed history of the Hundred Years’ War and its results.
  • Holy Roman Empire: from successor to the Romans to a Nazi symbol.
  • Liberalism in national politics: emergence and evolution.
  • The history of the world is a series of conquests.
  • Impact of counseling and guidance on scholars’ academic performance.
  • Sexism in the media industry
  • Drawbacks of a democratic political system
  • The issue of feminist women being too harsh on other women who don’t support the movement
  • Whether or not convicted criminals should be eligible for social welfare.
  • The effects of gangs in poor urban centers
  • How can the pleasure of literature lead to a dark side?

Best English Research Ideas

  • The perception of how women love in the legend of La Llorona
  • The importance of the digitization of medical records
  • Life in London in the 18th century
  • Literary Criticism of The Monk by Mathew Lewis
  • Compare and contrast Dover Beach by Matthew Arnold and The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock by T.S Eliot.
  • Discuss the theme of industrialization, corruption, and capitalism using Williams Blake’s London.
  • The expectation of women in Marge Piercy’s Barbie Doll
  • Criticism of gender roles in The Pygmalion by George Bernard Shaw
  • The theme of racism in Heart of Darkness by Josef Conrad
  • How modern-day heroes shape young people
  • The link between illegal immigration and terrorism
  • Does modern technology for teaching affect the quality of education?
  • How marriage has changed in modern society
  • Celebration of Pride Month in the United Kingdom
  • Cases of Mercy Killing in the United States

Informative Topics for English Research Paper

  • Euthanasia – Right to Die versus Right to Life
  • Use of automation in the Healthcare system
  • What is the neoclassical period in English Literature?
  • What is Medieval English Literature as well as the idea of the anthology?
  • Explain the variations across the different dialects and speakers of English
  • What is the impact of diversity on a society’s development and progress?
  • Should the government control what is served in school cafeterias?
  • The high school curriculum should include subjects related to real life. Discuss.
  • What are the psychological effects of the Holocaust on the survivors?
  • Effectiveness of the federal education system as compared to other countries’ education systems.
  • Discuss the role of postsecondary educational institutions in American literacy.
  • Legal consequences of plagiarism in academic writing.
  • How to boost English communication skills for international students?
  • Technical barriers in oral and written communication in the English language.

Interesting English Research Topics

  • Pros and Cons of e-learning
  • The American Dream for immigrants and marginalized group
  • Are UFOS a reality or fiction?
  • Write about the life of tribals.
  • How has the role of women in the military and battlefield changed?
  • How technology is revolutionizing terrorism
  • The drawbacks of online dating apps
  • How depression affects human behavior
  • Violent discipline by caregivers affects a child’s mental growth
  • How alternative medicine for cancer is unsafe
  • Negative effects of doing the wrong exercises
  • Cybercrime is the new terrorism
  • European influence on fashion in the world
  • The genetic link to optimism can shape attitudes. Explain
  • The Impact of Bioterrorism

Captivating English Research Paper Ideas

  • Effects of commercialization of sports
  • Dangers of consuming organic foods
  • The refugee crisis is increasing terrorism
  • Analysis of the Crisis between Ukraine and Russia
  • Impact of the Controversial Cartoon of Prophet Muhammad
  • The recent issue on Prophet Muhammad
  • The threat of Third World War
  • How the English Language Has Evolved Over the Last 20 Years Due to Improvements in Technology.
  • What is the difference between communicative English as well as Written English?
  • Discuss the role of America in the aerospace field.
  • What is psychology and Literature?
  • Does beauty, in general, determine how much a person will be successful in life?
  • What are some pros and cons related to plastic surgery?
  • Cross-cultural influences of the English language.
  • Should sports betting be regulated?
  • Critical analysis of the role of the National Organization for Women (NOW)
  • What other common sayings such as “an apple a day keeps the doctor away” exist in your language?
  • Discuss the Importance of Grammar in English language to increase employability in developed nations
  • Communism as an ideology and communism in the USSR are many different things: Explain
  • Theatre artists often risk their mental health while playing the roles of killers: Explain with justification

Excellent English Research Paper Topics

  • Tobacco advertising and its effects
  • Dangers of weight lifting on women
  • The definition of feminism has changed since the 18th century
  • Should it be mandatory for parents to control their kid’s social media accounts?
  • Globalization and How It Affects the Economy
  • Contributions by Indian writers to English literature.
  • The civil rights movement and its effects
  • Shakespeare’s contribution to English literature.
  • Industrialization and agricultural activities are the greatest contributors to climate change
  • Is social media making it easy for models to become rich?
  • The reasons for fictional languages in literature
  • Female writers in English literature.
  • Gender controversy in modern English.
  • Challenges of learning English as a second language
  • The role of women in the military.

Popular English Research Topics

  • The impact of child labor on society.
  • The decline or increase of divorce over the decades
  • The role of affirmative action in education or work
  • The COVID-19 – An Unrestricted Bio-weapon
  • The Outbreak of Monkeypox
  • Contribution of the World Poet Rabindranath Tagore in the field of global Literature
  • Contribution of William Gaddis in the field of US literature
  • Can fan fiction be considered in terms of independent literature?
  • What do you mean by comedy literature?
  • What is the influence of modern technology on the quality of education?
  • How does depression affect human behavior?
  • The effective ways to reduce bullying in learning institutions
  • What has led to the reduction of unemployment today?
  • Analyze crimes orchestrated by white collars and the punishments
  • How prevalent are wrongful convictions?

Impressive English Research Paper Topics

  • Should we legalize all immigrants without papers?
  • How efficient are police borders?
  • How are activism and protests criminalized?
  • The modern pop musician has more influence than musicians of the 80s
  • Children should be taught at school about various types of sexual orientation
  • Therapy and how it can be an effective rehabilitation method for hard-core prisoners
  • Is bodybuilding only for boosting ego or for health reasons?
  • Dehumanization effects of colonialism in Heart of Darkness by Josef Conrad
  • Sea symbolism in Dover Beach by Matthew Arnold
  • Use The Monk by Matthew Lewis as a response to formal realism.
  • Strange medieval family laws and their influence on society
  • Golan Heights and its importance to the Israelites
  • The pros and cons of legalizing prostitution
  • Second-hand smoke is the major cause of lung cancer deaths
  • Athletes are excelling because of their professional trainers.
  • Critical analysis of the impact of religious believers and stereotypes of society
  • Discuss the similarities and differences between classical music and modern music
  • Analyze the relationship between social status and political power depicted in William Shakespeare’s play
  • What should be actions every government needs to undertake to provide equal rights and opportunities to the people belonging to the LGBTQ+ community?
  • Discuss how Europeans perceive Indians and Middle-East countries’ people

Awesome English Research Questions

  • Discuss the impact of grammatical mistakes on English writing skills.
  • Explain the role of poetry in learning English literature.
  • Write about Modern American English Literature.
  • Examine the obstacles in modern English Literature.
  • Suggest digital tools to advance English fluency.
  • How to search for credible resources for writing English papers?
  • Discuss the role of mobile applications in advancing English verbal communication.
  • Explain the impact of reading in English communication.
  • Explain how to boost English communication skills for international students.
  • Examine Intensive English Programs (IEPs) in the US.

Also read: Learn About Different Language Features in English

Trending English Research Paper Topics

  • How obsession with healthy eating can drive more people into anorexia
  • Ethical Use of Stem Cells
  • What are the reasons for the fictional languages in the literature?
  • Is it ethical to wear fur coats?
  • Are standardized tests a good way to evaluate a student’s knowledge?
  • Is random drug testing in the workplace ethical and necessary?
  • Is technology affecting health management?
  • If college education is made free, will it be more or less qualitative?
  • Does motivation play a role in human development?
  • Do pharmaceutical companies view the Ebola vaccine as unprofitable?
  • Should the use of marijuana be regulated?
  • Have the effects of religious cults changed today as compared to those in ancient society?
  • Caricature and Nigger – An Anti-Black Imagery
  • Effect of systemic diseases on olfactory functioning among coronavirus infected patients
  • Which practices of the Native Americans helped them to protect nature?
  • Discuss the way music listening practices changed during the last three decades
  • Analyze the negative impacts of social media networking sites on face-to-face or physical communications
  • What should be strategies every government needs to undertake to ensure equal access to technology, health, and education?
  • Compare and contrast the philosophy of African culture and European culture

Final Words

From the list of English research topics and ideas suggested in this blog post, you can use any topic of your choice and come up with an excellent, top-scoring English research paper. If you still find it difficult to choose an impressive English research paper topic, then you can use our English Assignment Help service without hesitation.

We are well-known for offering reliable essay writing and research paper writing services to our customers by connecting them with well-experienced academic writers in various fields of study. So, without any second thought, just avail of our USA assignment help & writing service to enjoy the necessary academic benefits at a reasonable rate.

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    Captivating English Research Paper Ideas. Effects of commercialization of sports. Dangers of consuming organic foods. The refugee crisis is increasing terrorism. Analysis of the Crisis between Ukraine and Russia. Impact of the Controversial Cartoon of Prophet Muhammad. The recent issue on Prophet Muhammad.