Case Studies on Philippine Business

Case Studies

Learn how our data-driven research and strategy has successfully helped various conglomerates, multinationals, and local companies grow in the Philippines.

market assessment in steel products

Construction & Infrastructure

Multi-Sector Market Assessment in Steel Products

Providing comprehensive multi-sector market assessment for adjacency opportunities in steel products.

m a cement market study


Pre-M&A Cement Market Study

Performing pre-M&A market study for a potential acquisition of a competitor in the Philippine cement industry.

business plan for oil manufacture

Chemical & Energy

Five-Year Growth Business Plan in Oil Downstream Segment in the Philippines

Helping oil & gas companies to achieve its vision through a five-year growth business plan in the Philippines.

business plan validation for logistic firm

Pre-Entry Business Plan Validation for a Japanese Logistics Firm in the Philippines

Developing a pre-entry business plan for a Japanese MNC entering the Philippine logistic market through a new innovative product initially.

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Case Studies - Canon Philippines

Latest case studies.

Toyota Pasong Tamo, Bonifacio Global City, and Angeles, Pampanga

Toyota Pasong Tamo, Bonifacio Global City, and Angeles, Pampanga

September 2022 — Melandrex Holdings, Inc. owns and runs Pasong Tamo (TPT), Bonifacio Global City (TGC), and Angeles, Pampanga (TAP). TPT company started in 1995 and maintains to be one of the strongest performers for Toyota in the country.

University of Mindanao

University of Mindanao

September 2022 — The University of Mindanao is the largest private, non-sectarian university in Mindanao, Philippines. With such a large population, its reproduction department has a big job of producing the students' reading requirements.

Carmelites: Setting the Record Straight

Carmelites: Setting the Record Straight

May 2022 — The Carmelites are a religious order with long-standing presence in the Philippines. They are one of the more traditional sects; little of their work has changed since they were founded. As part of their philosophy, journaling and record-keeping are important practices. These journals are maintained and shared with the Vatican. With decades of existence and hundreds of contributors past and present, the orders' archives were growing by the day.

Kajima Philippines

Kajima Philippines

November 2021 — I would not hesitate to acquire new equipment from Canon. The increase in efficiency and productivity saved us so much; we realized our return on investment in no time.

Accounting Industry

Fan, Chan & Co. Limited

Fan, Chan & Co. Limited

December 2020 — Fan, Chan & Co. Limited is a member firm of Nexia International, a worldwide network of independent accounting and consulting firms. The key services they provide include audit, tax, accounting and secretarial services for SMEs, multinationals and listed companies. In their day-to-day operations, managing a large number of varied hard copy documents was unavoidable. The use of paper documents has undoubtedly made work processes complicated and time consuming for their employees, and resulted in inefficient information sharing and team communication within the firm.

Aviation Industry

Indonesia AirAsia (IAA)

Indonesia AirAsia (IAA)

May 2019 — Providing affordable flight routes, Indonesia AirAsia (IAA) is a reputable brand that has been making waves in the travel industry. Comprising 1 head office on top of 33 service and sales offices located throughout Indonesia’s main cities, IAA prides itself on offering affordable aviation services aimed to deliver maximum customer satisfaction.

Education Industry

Marlborough College Malaysia

Marlborough College Malaysia

September 2018 — The clincher for us is the Canon team’s dedication to service, meeting all our specific requirements to the best of their ability. Working with Canon is a truly delightful experience.

Vongchavalitkul University

Vongchavalitkul University

March 2017 — Working with Canon has allowed us to experience first-hand the dynamics of a truly professional and experienced team.

Electronics Industry

LG Electronics (Thailand) Co., Ltd.

LG Electronics (Thailand) Co., Ltd.

December 2020 — LG Electronics (Thailand) Co., Ltd. is one of the Southeast-Asian subsidiaries of the multinational conglomerate LG Electronics, a global forerunner in electrical equipment manufacturing, supply and innovation. Within the Thai domestic market, the organisation is recognised as a leader in consumer electronics. With 11 branches country-wide and a total of 300 employees in operation, print usage can be extensive in day-to-day tasks.

Engineering Industry

Professional Testing Services

Professional Testing Services

March 2017 — With Canon's archiving software, operation and workflow issues, such as data retention and information flow problems, were resolved. This allows us to easily virtualise, store and retrieve information in a secure manner.

Food & Beverage Industry

Ferrero Asia

Ferrero Asia

September 2018 — Since implementing Therefore™ in its operations, Ferrero Asia has seen a 50% reduction in document processing workload and a 20% increase in productivity level.

Huber's Butchery

Huber's Butchery

June 2017 — We change to innovate and to adapt. If we do not change, we will be left behind. The Canon team performed above and beyond expectations in walking us through this change.

Hospitality Industry

Grand Hyatt Singapore

Grand Hyatt Singapore

May 2019 — As one of Singapore’s most prestigious 5-star hotels, Grand Hyatt Singapore has clearly mastered the art of hospitality. Upholding the reputation of being a globally renowned brand, Grand Hyatt Singapore prides itself on being an ideal accommodation choice.

The Grand Ho Tram Strip

The Grand Ho Tram Strip

May 2019 — Comprising five resort complexes that sprawl over 400 hectares, The Grand Ho Tram Strip is truly a sight to behold. Inaugurated in 2012, the grounds include The Grand Ho Tram Strip, a resort complex with 1,100 five-star hotel rooms; The Bluffs, an international golf course; as well as a second compound that contains another three five-star resort complexes.

Singapore Swimming Club

Singapore Swimming Club

October 2017 — When it comes to business solutions, every company should be focusing on these aspects – ease of use, customer service, and price. That is where Canon has exceeded our expectations.

Marina Mandarin Singapore

Marina Mandarin Singapore

June 2017 — We are very pleased with the results we have seen, especially in the reduction of print wastage and improvement of our business efficiency ever since the Canon solutions were implemented.

Insurance Industry

Sompo Insurance Singapore

Sompo Insurance Singapore

October 2017 — Canon uniFLOW is an appropriate and necessary solution in our organisation. We are now equipped to handle confidentiality material confidently.

Legal Industry

Hadiputranto, Hadinoto & Partners

Hadiputranto, Hadinoto & Partners

October 2017 — We reviewed many proposals, and finally decided on Canon due to PTS's initiative and diligence in conducting an assessment of our organisation's needs before proposing a solution.

Logistics Industry

Ocean Network Express (ONE)

Ocean Network Express (ONE)

January 2020 — A Japanese global transport company with a colossal fleet size of 1.55 million TEU, Ocean Network Express (ONE) offers an extensive liner network service which covers over 120 countries. ONE is a joint venture between three Japanese shipping giants: Kawasaki Kisen Kaisha, Mitsui OSK Lines and NipponYusen Kaisha. It has a holding company office in Tokyo, and functions from its global headquarters in Singapore with support from regional headquarters in Hong Kong, the United Kingdom, the United States and Brazil.

Manufacturing Industry

Swagelok Singapore

Swagelok Singapore

January 2019 — Canon’s Therefore™ Document Management Solution proved immensely useful in helping Swagelok Singapore to streamline processes and improve productivity levels.

Media & Entertainment Industry

Singapore Press Holdings

Singapore Press Holdings

March 2017 — Balancing cost while embracing innovation is key to achieving true efficiency and effectiveness within an organisation. That is why we decided to go with Canon.


March 2017 — Canon knew that there are no shortcuts in customer service, and the account managers and service engineers take that very seriously.

Nonprofit Industry

Oil & gas industry.

SEAOIL Philippines Inc.

SEAOIL Philippines Inc.

June 2020 — SEAOIL is the largest independent fuel company in the Philippines. Since its inception in 1997, they have become one of the leading fuel companies in the country, with over 500 stations nationwide. Accorded the Outstanding Filipino Franchise of the Year Award for two consecutive years, the company strives to provide quality, affordable and sustainable products, remaining true to their promise of “Fueling a Better Future”.

Printing Industry

The Science behind the Art: I Am Abi

The Science behind the Art: I Am Abi

September 2021 — Abi Miguel, an accomplished fine art photographer, was frustrated with the quality produced by local printing shops. Husband and business partner Dennis said, "you can't drive a Ferrari with the wrong wheels," referring to the disconnect between the digital images and their lackluster printouts.

Real Estate Industry

Prestige Estates Projects Limited

Prestige Estates Projects Limited

March 2017 — Canon was our natural choice due to our long working relationship built upon trust.

Retail Industry

Corlison / Pearlie White

Corlison / Pearlie White

June 2021 — Established in 1964, Corlison Pte Ltd is one of the largest fully Singaporean owned distributors of personal, healthcare and home cleaning products in the country. The company also owns Pearlie White, the only home-grown oral care brand in Singapore, and manufactures its products locally for consumers all over the world.

Jaspal Company Limited

Jaspal Company Limited

January 2019 — Thanks to Canon’s uniFLOW Print Management Solution, Jaspal Company Limited is now able to reduce print waste as print jobs are only released for printing when users authenticate at any MFD most convenient to them.

Technology Industry

Uber India Systems Private Limited

Uber India Systems Private Limited

March 2020 — Uber is a once-in-a-generation technology company that offers a platform to connect drivers, riders, restaurants and customers, through its various solutions including ride-hailing, food delivery, and even bicycle-sharing services. Present in 63 countries, Uber is estimated to have more than 110 million users worldwide, with Uber India making up a significant contribution to the company’s global operations.

NEC Taiwan Ltd.

NEC Taiwan Ltd.

September 2018 — The Canon team has admirable work ethics. The quality of their services is as good as the quality of their products.

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Hertz CEO Kathryn Marinello with CFO Jamere Jackson and other members of the executive team in 2017

Top 40 Most Popular Case Studies of 2021

Two cases about Hertz claimed top spots in 2021's Top 40 Most Popular Case Studies

Two cases on the uses of debt and equity at Hertz claimed top spots in the CRDT’s (Case Research and Development Team) 2021 top 40 review of cases.

Hertz (A) took the top spot. The case details the financial structure of the rental car company through the end of 2019. Hertz (B), which ranked third in CRDT’s list, describes the company’s struggles during the early part of the COVID pandemic and its eventual need to enter Chapter 11 bankruptcy. 

The success of the Hertz cases was unprecedented for the top 40 list. Usually, cases take a number of years to gain popularity, but the Hertz cases claimed top spots in their first year of release. Hertz (A) also became the first ‘cooked’ case to top the annual review, as all of the other winners had been web-based ‘raw’ cases.

Besides introducing students to the complicated financing required to maintain an enormous fleet of cars, the Hertz cases also expanded the diversity of case protagonists. Kathyrn Marinello was the CEO of Hertz during this period and the CFO, Jamere Jackson is black.

Sandwiched between the two Hertz cases, Coffee 2016, a perennial best seller, finished second. “Glory, Glory, Man United!” a case about an English football team’s IPO made a surprise move to number four.  Cases on search fund boards, the future of malls,  Norway’s Sovereign Wealth fund, Prodigy Finance, the Mayo Clinic, and Cadbury rounded out the top ten.

Other year-end data for 2021 showed:

  • Online “raw” case usage remained steady as compared to 2020 with over 35K users from 170 countries and all 50 U.S. states interacting with 196 cases.
  • Fifty four percent of raw case users came from outside the U.S..
  • The Yale School of Management (SOM) case study directory pages received over 160K page views from 177 countries with approximately a third originating in India followed by the U.S. and the Philippines.
  • Twenty-six of the cases in the list are raw cases.
  • A third of the cases feature a woman protagonist.
  • Orders for Yale SOM case studies increased by almost 50% compared to 2020.
  • The top 40 cases were supervised by 19 different Yale SOM faculty members, several supervising multiple cases.

CRDT compiled the Top 40 list by combining data from its case store, Google Analytics, and other measures of interest and adoption.

All of this year’s Top 40 cases are available for purchase from the Yale Management Media store .

And the Top 40 cases studies of 2021 are:

1.   Hertz Global Holdings (A): Uses of Debt and Equity

2.   Coffee 2016

3.   Hertz Global Holdings (B): Uses of Debt and Equity 2020

4.   Glory, Glory Man United!

5.   Search Fund Company Boards: How CEOs Can Build Boards to Help Them Thrive

6.   The Future of Malls: Was Decline Inevitable?

7.   Strategy for Norway's Pension Fund Global

8.   Prodigy Finance

9.   Design at Mayo

10. Cadbury

11. City Hospital Emergency Room

13. Volkswagen

14. Marina Bay Sands

15. Shake Shack IPO

16. Mastercard

17. Netflix

18. Ant Financial

19. AXA: Creating the New CR Metrics

20. IBM Corporate Service Corps

21. Business Leadership in South Africa's 1994 Reforms

22. Alternative Meat Industry

23. Children's Premier

24. Khalil Tawil and Umi (A)

25. Palm Oil 2016

26. Teach For All: Designing a Global Network

27. What's Next? Search Fund Entrepreneurs Reflect on Life After Exit

28. Searching for a Search Fund Structure: A Student Takes a Tour of Various Options

30. Project Sammaan

31. Commonfund ESG

32. Polaroid

33. Connecticut Green Bank 2018: After the Raid

34. FieldFresh Foods

35. The Alibaba Group

36. 360 State Street: Real Options

37. Herman Miller

38. AgBiome

39. Nathan Cummings Foundation

40. Toyota 2010

Book cover

Recognizing Green Skills Through Non-formal Learning pp 211–234 Cite as

Case Study: Philippines. Recognising Green Skills for Environmental and Sustainable Development in Four Selected Industries

  • Elmer Talavera 6 , 7 , 8  
  • Open Access
  • First Online: 05 August 2022

4979 Accesses

1 Citations

Part of the book series: Education for Sustainability ((EDFSU,volume 5))

This chapter presents a study on the identification and recognition of knowledge, skills and competencies required to convert and maintain green enterprises in a Philippine context and in the light of Philippine policies, legislation and investments to stimulate the development of new green markets. It examines the use of ‘green’ practices in enterprises, the benefits and challenges in the application of such practices, the extent to which respondent micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs) have identified the green skills requirements and whether skills recognition mechanisms such as job cards or other portfolio systems have been put in place as part of recognition processes and workplace training programmes. This chapter begins by giving an overview of the Philippine economy and society and the role of MSMEs in four dynamically developing industry sectors namely, automotive, catering, PVC manufacturing and waste management. Given the environmental challenges and problems faced by enterprises in these sectors, the study looks at the extent to which the government’s green job policies, laws, qualifications framework, training regulations and standards address environmental challenges and problems faced by enterprises. The study thus examines connections between macro policies, rules, laws and regulations and micro-level application through practices and green skills and their recognition through recognition mechanisms.

Environmental challenges

  • Industries and services
  • Green practices
  • Green skills
  • Workplace training

Assessment and certification

  • Greening TVET

Download chapter PDF

1 Introduction

A basic premise of the study is that if green skills and green practices are to be promoted and recognised, firms need to understand green skills requirements and the recognition of these skills as an important part of workplace training programmes. There is a lack of interest among micro, small, and medium enterprises (MSMEs) to recognise environmentally friendly practices. However, this could change with the Philippine government’s Green Jobs Act of 2016, which provides tax reduction and other incentives for MSMEs.

Thus, this paper will put an emphasis on the voices of employers, employees and enterprises that are largely absent from analysis and policy-making. It is important to know what workers in MSMEs think and are learning about green skills in their workplaces. Most notably, they reported that increasing changes around green skills are being implemented into both work roles but not equally in training.

The Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA) through its National Institute for Technical Education and Skills Development (NITESD) conducted the fieldwork for this study. The data considered stakeholder perspectives at all levels. The analysis will begin by studying the national government standpoint in addressing workplace environment-related issues in all sectors, and then move to obtaining insights on frameworks and standards established by government authorities in collaboration with industry associations or trade unions and other private sector agencies. Finally, it will look at green skills inclusion in recognition practices from the perspective of enterprises.

Rationale for conducting the empirical study in enterprises

While policies and environmental laws, as well as green standards, competences and qualifications have been developed, there is little information on whether they are implemented at the level of MSMEs or in promoting cleaner production processes in the workplace. In many MSMEs, workers involved in the everyday practice of production do not comply with new regulations and standards. However, the questions of compliance of environmentally friendly regulations should not only concern managers and executives, rather, compliance should concern each worker. Another neglected issue is non-formal education or workplace learning, which is believed to be the core element in meeting the training needs of workers. The training must be conducted on the job and in the working environment, adapting teaching methods to the learning abilities of workers, as well as addressing the issues of access and costs. The learning process must address the entire value chain to build an understanding of causalities, interdependencies and environmental impacts. Promoting green skills is not only about automation and Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM), but also about tracing compliance with environmental regulations at every step in the production process.

The socio-economic environment and the role of industry sectors

The 2019 International Monetary Fund (IMF) statistics ranked the Philippine economy as the 36th largest in the world (IMF 2019 ). The Philippines is considered one of the largest emerging markets and fastest-growing economies in Asia. The Philippine economy, which used to be agriculture-based, is transitioning to services and manufacturing. Its gross domestic product (GDP) based on purchasing power parity in 2016 was estimated at around US $304 billion. The primary exports include semiconductors and electronic products, transport equipment, garments, copper products, petroleum products, coconut oil and fruits. Major trading partners include the United States, Japan, the People’s Republic of China, Singapore, the Republic of Korea, the Netherlands, Germany and Thailand.

Box 11.1 The economic contributions of the industry and services sectors

Automotive industry

The Philippine automotive manufacturing industry (PAMI)—composed of two core sectors, namely manufacturing of parts and accessories for motor vehicles and the manufacturing of motor vehicles—is one of the major drivers of the Philippine industry, generating approximately P248.5 billion (US$5 billion) sales in 2013;

The industry roadmap has targeted 300,000 quality jobs by 2022;

The local vehicle manufacturing industry is expected to attract P27 billion (US$500 million) in fresh investments, manufacture 600,000 more vehicles and add P300 billion to the domestic economy (equivalent to 1.7% of GDP). This has the approval of the Comprehensive Automotive Resurgence Strategy (CARS) programme in 2016;

The comprehensive operation of the automotive industry extends to other complementary sectors such as textiles, glass, plastics, electronics, rubber, iron and steel. Hence, increasing PAMI’s productivity would likewise increase the economic activity of supporting industries, and the Philippine economy (Palaña 2014 ).

Catering services

As tourism serves as the main market for hotel and restaurant services, the increase in visitor traffic over the past 10 years resulted in a corresponding boom in the catering industry;

Catering services include hotels, motels, restaurants, fast food establishments and educational institutions that provide training and other types of organisations responsible for the promotion of hospitality services;

Businesses also purchase food, tools and supplies to help their establishments to generate revenue for supporting businesses;

The economy is stimulated by employing locals for jobs such as food preparation. In turn, these workers earn wages and become tax payers and contribute to economic growth;

The total income in 2012 by the road service (catering) industry reached P267.5 billion (about US$5 billion). More than half of the total income of the Philippines was earned by the National Capital Region (NCR) amounting to P151.6 billion (US$3 billion) (PSA 2012 ).

PVC manufacturing

Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) is a versatile thermoplastic material used in the production of hundreds of everyday consumer products. International and local investments have generated thousands of jobs for Filipinos since 2000.

The Philippine Resins Industries, Inc. (PRII) is embarking on a P1.68 billion (US$50 million) expansion of its polyvinyl chloride (PVC) manufacturing plant in Mariveles, Baatan (Ferriols 2001 ).

Waste management industry

The Philippine waste management sector, which has created many jobs, includes the following activities:

Water collection, treatment, and supply;

Waste removal and disposal services;

Formal recovery of recyclable;

Informal valorisation Footnote 1 of waste products; and

Sewage and remediation activities.

Output value of the different activities

Water collection, treatment and supply: PHP55.1 billion (about US$100 million) (91.1%);

Material recovery: PHP2.3 billion (about US$40 million) (3.8%);

Waste collection: PHP1.9 billion (about US$33 million) (3.1%);

Sewage and remediation activities and other waste management services: PHP0.8 billion (about US$15 million) (1.3%);

Waste treatment and disposal: PHP0.4 billion (about US$7.5 million) (0.6%) (PSA 2014 ).

Source: Authors

Formal sector enterprises

Data for formal sector establishments from the 2010 Annual Survey of Philippine Business and Industry (ASPBI) highlighted 148,266 formal sector establishments. In terms of employment, data collated by TESDA indicates that waste management had the highest employment figures at 47,176 people, followed by manufacturing at 41,528, automotive at 18,337 and catering at 7,479 people. However, many jobs are precarious or casual and operate on a contractual basis. Not all these jobs are salaried; often they are contractual (PSA 2010 ). Thus, despite considerable industrial development in the country, there are major income and growth disparities between the country's different regions and socio-economic classes. The challenges facing the government are high poverty incidence (33% of the population), increased unemployment rate (6.3% of the active population), and persistent inequality in wealth distribution (PSA 2014 ).

There are several challenges that come with greening the economy. Since 1990, the Philippines has seen significant growth in the services sector (55% of the labour force market), followed by agriculture (29%) and manufacturing/ industry (16%) (Central Intelligence Agency 2017 ). Thus, more green practices in the service sector are particularly important to address.

Challenges to achieving more inclusive growth remain. Even though the economy has grown and the unemployment rate has declined somewhat in recent years, it remains high at around 6.5%; underemployment is also high, ranging from 18 to 19% of the employed. At least 40% of the employed work in the informal sector (Central Intelligence Agency 2017 ). This means that most of the people working in the informal sector have achieved their skills through informal or non-formal education and training while on the job or outside the workplace.

Environmental challenges and national policy responses

The World Health Organization (WHO) reported that seven million people worldwide die annually from air pollution—over six million of them were recorded in Asia. Most of these cases are in the People’s Republic of China and India, but experts warned that the Philippines might not be far behind (Montano 2016 ). The Philippines is affected by the increasing density of air pollutants, particularly in cities caused by emissions from vehicles and factories; non-compliance of environmental standards; and incineration (Congress of the Philippines 1990 ). Incineration is defined as the burning of municipal, biomedical and hazardous wastes whose process emits toxic and poisonous fumes. Industry and enterprises are contributing greatly to these environmental hazards.

The increasing volume of household, commercial, institutional, and industrial wastes is an increasing concern. A single resident in Manila produces an average of 0.7 kg of waste a day, about 130% higher than the global average of 0.3 kg per person per day. According to the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR), Metro Manila alone produced about 8,400 to 8,600 tonnes of trash per day in 2011. In addition, street sweeping, construction debris, agricultural waste and other non-hazardous/non-toxic waste products continued to pile up in many areas of the country. The lack of strict public compliance and enforcement powers of those in authority were identified as factors for improper waste management. Other salient issues related to the collection and segregation of solid wastes and monitoring of solid waste management.

Another pressing environmental challenge is the worldwide six-fold increase in consumer good production and subsequent increase in global waste generation by 900% since the 1990s according to the World Trade Organization (WTO). However, due to high costs, developed countries could only recycle 11% of their waste. Footnote 2 The rest were exported to developing countries like the Philippines, where environmental laws were weak and where these toxic and hazardous wastes were accepted as additional livelihood opportunities. In addition, the technological revolution has given rise to a new and growing form of toxic and hazardous waste, e-waste (waste electrical and electronic equipment or WEEE), a consequence of the prodigious growth in the number of computers, cell phones and electronic gadgets that started in the 1990s. The Philippines has continued to be one of the leading destinations for chemical products and toxic substances from developing countries and has become one of the leading importers of ‘persistent organic pollutants’ (POPs), which continually pollute agricultural lands and poison the rivers, lakes, and seas (Ilagan et al. 2015 ).

National policy responses to environmental challenge

The leading role of the government in terms of greening has been highlighted by researchers (e.g. Pavlova 2016 ). The Philippines is a good example. Several governmental policies address environmental challenges. The Philippines addressed its plans for a greener future in the 1990 Philippine Strategy for Sustainable Development (PSSD) supplemented in 2004 with the Enhanced Philippine agenda (EPA) 21. In the Philippine development plan (PDP) 2011–2016, the conservation, protection and rehabilitation of the environment and natural resources were highlighted (Baumgarten and Kunz 2016 ).

Administrative order No. 17 issued by the DENR in 2002 provides the national policy context for the analysis of skills for sustainability and the greening of the economy and society. A major authority for the implementation of environmental policies is the Environmental Management Bureau (EMB) (Department of Environment and Natural Resources 2002 ).

Box 11.2 Philippine environmental legislation

National laws were enacted in four broad areas.

Republic Act 6969—Toxic Substances and Hazardous and Nuclear Wastes Control Act of 1990 provides for a legal framework to control and manage the importation, manufacture, processing, distribution, use, transport, treatment and disposal of toxic substances and hazardous and nuclear wastes. The law prohibits, limits, and regulates the use, manufacture, import, export, transport, processing, storage, possession, and wholesale of priority chemicals that are determined to be regulated, phased-out, or banned because of the serious risks they pose to public health and the environment. The swelling issues of industrial waste, proliferation and waste dumping in the Philippines prompted the implementation of this Act (Congress of the Philippines 1990 ).

Republic Act 8749—Philippine Clean Air Act of 1999 provides a comprehensive air quality management policy and programme that aims to achieve and maintain cleaner air for all Filipinos. The law covers all potential sources of air pollution: (1) mobile sources such as motor vehicles; (2) point or stationary sources such as industrial plants; and (3) area sources such as wood or coal burning. Gas/diesel powered vehicles on the road will undergo emission testing, and violators will be subjected to penalties. The law also directs the complete phase-out of leaded gasoline; lowering the sulphur content of industrial and automotive diesel; and lowering aromatics and benzene in unleaded gasoline. All stationary sources must comply with the National Emission Standards for Source Air Pollutants (NESSAP) and National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) and must secure their permission to operate, prior to operations (Congress of the Philippines, 1999 ).

Republic Act 9003–Ecological Solid Waste Management Act of 2000 provides for a legal framework for the country’s systematic, comprehensive, and ecological solid waste management programme that shall ensure the protection of public health and the environment. Under this law, there are several provisions to manage solid wastes (SW) in the country: (1) Mandatory segregation of SW to be conducted at the source; (2) Systematic collection and transport of wastes and proper protection of garbage collector’s health; (3) Establishment of reclamation programmes and buy-back centres for recyclable and toxic materials; (4) Promotion of eco-labelling and prohibition on non-environmentally acceptable products and packaging; and (5) Prohibition against the use of open dumps and establishment of controlled dumps and sanitary landfills, among others (Congress of the Philippines, 2001 ).

RA 9275–Philippine Clean Water Act of 2004 deals with poor water quality management in all surrounding bodies of water, pollution from land-based sources and ineffective enforcement of water quality standards. It also tackles improper collection, treatment, and disposal of domestic sewage, and wastewater charge systems (Congress of the Philippines, 2004 ).

Source: Authors’ compilation based on the Congress of the Philippines legal enactments

2 Terminology and Definitions

Republic Act (RA) 10,771, otherwise known as the Philippine Green Jobs Act of 2016, is the country’s legal mandate for promoting green economies amongst enterprises. The law also grants business incentives, such as special tax deductions from their taxable income and duty-free importation of capital equipment on top of the fiscal and non-fiscal incentives already provided for by existing laws, orders, rules and regulations of the government to encourage them to help generate and sustain ‘green jobs’ (Department of Labour and Employment 2017 ).

The law defines ‘green jobs’ as employment that contributes to preserving or restoring the quality of the environment, be it in the agriculture, industry or the services sector. ‘Green jobs’ shall produce ‘green goods and services’ that would benefit the environment or conserve natural resources. The Law envisions a ‘green economy’ which is low-carbon and resource-efficient, resulting in improved human well-being and social equity in the reduction of environmental risks and ecological scarcities.

The Philippine Development Plan (PDP) 2011–2016 (NEDA 2014 ) stipulated that green jobs can exist and flourish in all sectors. Green jobs can be found where there are measures taken to: (1) introduce low-carbon policies; (2) adapt to climate change; (3) reduce resource use and energy; and (4) protect biodiversity. The plan prioritised key areas identified as mainstream activities affected by climate change: agriculture, fisheries, forestry, energy, construction, transport (including automotive), manufacturing (including PVC production), services (including catering), tourism and waste management.

The pilot application of ‘Policy guidelines on the just transition towards environmentally sustainable economies and societies for all’ that is being conducted in three countries, including the Philippines, adopted by the ILO Governing Body in October 2015, enables the government, together with employers, workers, organizations and other stakeholders, to leverage the process of structural change towards a sustainable, low-carbon, climate-resilient economy to create decent jobs on a significant scale (ILO 2017 ).

The Philippines adopts the Cedefop notion of ‘green skills’ defined in terms of the technical skills, knowledge, values, and attitudes needed in the workforce to develop and support sustainable social, economic, and environmental outcomes in business, industry and the community.

Stakeholder involvement in green skills development in the Philippines

Several stakeholders are responsible for implementing the Green Jobs Law. Green jobs and green skills are being promoted through several departments: the Department of Labour and Employment (DOLE) for formulating the National Green Jobs Human Resource Development Plan (NGJHRDP) on the development, enhancement and utilisation of the labour force; the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) to establish and maintain a climate-change information management system and network; the National Economic and Development Authority (NEDA) for ensuring the mainstreaming of green jobs concerns in the development plans; the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) for developing a special business facilitation programme for enterprises; the Department of Transportation and Communications (DOTC) to encourage more investments in public infrastructure and services that foster green growth; the Climate Change Commission (CCC) for developing and administering standards for the assessment and certification of green goods and services of enterprises; and the Department of Finance (DOF) to administer the grant of incentives to qualified enterprises. In relation to the education system, three entities are responsible for implementing respectively green standards, the green curriculum and green skills. These are the Department of Education (DepEd), the Commission on Higher Education (CHED) and TESDA. In addition, the Professional Regulation Commission (PRC) is responsible for facilitating the recognition of knowledge, skills and competency of professionals working in the green economy. The TESDA, the DOLE, and the Department of Science and Technology (DOST) will also analyse skills, training and retraining needs in relation to the use of green technology that has the potential to create new green occupations.

Meanwhile, the DTI, which has promoted the three-year Green Economic Development (ProGED) Project jointly with the GIZ of Germany since January 2013, aims to enhance the competitiveness of MSMEs by helping them adopt climate-smart and environmentally friendly strategies through a value chain approach (Silva 2016 ).

Challenges of greening TVET

TVET has been called upon to make a pivotal contribution to the national goals of inclusive growth, poverty reduction and greening of skills in the context of the Third cycle (2011–2016) of the National Technical Education and Skills Development Plan (NTESDP) anchored on the PDP. Under Strategic Direction 15, TVET needs to ‘develop and implement programmes intended for green jobs.’ This is pursued through the development of new training regulations (TRs) or amendment/ review of existing TRs for green jobs and sustainable development, including agro-forestry, developing the capacity of trainers and administrators to implement ‘green skills’ programmes and linking-up with local and international agencies in the design, implementation and monitoring of ‘green skills’ programmes. ( ). TESDA is responsible for formulating the necessary TRs for the implementation of skills training, programme registration and assessment, and certification in support of the requirements for skilled manpower for the ‘green economy’ (Department of Labour and Employment 2017 ).

TVET plays a crucial role in enhancing workers’ productivity and employability and facilitates the active and meaningful participation of workers in the development process. The plan highlighted strategies that will address issues pertaining to innovation and the greening of skills. Most of all, TVET will be responsible for mitigating the effects of climate change in the world of work and workplaces. In this regard, TVET has the aims of (1) ‘greening’ existing jobs to meet the current demand for retrofitting and the retooling of the industry to ensure that existing industries continue to grow; and (2) training new workers with the appropriate green skills particularly for the renewable industries and emergent ‘green’ technology sectors. The challenge, therefore, is to strategise environmental education and skills development in anticipation of a green shift in the priority sectors that include agriculture, forestry, fishery, manufacturing (electronics and automotive) services, solid waste and waste water management, energy, transportation and construction (based on the draft NGJHRDP of DOLE 2017 ).

TVET has a big role to play to support the government policy of protecting and caring the environment. New competences need to be developed relevant to this concern. Going into ‘green jobs’ will require the retooling of skilled workers in sectors with high environmental impacts.

The status of the recognition of green skills

In the Philippines, recognition, validation and accreditation of learning outcomes and competencies of workers in enterprises (i.e. in non-formal learning) is one of the components of competency-based TVET and is part of the strategic directions of the National TESD Plan 2005–2009 (NTESDP) ( ). As of December 2017, TESDA had 33 qualifications/TRs out of 2589 promulgated TRs covering environment-related knowledge, skills, and attitudes in the TRs and curricula. In catering services, automotive, PVC manufacturing and waste management sectors, 5S (sort, set in order, shine, standardise and sustain) and 3Rs (reduce, reuse, recycle) are included in the required knowledge and skills which were considered ‘green’. The 5S methodology is also a ‘must’ for all TVET trainers. TESDA likewise amended the TRs for automotive servicing NC III to include LPG conversion and repowering in the set of competences to promote cleaner emissions of vehicles. Ship’s catering takes precautions to prevent pollution in the marine environment by implementing waste management and disposal systems. See Table 11.1 for the list of TESDA TRs with a ‘green’ outlook related to the four industries.

TESDA also conducted a training programme in collaboration with the Department of Energy (DOE) to integrate the use of energy-efficient lighting in the TR for electrical installation and maintenance qualifications. All the qualifications with a green outlook have been accommodated in the Philippine Qualifications Framework (PQF). The Competency Standards are aligned with the PQF, a national policy describing the levels of educational qualifications and setting the standards for qualification outcomes. It is competency-based and labour market driven. It consists of eight levels of education and training that encourage lifelong learning to allow individuals to start at the level that suits them and then build-up their qualifications as their needs and interests develop and change over time ( ). The Philippine TVET Qualification and Certification System (PTQCS), consistent with the PQF, has five different levels of complexity across the three different domains. The qualification levels under PTQCS start from NC I to Diploma.

Development of green qualifications

In accordance with international requirements, TESDA developed qualifications related to refrigeration and air-conditioning. This was done in partnership with DENR and practitioners as part of the national CFC phase-out plan and in accordance with the Montreal Protocol and the Clean Air Act. Through the TESDA training regulations (TRs) on the refrigeration and air-conditioning (RAC) sectors, competences for technicians are identified and addressed during training programmes on recovery, recycling, and retrofitting of RAC systems, which are major sources of ozone-depleting CFCs. In line with this, a code of practice (COP) for RAC was developed by the project with some funding from the World Bank and the Government of Sweden. The TRs promote safety parameters for workers, customers, tools/equipment, and most importantly environmental concerns.

The competency standards of the PQF follow the ILO Regional Model of Competency Standards (RMCS), which prescribes three types of competences, namely: (1) basic competences all workers in all sectors must possess; (2) common competences workers in a sector must possess; and (3) core competences workers in a qualification must possess. Environmental concerns/ concepts are integrated into the basic competences of the TRs. The three learning domains of the competency standards are aligned to the principles of lifelong learning: learning to live together, learning to be, learning to do, and learning to know, as well as to the twenty-first-century skills.

Inviting experts from industry to develop training regulations

TESDA invites experts from industry and/or industry associations who follow guidelines and procedures on how to align each unit of competency to the PQF descriptors. The TRs have four major parts: (1) description of the qualification and job title; (2) competency standards, including the basic, common and core competences; (3) training standards; and (4) national assessment and certification arrangements.

The competency-based TVET (CBT) system recognises various delivery modes in different learning settings – both on- and off-the-job – if CBT specified by the industry drives the training. TVET has developed three delivery modes: (1) Institution-based, which delivers training programmes in public and private TVET institutions, including regional, provincial, and specialised training centres; (2) Enterprise-based, which implements training programmes within enterprises/firms; and (3) Community-based, which delivers training programmes at the local/community level, mostly in partnership with LGUs and NGOs.

For every unit of competency that is completed by a learner during training, a certificate of training achievement is awarded, and after completing all the required units of competency, he/she is awarded with a Certificate of Training. The latter indicates the title of the course, the qualification level according to the PQF descriptors, and the units of competency that the learner has acquired. The attainment of each unit of competency is pre-conditioned on the attainment of specific learning outcomes as described in the competency standards. As a prerequisite for graduation, a learner undergoes the national competency assessment, and he/she is given a certificate of competency (COC) after satisfactorily demonstrating competence in a cluster of units of competency or a national certificate (NC) after satisfactorily demonstrating all units of competency comprising a qualification using the assessment criteria provided by the TR/CS computed by an accredited competency assessor.

Assessment and certification also include the recognition, validation, and accreditation of competences and learning and work experience. This system observes two major principles: (1) competency assessment to collect evidence relative to a unit or cluster of units of competency, and (2) RPL to give recognition to an individual’s skill, knowledge, and attitudes acquired through previous training, work, or life experiences.

3 Methodology of Primary Data Collection

The study adopts the overall methodology developed by the project for all participating jurisdictions and used the developed instruments such as survey/interview questions, the observation list and the list of generic green skills to collect data (see Chap. 1 ). This country study reflects results from 29 of 32 enterprises (targeting eight companies in each sector). The study was confined within the National Capital Region (NCR) or Metro Manila, given that in this area there were enterprises representing the four targeted industries (catering, automobile, PVC and waste management). Of the 29 respondent firms, seven were from the automotive industry, six from PVC manufacturing, eight from catering services and eight from waste management. Sixteen enterprises from the formal sector were interviewed and five from the informal sector. Given the limited size of the sample, the study does not pretend to generalise across the four industries. It is exploratory in nature and draws on preliminary insights into the recognition and development of greener skills in the identified industry sectors.

Box 11.3 General information on the enterprises

Enterprises in waste management undertook testing of used oil and waste products; microbiological and mechanical testing; verification and certification of public and private firms; and buying and selling recyclable materials such as plastics, meats and paper products.

Enterprises in automotive services and sales undertook servicing of new vehicles and restoration and sale of used vehicles.

Catering services included food delivery, fast food restaurants, stalls and eateries.

PVC enterprises included the sale and installation of plastic pipes and piping systems.

4 Results and Discussion

Educational attainment of the employees

Analysis of the educational attainment of 1,490 employees in the 29 firms showed that overall, the four industries displayed a very high level of education of personnel—81% of employees across all sectors had higher education, 9–10% had attained a secondary education and TVET qualification, and only 1% was below secondary. Enterprises in PVC manufacturing had 92% (454 out of 495) of their employees with a higher education qualification, followed by waste management, 78% (415 out of 529), automotive industry 76% (296 out of 391) and catering services, 55% (41 out of 75).

Environmentally friendly practices in the enterprises

On the question, ‘What environmentally friendly practices enterprises are followed?’ only 11 (42%) out of 26 respondent enterprises had ‘green jobs’ such as waste water management, renewable energy, energy saving and pollution minimisation. Waste management firms ranked the highest, with seven out of seven respondent enterprises attesting to having such ‘green jobs’, whereas only two of the four firms in PVC manufacturing claimed to have ‘green’ jobs and only one out of seven automotive enterprises had ‘green’ jobs. Only one out of the eight catering enterprises had ‘green jobs’. However, environmentally friendly practices were not only restricted to green jobs. This became clear when firms were asked about the various practices, illustrated in Table 11.2 , reflecting environmental sustainability at work in the four industries.

Promoting green practices

Respondents were asked to give their perceptions on how much importance they attached to the theme of green skills in their enterprises on a scale of 1 to 10, where 1 meant low consideration and 10 meant high consideration to these issues. Twenty-five out of 29 responses fell under the scale of 6–10. Four enterprises answered between scales 2–5. However, while high importance is placed on ‘green skills’, there is only a modest promotion of the required skills for the implementation of environment-friendly practices as illustrated in Table 11.3 . PVC enterprises employed the highest number of methods for promoting green skills.

Skill requirements for the implementation of environmentally friendly practices

Enterprises in the four industries described important green skills required for the daily operations undertaken by employees (Table 11.4 ).

How do the respondents acquire their skills?

The employees in the 29 firms across the four industries acquired their green skills in a variety of ways. Both the automotive and PVC manufacturing enterprises identified all the contexts of acquisition. In the catering services and waste management, employees acquired their skills predominantly through self-directed training (seven out of eight) and three out of five respectively (Table 11.5 ).

Benefits of practising green jobs and skills

On the question of whether including green skills in RVA mechanisms could be beneficial, responses from 25 firms showed that 36 per cent of respondents expected the recognition of green skills to be beneficial for enterprises. They said that it could improve productivity and make enterprises more competitive. On the other hand, 32 per cent of these enterprises expected green skills recognition to benefit the individual in strengthening confidence and motivation, and in promoting core generic skills, social inclusion, higher earnings and better career prospects. Another 32 per cent highlighted benefits for the country by recognising skills that are environmentally friendly.

The benefits of green practices and green skills were also confirmed by a 2012 survey conducted by the Employers Confederation of the Philippines (ECOP) in collaboration with ILO (ECOP & ILO, 2012 ) covering three areas (NCR, Cagayan De Oro, and Cebu) in the Philippines. Forty-three participants, representing enterprises from manufacturing, food and beverage, land development and real estate enumerated benefits at the level of enterprise, individuals and the nation (Table 11.6 ).

Reasons for not having ‘green’ jobs with ‘green’ practices

This study also examined the reasons for not adopting green practices. The background research by the ECOP and ILO ( 2012 ) pointed out the disadvantages of adopting green projects. They were:

Restrictive in terms of the permitted practices (38 per cent of survey respondents);

Threat of reducing the profit (25 per cent);

Causing job loss (13 per cent);

High start-up costs to implement initially (13 per cent);

Risk of business shut-downs (13 per cent).

The participants of that project further elaborated that, aside from financial considerations, there is also a lack of awareness and expertise in the Philippines on climate change, environmental issues and green jobs. Additional and appropriate financial and technical support is needed to shift towards green initiatives or launch environmentally friendly practices.

The current study revealed the following reasons why some enterprises did not have green jobs or green practices:

Lack of oversight due to sub-contracting especially in waste management and automotive, where a lot of jobs are outsourced to external contractors;

Lack of money to buy expensive equipment. This was mentioned by enterprises in the automotive and PVC manufacturing sectors;

Presence of policies (i.e. city ordinance) that prohibit the use of environmentally harmful materials, such as plastics, in the case of the catering sector.

Mechanisms for recognising skills, prior learning and work experience in the enterprises

Awareness of RVA frameworks

Very few firms (both employers and employees) said they were aware of the existence and use of RVA frameworks. Only two (1.67 per cent) of 120 respondents said they had heard of frameworks such as the Philippine Qualifications Framework, or other competency-based training frameworks or guidelines prepared by DENR. Only one (0.83 per cent) respondent was aware of a framework developed for human resource development.

Methods used to assess green skills

Only seven out of 30 total responses on methods used to assess green skills alluded to having a job-card system in which employees’ skills were documented. The identified green skills were in waste segregation and disposal, energy conservation, and knowledge of environmental laws such as the Clean Air Act and recycling, among others. In terms of the different sectors, six respondents highlighted the use of different methods, as illustrated in Table 11.7 .

The green skills that are not assessed include: the theoretical understanding of green practice; research and development; waste disposal and familiarity with hazardous waste products.

Enterprises did not have a systematic use of RVA mechanisms, in the absence of which, four respondents stated, the use of ad hoc examples such as ‘mentoring’, coaching and apprenticeships acted as approaches to RVA.

Vision for green skills recognition as part of workplace training

Most of the respondents in the four industry sectors talked about their enterprises’ increasing initiatives to implement ‘green’ training programmes for protecting the environment:

Box 11.4 Importance of green training programmes for protecting the environment

Automotive sector

Upgrading automotive technology to meet the demand for fuel efficiency and reduce emissions;

Providing green customer services;

Learning to use eco-friendly equipment and materials.

Important for recognising green skills;

Updating existing training manuals;

Waste management

Promoting sanitation standards;

Promoting the systematic collection of waste;

Promoting more programmes and incentives at the international level;

Promoting compliance with governmental efforts and standards (i.e. DENR and Laguna Lake Development Authority).

Prospects of staff training and RVA

In September 2017, the Implementing Rules and Regulations (IRR) for the Philippine Green Jobs Law was signed. Clearly, the potential for the inclusion of the green skills in RVA is great, not only at the macro level but also at the individual level. Enterprises made suggestions on the prospects of improving skills training and RVA as shown in Table 11.8 . Only 12 (41.38 per cent) out of 29 firms cited recommendations for the inclusion of green skills in RPL. All recommendations called for staff training programmes.

5 Conclusions and Recommendations

This chapter, based on research conducted by TESDA, has examined issues pertaining to skills recognition as a tool to improve the environmental and sustainable development in the four industry sectors, namely, automotive, catering services, PVC manufacturing, and waste management.

The Green Jobs Law of 2016 has been pivotal in the increase of green jobs and green practices in enterprises participating in this research. Most of the enterprises remarked on the absence of jobs specifically dealing with green practices before the promulgation of this law. Despite this, a huge majority of these firms observed several practices reflecting environmental sustainability in the workplace, such as waste segregation, waste management disposal, and compliance with environmental rules. The importance given to the topic of green skills and environmentally friendly practices is high, especially in the catering sector. However, the promotion of required skills for the implementation of environment-friendly practices is still modest and there is low utilisation of strategies such as the use of brochures and events, innovations, and incentives for cleaner products/ services and marketing.

Interestingly, employers perceived that the creation of green jobs would lead to improved competitiveness of workers, promotion of decent jobs, and additional employment. Some of them, however, cited disadvantages such as a reduction in profit, and increased costs related to the financial and technical support of green initiatives.

Assessment of RPL in some enterprises involves the verification of certificates. In other enterprises, documentation is undertaken with a job-card system while the certification of RPL is carried out by government agencies (e.g., some environmental authority), the mother company, or training institutions.

Employees’ green skills included technical, cognitive, intrapersonal and interpersonal skills. Employers appreciated the cognitive skills of their employees, the most prominent of which were environmental awareness and willingness to undertake green practices. However, both intra-personal and inter-personal competences registered low appreciation from the employees participating in the research.

The enterprises were not knowledgeable about the national RPL framework, and this was evident given the low utilisation of learning outcomes described in the Philippines Qualifications Framework, competency-based training, HRD frameworks and guidelines designed by the EMB-DENR.

A small number of these enterprises have mechanisms to recognise/assess existing green skills that employees acquire in the workplace, community, or through non-formal education and training programmes. There is no systematic use of RPL; rather, RPL is based on ad hoc examples such as mentoring, coaching and apprenticeship.

It was found that employers used simple methods of RPL assessment (i.e. self-evaluation and interview). Through such methods, employers noticed gaps and deficits in the green skills of workers. The areas where these gaps were most prominent were research and development, waste disposal and familiarity with hazardous waste products, among others.

Most workers acquired their skills non-formally or informally through self-directed learning or on the job or in-company training. Only a few workers had acquired their skills through initial and continuing vocational education and training.

Enterprises believed that green skills had a great potential if enterprises, associations and organizations would support their inclusion in RPL mechanisms. Green skills inclusion in RPL needs to be complemented by other elements such as awareness raising, efficient information dissemination, and technical and financial assistance. Such support activities must be implemented through governmental and societal support.

Factors, in order of prominence, contributing to the effective inclusion of green skills in RVA include: laws/ government policies; business opportunities; environmental and economic realities; support/funding/incentives from the government; international conventions; strong LGU enforcement. All these factors are predicated upon sustained information, education and communication (IEC) actions; advocacy; and social marketing.

The passage of the Green Jobs Law, which provides incentives and tax and duty-free importation of capital equipment, makes the potential for green skills inclusion in recognition in the Philippines realisable.

This study, which includes the participation of seven other Asian countries and one Asian territory, should provide valuable inputs in designing and implementing rules and regulations for the recently enacted Green Jobs Law in the Philippines. Specifically, the mechanisms in the identification of green jobs and the attendant green skills leading to the design of training and assessment and certification of programmes should investigate the different models, not only from the Philippines, but also from the international community.

International development organizations can strategically support the development and distribution of learning/ instructional materials – preferably with formats – that can be shared to facilitate massive and immediate learning to benefit the developing economies and the micro-enterprises of/ in the informal sector.

Individual, family, micro-, small-, and medium enterprises that extract valuable materials from the waste system and valorise them for own use, repair and sale, fabrication, or recycling.

The figure pertains only to the US because of unavailability of global data, and given that the US is the biggest producer of industrial waste, this figure is taken as some kind of watermark for all other industrialized countries for purposes of this study (see E. Stewards at ).


Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle

Sort, Set in order, Shine, Standardize, and Sustain

Association of Southeast Asian Nations

Annual Survey of Philippine Business and Industry

Board of Investment

Comprehensive Automotive Resurgence Strategy

Competency-based TVET

Centre Européen pour le Développement de la Formation Professionnelle

Commission on Higher Education

Compact Mobile Unit

Certificate of Competency

Code of Practice

Competency Standards

Department of Environment and Natural Resource

Department of Education

Department of Energy

Department of Labour and Employment

Department of Public Works and Highways

Department of Science and Technology

Department of Tourism

Department of Transportation and Communication

Department of Trade and Industry

Environmental Compliance Certificate

Employers Confederation of the Philippines

Environmental Management Bureau

Enhanced Philippine Agenda 21

Gross Domestic Product

Green Our DOLE Programme

Information, Education, and Communication

International Labour Organization

International Monetary Fund

Implementing Rules and Regulations

Information Technology

Local Government Unit

Laguna Lake Development Authority

Liquefied Petroleum Gas

Micro, Small, and Medium-Sized Enterprises

National Ambient Air Quality Standards

National Certificate

National Capital Region

National Economic and Development Authority

National Emission Standards for Source Air Pollutants

Non-governmental Organization

National Institute for Technical Education and Skills Development

National Technical Education and Skills Development Plan

Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development

Philippine Automotive Manufacturing Industry

Philippine Development Plan

Philippine Peso

Persistent Organic Pollutants

Philippine Qualifications Framework

Professional Regulation Commission

Philippine Resins Industries, Inc.

Promotion of Green Economic Development

Philippine Statistics Authority

Philippines Strategy for Sustainable Development

Philippine TVET Qualification and Certification System

Polyvinyl chloride

Refrigeration and Air Conditioning

Regional Model of Competency Standards

Recognition of Prior Learning

Recognition, Validation, and Accreditation

Solid Waste/s

Technical Education and Skills Development Authority

Toyota Motor Philippines

Training Regulations

Technical Vocational Education and Training

United Nations

United Nations Environment Programme

Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment

World Health Organization

World Trade Organization

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Talavera, E. (2022). Case Study: Philippines. Recognising Green Skills for Environmental and Sustainable Development in Four Selected Industries. In: Pavlova, M., Singh, M. (eds) Recognizing Green Skills Through Non-formal Learning. Education for Sustainability, vol 5. Springer, Singapore.

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The main aim of business is to fulfill the need of the human beings to create a harmony. Though this aim is debatable right since its origin. The scholars defines the goals of business in their studies differently. A numerous studies evaluated the concept of sustainable business and its social responsibility towards society and the nature. Wheeler & McKague (2002) evaluates the role of the business in development and evaluates the function and responsibility of the NGOs, development agencies and government in the same. The study also evaluates the Social-Global Economic Trends. Nelson & Prescott (2003) inspects the role of Business and its role in the Millennium development of the world society. Study attempts the questions that what are the business goals how are they relevant and how the business can achieve them. Fitzgerald KBE & Mandy Cormak (2005), Modesto & Oliveira (2006) & Terziev (2012), attempts to investigate the role of the business organizations in the society and their...

Samantha Wong

Sustainability Accounting, Management and Policy Journal

Amelia Clarke

PurposeThis study aims to understand how businesses can contribute to the achievement of the UN sustainable development goals (SDGs) by implementing Local Agenda 21 (or equivalent) plans in partnership with other organizations situated in their city. To this end, the present study examines drivers and outcomes from the perspective of business partners, as well as their relationships to the SDGs.Design/methodology/approachThrough a mixed-methods approach this research studies 71 businesses from four large cross-sector partnerships formed to achieve local sustainability goals. Data were collected through a survey to determine why firms partner and what outcomes they obtain from partnering. Qualitative content analyses are used to determine the relationships between business drivers and outcomes from partnering for local sustainability and the SDGs.FindingsFrom a resource-based view (RBV) perspective, findings show the value of local sustainability partnerships in relation to the SDGs....

Social Business and Sustainable Development Goals -2030 Agenda Sustainable Development Goals 1 and 5 -2030 Agenda Poverty reduction and Women´s Development Implementation of Sustainable Development Goal 1 and 5 Sónia Gomes

Sónia Gomes

The Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) call for significant action on health by 2030 that includes, interalia, to ensure universal access to sexual and reproductive health-care services, including for family planning, information and education, and the integration of reproductive health into national strategies and programs, achieve universal health coverage, access to quality essential health-care services and access to safe, effective, quality and affordable essential medicines for all etc. Healthy people (and empowered women) are better able to contribute to the social, political and economic development of their communities and countries. Studies show that good health has a positive effect on development and that decreases in overall morbidity and mortality can help to drive productivity and economic growth.1 Gender-sensitive and inclusive, rights-based approaches are essential both to improve health outcomes and increase social and economic well-being. Gender inequality and gender-based violence are strong drivers of poor health and development outcomes for women and adolescent girls. Poverty and poor health are closely linked. Poverty leads to unhealthy living and working environments, poor nutrition and illiteracy, all of which increase vulnerability to disease and limit access to basic health and social services and affordable medicines. Sustained attention to the negative health consequences of gender inequality is essential to achieving SDG 5 (Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls).2 This paper looks of implementing and establishing social business models in developing countries (based on the experience in Business Management, in her personal life and also experience as a volunteer and international advisor in Lotus Heart NGO in Nepal, having the proper field experience and the knowledge of the real situation in developing countries). In this particular case, a health clinic and small medical post branches for the community in the Sindhupalchak district of Nepal that would include health awareness and income generation activities, and create the conditions to have more doctors fixated there like promoting volunteer foreigner work and exchange of skills by implementing in this main clinic, a centre for overseas medical doctors, nurses, paramedics and medical students; integration of different type of medicine practices. Meanwhile, through this Health project, we can activate also “Responsible Tourism” and Organic Coffee business, that can be a good solution for gender equity and unemployment problem among Women and youth in this specific district of Nepal. Keywords: Poverty reduction; Health; Female Empowerment, Gender Equity; SDG agenda 2030; Social Business; SDG 3; SDG 5; philanthropic; interdependence.

Australasian Accounting, Business and Finance Journal

Chitra S De Silva Lokuwaduge , Monir Mir

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Mahsa Samsami

Businesses may adopt strategies and practices that support sustainable development goals. Such strategies include considering social and environmental impacts as well as prioritizing socio-environmental benefits at a higher level than profits. Supportive practices comprise enhancing social benefits and limiting environmental harm. What SDG-related strategies and practices are businesses pursuing? Are businesses implementing practices and strategies? Do the practices and strategies differ across societies? A survey of representative samples of 399 businesses in Colombia and 413 businesses in Egypt was conducted in 2021, by the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor. The owner-managers reported that they frequently had strategies that considered social and environmental impacts of business operations, and they prioritized socio-environmental considerations over financial goals. In Columbia, there were more frequent practices that enhanced social benefits and limited environmental harm than i...


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Philippines Best Workplaces™ 2024 Methodology

Employees respond to over **60 survey questions** describing the extent to which

their organization creates a great place to work For All™️.

85% of the evaluation is based on what employees say about their experiences of trust and reaching their full human potential as part of their organization, no matter who they are or what they do.

Great Place to Work® analyzes these experiences relative to each organization’s size, workforce make up, and what’s typical in their industry. The remaining 15% of the rank is based on an assessment of all employees’ daily experiences of innovation, company values, and the effectiveness of their leaders to ensure these are consistently experienced.

To be considered, companies had to meet the Great Place to Work-Certified™

standard. Trust Index©️ survey results are accurate to a 95% confidence level with a 5% margin of error or better to ensure the survey results truly represent all employees.

We review any anomalies in survey responses, news and financial performance to ensure there aren’t any extraordinary reasons to believe we couldn’t trust a company’s survey results.

Companies with 10 to 99 people were considered for the Small category.

Companies with 100 employees or more were considered for the Medium category.

Companies exceeding 1,000 employees were considered for the Large category.


To be eligible for the World’s Best Workplaces list, a company must apply and be named to a minimum of 5 national Best Workplaces lists within our current 58 countries, have 5,000 employees or more worldwide, and at least 40% of the company’s workforce (or 5,000 employees) must be based outside of the home country. Extra points are given based on the number of countries where a company surveys employees with the Great Place to Work Trust Index©, and the percentage of a company’s workforce represented by all Great Place to Work surveys globally. Candidates for the 2017 Worlds Best Workplaces list will have appeared on national workplaces lists published in September 2016 through August 2017.

The Best Workplaces in Asia List

Great Place to Work® identifies the top organizations that create great workplaces in the Asian and Middle Eastern regions with the publication of the annual Best Workplaces in Asia list. The list recognizes companies in three size categories:

  • Small & Medium (20 – 499 employees);
  • Large (500+ employees); and
  • Multinational.

To be considered for inclusion, companies must appear on one or more of our national lists in the region, which includes Greater China (covering China, Hong Kong, Taiwan and Macau), India, Japan, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, South Korea, Sri Lanka and UAE. For the 2021 Asia List, companies ranked on the national list in the Philippines will also be included. Multinational organizations must meet the following requirements:

  • Have at least 1,000 employees worldwide, with at least 40% (or 5,000) of those employees based outside the headquarter’s country and
  • Appear on at least two national lists.

Multinationals also receive additional credit for their efforts to successfully create an excellent workplace culture in multiple countries in the region. The data used in the calculation of the regional list comes from national lists published in 2019 and early 2020.

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Case study - Integrating Sustainability at Taal Vista Hotel Philippines

  • Published on March 30, 2023

Case study developped as part of the Transforming Tourism Value Chains project

The Taal Vista Hotel is owned and managed by SM Hotels and Conventions Corporation (SMHCC). In line with SMHCC’s sustainability strategy, the hotel’s advocacy started in 2019, with the aim to conduct operations to lead responsible behavior, create shared value at an economic, social, and environmental level. SMHCC, through Taal Vista Hotel and its other properties, shared information and promoted ethical and responsible practices in their hotel business.

GOAL 12: Responsible Consumption and Production

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A Philippine Case Study in Improving Local Governance

sample business case study in the philippines

How does the governance of a city become unstuck? How did Mayor Jonas Cortes of Mandaue City, the Philippines, move past a corruption scandal which he inherited and establish clean governance, a business-friendly environment, and participation of the poor? Robert Klitgaard and Melissa Mahoney Smith capture Cortes’s story of local transformation in a William Davidson Institute case study: “ Reforming Mandaue City: The Struggle to Implement a Performance Governance System .”

Working with city employees and citizens, Cortes managed to grow city revenues, encourage the creation of new businesses, and relocate vulnerable people from flood zones to new housing. This WDI case study can be read on two levels. On the strategic level, it illustrates the application of the Balanced Scorecard to articulate and implement a shared community vision. On the leadership level, the case explores effective public-private collaboration, coordination across government functions, and engagement of the public. Indeed, one of the lessons from the case is that leadership and stakeholder engagement are required to make the Balanced Scorecard deliver.

Mandaue’s transformative experience is just one among many cities, national agencies, and nonprofit organizations participating in the Performance Governance System of the Institute for Solidarity in Asia . Their stories may be found in ISA’s book It Can Be Done (2016), in ISA’s Journey Report , and in CIPE’s case, “ Instituting Improvements in Public Governance in the Philippines .” CIPE was a long-time supporter of the Performance Governance System, providing strategic guidance, financial assistance and technical resources. In 2013, CIPE recognized ISA’s founder Jesus P. Estanislao as a recipient of the Hernando de Soto Award for lifelong contributions to democracy and economic freedom.

Published Date: October 04, 2019

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Instituting improvements in public governance in the philippines, the state of sustainability reporting in the philippines, promoting constructive capital through investment policy reform in the philippines.

Overview of Business Environment in the Philippines Analytical Essay


The Philippines is one of the progressive countries in Southeast Asia. Its present growth can be attributed to the resilience of the Filipino spirit and the industry of millions of overseas workers, added with a popular and enigmatic president, Benigno S. Aquino III, son of former president Corazon Aquino, one of the heroes of the EDSA Revolution and martyred Benigno Aquino.

The rich culture and a people who want to rise above underdevelopment can make a business venture promising and challenging. The economy depends much on Overseas Filipino Workers (OFW) remittances and export products like sugar, pineapple, coconut, and electronic products which are being exported to major countries like the United States, Europe and other Asian countries.

Overseas remittances remain the lifeblood of the economy; if it were not for the billions of dollars sent by Filipinos from the Middle East and other countries, the economy could have suffered much. Presently, Filipinos are united to rise from political crises that have plagued the nation for years.

PEST Analysis

The Philippines experienced two colonizing periods in its long history – four centuries of Spanish colonization which introduced Christianity, and the takeover of the Americans which introduced education and the bulwarks of democracy. Through these periods, the Philippines experienced political upheavals, repression, and a little growth.

After years of instability due to the emergence of different political factions, the Philippines now has a stable political system under the administration of President Benigno Aquino or Pinoy as he is popularly known. President Aquino has opened the floodgates of investments coming from major investors from the United States and Europe.

In the recent past, it was put in a stagnant position because of politics and quest of a few greedy politicians for power. It deteriorated during the reign of the dictator, Ferdinand Marcos, who ruled with impunity and countless human rights violation. There were other factors that affected the downward trend of the economy, such as the SARS scare and Islamic terrorism. (Beirman, 2003, p. 254)

The Philippines is a developing country although in some respect it has been observed as more developed than some countries in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). The country is blessed with abundance of natural resources and a big and industrious workforce presently employed in the Middle East, the United States, Europe and other progressive countries in Asia.

The Philippine economy has continued to be strong and growing despite the many challenges, both political and economic, that it has encountered all through the years. (Tetangco, 2006)

The present global economic crisis did not have much effect on the Philippines because of the OFW remittances. Skilled labor is one of its valuable economic assets. The level of unemployment has gone down (Trading Economics, 2011) due to skilled labor being exported to countries wanting for talented and experienced labor force.

The vast natural resources could have been a major asset of the economy if it were tapped with utmost diligence and care. Mining could be a major contributor considering that recent mines have been discovered in its islands, but thanks to the militancy and awareness of the people, there are oppositions trying to save the environment.

The Philippines can be the number one destination in Asia because of its rich heritage, historic spots, rich natural resources, and hospitable people willing to receive any guest who enters in their shore lines.

Social factors are in favour of foreign investments. Filipinos are hospitable, they welcome every foreign national into the country; this is the reason why tourism is thriving and is also one of the major dollar earners of the country.

The people are ‘westernized’, due to years of American colonization, so that entry of a UK company is very much welcome. UK products are welcome. Filipinos patronize ‘imported’ products, or those coming from western countries because they have this colonial mentality and the fact that they are used to Western products brought to them by relatives who come home from abroad.


Technology plays an important role in this new venture to the Philippines as the next destination of a UK supermarket chain. Information technology and the Internet have been introduced. Young graduates from first class universities and thriving technical schools in the country are equipped with IT expertise and other technical courses. IT professionals also dominate the labor force. The Internet is not new to Filipinos.

Almost all major businesses and organizations in the Philippines have their websites and they make use of computers and the Internet.

Porter’s Five Forces

Porter’s five forces will also shape the entry of a UK firm in the Philippines. Profitability will be determined by these five sources of competitive pressure. (Grant, 2005, p. 173)

Threat of New Entrants

There are a number of supermarkets in the Philippines and our entry will be a threat, although this will depend on the kind of products the UK supermarket will bring. Existing supermarkets also bring with them imported products coming from the UK, U.S. and Europe

Bargaining power of suppliers

Outsourcing companies from China can supply the UK supermarket for its store in the Philippines. However, this is what existing stores and supermarkets are doing. Chinese products are flooding Philippine stores. Products will have to come from local suppliers.

Bargaining power of buyers

Filipino customers are meticulous and want low cost products. In order to remedy the situation, supermarket products will have to be sourced locally, but some imported ones will be mixed with local products, such as fruits coming from UK and the US, in order to make the store competitive.

Threat of substitute products

This is one of the problematic areas that the UK store will have to tackle. Local products will be a major threat. The Philippines has an abundance of fruits, vegetables, fish, and different kinds of meat products. These are cheap and are supplied locally.

Cultural Dimensions

The Philippines has a rich cultural heritage, from the Malay race to the European and American cultures introduced to Filipinos. There are also various ethnic groups comprising the Filipino culture.

The UK supermarket management will have to adjust to the Filipino culture, but it is not too difficult. Filipinos are receptive of foreign culture. They are hospitable and love to be with other nationalities. Most families have members abroad; many come from the UK doing different professional jobs. Employees will not have difficult time adjusting to the Filipino culture.


The Philippines is an important country in Asia and to have a UK supermarket in that country is recommended. It is a growing and dynamic economy.

Management decision making will be influenced by the local cultures, for example the kinds of products and foods that should be available all the time. (Cray and Mallory, 1998, p. 71)

Management will have to adjust with the Filipino culture although, as stated above, Filipino culture is already a mixture of ethnic and foreign culture. There are a number of foreign nationals in the Philippines and many of them are Europeans, Americans, and mostly ethnic Chinese.

Beirman, D., 2003. A comparative assessment of three Southeast Asian tourism recovery: Singapore roars: Post SARS 2003, Bali Post – the October 12, 2002 Bombing, and WOW Philippines 2003. In: Y. Mansfeld and a. Pizam (eds.), 2006. Tourism security and safety: from theory to practice. Oxford, UK: Elsevier Inc. p. 254.

Cray, D. and Mallory, G., 1998. Managing culture . UK; US: International Thomson Business Press.

Grant, R., 2005. Contemporary strategy analysis , fifth ed. United States of America: Blackwell Publishing.

Tetangco, A., 2006. The state of the Philippine economy and policy directions of the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas. Bank for International Settlements. Web.

Trading Economics, 2011. Philippines unemployment rate . Web.

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IvyPanda. (2022, June 23). Overview of Business Environment in the Philippines.

"Overview of Business Environment in the Philippines." IvyPanda , 23 June 2022,

IvyPanda . (2022) 'Overview of Business Environment in the Philippines'. 23 June.

IvyPanda . 2022. "Overview of Business Environment in the Philippines." June 23, 2022.

1. IvyPanda . "Overview of Business Environment in the Philippines." June 23, 2022.


IvyPanda . "Overview of Business Environment in the Philippines." June 23, 2022.

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Sample Feasibility Study in the Philippines A Comprehensive Guide

Sample Feasibility Study in the Philippines A Comprehensive Guide

A feasibility study is an important step in assessing the potential success of a business venture or project. In the Philippines, conducting a thorough feasibility study is crucial due to the unique economic, social, and cultural factors that can impact the feasibility of a project.

This comprehensive guide will provide an overview of the key components and steps involved in conducting a sample feasibility study in the Philippines. It will cover topics such as market analysis, financial projections, legal and regulatory considerations, and potential risks and challenges.

Whether you are a local entrepreneur looking to start a new business or a foreign investor considering investing in the Philippines, this guide will serve as a valuable resource to help you make informed decisions and determine the feasibility of your project.

By following this guide and conducting a sample feasibility study in the Philippines, you will be well-equipped to evaluate the potential risks and rewards of your project, identify opportunities for growth and success, and make informed decisions to ensure the long-term viability and profitability of your business venture.

Table of Contents

Overview of a Feasibility Study

A feasibility study is a crucial step in determining the viability of a project or business venture. It involves conducting a comprehensive analysis to assess the practicality, suitability, and profitability of the proposed undertaking.

The main objective of a feasibility study is to evaluate whether the project is feasible and whether it is worth pursuing. It helps in identifying potential risks, challenges, and opportunities associated with the project.

A feasibility study typically includes the following components:

  • Executive Summary: Provides a brief overview of the study, including the objectives, methodology, and key findings.
  • Introduction: Introduces the project and provides background information on its purpose and objectives.
  • Market Analysis: Examines the target market, including its size, trends, competition, and potential demand for the proposed product or service.
  • Technical Analysis: Assess the technical requirements and feasibility of the project, including the availability of resources, technology, and expertise.
  • Financial Analysis: Evaluates the financial aspects of the project, including the estimated costs, potential revenues, profitability, and return on investment.
  • Risk Analysis: Identifies and assesses potential risks and challenges that may affect the success of the project, such as market competition, regulatory issues, and economic factors.
  • Organizational Analysis: Examines the internal capabilities and resources of the organization, including its management team, operational efficiency, and financial stability.
  • Conclusions and Recommendations: Summarizes the key findings of the study and provides recommendations on whether to proceed with the project, modify the plan, or abandon it altogether.

A feasibility study serves as a crucial tool for decision-making by providing a comprehensive and objective assessment of the project’s viability. It helps stakeholders make informed decisions based on reliable data and analysis.

Overall, conducting a feasibility study is an essential step in the planning process for any project or business venture, as it helps determine whether the project is feasible, economically viable, and sustainable in the long run.

Purpose of a Feasibility Study

A feasibility study is a comprehensive analysis that is conducted to assess the viability and profitability of a proposed project or business. It aims to determine if the project is feasible and if it will generate the expected returns on investment.

The main purpose of a feasibility study is to provide objective and reliable information about the viability of a project. It helps stakeholders, such as investors, lenders, and project managers, make informed decisions regarding the project’s future. This study involves analyzing various factors and conducting research to evaluate the technical, economic, legal, operational, and market aspects of the project.

The feasibility study provides crucial information and data that are essential in determining the project’s potential risks and benefits. It helps identify any potential obstacles or challenges that may arise during project implementation and guides stakeholders in developing strategies to mitigate these risks.

Furthermore, a feasibility study assists in the formulation of realistic goals and expectations for the project. It helps in determining the necessary resources and investments required to successfully carry out the project. This study also assesses the project’s timeline and milestones, allowing stakeholders to establish an appropriate timeframe for project completion.

In summary, the purpose of a feasibility study is to evaluate the viability and profitability of a proposed project. It provides stakeholders with valuable information and analysis to make informed decisions and set realistic goals for the project.

Importance of a Feasibility Study

A feasibility study is a crucial step in the decision-making process for any project or business venture. It is designed to analyze and evaluate the practicality and viability of a proposed project or venture. The importance of conducting a feasibility study cannot be overstated as it provides valuable information that helps stakeholders make informed decisions.

1. Assessing project viability: A feasibility study helps determine whether a project or venture is viable in terms of its technical, economic, financial, and operational aspects. It assesses the potential risks, challenges, and opportunities associated with the project, enabling stakeholders to make well-informed decisions about its feasibility.

2. Identifying potential roadblocks: During a feasibility study, potential roadblocks and obstacles are identified and assessed. This allows stakeholders to address and mitigate these issues before committing significant resources to the project. The study helps uncover potential challenges such as technical limitations, regulatory requirements, market demand, and competition.

3. Evaluating financial feasibility: One of the crucial aspects of a feasibility study is evaluating the financial viability of the proposed project. It helps determine the potential return on investment, payback period, and profitability. This assessment assists stakeholders in deciding whether to proceed with the project or explore alternative options with better financial prospects.

4. Enhancing decision-making: A feasibility study provides stakeholders with comprehensive information and data required to make informed decisions. It presents detailed analysis, forecasts, and projections that allow stakeholders to evaluate the chances of success and potential risks associated with the project. This helps ensure that decisions are based on evidence, minimizing the chances of costly mistakes.

5. Attracting potential investors: A well-prepared feasibility study can significantly improve the chances of attracting potential investors or securing funding for the project. It demonstrates a thorough understanding of the proposed venture, market conditions, potential returns, and risks. Investors are more likely to invest in a project that has been thoroughly assessed and presented in a professional and organized manner.

6. Avoiding project failures: Conducting a feasibility study helps identify potential weaknesses and shortcomings in the project early on. It allows stakeholders to address these issues before committing significant resources. By identifying and rectifying potential problems at the feasibility stage, the chances of project failure are significantly reduced.

7. Providing a roadmap: A feasibility study provides a roadmap and guidelines for the successful implementation of the project. It outlines the necessary steps, resources, and timelines required to complete the project. This roadmap helps in managing the project effectively, ensuring that it stays on track and meets the desired objectives.

In conclusion, a feasibility study plays a pivotal role in determining the viability and success of a project or venture. It provides stakeholders with crucial information and insights that help them make informed decisions. By assessing project viability, identifying roadblocks, evaluating financial feasibility, enhancing decision-making, attracting investors, avoiding project failures, and providing a roadmap, a feasibility study significantly increases the chances of project success.

Conducting a Feasibility Study in the Philippines

A feasibility study is a crucial step in the decision-making process for any business venture. It helps assess the viability of a proposed project and provides valuable insights into its potential success or failure. When conducting a feasibility study in the Philippines, there are certain factors that need to be taken into consideration.

1. Market Analysis:

  • Identify the target market and determine its size, growth potential, and competitiveness.
  • Analyze market trends, customer preferences, and buying behavior.
  • Evaluate the demand for the product or service in the Philippines.

2. Technical Evaluation:

  • Assess the technical feasibility of the project by evaluating the availability and reliability of the necessary resources, infrastructure, and technology.
  • Consider the legal and regulatory requirements that may affect the project’s implementation.
  • Determine the scalability of the project and its potential for expansion.

3. Financial Analysis:

  • Estimate the initial investment required, including capital expenditures and operating costs.
  • Analyze the potential revenue streams and expected return on investment.
  • Evaluate the project’s profitability and assess its break-even point.

4. Risk Assessment:

  • Identify and analyze potential risks and obstacles that may affect the project’s success.
  • Evaluate the impact of external factors such as economic, political, and environmental conditions.
  • Develop strategies to mitigate and manage risks.

5. Socio-cultural Factors:

  • Consider the cultural, social, and demographic factors that may influence the project.
  • Evaluate the project’s impact on the local community and stakeholders.
  • Ensure compliance with local customs, traditions, and regulations.

By conducting a comprehensive feasibility study, businesses can make informed decisions and increase their chances of success in the Philippines. The study’s findings will provide valuable insights and recommendations for the project’s implementation and future operations.

Identifying the Project Scope

The first step in conducting a feasibility study is to identify the scope of the project. This involves determining the objectives, goals, and boundaries of the project. It is important to clearly define what the project aims to achieve and what its limitations are.

Objectives: The objectives of the project should be specific, measurable, attainable, relevant, and time-bound (SMART). These objectives will guide the feasibility study and help determine if the project is feasible or not. For example, the objective of a proposed housing development project could be to provide affordable housing for low-income families within a certain area.

Goals: The goals of the project are the desired outcomes or results that the project aims to achieve. These goals should align with the objectives and provide a clear direction for the feasibility study. Continuing with the housing development project example, a goal could be to construct a certain number of housing units that meet the needs of the target population.

Boundaries: The boundaries of the project define the limitations and constraints that need to be considered during the feasibility study. These boundaries can be related to factors such as time, budget, resources, regulations, and market conditions. It is important to identify and analyze these boundaries to assess the feasibility of the project. For the housing development project, some boundaries could include a limited budget, availability of land, and compliance with local building codes.

To further clarify the project scope, it is recommended to use techniques such as mind mapping, brainstorming, or SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats) analysis. These techniques can help identify the key factors and aspects that need to be considered in the feasibility study.

Overall, identifying the project scope is a crucial step in conducting a feasibility study. It provides a clear foundation for the study and helps ensure that all relevant factors are considered in the analysis.

Analyzing the Market Potential

When considering a feasibility study, one of the critical aspects to analyze is the market potential. It is essential to examine the existing market conditions and assess the potential demand for the proposed project or business venture.

1. Market Size: Start by determining the overall size of the market you plan to enter. This can be done by researching industry reports, government data, and conducting surveys or interviews. Understanding the market size will provide insights into the potential customer base and the level of competition.

2. Market Trends: Analyze the ongoing and emerging trends in your target market. This can include changes in customer preferences, technological advancements, economic factors, and regulatory developments. Identifying market trends will help you adapt your business strategy to meet the evolving demands of customers.

3. Target Market Segment: Identify the specific segment of the market that your product or service will cater to. This can be based on factors such as demographics, geographic location, psychographics, or customer behavior. Understanding your target market will enable you to tailor your marketing efforts and create effective promotional campaigns.

4. Customer Needs and Preferences: Conduct market research to understand the needs, preferences, and purchasing habits of your potential customers. This can be done through surveys, focus groups, or direct observation. By understanding what customers want and how they make purchasing decisions, you can develop products and services that meet their needs and create a competitive advantage.

5. Competitive Analysis: Study the existing and potential competitors in the market. Identify their strengths, weaknesses, market share, pricing strategies, and marketing tactics. This analysis will help you understand your position in the market and devise strategies to differentiate your offering from competitors.

6. Sales and Revenue Projection: Use the gathered market data and information to project future sales and revenue. This can include forecasting sales volumes, pricing strategies, and estimated market share. It is crucial to be realistic and conservative in your projections, taking into account factors such as market saturation, economic conditions, and potential obstacles.

7. Risk Assessment: Evaluate potential risks and challenges that may affect the feasibility and profitability of your project. This can include factors such as changes in market conditions, competition, regulatory requirements, and financial risks. By identifying and addressing potential risks in advance, you can develop mitigating strategies and make informed decisions.

By thoroughly analyzing the market potential, you can gain valuable insights into the feasibility and profitability of your project. This information will guide you in making informed business decisions and developing a solid business plan to secure funding and attract potential investors.

Assessing the Technical Feasibility

Assessing the technical feasibility is an essential step in conducting a comprehensive feasibility study for a project in the Philippines. This section evaluates the technical aspects of the proposed project to determine whether it is technically feasible to implement.

Here are the key factors to consider when assessing the technical feasibility:

  • Availability of Resources: The study should identify the availability of the necessary resources, including human resources, materials, and equipment, to implement the project. It is important to determine if these resources are readily accessible and if any potential constraints or limitations may affect their availability.
  • Technological Requirements: Assessing the technical feasibility involves analyzing the technological requirements of the project. This includes evaluating whether the proposed technology is available and suitable for the project, as well as any potential technical challenges that may arise during implementation.
  • Infrastructure: The feasibility study should also assess the existing infrastructure and its capability to support the project. This includes evaluating the adequacy of transportation networks, utilities, communication systems, and other necessary infrastructure elements.
  • Environmental Impact: Another important aspect to consider is the potential environmental impact of the proposed project. This involves assessing whether the project complies with environmental regulations and standards, as well as evaluating any potential risks or negative impacts it may have on the environment.
  • Operational Considerations: Evaluating the technical feasibility should also take into account the operational considerations of the project. This includes assessing the project’s operational requirements, such as staffing, training, maintenance, and ongoing support.

By thoroughly assessing the technical feasibility, project stakeholders can better understand the potential challenges and limitations that may arise during the implementation of the project. This information is crucial for making informed decisions and determining the project’s overall feasibility.

Note: It is recommended to consult with technical experts and professionals in the relevant field to ensure a comprehensive evaluation of the technical feasibility.

Components of a Feasibility Study

A feasibility study is a crucial step in determining the viability of a project or business idea. It helps assess the technical, economic, legal, and operational aspects of the venture. A comprehensive feasibility study typically includes the following components:

  • Executive Summary: This section provides a concise overview of the entire feasibility study, including the project’s goals, key findings, and recommendations.
  • Introduction: This section provides background information about the project, such as its objectives, scope, and purpose.
  • Market Analysis: This component assesses the potential demand and market conditions for the project’s products or services. It includes an analysis of the target market size, trends, competition, and customer preferences.
  • Technical Analysis: This section evaluates the technical feasibility of the project by examining the required technology, infrastructure, equipment, and resources. It includes a review of the project’s design, construction, and operation.
  • Financial Analysis: This component assesses the project’s financial viability by examining the estimated costs, revenue projections, profitability, cash flow, and return on investment. It includes a sensitivity analysis to evaluate the project’s financial risks and potential scenarios.
  • Legal and Regulatory Analysis: This section reviews the legal and regulatory requirements that the project must comply with, such as permits, licenses, environmental regulations, and zoning restrictions.
  • Operational Analysis: This component evaluates the operational aspects of the project, including the production process, management structure, labor requirements, and supply chain. It assesses the project’s ability to meet production targets and deliver products or services efficiently.
  • Risk Analysis: This section identifies and assesses the potential risks and uncertainties associated with the project. It includes a risk management plan to mitigate and monitor these risks.
  • Conclusion: This component summarizes the key findings of the feasibility study and provides a recommendation on whether to proceed with the project or not.

A well-prepared feasibility study provides valuable insights and data that help decision-makers make informed choices about the project’s viability and potential success.

Executive Summary

Executive Summary

The executive summary is a brief overview of the feasibility study, highlighting the key findings, conclusions, and recommendations. It serves as a snapshot of the entire study, providing a concise summary of the project’s viability.

The feasibility study was conducted to assess the potential of establishing a new business venture in the Philippines. The study focused on evaluating the feasibility of opening a coffee shop in a prime location in Manila.

Based on the market research and financial analysis, it was found that there is a high demand for specialty coffee shops in Manila, and the target market is willing to pay premium prices for quality coffee and a unique café experience.

The coffee shop is projected to generate significant revenue, with a potential return on investment within three years. The market analysis also revealed that there are limited competitors in the area, providing a favorable position for the coffee shop to capture a significant market share.

The study identified several key success factors for the coffee shop, including a strategic location, quality products, excellent customer service, and effective marketing strategies. By focusing on these factors, the coffee shop can differentiate itself from competitors and attract a loyal customer base.

Furthermore, the financial analysis revealed that the project has a positive net present value, indicating that it is financially viable. The projected financial statements, including income statement, cash flow statement, and balance sheet, showed favorable financial performance throughout the projected period.

Based on these findings, the study recommends moving forward with the establishment of the coffee shop. The study proposes a detailed implementation plan, including the location selection, construction, equipment and inventory acquisition, staffing, and marketing strategies.

In conclusion, the feasibility study has determined that opening a coffee shop in Manila is a viable business opportunity. With a strong demand from the target market, a favorable competitive landscape, and positive financial projections, the coffee shop has the potential for long-term success.

Project Description

The project aims to conduct a feasibility study for a business venture in the Philippines. The study will involve analyzing the viability of the proposed project and determining its potential for success.

The project will be conducted in the following steps:

  • Identification of the project: The first step will involve identifying the nature of the proposed business venture.
  • Market analysis: A comprehensive market analysis will be conducted to determine the demand and potential growth of the product or service in the target market.
  • Technical analysis: The technical feasibility of the project will be evaluated, including the required resources, technology, and infrastructure.
  • Financial analysis: A financial analysis will be carried out to determine the projected costs, revenues, and potential return on investment.
  • Risk assessment: The potential risks and challenges of the project will be identified and analyzed to develop contingency plans and risk mitigation strategies.
  • Social and environmental impact assessment: The study will also evaluate the social and environmental impacts of the proposed project.

The feasibility study will provide insights and recommendations that will guide decision-making regarding the implementation of the project. It will help stakeholders determine whether the project is viable, financially feasible, and socially and environmentally responsible.

The project will be carried out by a team of experts in various fields, including market research, finance, technology, and environmental studies. The team will collaborate to gather data, conduct analysis, and present findings and recommendations.

The project is expected to be completed within a specified timeframe and will involve coordination and communication with relevant stakeholders, such as potential investors, government agencies, and local communities.

Overall, the project aims to provide a comprehensive assessment of the proposed business venture to support informed decision-making and ensure the successful implementation of the project.

Market Analysis

The market analysis is a crucial part of the feasibility study as it helps in determining the market potential, identifying the target market, and assessing the competition. This information is essential for making informed decisions about the viability of a business venture.

During the market analysis, various factors are considered, including market size, growth potential, customer preferences, and market trends. This section aims to provide a comprehensive understanding of the market dynamics and the opportunities available.

Market Size and Growth Potential

The first step in the market analysis is to determine the size of the target market. This involves conducting thorough research to gather relevant data on the number of potential customers and their buying power. The data can be obtained from various sources such as government reports, industry publications, and market research studies.

Once the market size has been identified, it is essential to assess the growth potential. This can be done by analyzing historical data and studying market trends. It is crucial to identify the factors driving market growth, such as population growth, economic development, and changing consumer preferences.

Target Market

Identifying the target market is another critical aspect of the market analysis. This involves segmenting the market based on various criteria, such as demographics, psychographics, and behavior. By defining the target market, businesses can tailor their products and marketing strategies to meet the specific needs and preferences of the target customers.

Furthermore, understanding the target market helps in determining the appropriate pricing strategy, distribution channels, and promotional activities. It also allows businesses to identify any untapped market segments and develop strategies to capture them.

Competition Analysis

Competition Analysis

An important part of the market analysis is assessing the competition. This involves identifying and analyzing the existing competitors in the market. The analysis should include factors such as the number of competitors, their market share, product offerings, pricing strategies, and marketing activities.

Furthermore, it is essential to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the competitors to identify any competitive advantages that can be exploited. This analysis helps in determining the positioning strategy and developing strategies to differentiate the business from its competitors.

Market Trends

An analysis of market trends is crucial to understanding the dynamics of the market and predicting future demand. This involves studying factors such as changes in consumer preferences, technological advancements, regulatory changes, and economic trends.

By identifying market trends, businesses can adapt their products and services to meet the evolving needs of customers. It also helps in identifying any emerging opportunities or threats in the market.

The market analysis is a vital component of the feasibility study as it provides an in-depth understanding of the market dynamics and the opportunities available. By conducting a thorough market analysis, businesses can make informed decisions about the viability of their business venture and develop strategies to succeed in the market.

Financial Considerations in a Feasibility Study

When conducting a feasibility study, one of the most important aspects to consider is the financial viability of the project or business venture. This section will outline the key financial considerations that should be included in a feasibility study.

1. Cost of Investment:

The cost of investment is an essential financial consideration, as it helps determine the feasibility of the project. This includes the initial capital required to start the project, such as land, buildings, equipment, and machinery. Additionally, ongoing operational costs, including salaries, utilities, and maintenance, should also be included.

2. Revenue Generation:

It is crucial to assess the potential revenue that the project or business venture can generate. This can be determined by analyzing market demand, pricing strategies, and possible sales volumes. Forecasting revenues will provide insights into the financial viability of the project.

3. Profitability:

The feasibility study should include a detailed analysis of the projected profitability of the project. This can be done by calculating the expected gross profit margin, operating profit margin, and net profit margin. These figures will help determine the financial viability of the project and its ability to generate sufficient profits.

4. Cash Flow Analysis:

Another key financial consideration is the cash flow analysis. This involves assessing the inflows and outflows of cash over a specific period. Forecasting cash flows helps identify potential cash shortages and allows for proper financial planning to meet all financial obligations.

5. Return on Investment (ROI):

Calculating the return on investment is essential to determine the financial viability of the project. ROI measures the profitability of an investment and compares it to the initial cost. A higher ROI indicates a more favorable investment.

6. Break-Even Analysis:

A break-even analysis helps determine the point at which the project starts generating profits and recouping the initial investment. This analysis calculates the minimum number of units or sales volume required to cover all costs and achieve profitability.

7. Financing Options:

The feasibility study should explore different financing options available for the project. This includes assessing the possibility of obtaining loans from financial institutions, attracting investors, or using personal funds. Evaluating the cost and accessibility of financing options is crucial for the project’s financial feasibility.

8. Risk Assessment:

Finally, a thorough risk assessment should be included in the financial considerations of a feasibility study. This entails identifying potential risks that could affect the project’s profitability, such as market fluctuations, competition, governmental policies, and economic factors. Developing risk mitigation strategies will help minimize the potential financial risks.

In conclusion, conducting a comprehensive financial analysis is crucial in determining the feasibility of a project. By considering the cost of investment, revenue generation, profitability, cash flow analysis, ROI, break-even analysis, financing options, and risk assessment, a feasibility study can provide valuable insights into the financial viability of a project or business venture.


What is a feasibility study.

A feasibility study is a process of evaluating the potential success of a project or business venture. It assesses various factors such as market demand, financial viability, and technical feasibility to determine if the project is viable and worth pursuing.

Why is a feasibility study important?

A feasibility study is important because it helps businesses and entrepreneurs make informed decisions about whether or not to proceed with a project. It provides valuable insights into potential risks and challenges, as well as the overall feasibility and profitability of the proposed venture.

What are the key components of a feasibility study?

A feasibility study typically includes several key components such as market analysis, technical analysis, financial analysis, risk assessment, and project evaluation. These components help assess the viability and potential success of the project from different perspectives.

How long does a feasibility study usually take?

The duration of a feasibility study can vary depending on the complexity and scope of the project. It can take anywhere from a few weeks to several months to complete a thorough feasibility study.

What are some common challenges in conducting a feasibility study?

Some common challenges in conducting a feasibility study include obtaining accurate and reliable data, predicting future market conditions, assessing potential risks and uncertainties, and keeping the study objective and unbiased. It is important to address these challenges to ensure the accuracy and reliability of the study results.

A feasibility study is a thorough assessment of the viability of a proposed project or venture. It evaluates all aspects of the project, including its technical, economic, legal, and operational feasibility.

A feasibility study is important because it helps determine whether a project is worth pursuing or not. It assesses the potential risks and benefits of the project and provides valuable insights for decision-making.

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