Finance Essay Topics

Barbara P

Step Up Your Game with These 200 Unique Finance Essay Topics

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Published on: May 7, 2023

Last updated on: Jan 31, 2024

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Do you find yourself struggling to come up with a compelling topic for your finance essay? Are you feeling overwhelmed by the complex landscape of financial markets and policies?

If so, don't worry – you're not alone!

Choosing the right topic is crucial for the success of your essay. You need to find a problem that is both relevant and interesting, and that you can feasibly research and analyze. 

But with so many potential topics to choose from, where do you even start?

That's where we come in!

In this blog, we'll provide you a variety of finance essay topics that will help you stand out from the crowd. 

We'll also provide you with tips to polish your ideas, so you can craft a truly compelling essay.

So, let's dive into the fascinating world of finance essay topics and discover new insights together!

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Corporate Finance Essay Topics 

If you are interested in how companies manage their financial resources, corporate finance may be the field for you. 

Here are essay topics related to corporate finance:

  • Analyzing the impact of dividend policies on shareholder value
  • Evaluating the use of financial derivatives to manage corporate risk
  • Assessing the impact of mergers and acquisitions on firm performance
  • Investigating the role of corporate governance in preventing financial scandals
  • Analyzing the relationship between corporate social responsibility and financial performance
  • Examining the effects of financial distress on corporate decision-making
  • Evaluating the impact of exchange rate fluctuations on multinational corporations
  • Assessing the effectiveness of performance-based compensation for CEOs
  • Analyzing the impact of technological innovation on corporate financial performance
  • Investigating the effectiveness of financial forecasting models for strategic decision-making

Personal Finance Essay Topics 

Managing personal finances can be challenging, especially in today's economy. Check out these personal finance essay topics:

  • Analyzing the impact of credit scores on loan approval rates
  • Evaluating the effectiveness of budgeting tools and apps for personal finance management
  • Investigating the impact of financial literacy on retirement planning
  • Analyzing the benefits and drawbacks of using a financial advisor
  • Assessing the effectiveness of debt consolidation strategies for managing multiple loans
  • Examining the impact of rising healthcare costs on retirement planning
  • Evaluating the effectiveness of online investment platforms for small investors
  • Analyzing the impact of financial stress on mental health
  • Investigating the effectiveness of online personal finance courses for improving financial literacy
  • Assessing the impact of tax policies on personal savings rates

Banking and Finance Essay Topics 

  • The role of central banks in managing monetary policy
  • The impact of Basel III on banking regulation
  • The effectiveness of risk management in commercial banks
  • The effects of bank mergers and acquisitions on competition
  • The relationship between credit risk and profitability in banking
  • The role of fintech in transforming the banking industry
  • The impact of financial innovation on banking operations
  • The impact of non-performing loans on banking stability
  • The challenges of bank regulation in the digital age

Business Finance Essay Topics

  • The impact of leverage on firm performance
  • The role of financial ratios in evaluating business performance
  • The effects of working capital management on profitability
  • The impact of dividend policy on shareholder value
  • The relationship between corporate governance and financial performance
  • The role of venture capital in financing new businesses
  • The challenges of international business finance
  • The effects of trade credit on small business financing
  • The impact of intellectual property on business valuation
  • The role of microfinance in supporting small businesses  

Public Finance Essay Topics

  • The role of government in promoting economic growth
  • The impact of taxation on income inequality
  • The effects of fiscal policy on aggregate demand
  • The role of public-private partnerships in infrastructure finance
  • The impact of government debt on economic stability
  • The challenges of financing social security systems
  • The role of subsidies in promoting renewable energy
  • The impact of globalization on public finance
  • The challenges of public finance in developing countries
  • The impact of climate change on public finance

Accounting and Finance Essay Topics 

  • The impact of financial reporting on investor decisions
  • The role of accounting standards in financial reporting
  • The effects of fair value accounting on financial statements
  • The relationship between corporate governance and financial reporting quality
  • The impact of financial statement analysis on investment decisions
  • The challenges of auditing in the digital age
  • The role of forensic accounting in fraud detection
  • The impact of tax accounting on corporate finance
  • The challenges of accounting for intangible assets
  • The effects of accounting regulations on multinational corporations

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International Finance Essay Topics 

  • The impact of exchange rate volatility on international trade
  • The role of international financial institutions in promoting economic development
  • The effects of capital flows on emerging market economies
  • The impact of currency manipulation on trade balance sheets
  • The relationship between foreign direct investment and economic growth
  • The challenges of cross-border banking regulation
  • The role of international capital markets in financing global infrastructure
  • The impact of trade policies on international finance
  • The effects of globalization on international financial stability
  • The role of sovereign wealth funds in global finance

Behavioral Finance Essay Topics

If you are interested in this field, consider exploring these essay topics:

  • Analyzing the impact of herd behavior on stock market bubbles
  • Evaluating the effectiveness of financial education in reducing cognitive biases
  • Investigating the impact of overconfidence on investment decision-making
  • Analyzing the role of emotions in financial decision-making
  • Assessing the impact of loss aversion on portfolio management
  • Examining the effects of framing on financial decision-making
  • Evaluating the effectiveness of behavioral finance theories in predicting market trends
  • Analyzing the impact of social norms on financial decision-making
  • Investigating the effectiveness of nudges in promoting financial well-being
  • Assessing the impact of cultural differences on behavioral finance

Healthcare Finance Essay Topics 

  • The impact of healthcare financing on access to healthcare services
  • Healthcare cost control strategies and their effectiveness in improving healthcare quality
  • Analyzing the role of health insurance in healthcare financing
  • The relationship between healthcare financing and health outcomes
  • The effect of healthcare financing on health inequalities
  • The role of public-private partnership (ppp) in healthcare financing
  • The impact of healthcare financing on technological advancements in healthcare sector
  • Healthcare financing policies in addressing the burden of non-communicable diseases 
  • The relationship between healthcare financing and social protection
  • The role of healthcare financing in achieving universal health coverage

Good Finance Essay Topics

  • The impact of the gig economy on personal finance management
  • The role of technology in shaping the future of finance
  • Analyzing the ethics of tax avoidance and tax evasion in the corporate world
  • The importance of financial education in modern society
  • A comparative analysis of the effectiveness of traditional and digital banking systems
  • The role of behavioral finance in shaping investment strategies
  • The impact of social media on the stock market
  • Analyzing the ethical dilemmas of investment banking
  • The role of financial institutions in promoting economic growth and development
  • A critical analysis of the effectiveness of microfinance in poverty alleviation

Finance Paper Topics

  • The impact of corporate social responsibility on financial performance
  • The role of financial regulation in preventing another global financial crisis
  • The impact of inflation on the stock market
  • Analyzing the financial implications of climate change
  • The effectiveness of alternative financing methods for small businesses
  • The impact of political instability on international finance
  • Analyzing the effectiveness of crowdfunding platforms
  • The role of credit rating agencies in the financial market
  • The impact of e-commerce on the retail banking industry
  • A comparative analysis of the financial performance of publicly traded and privately held companies

Finance Essay Questions

Looking for some interesting finance essay questions to explore new ideas? Check them out:

  • How does the stock market reflect the state of the economy?
  • What are the ethical implications of insider trading?
  • How do interest rates affect the global economy?
  • What are the advantages and disadvantages of investing in the stock market?
  • How has technology transformed the financial services industry?
  • What is the impact of globalization on international finance?
  • How can financial institutions promote financial inclusion and literacy?
  • What are the challenges of managing personal finances in today's society?
  • How can behavioral finance concepts be applied to investment strategies?
  • What are the key factors that contribute to financial market instability?

Finance Argumentative Essay Topics

  • Should governments regulate cryptocurrency?
  • Is it ethical for companies to use tax loopholes to avoid paying their fair share?
  • Should banks be held responsible for the global financial crisis of 2008?
  • Is the current student loan system fair to borrowers?
  • Should there be limits on CEO salaries in the finance industry?
  • Is insider trading ever justified?
  • Should the government provide free financial education to the public?
  • Is the stock market an accurate reflection of the economy as a whole?
  • Should high-frequency trading be allowed?
  • Is it ethical for companies to invest in environmentally harmful industries?

Financial Related Essay Topics

  • The importance of financial planning for a secure financial future
  • Efficient market hypothesis and its implications for investment decision making
  • The impact of globalization on financial markets and the economy
  • An analysis of the impact of interest rates on the housing market
  • The role of financial institutions in promoting economic growth
  • The ethics of corporate finance and its impact on corporate social responsibility
  • The role of central banks in regulating the economy
  • The impact of financial regulation on the banking sector
  • The role of financial markets in facilitating international trade

Research Topics in Finance

  • An analysis of the impact of exchange rate fluctuations on international trade
  • The effectiveness of credit rating agencies in predicting corporate default risk
  • The impact of corporate governance on firm performance
  • An analysis of the impact of financial innovation on the banking sector
  • The relationship between dividend policy and firm value
  • The role of financial intermediaries in promoting entrepreneurship
  • The impact of insider trading on stock prices
  • The impact of political instability on financial markets
  • The role of microfinance in promoting financial inclusion
  • An analysis of the impact of corporate social responsibility on firm performance

Financial Crisis Research Paper Topics

Let's delve into the world of finance and crisis with these topics!

  • The causes of the 2008 financial crisis and its impact on the global economy
  • An analysis of the regulatory failures that led to the 2008 financial crisis
  • The role of the housing market in the 2008 financial crisis
  • The impact of the 1997 Asian financial crisis on emerging economies
  • The impact of the European sovereign debt crisis on the Eurozone economy
  • The role of financial institutions in the 2011 European debt crisis
  • The impact of the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic on the global economy
  • Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP) in stabilizing the US financial system 
  • The impact of the 1970s oil crisis on the global economy and financial markets
  • The lessons learned from past financial crises and their implications for future 

Financial Management Essay Topics

  • The role of financial management in a company's success
  • Analyzing the financial risks and rewards of different investment strategies
  • The impact of globalization on financial management practices
  • The importance of financial forecasting for business planning and decision-making
  • How financial management practices can be used to mitigate financial risks
  • The role of financial management in mergers and acquisitions
  • Best practices for managing cash flow in small businesses
  • The impact of interest rates on financial management decisions
  • The challenges and opportunities of managing finances in non-profit organizations
  • The use of financial ratios and other analytical tools in financial management

Exciting Financial Essay Topics

  • How to create a successful personal finance plan for long-term financial security
  • Investigating the role of fintech in shaping the future of the financial industry
  • The ethical implications of corporate social responsibility in financial decision-making
  • Analyzing the impact of COVID-19 on global financial markets and economies
  • Exploring the potential benefits and risks of investing in emerging markets
  • Investigating the use of big data and AI in financial decision-making
  • The future of digital currencies and their impact on traditional financial systems
  • The role of financial regulation in preventing financial crises and promoting stability
  • Analyzing the impact of interest rate fluctuations on personal and corporate finances
  • Investigating the use of blockchain technology in financial transactions

Investment Essay Topics

  • Analyzing the impact of diversification on portfolio management
  • Evaluating the effectiveness of value investing strategies
  • Investigating the impact of market volatility on investment performance
  • Analyzing the role of financial advisors in investment decision-making
  • Assessing the effectiveness of socially responsible investing strategies
  • Examining the effects of behavioral biases on investment performance
  • Evaluating the impact of technological innovation on investment management
  • Analyzing the effectiveness of momentum investing strategies
  • Investigating the impact of interest rates on investment performance
  • Assessing the effectiveness of robo-advisors in portfolio management

Tips for Choosing a Good Finance Essay Topic 

When it comes to writing a finance essay, choosing a good topic is crucial to the success of your paper. 

To help you select the best finance essay topic, here are some tips:

  • Consider your Interests: Start by thinking about your personal interests and passions. Choosing a topic that you're genuinely interested in can help you stay motivated. It will kep you engaged throughout the writing process.
  • Narrow your Focus: Finance is a broad field. It's important to narrow down your topic to a specific aspect or subtopic. This will help you focus your research and ensure that your essay has a clear and concise argument.
  • Research Current Events: Stay up to date with current financial news and trends. This can help you identify emerging issues and topics that are relevant and timely.
  • Look for Controversy: Controversial topics can make for compelling essays, but be careful to approach them with objectivity and balance. Avoid taking extreme positions or relying on biased sources.
  • Consider your Audience: Think about your intended audience and what topics may be of interest or relevance to them. This can help you tailor your essay to their needs and expectations.

All in all , finance is a vast and complex field with many opportunities for research and exploration. To create a well-written essay, it's important to select a topic that aligns with your interests. By following these steps, you can showcase your knowledge and understanding of finance.

Feeling overwhelmed with your academic workload? Let us take the burden off your shoulders – simply say, " write my essay for me ," and we'll deliver top-quality essays tailored to your needs.

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Barbara P (Literature)

Barbara is a highly educated and qualified author with a Ph.D. in public health from an Ivy League university. She has spent a significant amount of time working in the medical field, conducting a thorough study on a variety of health issues. Her work has been published in several major publications.

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Public Finance and Its Role Essay

Introduction, principles of public finance, the equi-marginal principle, pareto criterion, public choice, the budget process.

Public finance deals with the role a government plays in the economy of the country. It is a section of economics that evaluates public revenue and expenditure, particularly taxes. This paper discusses different concepts regarding public finance and their application in the budget-making process.

Public finance assesses the effect of the government on equitable distribution of resources, income, and macroeconomic stability. The primary objectives of public finance are to control essential sectors of the economy, for example, agriculture, foreign trade, and industries, and to provide basic services to citizens of a nation. These services include security, protection of life, and maintenance of law and order. Other roles of public finance include providing social services such as medical care and education, and ensuring sustainable economic development.

The equi-marginal principle is an economic concept that is widely used in the budgeting process. According to this principle, when consumers divide their income among various products and services, they are likely to choose combinations of products that maximize their satisfaction. Therefore, it is also known as the principle of maximum satisfaction. This principle provides for the maximum utilization of inputs to increase profitability. The equi-marginal principle can be applied in budget discussions by guiding the allocation of resources to sectors that yield maximum returns. Consequently, the government can accept investments with high return rates to ensure optimum utilization of capital resources.

Pareto criterion is an economic state whereby in the distribution of resources, one entity improves its position while the other entities’ positions worsen. It is impossible to improve one party’s situation without making affecting the other party’s situation. This criterion does not entail equal distribution of resources. A Pareto improvement is a change that enables at least one unit to improve its position without interfering with the position of another entity (Caamaño-Alegre, 2016). In the economic state of potential Pareto criterion, the winning entity makes enough benefits to be able to compensate the other unit. However, the application of this rule may lead to certain issues.

Public choice is a segment of economics that is derived from the study of public spending and taxation. Public choice applies the same principles used by economists to evaluate consumers’ behavior in the marketplace and uses these ideologies to assess people’s behavior in the decision-making process. The public choice theory is sometimes applied when describing how government decision-making often results in consequences that are opposed to the interests of the public. Consequently, proponents of the public choice theory claim that politics is full of irrationality (Hindmoor & Taylor, 2015).

The budgeting process is the hallmark of an excellent public expenditure management process. Budget preparation is essential to control public expenditure, ensure proper allocation of resources, and guarantee effective delivery of public services. Legal and regulatory frameworks direct the budget-making process. The first step in the budget process involves assessing the soundness of a budget, which includes checking to ensure that the budget covers all government operations comprehensively and upholds transparency.

It is also necessary to ascertain that the budget is based on a realistic macroeconomic framework. The Pareto principle applies during the budgetary allocation of funds to different items. For example, when funds are limited, allocating extra resources to one need may have a detrimental effect on the other requirements. Therefore, there is a need to strike a balance during resource allocation. The second step in the budget-making process is ensuring that the budget abides by the rules that guide the budgeting process in a given country. The final step is identifying different responsibilities within the budget system. This step includes obtaining information about budgeting powers, budgeting timetable, legislative limits, and funding of activities.

Management of public finance and budgeting play an important role in creating socioeconomic balance. These factors also determine the macroeconomic performance by balancing the income and expenditure. For these reasons, it is necessary to consider how different public finance concepts affect the budget process.

Caamaño-Alegre, J. (2016). The search for a better public/private mix in contemporary market economies. Science , 4 (32), 24-28.

Hindmoor, A., & Taylor, B. (2015). Rational choice (2 nd ed.). London, Great Britain: Palgrave Macmillan Ltd.

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IvyPanda. (2020, October 31). Public Finance and Its Role.

"Public Finance and Its Role." IvyPanda , 31 Oct. 2020,

IvyPanda . (2020) 'Public Finance and Its Role'. 31 October.

IvyPanda . 2020. "Public Finance and Its Role." October 31, 2020.

1. IvyPanda . "Public Finance and Its Role." October 31, 2020.


IvyPanda . "Public Finance and Its Role." October 31, 2020.

Essays in Public Finance

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This dissertation addresses three interrelated questions regarding the markets through which governments raise funds. Public entities around the world commonly raise revenue by levying taxes or by selling bonds. I examine aspects of both mechanisms in the US context as well as their interaction. Focusing on how public financial decisions affect private markets in the US, I examine (1) the process by which municipal bonds are created and sold, (2) how tax treatment of municipal bond income affects the underwriting process, and (3) how corporate tax incentives change worker outcomes.

Like in many financial markets, the governments issuing municipal bonds often don't have the expertise to accurately construct debt packages, price individual bonds, or place bonds with final investors. To interact with the market, municipalities often hire two types of intermediaries: financial advisors and underwriters. The financial advisors structure a bond package while the underwriters buy these bonds from municipalities and sell them to investors. The second chapter examines a policy change from the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010 that requires these two distinct roles are filled by different firms. To determine if allowing both underwriter and advisor to be the same firm distorts outcomes, I use a difference in differences approach to measure bond outcomes for municipalities who hired different types of advisors before and after the Dodd-Frank regulation. I find bonds sold with an advisor who could also be an underwriter experience a decrease in interest costs after the advisor is no longer allowed to underwrite. The improvement in outcomes from the municipality's perspective is driven in part by a large increase in competition from non-advisor underwriters that more than offsets missing competition from the advisor--consistent with the partial resolution of a winner's curse.

The third chapter also sheds light on how the imperfect competition in the underwriting market for municipal bonds affects borrowing outcomes. Most municipal bonds sold in the US pay interest that is exempt from personal income taxation at federal and state levels. This personal income tax exemption is contentious because, in isolation, it primarily benefits individuals paying top marginal tax rates. Using variation in federal taxes, state taxes, and their interaction from 2008 to 2015, I first show that increases in taxes are associated with surprisingly large decreases in borrowing costs for municipalities. This fact motivates the estimation of an empirical auction model with conditionally independent private values that features endogenous entry of potential bidders, endogenous entry into an auction stage, and unobserved heterogeneity across auctions. The model shows that very large elasticities of markups drive larger than unity passthrough from the tax advantages to municipal borrowing costs on average. The model is used to estimate counterfactual tax regimes and highlights how changes in federal tax rules have heterogeneous effects across space with some states gaining and others losing with the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017.

The fourth chapter empirically measures how another federal tax incentive, ``Bonus'' depreciation, affects areas across the US differently. Incentives for capital investment are used in the US and around the world to inspire business growth with the stated goals of creating jobs. Using a panel regression model and cross sectional variation in exposure to the types of firms that benefit from Bonus depreciation, I show that moving from the 25th percentile to the 75th percentile of exposure to treated firms increases local employment by about 3%.


Garrett, Daniel G (2021). Essays in Public Finance . Dissertation, Duke University. Retrieved from .


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Public Finance Research Paper Topics

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In this comprehensive guide, we provide a wide range of public finance research paper topics divided into 10 categories, along with expert advice on topic selection and valuable insights on writing a successful research paper. Furthermore, iResearchNet’s custom writing services offer students the opportunity to order a custom public finance research paper tailored to their specific needs. With expert degree-holding writers, in-depth research, customized solutions, and timely delivery, iResearchNet is your ideal partner in achieving academic excellence in public finance research.

100 Public Finance Research Paper Topics

In the realm of public finance, there is a multitude of intriguing and relevant research topics to explore. To assist you in finding the perfect research paper topic, we have compiled a comprehensive list divided into 10 categories. Each category covers a distinct area within public finance, offering a wide range of possibilities for your research. Choose a category that aligns with your interests and academic goals, and discover captivating research paper topics within each category:

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Taxation and Revenue Research Paper Topics

  • The impact of progressive taxation on income inequality
  • Evaluating the effectiveness of tax incentives for businesses
  • Analysis of the relationship between tax policy and economic growth
  • Assessing the implications of tax evasion and avoidance on government revenue
  • The role of taxation in environmental sustainability and climate change mitigation
  • Examining the effects of taxation on consumer behavior and purchasing decisions
  • Analyzing the fairness and equity of different tax systems
  • Exploring the impact of international tax competition on domestic revenue
  • Assessing the efficiency of tax collection and administration mechanisms
  • The role of tax policy in promoting social welfare and reducing poverty

Public Expenditure Research Paper Topics

  • The role of government spending in stimulating economic development
  • Analyzing the efficiency of public investment projects
  • The impact of government welfare programs on poverty reduction
  • Evaluating the effectiveness of public education expenditure in improving educational outcomes
  • Analyzing the allocation of public funds for healthcare and its impact on public health outcomes
  • Exploring the relationship between public infrastructure investment and economic productivity
  • Assessing the consequences of military spending on economic growth and social welfare
  • The role of public expenditure in addressing income inequality and promoting social justice
  • Analyzing the impact of government subsidies on specific industries or sectors
  • Evaluating the effectiveness of government grants and aid programs in supporting economic development

Fiscal Policy Research Paper Topics

  • Examining the effectiveness of countercyclical fiscal policies in stabilizing the economy
  • The role of fiscal policy in addressing income inequality
  • Analyzing the consequences of budget deficits and public debt on economic stability
  • Assessing the impact of fiscal policy on inflation and price stability
  • Exploring the relationship between fiscal policy and unemployment rates
  • Evaluating the role of fiscal policy in promoting sustainable economic growth
  • Analyzing the effects of fiscal decentralization on regional economic disparities
  • The impact of fiscal policy on private sector investment and entrepreneurship
  • Assessing the effectiveness of fiscal rules and fiscal responsibility frameworks
  • Exploring the political economy of fiscal policy decision-making

Public Debt and Financial Markets Research Paper Topics

  • Evaluating the impact of government debt on interest rates and borrowing costs
  • Analyzing the effects of sovereign debt crises on financial markets
  • Exploring the role of credit rating agencies in assessing government bonds
  • The impact of government debt on long-term economic growth
  • Evaluating the sustainability of public debt and potential fiscal risks
  • The role of central banks in managing government debt and monetary policy
  • Analyzing the effects of fiscal consolidation and austerity measures on economic recovery
  • Exploring the implications of debt restructuring and forgiveness for developing countries
  • Assessing the impact of public debt on intergenerational equity and future generations
  • The role of financial innovation in public debt management and risk mitigation

Public-Private Partnerships Research Paper Topics

  • Assessing the benefits and challenges of public-private partnerships in infrastructure development
  • Analyzing the role of public-private partnerships in healthcare provision
  • Evaluating the efficiency of public-private partnerships in education
  • Exploring the impact of public-private partnerships on service quality and affordability
  • The role of government regulations and policies in fostering successful public-private partnerships
  • Analyzing the risks and rewards of public-private partnerships for both parties involved
  • Assessing the economic and social outcomes of public-private partnerships in transportation
  • Exploring the role of public-private partnerships in fostering innovation and technological advancements
  • Evaluating the impact of public-private partnerships on job creation and economic growth
  • Analyzing the accountability and transparency mechanisms in public-private partnerships

Economic Growth and Development Research Paper Topics

  • Investigating the relationship between public investment and economic growth
  • Analyzing the impact of government policies on regional development disparities
  • Exploring the role of foreign aid in promoting economic development
  • Assessing the effects of trade liberalization on economic growth and income distribution
  • Analyzing the impact of corruption on economic development and foreign direct investment
  • Evaluating the effectiveness of industrial policies in fostering economic diversification
  • Exploring the role of entrepreneurship and innovation in economic growth
  • Assessing the impact of infrastructure development on economic competitiveness
  • The role of human capital formation in sustainable economic development
  • Analyzing the effects of natural resource abundance on economic growth and governance

Environmental Economics and Sustainable Development Research Paper Topics

  • Evaluating the effectiveness of environmental taxation in reducing pollution
  • Analyzing the economic consequences of climate change policies
  • Exploring the role of economic incentives in promoting sustainable development
  • Assessing the impact of environmental regulations on firm behavior and competitiveness
  • The economic implications of renewable energy adoption and energy transition
  • Analyzing the relationship between economic growth and environmental degradation
  • Evaluating the effectiveness of international agreements and protocols in addressing environmental challenges
  • Exploring the role of market-based instruments in environmental conservation
  • Assessing the economic costs and benefits of biodiversity conservation efforts
  • The role of behavioral economics in promoting pro-environmental behavior

Public Finance and Public Administration Research Paper Topics

  • Assessing the efficiency and effectiveness of public budgeting processes
  • Analyzing the impact of public finance reforms on government transparency
  • Exploring the role of public finance in supporting public service delivery
  • Evaluating the effects of decentralization on fiscal management and accountability
  • The role of performance-based budgeting in improving public sector performance
  • Analyzing the challenges and opportunities of digitalization in public finance management
  • Assessing the impact of political factors on public finance decision-making
  • Exploring the role of public finance in promoting social welfare and equality
  • Evaluating the effects of corruption on public finance and governance
  • The role of public finance in supporting economic development in developing countries

Behavioral Economics and Public Finance Research Paper Topics

  • Examining the behavioral biases in taxation decisions
  • Analyzing the impact of social norms on tax compliance behavior
  • Exploring the role of behavioral economics in designing public finance policies
  • Evaluating the effectiveness of nudges in promoting desirable fiscal behaviors
  • The role of framing and perception in public finance decision-making
  • Analyzing the impact of financial literacy on personal finance management
  • Exploring the behavioral aspects of saving and investment decisions
  • Assessing the effects of income inequality on individual well-being and economic outcomes
  • The role of behavioral economics in understanding public attitudes towards taxation
  • Analyzing the behavioral determinants of charitable giving and philanthropy

International Public Finance Research Paper Topics

  • Evaluating the role of international financial institutions in supporting developing countries
  • Analyzing the impact of global economic integration on fiscal policy autonomy
  • Exploring the challenges of tax evasion and avoidance in the global economy
  • Assessing the implications of foreign aid and debt on economic sovereignty
  • The role of international taxation agreements in promoting tax fairness
  • Analyzing the effects of capital flows and exchange rate volatility on public finance
  • Evaluating the role of international trade agreements in shaping fiscal policies
  • Exploring the impact of global financial crises on public finance management
  • Assessing the effectiveness of international cooperation in addressing tax havens
  • The role of international organizations in promoting fiscal transparency and accountability

The topics provided are intended to serve as a starting point for your research journey in public finance. Feel free to modify or refine these topics according to your specific interests and research objectives. Conducting thorough literature reviews and engaging in discussions with your professors and peers will further guide you in narrowing down and refining your research topic.

Public Finance Research Paper Topics Guide

Welcome to the world of public finance research papers! As a student of economics, you are well aware of the significance of public finance in shaping the economic landscape of countries. Public finance encompasses the study of government revenue, expenditure, and fiscal policies, which have far-reaching implications on economic growth, income distribution, and public welfare.

Writing a research paper in public finance provides an opportunity to explore and analyze various aspects of government finance, while developing critical thinking, research, and analytical skills. It allows you to delve deep into specific topics of interest within the realm of public finance and contribute to the existing body of knowledge in the field.

The purpose of this page is to provide you with a comprehensive guide to public finance research paper topics, expert advice on choosing the right topic, and essential insights on crafting an outstanding research paper. Whether you are a novice researcher or an experienced economics student, this page will serve as a valuable resource to enhance your understanding and improve your research and writing abilities.

Throughout this page, you will find a diverse range of public finance research paper topics divided into 10 categories. These categories cover a wide spectrum of subtopics within the field of public finance, allowing you to explore areas such as taxation and revenue, public expenditure, fiscal policy, public debt, public-private partnerships, economic growth and development, environmental economics, public finance and public administration, behavioral economics, and international public finance.

In addition to the comprehensive list of topics, we will provide expert advice on how to choose the most suitable topic for your research paper. We understand the challenges of selecting from the multitude of options, and our tips will help you navigate through the process, considering factors such as relevance, interest, feasibility, and the availability of literature and research gaps.

Furthermore, we will guide you through the essential steps of writing a compelling public finance research paper. From conducting a thorough literature review and gathering relevant data to structuring your paper and presenting your analysis, our insights will ensure that your research paper is well-organized, coherent, and academically sound.

To further assist you in your academic journey, iResearchNet offers custom writing services tailored to your needs. Our team of expert degree-holding writers is dedicated to providing you with top-quality, custom-written research papers. We conduct in-depth research, adhere to custom formatting styles such as APA, MLA, Chicago/Turabian, and Harvard, and deliver timely solutions to meet your deadlines.

With our flexible pricing, easy order tracking, and 24/7 support, you can rely on iResearchNet to deliver a customized research paper that aligns with your academic requirements. We prioritize confidentiality and offer absolute privacy, ensuring a secure and reliable experience.

Now, let’s explore the captivating world of public finance research paper topics, sharpen your research skills, and create impactful research papers that contribute to the field of economics. Let this page be your guide to unlocking your research potential and achieving excellence in public finance research.

Tips on Choosing a Public Finance Topic

Selecting a suitable research paper topic is a crucial step in the process of writing an engaging and impactful paper in the field of public finance. With the multitude of potential topics available, it can be overwhelming to make a decision. To assist you in this endeavor, we offer expert advice on how to choose the most appropriate public finance research paper topic for your study:

  • Identify your interests : Start by considering areas within public finance that genuinely interest you. Exploring topics that align with your passions will not only make the research process more enjoyable but also enhance your motivation and engagement with the subject matter.
  • Consider current debates and trends : Stay informed about the latest developments, debates, and emerging trends in public finance. Topics that are currently generating discussions and controversies provide fertile ground for conducting meaningful research and contributing to the ongoing discourse.
  • Narrow down your scope : Public finance is a vast field with numerous sub-areas and specializations. To select a manageable topic, narrow down your focus to a specific aspect or subfield of public finance. This will enable you to delve deeper into the subject matter and provide a more comprehensive analysis.
  • Conduct a literature review : Before finalizing your research topic, conduct a thorough literature review to explore existing research and identify research gaps. This will help you understand the existing knowledge landscape and identify areas where your study can contribute new insights or offer a fresh perspective.
  • Consider the availability of data : Evaluate the availability and accessibility of relevant data sources for your chosen topic. Adequate data is essential for conducting empirical research and supporting your arguments and findings. Ensure that you can access reliable data to support your research objectives.
  • Assess feasibility and scope : Assess the feasibility of your research topic in terms of time, resources, and scope. Consider the available research materials, potential access to experts or practitioners, and the required methodologies. A topic that is too broad or requires extensive resources may not be suitable for a research paper.
  • Consult with your professors and peers : Seek guidance from your professors, advisors, or peers who have expertise in public finance. Discuss your research interests and proposed topics with them to gain valuable insights and suggestions. They can provide guidance on refining your topic and offer valuable recommendations based on their experience.
  • Consider policy relevance : Public finance research often has practical implications for policymakers and governments. Consider topics that have real-world policy relevance and can contribute to informed decision-making in the realm of public finance. This will add significance and value to your research.
  • Brainstorm and refine : Engage in brainstorming sessions to generate ideas and refine your research topic. Reflect on the potential research questions, objectives, and outcomes of your study. Consider the potential impact and contribution of your research to the field of public finance.
  • Stay open to adjustments : As you progress in your research, be open to adjusting and refining your topic based on emerging insights and findings. Research is an iterative process, and you may discover new angles or aspects that warrant modifications to your initial topic.

By following these expert tips, you can choose a compelling and relevant research paper topic in the field of public finance. Remember that selecting a topic is just the first step, and conducting thorough research, organizing your findings, and presenting your analysis in a coherent and persuasive manner are equally important. With the right topic and a systematic approach, you can produce an outstanding research paper in public finance that contributes to the body of knowledge in the field.

How to Write a Public Finance Research Paper

Writing a research paper in the field of public finance requires a systematic and well-structured approach. To guide you through the process, we have outlined the essential steps to follow when writing a public finance research paper:

  • Understand the research question : Begin by thoroughly understanding the research question or objective of your study. Clarify the scope and purpose of your research, ensuring that it aligns with the chosen topic and contributes to the field of public finance.
  • Conduct a literature review : Before diving into your own research, conduct a comprehensive literature review to understand the existing knowledge and debates related to your topic. Identify relevant theories, concepts, empirical studies, and policy discussions that will inform and support your research.
  • Develop a research framework : Based on your research question and the literature review, develop a clear research framework that outlines the theoretical foundations, hypotheses or research questions, and the methodology you will employ. This framework will serve as a roadmap for your research paper.
  • Collect and analyze data : Depending on the nature of your research, collect relevant data using appropriate research methods. This may involve conducting surveys, interviews, analyzing existing datasets, or applying economic modeling techniques. Ensure that your data collection methods align with your research objectives.
  • Organize your paper : Structure your research paper in a logical and coherent manner. Typically, a public finance research paper consists of an introduction, literature review, research methodology, findings and analysis, discussion, and conclusion. Ensure that each section flows smoothly and supports the overall argument of your paper.
  • Write a compelling introduction : Begin your paper with a concise and engaging introduction that provides background information on the topic, presents the research question, and highlights the significance of your study. Clearly articulate the objectives and scope of your research.
  • Conduct a rigorous analysis : In the findings and analysis section, present your research findings in a clear and concise manner. Use appropriate tables, charts, and graphs to present the data effectively. Analyze the results and relate them to the research question, providing insightful interpretations and implications.
  • Discuss the implications : In the discussion section, interpret your findings and relate them to the existing literature. Discuss the implications of your research, highlight any limitations or constraints, and propose areas for further research. Engage critically with the findings and offer meaningful insights.
  • Draw a conclusion : Summarize the key findings and arguments of your research in the conclusion section. Restate the research question and objectives, highlight the main contributions of your study, and discuss the policy or practical implications of your research.
  • Revise and proofread : After completing the initial draft, revise and edit your paper for clarity, coherence, and grammar. Pay attention to the overall structure, flow of ideas, and citation accuracy. Proofread the final version to ensure it is free of errors and adheres to the required formatting style (e.g., APA, MLA).
  • Include proper citations and references : Throughout your paper, provide proper citations and references to acknowledge the sources of your information and ideas. Follow the appropriate citation style guidelines to maintain consistency and academic integrity.
  • Seek feedback and revise : Share your research paper with your peers, professors, or academic mentors to gather feedback and suggestions for improvement. Revise your paper based on their input, addressing any areas of concern or recommendations for further refinement.

By following these steps and maintaining a disciplined approach, you can produce a high-quality research paper in the field of public finance. Remember to allocate sufficient time for each stage of the research process, as conducting thorough research, thoughtful analysis, and clear writing are key to creating a successful public finance research paper.

Order a Custom Public Finance Research Paper

At iResearchNet, we understand the challenges that students face when tasked with writing a comprehensive and impactful public finance research paper. To alleviate the burden and ensure the highest quality of work, we offer custom writing services tailored specifically for your research needs. Our team of expert writers, with advanced degrees in economics and a specialization in public finance, is ready to assist you in crafting a custom research paper that meets your requirements and exceeds your expectations.

When you choose our custom writing services, you benefit from the following features:

  • Expert degree-holding writers : Our team consists of highly qualified writers who hold advanced degrees in economics and possess extensive knowledge in the field of public finance. They have a deep understanding of the subject matter and are equipped to deliver top-quality research papers.
  • Custom written works : We provide fully customized research papers that are tailored to your specific research question, objectives, and guidelines. Our writers conduct thorough research and create original content that adheres to your academic standards and requirements.
  • In-depth research : Our writers are skilled in conducting comprehensive literature reviews and gathering relevant data for your research. They delve into the most up-to-date sources, scholarly articles, and reputable databases to ensure the accuracy and depth of your paper.
  • Custom formatting : We follow the required formatting style for your research paper, whether it’s APA, MLA, Chicago/Turabian, Harvard, or any other specified style. Our writers are well-versed in the different formatting guidelines and will ensure that your paper adheres to the highest standards of academic writing.
  • Top quality and customized solutions : We are committed to delivering research papers of the highest quality. Our writers pay meticulous attention to detail, ensuring that your paper is well-structured, coherent, and presents a thorough analysis of your chosen topic.
  • Flexible pricing : We understand that students have budgetary constraints. That’s why we offer flexible pricing options that cater to your specific needs. Our pricing structure is transparent, and we strive to provide affordable solutions without compromising on the quality of work.
  • Short deadlines : We recognize that time is of the essence, especially when it comes to research paper deadlines. Our custom writing services can accommodate even the most urgent requests, with turnaround times as short as 3 hours.
  • Timely delivery : We prioritize timely delivery to ensure that you receive your research paper within the specified deadline. Our team is committed to meeting your time requirements, allowing you to review and submit your paper on schedule.
  • 24/7 support : Our dedicated support team is available 24/7 to address any queries or concerns you may have. Whether you need assistance with placing an order, communicating with your writer, or tracking the progress of your paper, our support team is here to assist you at every step of the process.
  • Absolute privacy : We prioritize the confidentiality and privacy of our clients. Rest assured that all personal and order information is kept strictly confidential. Your identity and association with our services will remain anonymous.
  • Easy order tracking : Our user-friendly platform allows you to easily track the progress of your order. You can communicate directly with your assigned writer, provide additional instructions, and monitor the status of your research paper.
  • Money-back guarantee : We are confident in the quality of our work. If, for any reason, you are not satisfied with the final research paper delivered to you, we offer a money-back guarantee. Your satisfaction is our top priority.

When you choose iResearchNet’s custom writing services, you can be confident that your public finance research paper is in the hands of skilled professionals who are dedicated to your academic success. Our commitment to excellence, attention to detail, and customer satisfaction set us apart as a trusted partner in your research journey. Place your order today and experience the convenience and quality of our custom writing services.

Order Your Custom Research Paper Today!

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  • Visit our website: Go to our website at and navigate to the Order page.
  • Place your order: Fill out the order form with details about your research paper, including the topic, length, deadline, and any specific instructions or guidelines provided by your professor.
  • Choose your writer: Based on your requirements, we will assign a writer with expertise in public finance to work on your research paper. You can communicate with your writer directly to discuss any additional details or requirements.
  • Make payment: Proceed to make payment for your order. We offer secure payment options to ensure the confidentiality and safety of your financial information.
  • Receive your work: Once your writer completes your research paper, it will go through a thorough quality assurance process to ensure it meets our high standards. The final paper will be delivered to you within the agreed-upon deadline.
  • Request revisions (if needed): If you require any revisions or adjustments to your research paper, we offer free revisions within a specified period to ensure your complete satisfaction.

At iResearchNet, we are committed to providing you with top-quality research papers that meet your academic requirements. Our custom writing services offer convenience, reliability, and expertise, giving you the confidence to submit a well-researched and compelling public finance research paper.

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The mixture of written assignments you might get while studying Public Finance is stunning. If some are too confusing, an expertly crafted sample Public Finance piece on a related topic might lead you out of a dead end. This is when you will definitely acknowledge ever-expanding directory of Public Finance essay samples meant to catalyze your writing creativity.

Our directory of free college paper samples showcases the most striking instances of excellent writing on Public Finance and relevant topics. Not only can they help you come up with an interesting and fresh topic, but also demonstrate the effective use of the best Public Finance writing practices and content organization techniques. Also, keep in mind that you can use them as a trove of reliable sources and factual or statistical information processed by real masters of their craft with solid academic experience in the Public Finance area.

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Essays in Public Finance

  • Miyoshi, Yoshiyuki
  • Advisor(s): Gordon, Roger H

Researches in public finance have clarified the effects of tax policies that are neither originally intended nor easily observable. This work contributes to the literature of public finance by rigorously examining the effects of three particular tax policies using quantitative models and econometric analysis.

Chapter 1 aims to answer the question as to what is the optimal apportionment formula for the US state corporate income tax. States have raised sales apportionment weight and lower payroll weight to stimulate local labor demand. However, the policy discussions often ignore the negative effect of sales apportionment tax; the tax distorts the sales allocation of firms across states and causes an increase in local price level in the state. I construct a quantitative model that incorporates the effects of apportionment formula both on local labor demand and on the price level. The calibration suggests that the sales weight should be zero for the optimal tax policy of a single state because the negative effect on price level outweighs the positive effect on local labor under a range of plausible parameters.

Chapter 2 studies the effect of taxation on entrepreneurs' risk-taking, portfolio choice, and economic growth in the presence of a moral hazard problem in a dynamic general equilibrium model. The moral hazard problem occurs because the return of a type of entrepreneurial project depends on entrepreneurs' effort, which is private information. By collecting proportional consumption tax and redistributing the revenue, the government offers an opportunity for risk sharing to encourage risk-taking and spur economic growth. We show that when the moral hazard problem is absent, the full insurance is optimal in terms of welfare, and the economy grows faster. But if the moral hazard problem exists even in a slight degree, risk sharing through taxation cannot improve welfare.

Chapter 3 examines the relationship between household marginal tax rates and the probability of owning rental housing. I focus on the special provisions about passive losses introduced by 1986 TRA to test the theoretical prediction about this relationship. The empirical results based on the Surveys of Consumer Finances offer modest support for the prediction.

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Health Effects of Vaping

At a glance.

Learn more about the health effects of vaping.

  • No tobacco products, including e-cigarettes, are safe.
  • Most e-cigarettes contain nicotine, which is highly addictive and is a health danger for pregnant people, developing fetuses, and youth. 1
  • Aerosol from e-cigarettes can also contain harmful and potentially harmful substances. These include cancer-causing chemicals and tiny particles that can be inhaled deep into lungs. 1
  • E-cigarettes should not be used by youth, young adults, or people who are pregnant. E-cigarettes may have the potential to benefit adults who smoke and are not pregnant if used as a complete substitute for all smoked tobacco products. 2 3 4
  • Scientists still have a lot to learn about the short- and long-term health effects of using e-cigarettes.

Most e-cigarettes, or vapes, contain nicotine, which has known adverse health effects. 1

  • Nicotine is highly addictive. 1
  • Nicotine is toxic to developing fetuses and is a health danger for pregnant people. 1
  • Acute nicotine exposure can be toxic. Children and adults have been poisoned by swallowing, breathing, or absorbing vaping liquid through their skin or eyes. More than 80% of calls to U.S. poison control centers for e-cigarettes are for children less than 5 years old. 5

Nicotine poses unique dangers to youth because their brains are still developing.

  • Nicotine can harm brain development which continues until about age 25. 1
  • Youth can start showing signs of nicotine addiction quickly, sometimes before the start of regular or daily use. 1
  • Using nicotine during adolescence can harm the parts of the brain that control attention, learning, mood, and impulse control. 1
  • Adolescents who use nicotine may be at increased risk for future addiction to other drugs. 1 6
  • Youth who vape may also be more likely to smoke cigarettes in the future. 7 8 9 10 11 12

Other potential harms of e-cigarettes

E-cigarette aerosol can contain substances that can be harmful or potentially harmful to the body. These include: 1

  • Nicotine, a highly addictive chemical that can harm adolescent brain development
  • Cancer-causing chemicals
  • Heavy metals such as nickel, tin, and lead
  • Tiny particles that can be inhaled deep into the lungs
  • Volatile organic compounds
  • Flavorings such as diacetyl, a chemical linked to a serious lung disease. Some flavorings used in e-cigarettes may be safe to eat but not to inhale because the lungs process substances differently than the gut.

E-cigarette aerosol generally contains fewer harmful chemicals than the deadly mix of 7,000 chemicals in smoke from cigarettes. 7 13 14 However, this does not make e-cigarettes safe. Scientists are still learning about the immediate and long-term health effects of using e-cigarettes.

Dual use refers to the use of both e-cigarettes and regular cigarettes. Dual use is not an effective way to safeguard health. It may result in greater exposure to toxins and worse respiratory health outcomes than using either product alone. 2 3 4 15

Some people who use e-cigarettes have experienced seizures. Most reports to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA ) have involved youth or young adults. 16 17

E-cigarettes can cause unintended injuries. Defective e-cigarette batteries have caused fires and explosions, some of which have resulted in serious injuries. Most explosions happened when the batteries were being charged.

Anyone can report health or safety issues with tobacco products, including e-cigarettes, through the FDA Safety Reporting Portal .

Health effects of vaping for pregnant people

The use of any tobacco product, including e-cigarettes, is not safe during pregnancy. 1 14 Scientists are still learning about the health effects of vaping on pregnancy and pregnancy outcomes. Here's what we know now:

  • Most e-cigarettes, or vapes, contain nicotine—the addictive substance in cigarettes, cigars, and other tobacco products. 18
  • Nicotine is a health danger for pregnant people and is toxic to developing fetuses. 1 14
  • Nicotine can damage a fetus's developing brain and lungs. 13
  • E-cigarette use during pregnancy has been associated with low birth weight and pre-term birth. 19 20

Nicotine addiction and withdrawal

Nicotine is the main addictive substance in tobacco products, including e-cigarettes. With repeated use, a person's brain gets used to having nicotine. This can make them think they need nicotine just to feel okay. This is part of nicotine addiction.

Signs of nicotine addiction include craving nicotine, being unable to stop using it, and developing a tolerance (needing to use more to feel the same). Nicotine addiction can also affect relationships with family and friends and performance in school, at work, or other activities.

When someone addicted to nicotine stops using it, their body and brain have to adjust. This can result in temporary symptoms of nicotine withdrawal which may include:

  • Feeling irritable, jumpy, restless, or anxious
  • Feeling sad or down
  • Having trouble sleeping
  • Having a hard time concentrating
  • Feeling hungry
  • Craving nicotine

Withdrawal symptoms fade over time as the brain gets used to not having nicotine.

Nicotine addiction and mental health

Nicotine addiction can harm mental health and be a source of stress. 21 22 23 24 More research is needed to understand the connection between vaping and mental health, but studies show people who quit smoking cigarettes experience: 25

  • Lower levels of anxiety, depression, and stress
  • Improved positive mood and quality of life

Mental health is a growing concern among youth. 26 27 Youth vaping and cigarette use are associated with mental health symptoms such as depression. 22 28

The most common reason middle and high school students give for currently using e-cigarettes is, "I am feeling anxious, stressed, or depressed." 29 Nicotine addiction or withdrawal can contribute to these feelings or make them worse. Youth may use tobacco products to relieve their symptoms, which can lead to a cycle of nicotine addiction.

Empower Vape-Free Youth ad featuring a brain graphic and message about the connection between nicotine addiction and youth mental health.

  • U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. E-Cigarette Use Among Youth and Young Adults: A Report of the Surgeon General . Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2016. Accessed Feb 14, 2024.
  • Goniewicz ML, Smith DM, Edwards KC, et al. Comparison of nicotine and toxicant exposure in users of electronic cigarettes and combustible cigarettes . JAMA Netw Open. 2018;1(8):e185937.
  • Reddy KP, Schwamm E, Kalkhoran S, et al. Respiratory symptom incidence among people using electronic cigarettes, combustible tobacco, or both . Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2021;204(2):231–234.
  • Smith DM, Christensen C, van Bemmel D, et al. Exposure to nicotine and toxicants among dual users of tobacco cigarettes and e-cigarettes: Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study, 2013-2014 . Nicotine Tob Res. 2021;23(5):790–797.
  • Tashakkori NA, Rostron BL, Christensen CH, Cullen KA. Notes from the field: e-cigarette–associated cases reported to poison centers — United States, April 1, 2022–March 31, 2023 . MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2023;72:694–695.
  • Yuan M, Cross SJ, Loughlin SE, Leslie FM. Nicotine and the adolescent brain . J Physiol. 2015;593(16):3397–3412.
  • National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. Public Health Consequences of E-Cigarettes . The National Academies Press; 2018.
  • Barrington-Trimis JL, Kong G, Leventhal AM, et al. E-cigarette use and subsequent smoking frequency among adolescents . Pediatrics. 2018;142(6):e20180486.
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US-skepticism and transnational conspiracy in the 2024 Taiwanese presidential election

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Taiwan has one of the highest freedom of speech indexes while it also encounters the largest amount of foreign interference due to its contentious history with China. Because of the large influx of misinformation, Taiwan has taken a public crowdsourcing approach to combatting misinformation, using both fact-checking ChatBots and public dataset called CoFacts. Combining CoFacts with large-language models (LLM), we investigated misinformation across three platforms (Line, PTT, and Facebook) during the 2024 Taiwanese presidential election. We found that most misinformation appears within China-friendly political groups and attacks US-Taiwan relations through visual media like images and videos. A considerable proportion of misinformation does not question U.S. foreign policy directly. Rather, it exaggerates domestic issues in the United States to create a sense of declining U.S. state capacity. Curiously, we found misinformation rhetoric that references conspiracy groups in the West.

Program in Quantitative Social Science, Dartmouth College, USA

Department of Political Science, University of Nevada Las Vegas, USA

Department of Computer Science, Barnard College, USA

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Research Questions

  • What are the misinformation narratives surrounding the election in Taiwan and how do they target international relations with the United States?
  • What geographical or temporal patterns emerge from misinformation data?
  • Who are the targets of these misinformation narratives and through what modalities?

Essay Summary

  • We leveraged a dataset of 41,291 labeled articles from Line, 911,510 posts from Facebook, and 2,005,972 posts and comments from PTT to understand misinformation dynamics through topic modeling and network analysis.
  • The primary form of misinformation is narratives that attack international relations with the United States (henceforth referred to as US-skepticism), specifically referencing the economy, health policy, the threat of war through Ukraine, and other U.S. domestic issues.
  • Temporal and spatial evidence suggests VPN-based coordination, focused on U.S. issues and addresses.
  • Misinformation is most common among pan-Blue and ROC identity groups on social media and is spread through visual media. These groups share many themes with conspiracy groups in Western countries.
  • Our study shows the prevalence of misinformation strategies using visual media and fake news websites. It also highlights how crowdsourcing and advances in large-language models can be used to identify misinformation in cross-platform workflows.


According to Freedom House, Taiwan has one of the highest indices for free speech in Asia (Freedom House, 2022). Additionally, due to its contentious history with China, it receives significant foreign interference and misinformation, especially during its presidential elections. Due to the large influx of dis- and misinformation, Taiwan has developed many strategies to counter misleading narratives, including fact-checking ChatBots on its most popular chatroom app (Chang et al., 2020). Under this information environment, the 2024 Taiwanese presidential election emerged as one of the most divisive elections in Taiwan’s history, featuring at one point a doubling of presidential candidates in a typically two-party race, from two to four. As such, Taiwan is regarded as a “canary for disinformation” against elections in 2024, as a first indicator to how foreign interference may take place in other democracies (Welch, 2024).

In this paper, we study the misinformation ecosystem in Taiwan starting a year prior to the election. First, our findings highlight the interaction between misinformation and international relations. As was reported in The Economist and The New York Times , a considerable portion of the misinformation spread in Taiwan before the 2024 election is about US-skepticism, which aims at undermining the reputation of the United States among Taiwanese people (“China is flooding Taiwan with disinformation,” 2023; Hsu, Chien, and Myers, 2023). This phenomenon is significant because it does not target specific candidates or parties in the election but may indirectly influence the vote choice between pro- and anti-U.S. parties. Given the US-China global competition and the Russia-Ukraine ongoing conflict, the reputation of the United States is crucial for the strength and reliability of democratic allies (Cohen, 2003). Hence, it is not surprising that misinformation about the United States may propagate globally and influence elections across democracies. However, our findings surprisingly show that US-skepticism also includes a considerable number of attacks on U.S. domestic politics. Such content does not question the U.S. foreign policy but undermines the perceived reliability and state capacity of the United States. Here, s tate capacity is defined as whether a state is capable of mobilizing its resources to realize its goal, which is conceptually different from motivation and trust.

US-skepticism is commonly characterized as mistrusting the motivations of the United States, as illustrated in the Latin American context due to long histories of political influence (see dependency theory; Galeano, 1997), but our findings suggest that perceived U.S. state capacity is also an important narrative. As most foreign disinformation arises from China, this indicates a greater trend where authoritarian countries turn to sharp power tactics to distort information and defame global competitors rather than winning hearts and minds through soft power. Sharp power refers to the ways in which authoritarian regimes project their influence abroad to pierce, penetrate, or perforate the informational environments in targeted countries (Walker, 2018). In Taiwan’s case, China may not be able to tell China’s story well, but can still influence Taiwanese voters by making them believe that the United States is declining. Our findings suggest that future work analyzing the topics and keywords of misinformation in elections outside the United States should also consider the US-skepticism as one latent category, not just the politicians and countries as is common with electoral misinformation (Tenove et al., 2018). These findings are corroborated by narratives identified by a recent report including drug issues, race relations, and urban decay (Microsoft Threat Intelligence, 2024).

Additionally, our research investigates both misinformation and conspiracy theories, which are closely related. Whereas misinformation is broadly described as “false or inaccurate information” (Jerit & Zhao, 2020), a conspiracy theory is the belief that harmful events are caused by a powerful, often secretive, group. In particular, conspiracy communities often coalesce around activities of “truth-seeking,” embodying a contrarian view toward commonly held beliefs (Enders et al., 2022; Harambam, 2020; Konkes & Lester, 2017). Our findings also provide evidence of transnational similarities between conspiracy groups in Taiwan and the United States. Whereas the domestic context has been explored (Chen et al., 2023; Jerit & Zhao, 2020), the intersection of partisanship and conspiracy groups as conduits for cross-national misinformation flow deserves further investigation.

Second, our findings reemphasize that an IP address is not a reliable criterion for attributing foreign intervention.  Previous studies on Chinese cyber armies show that they use a VPN for their activities on Twitter (now X) (Wang et al., 2020) and Facebook (Frenkel, 2023). Commonly known as the Reddit of Taiwan, PTT is a public forum in Taiwan that by default contains the IP address of the poster. Our analysis of PTT located a group of accounts with US IP addresses that have the same activity pattern as other Taiwan-based accounts. Therefore, it is likely that these accounts use VPN to hide their geolocation. Our results provide additional evidence that this VPN strategy also appears on secondary and localized social media platforms. Our results suggest that the analysis of the originating location of misinformation should not be based entirely on IP addresses.

Third, our findings show that text is far from the only format used in the spread of misinformation. A considerable amount of misinformation identified on Facebook is spread through links (47%), videos (21%), and photos (15%). These items may echo each other’s content or even feature cross-platform flow. Proper tools are needed to extract and juxtapose content from different types of media so that researchers can have a holistic analysis of the spread and development of misinformation (Tucker et al., 2018). Such tools are urgent since mainstream social media has adopted and highly encouraged short videos—a crucial area for researchers to assess how misinformation spreads across platforms in the upcoming year of elections. This understanding is also important for fact-check agencies because they must prepare for collecting and reviewing information on various topics found in multiple media types across platforms. Crowdsourcing, data science, expert inputs, and international collaboration are all needed to deal with multi-format misinformation environments.

With prior studies showing that the aggregated fact checks (known as wisdom of the crowds) perform on par with expert ratings (see Arechar et al., 2023; Martel et al., 2023), our case study also evidences how crowdsourcing and LLM approaches can not only quickly fact-check but also summarize larger narrative trends. In Taiwan, this takes form of the CoFacts open dataset, which we use to identify misinformation narratives. CoFacts is a project initiated by g0v (pronounced “gov zero”), a civic hacktivism community in Taiwan that started in 2012. CoFacts started as a fact-checking ChatBot that circumvents the closed nature of chatroom apps, where users can forward suspicious messages or integrate the ChatBot into private rooms. These narratives are then sent to a database. Individual narratives are subsequently reviewed by more than 2,000 volunteers, including teachers, doctors, students, engineers, and retirees (Haime, 2022). As a citizen-initiated project, it is not affiliated with any government entity or party.

Crucially, these reviews provide valuable labels that are used to train AI models and fine-tune LLMs. The dataset is available open source on the popular deep-learning platform HuggingFace. Just as AI and automation can be used to spread misinformation (Chang, 2023; Chang & Ferrara, 2022; Ferrara et al., 2020; Monaco & Woolley, 2022), it can also help combat “fake news” through human-AI collaboration.

Finding 1: The primary form of misinformation  is narratives that attack international relations with the United States (henceforth referred to as US-skepticism), specifically referencing the economy, health policy, the threat of war through Ukraine, and other U.S. domestic issues.

The status quo between China and Taiwan is marked by Taiwan’s self-identification as a sovereign state, which is in contrast to China’s view of Taiwan as part of its territory under the “One China” policy. As brief context, China has claimed Taiwan as its territory since 1949, but the United States has helped maintain the status quo and peace after the outbreak of the Korean War in 1950. After democratization in 1987, Taiwan’s politics have been dominated by a clear blue-green division. The blue camp is led by Kuomintang (Nationalist Party, KMT hereafter), the founding party of the Republic of China (ROC, the formal name of Taiwan’s government based on its constitution) who was defeated by the People’s Republic of China (PRC) and retreated to Taiwan in 1949. The green camp is led by the Democratic Progressive Party (DPP), which pursues revising the ROC Constitution and changing the country’s name to Taiwan. The political cleavage between the blue and green camps is dictated by Taiwan’s relationship with the PRC and the United States. The blue camp’s position is that the PRC and ROC are under civil war but belong to the same Chinese nation, and thus the blue camp appreciates military support from the United States while enhancing economic and cultural cooperation with the PRC. The green camp believes that the necessary conditions for Taiwan to be free and independent are to stand firmly with the United States and maintain distance from the PRC. After 2020, the two major camps’ insufficient attention to domestic and social issues caused the rise of nonpartisans and a third party, the Taiwan People’s Party (TPP or the white camp), which strategically avoids discussing foreign policies. In the 2024 election, the ruling DPP party (green) was reelected with 40% of votes for the third consecutive presidency (from 2016 to 2028), while KMT (blue) and TPP (white) received 33% and 26% of votes, respectively.

The U.S. “One China” policy since 1979 indicates that the United States opposes any change to the status quo unless it is solved peacefully. This has motivated the PRC to persuade Taiwanese citizens to support unification using misinformation targeted at China-friendly political groups, as the cost of unification would be greatly reduced if sufficient Taiwanese citizens opposed U.S. military intervention. This history between the United States and Taiwan serves as the foundation of US-skepticism. In the literature, US-skepticism in Taiwan is composed of two key psychological elements: trust and motivation (Wu & Lin, 2019; Wu, 2023). First, many Taiwanese no longer trust the United States after the United States switched diplomatic ties from Taiwan (ROC) to the PRC in 1979. Many blue-camp supporters doubt the commitment of the United States to send troops should China invade, per the Taiwan Relations Act (Wu & Lin, 2019). Second, Taiwanese citizens question Taiwan’s role as a proxy in a potential war with China instead of sincerely protecting democracy and human rights in Taiwan (Wu, 2023).

The CoFacts dataset contains 140,314 articles submitted by Line users, which are then fact-checked by volunteers as rumor (47%), not a rumor (21%), not an article (19%), and opinion (13%). Here, rumor is synonymous with misinformation. Using the CoFacts dataset, we trained a BERTopic model to identify 34 forms of misinformation and then ranked them by their overlap with the word “elections” in Mandarin Chinese (George & Sumathy, 2023; Nguyen et al., 2020). Table 1 shows the top nine narratives.

Many of these narratives are directly related to political parties or the democratic process. For instance, the highest-ranked topic is attacking the incumbent party (the DPP) at 18.1%, which contains 2,371 total posts. The subsequent misinformation topics focus on policy issues and specific narratives—international relations, issues of marriage and birth rate, vaccines, nuclear energy, biometrics, egg imports, and the war in Ukraine. These are known cleavage issues and overlap with the eight central concerns during the election cycle—economic prosperity, cross-strait affairs, wealth distribution, political corruption, national security, social reform/stability, and environmental protection (Achen & Wang, 2017; Achen & Wang, 2019; Chang & Fang, 2023).

We focus on the third type of misinformation, which is the relationship between Taiwan, the United States, and China. US-skepticism is not only the largest at 10,826 individual posts, but one flagged by journalists, policymakers, and politicians as one of the most crucial themes. This is a relatively new phenomenon in terms of proportion, which aims to sow distrust toward the United States (“China is flooding Taiwan with disinformation,” 2023). In contrast, questioning the fairness of process (i.e. ballot numbers) and policy positions (i.e. gay marriage) are common during elections. However, US-skeptical misinformation diverges in that there is no explicit political candidate or party targeted. By sampling the topic articles within this category and validating using an LLM-summarizer through the ChatGPT API, we identified three specific narratives:

(a) The United States and the threat of war: Ukraine intersects frequently in this topic, with videos of direct military actions. Example: “Did you hear former USA military strategist Jack Keane say the Ukrainian war is an investment. The USA spends just $66,000,000,000 and can make Ukraine and Russia fight…  Keane then mentions Taiwan is the same, where Taiwanese citizens are an ‘investment’ for Americans to fight a cheap war. The USA is cold and calculating, without any actual intent to help Taiwan!”

(b) Economic atrophy due to fiscal actions by the United States: These narratives focus on domestic policy issues in Taiwan such as minimum wage and housing costs. Example: “The USA printed 4 trillion dollars and bought stocks everywhere in the world, including Taiwan, and caused inflation and depressed wages. Be prepared!”

(c) Vaccine supply and the United States: While some narratives focus on the efficacy of vaccines, several describe the United States intentionally limiting supply during the pandemic. Example: “Taiwanese Dr. Lin is a leading scientist at Moderna, yet sells domestically at $39 per two doses, $50 to Israel. Taiwan must bid at least $60! The United States clearly does not value Taiwan.”

These narratives reveal a new element to US-skepticism: state capacity. As previously mentioned, state capacity is defined as whether a state is capable of mobilizing its resources to realize its goal. The Ukraine war and vaccine supply narratives both question the United States’ motivations in foreign policies and perceived trustworthiness. Meanwhile, the economic atrophy narrative is based on the United States’ domestic budgetary deficit and downstream impact on Taiwanese economy. These narratives frame U.S. state capacity as declining and imply that the United States could no longer realize any other commitment due to its lack of resources and capacity. The goal of such a narrative is to lower the Taiwanese audience’s belief that the United States will help. But such a narrative does not include keywords of its target group (e.g., Taiwan) nor the PCR’s goal (e.g., unification) and only works through framing and priming as an example of sharp power. 

The specific focus of misinformation narratives related to the United States is composed of Ukraine (28.8%), the economy and fiscal policies (33.1%), technology (25.2%), and vaccine supply (9.9%). Misinformation related to state capacity takes up approximately 52.4%, more than half of all narratives (see Figure A1, part a in the Appendix). In all narratives, political parties are only referenced 27.8% of the time with the DPP the primary target (26.2%), which is almost half of the proportion for state capacity. China is only mentioned in tandem with the United States in 38.4% of the posts (see Figure A1, part b in the Appendix).

Finding 2: Temporal and spatial evidence suggests VPN-based coordination, focused on U.S. issues and addresses.

Once we identified the top misinformation narratives using Line, we investigated information operations or coordination. Line is one of Taiwan’s most popular communication apps featuring chatrooms (similar to WhatsApp), with 83% usage. One limitation of Line is that although we can analyze message content, Line chatrooms can be seen as conversations behind “closed doors”—platforms cannot impose content moderation and researchers have no access to the users themselves nor to the private chatroom in which users engage with misinformation (Chang et al., 2020). PTT, on the other hand, provides a public forum-like environment in which users can interact. Figure 1 shows the co-occurrence network of users who post comments under the same forum. Each circle (node) represents a user who posts on PTT. If two users make mutual comments on more than 200 posts, then they are connected (form a tie). Intuitively, this means if two users are connected or “close” to each other by mutual connections, then they are likely coordinating or have extremely similar behaviors. The placement of the users reflects this and is determined by their connections.

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Using the Louvain algorithm (Traag, 2015), a common method to identify communities on social networks, five communities emerged from our dataset. Each community is colored separately, with clear clusters, except for teal which is more integrated. In particular, the yellow cluster is significantly separate from the others. This means they share significant activity amongst their own community, but less so with other communities. This suggests premeditated coordination rather than organic discussion, as the users would have to target the same post with high frequency. Prior studies have shown analyzing temporal patterns can provide insight into information operations. Specifically, overseas content farms often follow a regular cadence, posting content before peak hours in Taiwan on Twitter (Wang et al., 2020) and YouTube (Hsu & Lin, 2023).

To better understand the temporal dynamics on PTT, we plotted the distribution of posts and comments over a 24-hour period. Specifically, we focused on the top two countries by volume—Taiwan and the United States. Figure 2, part a shows the time of posting. Taiwan’s activity increases from 6 in the morning until it peaks at noon (when people are on lunch break), then steadily declines into the night. In contrast, posts from the United States peak at midnight and 8 a.m. Taipei time, which corresponds to around noon and 8 p.m. in New York, respectively. This provides an organic baseline as to when we might expect people to post.

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However, in Figure 2, part b, while the distribution for Taiwan (blue) remains unchanged, the peak for the United States (orange) occurs at the same time as Taiwan. One explanation is that users are responding to posts in Taiwan. The second is that users in Asia—potentially China—are using a VPN to appear as if they are in the United States. This coincides with a report by Meta Platforms that found large numbers of CCP-operated Facebook accounts and subsequently removed them (Frenkel, 2023).

The more curious issue is when considering the activity of the yellow group from Figure 1, the temporal pattern (green) shows a sharp increase in activity at 10 a.m., which then coincides with both the peaks for Taiwan (12) and the United States (22). The sudden burst of activity is consistent with prior findings on content farms from China, where posting behavior occurs when content farm workers clock in regularly for work (Wang et al., 2020). While it is difficult to prove the authenticity of these accounts, the structural and temporal aspects suggest coordination. Figure A2 in the appendix shows further evidence of coordination through the frequency distribution of counts for co-occurring posts. For the US-based group, a distribution akin to a power law appears, commonly found within social systems (Adamic & Huberman, 2000; Chang et al., 2023; Clauset et al., 2009). In contrast, the coordinated group features a significantly heavier tail, with a secondary, “unnatural,” peak at around 15 co-occurrences.

To better understand the content of these groups, Table A1 shows the summary of comments of each group and the originating post, using a large-language model for abstractive summarization (see Methods). We report the top points for comments and posts in Table A1. The coordinated community focuses on businessman Terry Gou, who considered running as a blue-leaning independent. The comments attack the incumbent DPP and their stance toward foreign policy. One popular post features President Tsai’s controversial meeting with Kevin McCarthy, then the Speaker of the U.S. House of Representatives. When a journalist asked McCarthy if he would “invite President Tsai to Congress… or… Washington,” McCarthy replied, “I don’t have any invitation out there right now. Today we were able to meet her as she transits through America, I thought that was very productive.” While this was positively framed, the title of the post itself was translated as “McCarthy will not invite Tsai to the United States” (Doomdied, 2023). This takes on a common tactic in misinformation where statements are intentionally distorted to produce negative framings of a particular candidate.

Comments from U.S. IP addresses between 11 a.m. and 2 p.m. focus on the potential alliance between the KMT and TPP. These posts are KMT-leaning with criticism toward both Lai and Ko, who are two oppositional candidates to the KMT. Some users argue that while the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) is a negative force, the United States is not automatically a positive force, as the United States does not explicitly support Taiwan’s international recognition or economic integration. In general, both posts and comments express that Taiwan should not rely too heavily on either China or the United States. This echoes the element of trust in the US-skepticism from the historical experience between ROC and the United States.

Both the U.S.-based and coordinated groups appear as blue-leaning audiences. What differentiates the first and second case is clear evidence of misinformation in the former through inaccurate framing. While US-skepticism may be a valid political stance, if the ambient information environment contains inaccurate information, then the democratic deliberative process is at risk. The case of US-skepticism is also one where stance and truth-value are often conflated, which may influence the process of voter deliberation.

Finding 3: Misinformation is most common among pan-Blue and ROC identity groups on social media and is spread through visual media. These groups share themes with conspiracy groups in Western countries.

Lastly, we considered the groups in which misinformation is common and the way misinformation is delivered. To do so, we queried CrowdTangle using the titles and links from the CoFacts dataset specific to US-Taiwan relations. This yielded 4,632 posts from public groups. Table 2 shows the groups ranked by the total number of misinformation articles identified.

There are two themes to these groups. First, they are often pan-Blue media outlets ( CTI News ), politician support groups ( Wang Yo-Zeng Support Group ), and ROC national identity groups ( I’m an ROC Fan ). The second type is somewhat unexpected but extremely interesting; it consists of groups that espouse freedom of speech ( Support CTI News and Free Speech ) and truth-seeking ( Truth Engineering Taiwan Graduate School ), topics often regarded as conspiracies. These topics are reminiscent of those in the West, such as the rhetoric around “fake news” and “truthers,” and paint a transnational picture of how misinformation coalesces. The second largest group is Trump for the World , which supports a politician known to court conspiracy theory groups such as QAnon. These groups also serve as the “capacity” element of US-skepticism, implying that the United States is in trouble for its domestic issues and is not a reliable partner to Taiwan. Furthermore, these groups have sizable followings—ranging from 8,279 to 43,481. We show the mean, as the total number of members fluctuated over our one-year period.

Lastly, we found that the majority of misinformation contains some form of multimedia, such as video (36%) or photos (15%), as shown in Figure 3, part a. Only 1% is a direct status. This may be due to CrowdTangle not surfacing results from normal users, but the ratio of multimedia to text is quite high. This aligns with extant studies showing the growth of multimodal misinformation (Micallef et al., 2022) and also user behavior in algorithm optimization (Chang et al., 2022; Dhanesh et al., 2022; Pulley, 2020)—posts with multimedia tend to do better than posts with only text.

Moreover, 47% contain a URL. Figure 3, part b shows one of the top domains containing misinformation ( after filtering out common domains such as YouTube. The site is named “Beyond News Net” and is visually formatted like a legitimate news site to increase the perceived credibility of information (Flanagin & Metzger, 2007; Wölker & Powell, 2021). The ability to rapidly generate legitimate-looking news sites as a tactic for misinformation may become a challenge for both media literacy and technical approaches to fight misinformation.

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We utilized three unique misinformation datasets—Line, Facebook, and PTT—with dates between 01/12/2023 and 11/10/2023. The CoFacts dataset includes 140,193 received messages, 96,432 that have been labeled as misinformation, facts, opinion, or not relevant. Of this, 41,564 entries are misinformation. The CoFacts dataset is not only methodologically useful but exemplifies a crowd-sourced approach to fact-checking misinformation as an actual platform intervention. Moreover, it is public and transparent, allowing for replicability. Using a subset of articles and posts containing misinformation, we trained a topic model using BERTopic (Grootendorst, 2022). On a high level, using BERTopic involves five steps: 1) extract embeddings using a sentence transformer, 2) reduce dimensionality, 3) cluster reduced embeddings, 4) tokenize topics, and 5) create topic representation.

We conducted several trials, experimenting with parameters such as different sentence transformer models and minimum cluster sizes for the HDBSCAN clustering algorithm. The model used to extract topics for this paper utilized paraphrase-multilingual-MiniLM-L12-v2 for our sentence embedding model (Reimers & Gurevych, 2019), had a minimum cluster size of 80 for the clustering algorithm, and used tokenize_zh for our tokenizer. Our model yielded 34 topics. We also trained a model based on latent-Dirichlet allocation (LDA) (Blei et al., 2003), but found the BERTopic results to be more interpretable. We then labeled all messages to indicate whether they included reference to the election or not, and ranked the topics by their election-related percentage to measure electoral salience. For our subsequent analysis, we focused on topic 3 (see Table 1), which captures general discourse about the relations between the United States, China, and Taiwan.

The Facebook dataset was extracted using CrowdTangle. We queried posts containing links and headlines from topic 3. We also cross-sectioned these links and headlines with a general election-based dataset with 911,510 posts. This yielded a total of 4,632 of posts shared on public Facebook groups and 227,125 engagements. Due to privacy concerns, it is not possible to obtain private posts from users on their own Facebook timelines, private groups, or messages. However, public groups are a good proxy for general discourse, in addition to providing ethnic or partisan affiliations via their group name (Chang & Fang, 2023). In other words, while CoFacts provides the misinformation narratives, Facebook public groups give insight into the targets of misinformation.

Lastly, we scraped PTT using Selenium. Commonly known as the Reddit of Taiwan, PTT is unique in that it contains the IP address of the poster, though this could be shrouded by proxy farms or VPNs. First, we scraped all posts that contained reference to the United States and the election, which yielded 22,576 posts and 1,983,396 comments, all with IP addresses, addresses provided by PTT, and the time of posting. We expanded the scope of this analysis as we were interested in the general discourse directly related to the United States, and the geospatial and temporal patterns that arose. 

Due to the large amount of data, there are three general approaches we could have taken—local extractive summarization with LLMs, local abstractive summarization with LLMs, and server-based abstractive summarization (such as ChatGPT). Local extractive summarization is a method that embeds each of the input sentences and then outputs five of the most representative sentences. However, this approach is often too coarse, as it returns sentences with the highest centrality but does not summarize general themes across all the different comments or posts. On the other hand, abstractive summarization works by considering the entire context by ingesting many documents and then summarizing across them. This provides a more generalized characterization of key themes. However, the input size is the primary bottleneck as large-language models can only ingest so many tokens (or words), which also need to be held in memory—the case for our project, as we are summarizing more than 10,000 posts.

To circumvent these issues, we sampled the maximum number of posts or comments that could fit within 16,000 tokens and then made a query call using the ChatGPT API. This provided a summary based on a probabilistic sample of the posts and comments.

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Chang, H. C. H., Wang, A. H. E., & Fang Y. S. (2024). US-skepticism and transnational conspiracy in the 2024 Taiwanese presidential election. Harvard Kennedy School (HKS) Misinformation Review .


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No funding has been received to conduct this research.

Competing Interests

The authors declare no competing interests.

No human subjects were included in this study.

This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided that the original author and source are properly credited.

Data Availability

All materials needed to replicate this study are available via the Harvard Dataverse: . The Cofacts database is available on HuggingFace and Facebook via CrowdTangle per regulation of Meta Platforms.


H. C. would like to thank Brendan Nyhan, Sharanya Majumder, John Carey, and Adrian Rauschfleish for their comments. H. C. would like to thank the Dartmouth Burke Research Initiation Award.

All authors contributed equally.


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