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Hypothesis Sentence Examples

Their hypothesis explains so many facts.

An unproven hypothesis of the existence of things can be useful.

There is no data to accept or refute this hypothesis .

At any rate this hypothesis suggests an explanation of many hitherto inexplicable facts.

The schedule now called for hypothesis testing.

The Chemistry of the Sun (1887) is an elaborate treatise on solar spectroscopy based on the hypothesis of elemental dissociation through the intensity of solar heat.

His silent votes were all given on that hypothesis .

A detective's work consists largely in forming and testing hypothesis .

A third hypothesis is that advanced by Karl Rieder (Der Gottesfreund von Oberland, Innsbruck, 1905), who thinks that not even Merswin himself wrote any of the literature, but that his secretary and associate Nicholas of Lowen, head of the House of St John at Griinenworth, the retreat founded by Merswin for the circle, worked over all the writings which emanated from different members of the group but bore no author's names, and to glorify the founder of the house attached Merswin's name to some of them and out of his imagination created "the Friend of God from the Oberland," whom he named as the writer of the others.

Such are to be explained on the "sources hypothesis ."

The degree of smoothness or consistency which is to be expected on the hypothesis of a single author will be determined by taste rather than argument.

It seems clear, however, that the hypothesis of epics such as the Iliad and Odyssey having been formed by putting together or even by working up shorter poems finds no support from analogy.

Herbert Spencer, again, before the decline in question set in, put forward the hypothesis that "the ability to maintain individual life and the ability to multiply vary inversely"; in other words, the strain upon the nervous system involved in the struggle for life under the conditions of modern civilization, by reacting on the reproductive powers, tends towards comparative sterility.

According to the hypothesis of Waldeyer and Thiersch there is perfect equilibrium between the normal epithelium and its supporting structure, the connective tissue, but with advancing age this balance is upset owing to the connective tissue gradually losing its restraining power.

As the word " interpolation " implies, Hermann did not maintain the hypothesis of a congeries of independent " lays."

This line of hypothesis and demonstration is typical of the palaeogeographic methods generally - namely, that vertebrate palaeontologists, impressed by the sudden appearance of extinct forms of continental life, demand land connexion or migration tracts from common centres of origin and dispersal, while the invertebrate palaeontologist alone is able to restore ancient coast-lines and determine the extent and width of these tracts.

This hypothesis Clifford connected with the hypothesis of psychophysical parallelism.

The latter hypothesis seems more probable, upon the whole, although there is little to choose between the two.

But this hypothesis cannot be accepted as furnishing a satisfactory explanation of the likeness.

The hypothesis that Beowulf is in whole or in part a translation from a Scandinavian original, although still maintained by some scholars, introduces more difficulties than it solves, and must be dismissed as untenable.

In the motion consequent on any slight disturbance the total energy T+V is constant, and since T is essentially positive it follows that V can never exceed its equilibrium value by more than a slight amount, depending on the energy of the disturbance, This implies, on the present hypothesis , that there is an upper limit to the deviation of each co-ordinate from its equilibrium value; moreover, this limit diminishes indefinitely with the energy of the original disturbance.

This leads to a determinantal equation in X whose 2n roots are either real and negative, or complex with negative real parts, on the present hypothesis that the functions T, V, F are all essentially positive.

It is sometimes known as the "expectation of life," a term, however, which involves a mathematical hypothesis now discarded.

Stubbs's edition of the Itinerarium (Rolls Series, 1864), in which the contrary hypothesis is maintained, appeared before Gaston Paris published his discovery.

It follows that, for the thinking mind, matter is a necessary hypothesis .

It follows that philosophy is in a sense both dualist and monist; it is a cosmic dualism inasmuch as it admits the possible existence of matter as a hypothesis , though it denies the possibility of any true knowledge of it, and is hence in regard of the only possible knowledge an idealistic monism.

Both laws were of paramount importance, as direct evidence of Darwin's theory of descent, which, it will be remembered, was at the time regarded merely as an hypothesis .

In Kowalevsky's Versuch einer natiirlichen Classification der Fossilen Hufthiere (1873) we find a model union of detailed inductive study with theory and working hypothesis .

Brocchi and Daniel Rosa (1899) have developed the hypothesis of the progressive reduction of variability.

The net result of observation is not favourable to the essentially Darwinian view that the adaptive arises out of the fortuitous by selection, but is rather favourable to the hypothesis of the existence of some quite unknown intrinsic law of life which we are at present totally unable to comprehend or even conceive.

The resemblance of this to some versions of the Hindu doctrine of the four ages or yuga is hardly to be accounted for except on the hypothesis that the Mexican theology contains ideas learnt from Asiatics.

This view, generally known as "Prout's hypothesis ," at least had the merit of stimulating inquiry, and many of the most careful determinations of atomic weights undertaken since its promulgation have been provoked by the desire to test its validity.

In 1902, in an "attempt at a chemical conception of the ether," he put forward the hypothesis that there are in existence two elements of smaller atomic weight than hydrogen, and that the lighter of these is a chemically inert, exceedingly mobile, all-penetrating and all-pervading gas, which constitutes the aether.

The occasional similarities of thought and expression between them and the Lucan writings suggest that the period of their origin lies within a quarter of a century after Paul's death, and, when one or two later accretions are admitted, the internal evidence, either upon the organization of the church 1 or upon the errors controverted, tallies with this hypothesis .

But Aristotle was an author as well as a lecturer; for the hypothesis that the Aristotelian writings are notes of his lectures taken down by his pupils is contradicted by the tradition of their learning while walking, and disproved by the impossibility of taking down such complicated discourses from dictation.

Such in brief is the Platonism of the written dialogues; where the main doctrine of forms is confessedly advanced never as a dogma but always as a hypothesis , in which there are difficulties, but without which Plato can explain neither being, nor truth nor goodness, because throughout he denies the being of individual things.

Plato's hypothesis of supernatural forms, and advance his own.

Here, too, he examined the hypothesis of Eudoxus that things are caused by mixture of forms, a hypothesis which formed a kind of transition to - his own later views, but failed to satisfy him on account of its diffi - culties.

He rejected the Platonic hypothesis of forms, and affirmed that they are not separate but common, without however as yet having advanced to a constructive metaphysics of his own; while at the same time, after having at first adopted his master's dialectical treatment of metaphysical problems, he soon passed from dialogues to didactic works,, which had the result of separating metaphysics from dialectic. The all-important consequence of this first departure from Platonism was that Aristotle became and remained primarily a metaphysician.

During his master's life, in the second period of his own life, he protested against the Platonic hypothesis of forms, formal numbers and the one as the good, and tended to separate metaphysics from dialectic by beginning to pass from dialogues to didactic works.

There is a further hypothesis that the Aristotelian works were not originally treatises, but notes of lectures either for or by his pupils.

We have seen how anxious Aristotle was to be considered one of the Platonists, how reluctant he was to depart from Plato's hypothesis of forms, and how, in denying the separability, he retained the Platonic belief in the reality and even in the unity of the universal.

The hypothesis of inherence gives an inadequate account of the dependence of an attribute on a substance, and is a kind of half-way house between separation and predication.

These considerations make it probable that the author of all three treatises was Aristotle himself; while the analysis of the treatises favours the hypothesis that he wrote the Eudemian Ethics and the Magna Moralia more or less together as the rudimentary first drafts of the mature Nicomachean Ethics.

At first he adopted the somewhat ascetic views of his master about soul and body, and about goods of body and estate; but before Plato's death he had rejected the hypothesis of forms, formal numbers and the form of the good identified with the one, by which Plato tried to explain moral phenomena; while his studies and teaching on rhetoric and poetry soon began to make him take a more tolerant view than Plato did of men's passions.

The hypothesis that the Eudemian Ethics, and by consequence the Magna Moralia, are later than Aristotle has arisen from a simple misconception, continued in a Scholium attributed to Aspasius, who lived in the 2nd century A.D.

According to a probable hypothesis it is a continuation of the above-mentioned river Reka, which is lost near Sankt Kanzian.

The hypothesis (Schlatter, Das neugefundene hebrdische Stuck des Sirach) that it was from Aristobulus that the philosophy of Ecclesiasticus was derived is not generally accepted.

The structure of the Mollusca in the greater number of cases agrees with the hypothesis that the primitive form was unsegmented, and therefore had but one pair of coelomic ducts and one pair of nephridia.

The former hypothesis with its variants may be called the Trochosphere- hypothesis , the latter the Gastraea- hypothesis .

The careful study of the development of one Acoelous form and of certain Rhabdocoels has strengthened this hypothesis by showing that no definite enteron or gut is at first laid down, but that certain embryonic syncytial tracts become digestive tracts, others excretory, others again muscular.

And in general it may be stated that the hypothesis of such an intermixture of forms from neighbouring dialects has been rendered in recent years far more credible by the striking evidence of such continual intermixture going on within quite modern periods of time afforded by the Atlas linguistique de la France, even in the portion which has already been published.

Even the Cartesian school, as it came more and more to feel the difficulty of explaining the interaction of body and mind, and, indeed, any efficient causation whatever, gradually tended to the hypothesis that the real cause is God, who, on the occasion of changes in body, causes corresponding changes in mind, and vice versa.

Avenarius (q.v.) is the hypothesis of the inseparability of subject and object, or, to use his own phraseology, of ego and environment, in purely empirical, or a posteriori form.

He considered that the whole hypothesis that an outer physical thing causes a change in one's central nervous system, which again causes another change in one's inner psychical system or soul, is a departure from the natural view of the universe, and is due to what he called " introjection," or the hypothesis which encloses soul and its faculties in the body, and then, having created a false antithesis between outer and inner, gets into the difficulty of explaining how an outer physical stimulus can impart something into an inner psychical soul.

It is curious that Avenarius should have brought forward this artificial hypothesis as the natural view of the world, without reflecting that on the one hand the majority of mankind believes that the environment (R) exists, has existed, and will exist, without being a counterpart of any living being as central part (C); and that on the other hand it is so far from being natural to man to believe that sensation and thought (E) are different from, and merely dependent on, his body (C), that throughout the Homeric poems, though soul is required for other purposes, all thinking as well as sensation is regarded as a purely bodily operation.

He starts as a phenomenalist from the hypothesis , which we have just described, that knowledge is ex Wundt.

Between Hume's a posteriori and Kant's a priori hypothesis he proposes a logical theory of the origin of notions beyond experience.

Wundt, however, having satisfied himself of the power of mere logical thought beyond experience, goes on to further apply his hypothesis , and supposes that, in dealing with the physical world, logical thinking having added to experience the " supplementary notion " of causality as the connexion of appearances which vary together, adds also the " supplementary notion " of substance as substratum of the connected appearances.

Taken for granted the Kantian hypothesis of a sense of sensations requiring synthesis by understanding, and the Kantian conclusion that Nature as known consists of phenomena united by categories as objects of experience, Green argued, in accordance with Kant's first position, that knowledge, in order to unite the manifold of sensations by relations into related phenomena, requires unifying intelligence, or what Kant called synthetic unity of apperception, which cannot itself be sensation, because it arranges sensations; and he argued, in accordance with Kant's second position, that therefore Nature itself as known requires unifying intelligence to constitute the relations of its phenomena, and to make it a connected world of experience.

Rejecting everything in the Kritik which savoured of the " metempirical," he yet sympathized so far with Hegel's noumenalism as to accept the identification of cause and effect, though he interpreted the hypothesis phenomenalistically by saying that cause and effect are two aspects of the same phenomenon.

But his main sympathy was with Fechner, the gist of whose " inner psychophysics " he adopted, without, however, the hypothesis that what is conscious in us is conscious in the all-embracing spirit of God.

Clifford (q.v.) was working out the hypothesis of psychophysical parallelism to a conclusion different from that of Lewes, and more allied to that of Leibnitz, the prime originator of all these hypotheses.

He disagrees with Fechner's hypothesis of a world-soul, the highest spirit, God, who embraces all psychophysical processes.

James Ward, in Naturalism and Agnosticism (1899), starts from the same phenomenalistic views of Mach and Kirchhoff about mechanics; he proceeds to the hypothesis of duality within experience, which we have traced in James Ward.

These sudden appearances of vast bodies of lemmings, and their singular habit of persistently pursuing the same onward course of migration, have given rise to various speculations, from the ancient belief of the Norwegian peasants, shared by Olaus Magnus, that they fall down from the clouds, to the hypothesis that they are acting in obedience to an instinct inherited from ancient times, and still seeking the congenial home in the submerged Atlantis, to which their ancestors of the Miocene period were wont to resort when driven from their ordinary dwelling-places by crowding or scarcity of food.

In this he gave equations resulting from the hypothesis that the magnetism of a ship is partly due to the permanent magnetism of hard iron and partly to the transient induced magnetism of soft iron; that the latter is proportional to the intensity of the inducing force, and that the length of the needle is infinitesimally small compared to the distance of the surrounding iron.

Cuenot, in order to explain certain features in the hereditary transmission of coat colour in mice, postulated the hypothesis that the grey colour of the wild mouse (which is known to be a compound of black, chocolate and yellow pigments) may be due either to the interaction of a single ferment and three chromogens, or vice versa, to one chromogenic substance and three ferments.

Simplicius's further suggestion that Thales conceived the element to be modified by thinning and thickening is plainly inconsistent with the statement of Theophrastus that the hypothesis in question was peculiar to Anaximenes.

On the whole, a common origin in the north for at least the arcticoaltaic group of alpine plants seems to be the most reasonable hypothesis .

On this basis, with other interesting morphological comparisons, Brefeld erected his hypothesis , now untenable, that the Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes diverge from the Zygomycetes, the former having particularly specialized the ascus (sporangial) mode of reproduction, the latter having specialized the conidial (indehiscent one-spored sporangiole) mode.

The isolation of these compounds is a powerful argument in favour of the Hantzsch hypothesis which requires the existence of these three different types, whilst the Bamberger-Blomstrand view only accounts for the forma tion of two isomeric cyanides, namely, one of the normal diazonium type and one of the iso-diazocyanide type.

Cleanthes's view is, therefore, an hypothesis , and in no sense an inference.

The phenomenon of isomerism will probably supply the crucial test, at least for the chemist, and the question will be whether the Ostwaldian conception, while substituting the Daltonian hypothesis , will also explain isomerism.

But this hypothesis is apparently without foundation.

Poulton, in an admirable discussion of contemporary views regarding species (presidential address to the Entomological Society of London 1904), has shown that Darwin did not believe in the objective existence of species, not only because he was led to discard the hypothesis of special creation as the explanation of the polymorphism of life, but because in practice as a working systematist he could neither find for himself nor ascertain from other systematists any settled criteria by which a group of specimens could be elevated into a genus, accepted as a species, or regarded as a variety.

Malthus has in more modern times derived a certain degree of reflected lustre from the rise and wide acceptance of the Dar, winian hypothesis .

Starting from the hypothesis that Sweden was "DenmarkNorway's most active and irreconcilable enemy," Bernstorff logically included France, the secular ally of Sweden, among the hostile powers with whom an alliance was to be avoided, and drew near to Great Britain as the natural foe of France, especially during the American War of Independence, and this too despite the irritation occasioned in Denmark-Norway by Great Britain's masterful interpretation of the expression "contraband."

Weber's hypothesis of electric atoms, capable of diffusing through metallic bodies and conductors of electricity, but capable of vibration only in non-conductors, it is possible that the ultimate mechanism of conduction may be reduced in all cases to that of diffusion in metallic bodies or internal radiation in dielectrics.

But without following the explanation into the details in which it revels, it may be enough to say that the whole hypothesis is but an attempt to exclude the occult conception of action at a distance, and substitute a familiar phenomenon.

Birkeland (19), who has made a special study of magnetic disturbances in the Arctic, proceeding on the hypothesis that they arise from electric currents in the atmosphere, and who has thence attempted to deduce the position and intensity of these currents, asserts that whilst in the case of many storms the data were insufficient, when it was possible to fix the position of the mean line of flow of the hypothetical current relatively to an auroral arc, he invariably found the directions coincident or nearly so.

The height has also been calculated on the hypothesis that auroral light has its source where the atmospheric pressure is similar to that at which most brilliancy is observed when electric discharges pass in vacuum tubes.

By modifying the hypothesis as to the size and density, times appreciably longer or shorter than the above would be obtained.

The Achaeans, or Hellenes, as they were later termed, were on this hypothesis one of the fair-haired tribes of upper Europe known to the ancients as Keltoi (Celts), who from time to time have pressed down over the Alps into the southern lands, successively as Achaeans, Gauls, Goths and Franks, and after the conquest of the indigenous small dark race in no long time died out under climatic conditions fatal to their physique and morale.

To regard these letters as ciphers is a precarious hypothesis , for the simple reason that cryptography is not to be looked for in the very infancy of Arabic writing.

Their connection with Semitic and Egyptian, therefore, remains at present an obscure though probable hypothesis .

The memorandum of the adjutant-general above referred to was based on the hypothesis that Khartum could not hold out beyond the 15th of November, and that the expedition should reach Berber by the 20th of October.

Or again, the process of scientific induction is a threefold chain; the original hypothesis (the first unification of the fact) seems to melt away when confronted with opposite facts, and yet no scientific progress is possible unless the stimulus of the original unification is strong enough to clasp the discordant facts and establish a reunification.

The unanimous recognition on the part of all biblical scholars that the Old Testament cannot be taken as it stands as a trustworthy account of the history with which it deals, necessitates a hypothesis or, it may be, a series of hypotheses, which shall enable one to approach the more detailed study of its history and religion.

Material forces are, by hypothesis , capable of feeling; matter also must have been from the first endowed with consciousness.

In 1754 Euler communicated to the Berlin Academy a further memoir, in - which, starting from the hypothesis that light consists of vibrations excited in an elastic fluid by luminous bodies, and that the difference of colour of light is due to the greater or less frequency of these vibrations in a given time, he deduced his previous results.

The correctness cf this hypothesis has long been under suspicion, but it has generally been accepted as the best simple approximation to the actual distribution of the motions that could be made.

But, whilst recognizing the existence of local drifts and systems, and admitting the possibility of relative motion between the nearer and more distant, or other classes of stars, it is;only recently that astronomers have seriously doubted the correctness of the hypothesis of random distribution of stellar motions as at least a rough representation of the truth.

This hypothesis of two star-drifts does not imply that all the stars move in one or other of two directions.

The older one - which may be called the " one-drift " hypothesis , since according to it the stars appear to form a single drift moving away from the solar apex - requires that the apparent directions of motion should be so distributed that fewest stars are moving directly towards the solar apex, and most stars along the great circle away from the solar apex, the number decreasing symmetrically, for directions inclined on either side of this great circle, according to a law which can be calculated.

Until the hypothesis has been thoroughly tested by an examination of the line-of-sight velocities of stars from the same point of view, this physical interpretation must be received with some degree of caution; but there can be no doubt of the reality of the anomalies in the statistical distribution of proper motions of the stars, and of these it offers a simple and adequate explanation.

But the crowning absurdity is that, if all universals were hypothetical, Barbara in the first figure would become a purely hypothetical syllogism - a consequence which seems innocent enough until we remember that all universal affirmative conclusions in all sciences would with their premises dissolve into mere hypothesis .

But his account of the first is imperfect, because in ancient analysis the more general propositions, with which it concludes, are not mere consequences, but the real grounds of the given proposition; while his addition of the second reduces the nature of analysis to the utmost confusion, because hypothetical deduction is progressive from hypothesis to consequent facts whereas analysis is regressive from consequent facts to real ground.

It is noticeable that Wundt quotes Newton's discovery of the centripetal force of the planets to the sun as an instance of this supposed hypothetical, analytic, inductive method; as if Newton's analysis were a hypothesis of the centripetal force to the sun, a deduction of the given facts of planetary motion, and a verification of the hypothesis by the given facts, and as if such a process of hypothetical deduction could be identical with either analysis or induction.

Hence it is that Jevons, followed by Sigwart and Wundt, reduces it to deduction from a hypothesis in the form "Let every M be P, S is M,.

As we have seen, Jevons, Sigwart and Wundt all think that induction contains a belief in causation, in a cause, or ground, which is not present in the particular facts of experience, but is contributed by a hypothesis added as a major premise to the particulars in order to explain them by the cause or ground.

Not, however, that all induction is causal; but where it is not, there is still less reason for making it a deduction from hypothesis .

It is, then, a fair working hypothesis as to the structure of the Organon to place the Topics, which deal with dialectical reasoning, before the Analytics.

The conjunction was by hypothesis not given, and is a new result by no_ means to be reached, apart from direct perception save by use of at least two given conjunctions.

The positive procedure by hypothesis and verification is rejected by Bacon, who thinks of hypothesis as the will o' the wisp of science, and prefers the cumbrous machinery of negative reasoning.

The hypothesis of the collector, the man who keeps a rain-gauge, or the missionary among savages, is to be discounted from as a source of error.

In especial he showed clear understanding of the functions of hypothesis and verification in the investigations of the solitary worker, with his facts still in course of accumulation and needing to be lighted up by the scientific imagination.

Whether the tradition which makes Ararat the resting-place of Noah's Ark is of any historical value or not, there is at least poetical fitness in the hypothesis , inasmuch as this mountain is about equally distant from the Black Sea and the Caspian, from the Mediterranean and the Persian Gulf.

Later and more accurate experiments have confirmed the experimental value, and have shown that the limiting value of the specific heat should consequently be somewhat smaller than that given by Maxwell's hypothesis .

In all such systems, God is the terminus ad quem, a direct knowledge of whom is not claimed, but who is, as it were, the hypothesis adopted, with varying degrees of certainty in different thinkers, for the explanation of the facts before them.

Moreover, as this complication was a marked feature in certain epidemics of plague in India, the hypothesis has been framed by Hirsch that a special variety of plague, pestis indica, still found in India, is that which overran the world in the 14th century.

Further, to make out a case for dependence at all, one must assume the mistaken order (as it may be) in Gamaliel's speech as due to gross carelessness in the author of Acts - an hypothesis unlikely in itself.

Coulomb experimentally proved that the law of attraction and repulsion of simple electrified bodies was that the force between them varied inversely as the square of the distance and thus gave mathematical definiteness to the two-fluid hypothesis .

Berzelius early in the 19th century had advanced the hypothesis that chemical combination was due to electric attractions between the electric charges carried by chemical atoms. The notion, however, that electricity is atomic in structure was definitely put forward by Hermann von Helmholtz in a well-known Faraday lecture.

Varley had advanced tentatively the hypothesis that it consisted in an actual projection of electrified matter from the cathode, and Crookes was led by his researches in 1870, 1871 and 1872 to embrace and confirm this hypothesis in a modified form and announce the existence of a fourth state of matter, which he called radiant matter, demonstrating by many beautiful and convincing experiments that there was an actual projection of material substance of some kind possessing inertia from the surface of the cathode.

The final outcome of these investigations was the hypothesis that Thomson's corpuscles or particles composing the cathode discharge in a high vacuum tube must be looked upon as the ultimate constituent of what we call negative electricity; in other words, they are atoms of negative electricity, possessing, however, inertia, and these negative electrons are components at any rate of the chemical atom.

Thomson also developed this hypothesis in a profoundly interesting manner, and we may therefore summarize very briefly the views held on the nature of electricity and matter at the beginning of the 10th century by saying that the term electricity had come to be regarded, in part at least, as a collective name for electrons, which in turn must be considered as constituents of the chemical atom, furthermore as centres of certain lines of self-locked and permanent strain existing in the universal aether or electromagnetic medium.

Larmor and many others, the electronic hypothesis of matter and of electricity has been developed in great detail and may be said to represent the outcome of modern researches upon electrical phenomena.

But although the rigorous requirements of science could only be fulfilled by the employment of all these means, yet in their absence it was permissible to draw from the tables and the exclusion a hypothetical conclusion, the truth of which might be verified by the use of the other processes; such an hypothesis is called fantastically the First Vintage (Vindemiatio).

The true scientific procedure is by hypothesis followed up and tested by verification; the most powerful instrument is the deductive method, which Bacon can hardly be said to have recognized.

The power of framing hypothesis points to another want in the Baconian doctrine.

But he was certainly not ignorant of what may be called a deductive method, and of a kind of hypothesis .

Progress in scientific discovery is made mainly, if not solely, by the employment of hypothesis , and for that no code of rules can be laid down such as Bacon had devised.

Yet the framing of hypothesis is no mere random guesswork; it is left not to the imagination alone, but to the scientific imagination.

Not content with the barren assertion that the understanding makes nature, and that we can construct science only on the hypothesis that there is reason in the world, they proceeded to show how the thing was actually done.

Hume's casual allusion to "this famous atheist" and his "hideous hypothesis " is a fair specimen of the tone in which he is usually referred to; people talked about Spinoza, Lessing said, "as if he were a dead dog."

Lake San Martin lies in a crooked deeply cut passage through the Andes, and the divide between its southern extremity (Laguna Tar) and Lake Viedma, which discharges through the Santa Cruz river into the Atlantic, is so slight as to warrant the hypothesis that this was once a strait between the two oceans.

In the cuneiform letters from Tell el-Amarna in Egypt (1400 B.C.), we find among the princelings of Syria and Palestine names like Artamanya, Arzawiya, Shuwardata, a name terminating in -warzana, &c.; while the kings of Mitanni on the Euphrates are Artatama, Shutarna, Artashumara, and Dushratt anames too numerous and too genuinely Iranian to allow of the hypothesis of coincidence.

To him is also due the discovery of the power of rotatory polarization exhibited by quartz, and last of all, among his many contributions to the support of the undulatory hypothesis , comes the experimentum crucis which he proposed to carry out for comparing directly the velocity of light in air and in water or glass.

The hypothesis that a saying of Jesus is loosely added here to an Old Testament citation is very forced, and the inference is that by the time the author wrote, Luke's gospel was reckoned as This would be explicable if Luke could be assumed to have been the author, in whole or part, of the pastorals.

The fundamental doctrine of this work is that, on the hypothesis of free competition, exchange value is determined by the labour expended in production, - a proposition not new, nor, except with considerable limitation and explanation, true, and of little practical use, as "amount of labour" is a vague expression, and the thing intended is incapable of exact estimation.

The next step is to deduce this surface-tension from a hypothesis as to the molecular constitution of the liquid and of the bodies that surround it.

He proceeded to an investigation of the equilibrium of a fluid on the hypothesis of uniform density, and arrived at the conclusion that on this hypothesis none of the observed capillary phenomena would take place, and that, therefore, Laplace's theory, in which the density is supposed uniform, is not only insufficient but erroneous.

On the hypothesis of uniform density we shall find that this is true for films whose thickness exceeds The symbol x is defined as the energy of unit of mass of the substance.

In this assertion we think he was mathematically wrong, though in his own hypothesis that the density does actually vary, he was probably right.

This hypothesis was suggested by Laplace, and may conveniently be named after him.

It was also tacitly adopted by Young, in connexion with the still more special hypothesis which Young probably had in view, namely that the force in each case was constant within a limited range, the same in all cases, and vanished outside that range.

As an immediate consequence of this hypothesis we have from (28) K = Koo' 2, where Ko, To are the same for all bodies.

We are thus led to the important conclusion that according to this hypothesis Neumann's triangle is necessarily imaginary, that one of three fluids will always spread upon the interface of the other two.

So far the results of Laplace's hypothesis are in marked accordance with experiment; but if we follow it out further, discordances begin to manifestthemselves.

What is more, (52) shows that according to the hypothesis T12 is necessarily positive; 23 FIG.

This idiom could, of course, be explained on the hypothesis of an Aramaic original.

The hypothesis has won very wide acceptance, but several editors and critics (including Harnack, Zahn and Clemen) remain unconvinced.

If the hypothesis already outlined is set aside, it is open to the critic to regard large portions of the canonical Romans as having originally occupied a separate setting,5 or to ascribe the textual variations to the exigencies of church reading after the formation of the canon (which might explain the absence of Ev `Pt)t7j in i.

With regard to his birth, parentage, youth, and education everything depends upon this tradition, and it is not until he was according to one extreme hypothesis thirty-six, according to the other extreme twenty-four, that we have solid testimony respecting him.

The second book, which introduces the principal hero of the whole, Pantagruel, Gargantua's son, is, on any other hypothesis but that already suggested of its prior composition, very difficult to explain, but in itself it is intelligible enough.

They are always written in the author's highest style, a style perfectly eloquent and unaffected; they can only be interpreted (on the free-thinking hypothesis ) as allegorical with the greatest difficulty and obscurity, and it is pretty certain that no one reading the book without a thesis to prove would dream of taking them in a non-natural sense.

Possibly, however, many of the royal families may have contained an element of Scandinavian blood, a hypothesis which would well accord with the social conditions of the migration period, as illustrated, e.g., in Volsunga Saga and in Hervarar Saga ok Heib'reks Konungs.

A hypothesis favoured by Dr Frazer, that the victim is usually a divine man, a priest-king 4 Pliny, Nat.

More recently he expressed his dissatisfaction with the hypothesis of "sexual selection" by which Darwin sought to explain the conspicuous characters which are displayed during the courtship of animals.

Bellarmine did not proscribe the Copernican system, as has been maintained by Reusch (Der Process Galilei's and die Jesuiten, Bonn, 1879, p. 125); all he claimed was that it should be presented as an hypothesis until it should receive scientific demonstration.

In one form or another such a theory of human descent has in our time become part of an accepted framework of zoology, if not as a demonstrable truth, at any rate as a working hypothesis which has no effective rival.

As for the reasoning powers in animals, the accounts of monkeys learning by experience to break eggs carefully, and pick off bits of shell, so as not to lose the contents, or of the way in which rats or martens after a while can no longer be caught by the same kind of trap, with innumerable similar facts, show in the plainest way that the reason of animals goes so far as to form by new experience a new hypothesis of cause and effect which will henceforth guide their actions.

On the other hand it does not follow necessarily from a theory of evolution of species that mankind must have descended from a single stock, for the hypothesis of development admits of the argument, that several simian species may have culminated in several races of man.

Darwin and others having regarded Lord Morton's mare as affording very strong evidence in support of the infection hypothesis , it was considered some years ago desirable to repeat Lord Morton's experiment as accurately as possible.

In conclusion, it may be pointed out that it was only natural for breeders and physiologists in bygone days to account for some of their results by the "infection" hypothesis .

That this endeavour to work into the historical tradition of the life and teaching of Jesus - a hypothesis which had a distinctly foreign origin - led him into serious difficulties is a consideration that must be discussed elsewhere.

He was the first in England to verify Benjamin Franklin's hypothesis of the identity of lightning and electricity, and he made several important electrical discoveries.

The line of pressures as generally given for this dam with the reservoir full, on the hypothesis that the density of the masonry was a little over 2, is shown by long and short dots in fig.

Between ten and eleven years ago there was an hypothesis of mine registered in your books, wherein I hinted a cause of gravity towards the earth, sun and planets, with the dependence of the celestial motions thereon; in which the proportion of the decrease of gravity from the superficies of the planet (though for brevity's sake not there expressed) can be no other than reciprocally duplicate of the distance from the centre.

And I hope I shall not be urged to declare, in print, that I understood not the obvious mathematical condition of my own hypothesis .

Numerous attempts have been made to solve these problems, and to construct a theory of the origin of the Grail story, but so far the difficulty has been to find an hypothesis which would admit of the practically simultaneous existence of apparently contradictory features.

Legends of the part played by Joseph of Arimathea in the conversion of Britain are closely connected with Glastonbury, the monks of which foundation showed, in the 12th century, considerable literary activity, and it seems a by no means improbable hypothesis that the present form of the Grail legend may be due to a monk of Glastonbury elaborating ideas borrowed from Fecamp. This much is certain, that between the Saint-Sang of Fecamp, the Volto Santo of Lucca, and the Grail tradition, there exists a connecting link, the precise nature of which has yet to be determined.

The Buddhist theory, as is well known, is put together without the hypothesis of "soul" at all.

The hypothesis is not free from certain difficulties, one of which will be noticed later.

This hypothesis , however, requires us to suppose that Xerxes had returned from Sardis to Susa by the tenth month of the seventh year of his reign, which is barely credible.

We are prohibited by a general consideration of metamerism in the Arthropoda from adopting the hypothesis of intercalation of somites.

The second book proposes a hypothesis regarding the genesis of our ideas and closes after an elaborate endeavour to verify it.

The hypothesis is, that all human ideas, even the most complex and abstract and sublime, ultimately depend upon " experience."

The " verification " of this hypothesis , offered in the thirteenth and following chapters of the second book, goes to show in detail that even those ideas which are " most abstruse," how remote soever they may seem from original data of outward sense, or of inner consciousness, " are only such as the understanding frames to itself by repeating and joining together simple ideas that it had at first, either from perceiving objects of sense, or from reflection upon its own operations."

The hypothesis , that even our most profound and sublime speculations are all limited to data of the senses and of reflection, is crucially tested by the " modes " and " substances " and " relations " under which, in various degrees of complexity, we somehow find ourselves obliged to conceive those simple phenomena.

The comparative study of the development does not support the hypothesis that the Polyzoa (q.v.) are comparable with Phoronis.

Certainly without some such assumption the hypothesis of an exact correspondence between the series described as parallel becomes, as Professor Ward has shown, unmeaning.

Hedonistic psychology denied the libertarian hypothesis , but it denied also the absoluteness and intuitive character of moral obligation, and attached no validity to the ordinary interpretation of terms like "ought" and duty.

On the contrary, a belief that conduct necessarily results upon the presence of certain motives, and that upon the application of certain incentives, whether of pain or pleasure, upon the presence of certain stimuli whether in the shape of rewards or punishments, actions of a certain character will necessarily ensue, would seem to vindicate the rationality of ordinary penal legislation, if its aim be deterrent or reformatory, to a far greater extent than is possible upon the libertarian hypothesis .

While if the deterrent and reformatory theories alone provide a rational end for punishment to aim at then the libertarian hypothesis pushed to its extreme conclusion must make all punishments equally useless.

A reaction, in one form or another, against the tendency to dissolve ethics into psychology was inevitable; since mankind generally could not be so far absorbed by the interest of psychological hypothesis as to forget their need of establishing practical principles.

The fundamental hypothesis of the science assumes a system of bodies in motion, of which the sun and planets may be taken as examples, and of which each separate body is attracted toward all the others according to the law of Newton.

About seventy analogous objects, including that in the Sword of Orion, were found by him to give light of the same quality; and thus after seventy-three years, verification was brought to William Herschel's hypothesis of a " shining fluid " diffused through space, the possible raw material of stars.

The law of this motion was such that the phenomena could be represented by supposing the motion to be actually circular and uniform, the apparent variations being explained by the hypothesis that the earth was not situated in the centre of the orbit, but was displaced by an amount about equal to one-twentieth of the radius of the orbit.

Though it is quite obvious that the theory of a social contract (or compact, as it is also called) contains a considerable element of truth - that loose associations for mutual protection preceded any elaborate idea or structure of law, and that government cannot be based exclusively on force - yet it is open to the equally obvious objection that the very idea of contract belongs to a more advanced stage in human development than the hypothesis itself demands.

The positive exposition of atomism has much that is attractive, but the hypothesis of the calor vitalis (vital heat), a species of anima mundi (world-soul) which is introduced as physical explanation of physical phenomena, does not seem to throw much light on the special problems which it is invoked to solve.

The distinction is of greater importance than would appear when one realizes how obvious the facts really are, and in practice it happens frequently that speakers claim with success to disprove a proposition by disproving the fact alleged in support of it, or to establish a hypothesis by showing that facts agree with its consequences.

Still the roughest form of spiritual prayer has for its basis the hypothesis of beneficent beings, visible or invisible.

The senseless stories or myths about the gods are soon felt to be at variance with this hypothesis .

He calls his own child Dawn or Cloud, his own name is Sitting Bull or Running Wolf, and he is not tempted to explain his great-grandfather's name of Bright Sun or Lively Raccoon on the hypothesis that the ancestor really was a raccoon or the sun.

But, while the possibility of the diffusion of myths by borrowing and transmission must be allowed for, the hypothesis of the origin of myths in the savage state of the intellect supplies a ready explanation of their wide diffusion.

The hypothesis that the rites and the stories are savage inventions surviving into civilized religion seems better to meet the difficulty.

It is a plausible hypothesis that stocks which once claimed descent from animals, sans phrase, afterwards regarded the animals as avatars of Zeus.

But the hypothesis that Cronus is a late derivation from KpovtSr i s and Kpoviwv is by no means universally accepted.

The conclusion that P's narratives and laws in the Pentateuch are post-exilic was found by biblical scholars to be a necessary correction to the original hypothesis of Graf (1866) that P's narratives were to be retained (with J and E) at an early date.

Chudeau, summing up the evidence available in 1909, set forth the hypothesis that the existing upper Niger and the existing lower Niger were distinct streams. According to this theory the upper Niger, somewhat above where Timbuktu now stands, went north and north-west and emptied into the Juf, which in the beginning of the quaternary age was a salt-water lake, the remnant of an arm of the sea which in the tertiary age covered the northern Sudan and southern Sahara as far east as Bilma.

Airy extended Fresnel's hypothesis to directions inclined to the axis of uniaxal crystals by assuming that in any such direction the two waves, that can be propagated without alteration of their state of polarization, are oppositely elliptically polarized with their planes of maximum polarization parallel and perpendicular to the principal plane of the wave, these becoming practically plane polarized at a small inclination to the optic axis.

During a prolonged audience he had received from the pope assurances of private esteem and personal protection; and he trusted to his dialectical ingenuity to find the means of presenting his scientific convictions under the transparent veil of an hypothesis .

But he substituted the equally unnecessary hypothesis of a magnetic attraction, and failed to perceive that the phenomenon to be explained was, in relation to absolute space, not a movement but the absence of movement.

In accordance with this hypothesis , the curves representing the variations of thermoelectric power, dE/dt, with temperature 'OObservationsof' Pia.

In many cases the deviations do not appear to favour any simple hypothesis as to the mode of variation of s with temperature, but as a rule the indication is that s is nearly constant, or even diminishes with rise of temperature.

The general results of the work appeared to support Tait's hypothesis that the effect was proportional to the absolute temperature, but direct thermoelectric tests do not appear to have been made on the specimens employed, which would have afforded a valuable confirmation by the comparison of the values of d 2 E/dT 2, as in Jahn's experiments.

These measurements, though subject to some uncertainty on account of the great experimental difficulties, are a very valuable confirmation of the accuracy of Thomson's theory, because they show that the magnitude of the effect is of the required order, but they cannot be said to be strongly in support of Tait's hypothesis .

This would necessitate chemical action at the junction when a current passed through it, as in an electrolytic cell, whereas the action appears to be purely thermal, and leads to a consistent theory on that hypothesis .

On this hypothesis , if we confine our attention to one of the two metals, say p", in which the current is supposed to flow from hot to cold, we observe that p"dT expresses the quantity of heat converted into electrical energy per unit of electricity by an E.M.F.

This derivation has a somewhat fantastic air, and seems to have been framed to suit an hypothesis .

They argued their way back to Parkside with Dean playing the devil's advocate while Fred quoted a dozen mystery stories that bore out his hypothesis , a hypothesis that grew in detail with each passing mile.

This information contradicts the hypothesis .

The symptom of difficulty awakening is consistent with the phase delay hypothesis of SAD.

The connection we already have involves the Proposition of Neural Indeterminacy, probabilistic causation, and the Correlation Hypothesis .

Frighteningly enough, this is no longer hypothesis and wild conjecture.

Price response among to the hypothesis no reported continuous.

More to the point, he provided a counterexample for each of the examples that Tsai cited in support of her hypothesis .

Since t calc = 1.08 and t crit = 2.228, the null hypothesis is accepted.

Would offer association quot hypothesis percentage point decrease to medicaid and.

Advances in genetics and in mapping DNA, some say, show there is no need for the hypothesis of body-soul dualism.

The Topeka Capital-Journal recently editorialized that " creationism is as good a hypothesis as any for how the universe began.

This supports the hypothesis that PD is a disease with a heterogeneous etiology.

This may sound fanciful, but is merely a hypothesis that would explain some odd facts.

In this case, the correct decision is to reject the null hypothesis .

However it is not the subject matter of this book to attempt to prove or disprove any survival hypothesis .

For these experiments, the null hypothesis was rejected.

So he was reluctant to accept the chemiosmotic hypothesis in the first place.

Trying to fit this case into the extraterrestrial hypothesis presents a series of problems.

A rational model is suggested, where the most plausible hypothesis is selected first.

The trick of course is to find an alternative a priori hypothesis .

In 1986 the prion hypothesis was still regarded as highly controversial.

The Committee evaluated the hypothesis that organochlorine insecticides might increase the risk of breast cancer by virtue of their claimed oestrogenic effects.

These observations accord with the hypothesis that organisms are polyphasic liquid crystals.

In fact, there are areas of mathematics that have been developed by mathematicians on the assumption that the Riemann Hypothesis is true.

We are testing the hypothesis that all Maculinea and Microdon species employ chemical mimicry to a varying degree.

This hypothesis is supported by the fact that only organisms that are able to stimulate neutrophils are associated with renal scarring.

New techniques for the evaluation of tubal patency support the hypothesis that tubal ' plugs ' may be involved in proximal tubal blockage.

The prion hypothesis states that it is due to differences in the chemical or tertiary structure of the prion hypothesis states that it is due to differences in the chemical or tertiary structure of the prion protein.

Their initial hypothesis was that mesodermal progenitors are present in the marrow, but differ from hematopoietic progenitors.

Topics include discoveries of the transuranic elements, the actinide hypothesis , medical radioisotopes, the development of nuclear fission and extensive biographies.

I was testing the wrong hypothesis , the numbers were too small, and they were not randomized.

This hypothesis is consistent with the strongly recurved spits that provide the present day definition of the harbor mouth.

The hypothesis of linguistic relativity, for example, is well known.

The hypothesis for the reduced severity of blast attack is fairly clear for the disease-susceptible glutinous rice.

Quot hypothesis as in this article Florida self employed health insurance form of unused.

Certainly, most economic analysis is based on the self-interest hypothesis , which assumes that all people are exclusively motivated by their material self-interest.

The null hypothesis is that not one of the available UFO reports represents a genuine sighting of an extraterrestrial spacecraft.

So comrades these are the reasons for which I cannot lightly accept the hypothesis of a simple stratagem.

New techniques for the evaluation of tubal patency support the hypothesis that tubal patency support the hypothesis that tubal ' plugs ' may be involved in proximal tubal blockage.

Illogical skeptics will complain that any hypothesis can be induced in this framework, such as a giant purple unicorns or flying cats.

If this hypothesis is true, then unilateral neglect should be improved by increasing activation of the sustained attention system.

Thus studies should not be set up to confirm a hypothesis which is scientifically unsound.

It does have the ad- vantage of support of part of the ancient tradition, 19 something which the two-document hypothesis cannot claim.

Then, secondly, there arose the question whether the methods of exact science sufficed to explain the connexion of phenomena, or whether for the explanation of this the thinking mind was forced to resort to some hypothesis not immediately verifiable by observation, but dictated by higher aspirations and interests.

If we accept the hypothesis that each kind of atom has a specific and invariable weight, we can, with the aid of the above theory, make most important inferences concerning the proportions by weight in which substances combine to form compounds.

Their hypothesis explains so many facts that it is now considered to be as well established as the parts of the theory due to Dalton.'

It will presently appear that the original hypothesis of Fresnel, that the rigidity remains the same in both media, is the only one that can be reconciled with the facts; and we will therefore investigate upon this basis the nature of the secondary waves dispersed by small particles.

According to our hypothesis , the foreign matter may be supposed to load the aether, so as to increase its inertia without altering its resistance to distortion.

So long as the particles are small no such vanishing of light in oblique directions is observed, and we are thus led to the conclusion that the hypothesis of a finite AN and of vibrations in the plane of polarization cannot be reconciled with the facts.

During this anxious period he appears to have borne himself with characteristic dignity, such as is consistent with no other hypothesis than the consciousness of innocence.

Of his writings on social and political questions may be mentioned Die Erziehung des Weibes (1865); Ueber die nationals Entwicklung and Bedeutung der Naturwissenschaften (1865); Die Aufgaben der Naturwissenschaften in dem neuen nationalen Leben Deutschlands (1871); Die Freiheit der Wissenschaft im modernen Staat (1877), in which he opposed the idea of l - L eckel - that the principles of evolution should be taught in elementary schools - on the ground that they were not as yet proved, and that it was mischievous to teach a hypothesis which still remained in the speculative stage.

The progeny of these cats, more or less crossed with the indigenous species, thence gradually spread over Europe, to become mingled at some period, according to Dr Nehring's hypothesis , with an Asiatic stock.

Of Bacon's demand for observation and collection of facts he is an imitator; and he wishes (in a letter of 1632) that " some one would undertake to give a history of celestial phenomena after the method of Bacon, and describe the sky exactly as it appears at present, without introducing a single hypothesis ."

His fundamental hypothesis relegates to God all forces in their ultimate origin.

But these defects need not blind us to the fact that this hypothesis made the mathematical progress of Hooke, Borelli and Newton much more easy and certain.

These and other apologetic writings have so far failed to produce any adequate alternative hypothesis , and while they argue for the traditional theory, later revision not being excluded, the modern critical view accepts late dates for the literary sources in their present form, and explicitly recognizes the presence of much that is ancient.

His paper on the variation of the specific heat with temperature, which appeared in 1907, was the first extension of Planck's fundamental hypothesis , and its verification in essentials is one of the most convincing arguments in its favour.

In the one hypothesis , as in the other, Italy could count upon the moral support of Great Britain, but could not make of British friendship the keystone of a Continental policy.

The doctrine of Anaximenes, who unites the conceptions of a determinate and indeterminate original substance adopted by Thales and Anaximander in the hypothesis of a primordial and all-generating air, is a clear advance on these theories, inasmuch as it introduces the scientific idea of condensation and rarefaction as the great generating or transforming agencies.

It may be observed, too, that the hypothesis of a primitive compact mass (sphaerus), in which love (attraction) is supreme, has some curious points of similarity to, and contrast with, that notion of a primitive nebulous matter with which the modern doctrine of cosmic evolution usually sets out.

He further recognizes a progress in the production of vegetable and animal forms, though this part of his theory is essentially crude and unscientific. More important in relation to the modern problems of evolution is his thoroughly materialistic way of explaining the origin of sensation and knowledge by help of his peculiar hypothesis of effluvia and pores.

Among the Gnostics we meet with the hypothesis of emanation, as, for example, in the curious cosmic theory of Valentinus.

His theory of evolution is essentially pantheistic, and he does not employ his hypothesis of monads in order to work out a more mechanical conception.

In the third part of this work he inclines to a thoroughly natural hypothesis respecting the genesis of the physical world, and adds in the fourth part that the same kind of explanation might be applied to the nature and formation of plants and animals.

In his Dialogues concerning Natural Religion he puts forward tentatively, in the person of one of his interlocutors, the ancient hypothesis that since the world resembles an animal or vegetal organism rather than a machine, it might more easily be accounted for by a process of generation than by an act of creation.

Maupertuis, who, together with Voltaire, introduced the new idea of the universe as based on Newton's discoveries, sought to account for the origin of organic things by the hypothesis of sentient atoms. Buffon the naturalist speculated, not only on the structure and genesis of organic beings, but also on the course of formation of the earth and solar system, which he conceived after the analogy of the development of organic beings out of seed.

It was natural, therefore, that he rejected the idea of a spontaneous generation of organisms (which was just then being advocated by his friend Forster), not only as unsupported by experience but as an inadequate hypothesis .

The two parts of Bonnet's hypothesis , namely, the doctrine that all living things proceed from pre-existing germs, and that these contain, one enclosed within the other, the germs of all future living things, which is the hypothesis of " emboitement," and the doctrine that every germ contains in miniature all the organs of the adult, which is the hypothesis of evolution or development, in the primary senses of these words, must be carefully distinguished.

Growth, therefore, was, on this hypothesis , partly a process of simple evolution, and partly of what has been termed syngenesis.

The school of Cuvier was lamentably deficient in embryologists; and it was only in the course of the first thirty years of the igth century that Prevost and Dumas in France, and, later on, Ddllinger, Pander, von Bar, Rathke, and Remak in Germany, founded modern embryology; and, at the same time, proved the utter incompatibility of the hypothesis of evolution as formulated by Bonnet and Haller with easily demonstrable facts.

For those which are grouped under the second to the seventh of these classes, respectively, have a clear significance on the hypothesis of evolution, while they are unintelligible if that hypothesis be denied.

And those of the eighth group are not only uninintelligible without the assumption of evolution, but can be proved never to be discordant with that hypothesis , while, in some cases, they are exactly such as the hypothesis requires.

And as the hypothesis of " specific centres," thus formulated, was heterodox from the theological point of view, and unintelligible under its scientific aspect, it may be passed over without further notice, as a phase of transition from the creational to the evolutional hypothesis .

Polymerization of the aldehyde was also a feature of Baeyers hypothesis , so that this view does not very materially differ from those he advanced.

But if we accept either view we have still to examine the process of construction in detail, with a view to ascertaining the stages by which proteid is built up. Here unfortunately we find ourselves in the region of speculation and hypothesis rather than in that of fact.

The symmetrically placed hypothetical islands in the great continuousocean disappeared, and the oekumene acquired a new form by the representation of the Indian Ocean as a larger Mediterranean completely cut off by land from the Atlantic. The terra incognita uniting Africa and Farther Asia was an unfortunate hypothesis which helped to retard exploration.

The councils of Trent and of the Vatican mark the Two Truths hypothesis as heretical, when they affirm that there is a natural knowledge of God and natural certainty of immortality.

Probably most persons who have studied the subject would now be inclined to go this length; and there is some evidence, notably in connexion with the trances of an American medium, Mrs Piper,' which has convinced some good observers that the hypothesis of occasional communication from deceased persons must be seriously entertained.

The Meteoritic Hypothesis (1890) propounds a comprehensive scheme of cosmical evolution, which has evoked more dissent than approval, while the Sun's Place in Nature (1897) lays down the lines of a classification of the stars, depending upon their supposed temperature-relations.

On the hypothesis that such a form as Dinophilus (see Haplodrili) has preserved the characters of the primitive Chaetopod more nearly than a any existing Polychaet or Oligochaet, it is clear that the nephridia in the Oligochaeta have preserved the original features of those organs more nearly than most Polychaeta.

It is a comparatively simple thing to state the question to which we want an answer, but extremely difficult to define the exact nature of the evidence which will constitute a good answer; easy enough to say we must try hypothesis after hypothesis , and test each one by an appeal to the facts, but a man may easily spend his life in this sort of thing and still leave to his descendants nothing more than a legacy of rejected hypotheses.

In the course of the 19th century the idea that the different elements are constituted by different groupings or condensations of one primal matter - a speculation which, if proved to be well grounded, would imply the possibility of changing one element into another - found favour with more than one responsible chemist; but experimental research failed to yield any evidence that was generally regarded as offering any support to this hypothesis .

The evolution of the notion of elements is treated under Element; the molecular hypothesis of matter under Molecule; and the genesis of, and deductions from, the atomic theory of Dalton receive detailed analysis in the article Atom.

In this respect his hypothesis has much in common with the " law of mass-action " developed at a much later date b y the Swedish chemists Guldberg and Waage, and the American, Willard Gibbs (see Chemical Action).

It is not to be supposed that there are any actual bonds of union between the atoms; graphic formulae such as these merely express the hypothesis that certain of the atoms in a compound come directly within the sphere of attraction of certain other atoms, and only indirectly within the sphere of attraction of others, - an hypothesis to which chemists are led by observing that it is often possible to separate a group of elements from a compound, and to displace it by other elements or groups of elements.

The determination of an ocean surrounding the inhabited earth he declared to be based on a mere hypothesis and that it would be equally allowable to describe the Erythraea as a sea surrounded by land.

Hertz, have transformed applied mathematics by systematically basing their deductions upon the Law of the conservation of energy, and the hypothesis of an ether pervading space.

On this hypothesis Poisson investigated the forces due to bodies magnetized in any manner, and also originated the mathematical theory of magnetic induction.

The determination of the relative degree of perfection of organization attained by two animals 1 A great deal of superfluous hypothesis has lately been put forward in the name of " the principle of convergence of characters " by a certain school of palaeontologists.

The familiar illustration of Lamarck's hypothesis is that of the giraffe, whose long neck might, he suggested, have been acquired by the efforts of a primitively short-necked race of herbivores who stretched their necks to reach the foliage of trees in a land where grass was deficient, the effort producing a distinct elongation in the neck of each generation, which was then transmitted to the next.

It should be observed, however, that Darwin did not attribute an essential part to this Lamarckian hypothesis of the transmission of acquired characters, but expressly assigned to it an entirely subordinate importance.

He left a hypothesis to be worked out by others; this done, he would criticize with all the rigour of logic, and with a profound distrust of imagination, metaphor and the attitude known as the will-to-believe.

The latter force is, by Maxwell's hypothesis or by the dynamical theory of an aether pervaded by electrons, the same as that which strair s the aether, and may be called the aethereal force; it thereby produces an aethereal electric displacement, say (f,g,h), according to the relation (f,g,h) = (41 r c 2) - 1(P',Q', RI), in which c is a constant belonging to the aether, which turns out to be the velocity of light.

It was written to instruct and encourage the Christians of Asia Minor at a time of persecution, which on the hypothesis of genuineness, would be the Neronian, i.e.

As a natural philosopher he radically opposed Cuvier and was distinctly a precursor of uniformitarianism, advocating the hypothesis of slow changes and variations, both in living forms and in their environment.

The rarity of really continuous series has naturally led palaeontologists to support the hypothesis Of brusque transitions of structure.

Nevertheless, the most usual hypothesis is that, while the Nicomachean Ethics (E.N.) was written by Aristotle to Nicomachus, the Eudemian (E.E.) was written, not to, but by, Eudemus, and the Magna Moralia (M.M.) was written by some early disciple before the introduction of Stoic and Academic elements into the Peripatetic school.

Again, in his Grundproblem der Erkenntnisstheorie (1889) he uses without proof the hypothesis of psychological idealism, that we perceive psychical effects, to infer with merely hypothetical consistency the conclusion of noumenal metaphysical idealism that all we can thereby know is psychical causes, or something transcendent, beyond phenomena indeed, yet not beyond mind.

Further, from an early period in his Medicinische Psychologie (1852) he reinforced the transcendental idealism of Kant by a general hypothesis of " local signs," containing the subordinate hypotheses, that we cannot directly perceive extension either within ourselves or without; that spatial bodies outside could not cause in us spatial images either in sight or in touch; but that besides the obvious data of sense, e.g.

He borrows from Kant's "rationalism " the hypothesis of a spontaneous activity of the subject with the deduction that knowledge begins from sense, but arises from understanding; and he accepts from Kant's metaphysical idealism the consequence that everything we perceive, experience and know about physical nature, and the bodies of which it consists, is phenomena, and not bodily things in themselves.

But whereas Fechner and Paulsen hold that all physical processes are universally accompanied by psychical processes which are the real causes of psychical sensations, Riehl rejects this paradox of universal parallelism in order to fall into the equally paradoxical hypothesis that something or other, which is neither physical not psychical, causes both the physical phenomena of matter moving in space and the psychical phenomena of mind to arise in us as its common effects.

Spencer widens the empirical theory of the origin of knowledge by his brilliant hypothesis of inherited organized tendencies, which has influenced all later psychology and epistemology, and tends to a kind of compromise between Hume and Kant.

The substantially Pauline character of the epistle, for all practical purposes, is to be granted upon either hypothesis , for the author or the editor strove not unsuccessfully, upon the whole, to reproduce the Pauline spirit and traditions The older notion that the personal data in Titus, or in the rest of the pastorals, were invented to lend verisimilitude to the writing must be given up. They are too circumstantial and artless to be the work of a writer idealizing or creating a situation.

But investigations carried out in connexion with the "Challenger" expedition indicated that it was an artificial product, composed of a flocculent precipitate of gypsum thrown down from seawater by alcohol, and the hypothesis of its organic character was abandoned by most biologists, Huxley included.

Thereupon the Newtonian analysis which preceded this synthesis, became forgotten; until at last Mill in his Logic, neglecting the Principia, had the temerity to distort Newton's discovery, which was really a pure example of analytic deduction, into a mere hypothetical deduction; as if the author of the saying " Hypotheses non lingo" started from the hypothesis of a centripetal force to the sun, and thence deductively explained the facts of planetary motion, which reciprocally verified the hypothesis .

According to both, induction, instead of inferring from A, B, C magnets the conclusion " Therefore all magnets attract iron," infers from the hypothesis , " Let every magnet attract iron," to A, B, C magnets, whose given attraction verifies the hypothesis .

As early as 1860 Newcomb communicated an important memoir to the American Academy, 4 On the Secular Variations and Mutual Relation of the Orbits of the Asteroids, in which he discussed the two principal hypotheses to account for the origin of these bodies - one, that they are the shattered fragments of a single planet (Olbers' hypothesis ), the other, that they have been formed by the breaking up of a revolving ring of nebulous matter.

But whether the assumption of uniform density be physically correct is a very different question, and Poisson rendered good service to science in showing how to carry on the investigation on the hypothesis that the density very near the surface is different from that in the interior of the fluid.

We may, however, reject the sceptical hypothesis that Laura was a mere figment of Petrarch's fancy; and, if we accept her personal reality, the poems of her lover demonstrate that she was a married woman with whom he enjoyed a respectful and not very intimate friendship.

The fact that, in practice, the judgments even of connoisseurs are perpetually at variance, and that the so-called criteria of one place or period are more or less opposed to those of all others, is explained away by the hypothesis that individuals are differently gifted in respect of the capacity to appreciate.

This has proved to be a sound hypothesis and is now accepted as the basis upon which the Arthropod head must be interpreted (see Korschelt and Heider (3)).

He maintained with full conviction to the end of his life a grossly erroneous hypothesis of the tides, early adopted from Andrea Caesalpino; the " triplicate " appearance of Saturn always remained an enigma to him; and in regarding comets as atmospheric emanations he lagged far behind Tycho Brahe.

Poincare 's hypothesis remained most striking facet produce ions and radiographs by oudin.

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Certainly, from the standpoint of the special theory of relativity, the ether hypothesis appears at first to be an empty hypothesis .

What sort of evidence would have been required to substantiate the Muslim hypothesis of a perfect text?

The tentative hypothesis is that the prospect of taking an exam is more stressful than the exam itself.

I will present evidence in support of my hypothesis that the chemical constituents of underarm cosmetics may cause breast cancer.

Observations of phytoplankton blooms without the addition of iron supplements show underutilized resources of carbon dioxide and nitrates, supporting Martin 's Iron Hypothesis .

Otherwise we cannot demonstrate the truth or validity of the hypothesis and the theory.

What may help you manage the paradox is thinking about your startup idea as a hypothesis . You'll develop, test and implement the hypothesis , but be prepared to find a flaw in it.

When you accept that your startup is no more than a working hypothesis and that unexpected developments can change this hypothesis , you possess the agility necessary to change.

Larry's hypothesis was that the app would appeal to fans of all four professional sports, both as a fun activity and as an aid to betting.

An educated hypothesis would postulate that it is just one of the many factors that influence the way teens think and act.

In the fall of 2002, the New England Journal of Medicine published a major Danish study disproving the hypothesis of a connection between the MMR vaccine and autism.

The study is designed to test the hypothesis that differences in temperament related to differences in brain functioning put some children at an increased risk of certain psychiatric disorders later in life.

Research gathered by the council support this hypothesis including a 2008 study in the journal Medical Hypotheses and a 2010 article in Acta Paediatrica.

Next, children can design an experiment to test their statements or hypothesis .

A hypothesis is a statement that is either proven true or false.

An experiment is something that tests a hypothesis .

For this type of project, the child would have to start by asking a question and then working up a hypothesis .

The experiment is used as a tool to test the hypothesis , and then a conclusion is drawn at the end of the process.

A successful elementary science project is not necessarily one where students prove their hypothesis successfully.

In this hypothesis , the human brain strays from the regular transition into unconsciousness combined with physical paralysis into sleep and then into deep REM sleep.

Each research study begins with a hypothesis that focuses on a possible cause for autistic disorders.

According to the calorie hypothesis , when you consume any food, it provides your body with energy.

Put simply, the calorie hypothesis suggests that when you eat more calories than you burn, you gain weight.

The science and technology must be plausible, whether theoretically possible or based purely on a fictional hypothesis .

As Dalton said, "The doctrine of definite proportions appears mysterious unless we adopt the atomic hypothesis ."

No speculation of hypothesis has been propounded to account satisfactorily for the origin of the Australian flora.

As a step towards such hypothesis it has been noted that the Antarctic, the South African, and the Australian floras have many types in common.

It would be necessary to regard this structure as a secondary extension of the endoderm in the tentacle-web, on Allman's theory, or between the outgrowths of the hydrorhiza, on Mechnikov's hypothesis .

These theories, however, contain little that bears directly on the hypothesis of a natural evolution of things.

Baeyers hypothesis was entertained by botanists partly because it explained the gaseous interchanges accompanying photosynthesis.

The special Darwinian hypothesis - natural " selection " - may or may not be true; it was at least a fruitful suggestion.

Whether or not further study of the scripts of these writers confirms this hypothesis , it cannot fail to throw light on the nature of the intelligence involved.

His argument for the Being of God is based on the hypothesis that thought - not individual but universal - is the reality of all things, the existence of this Infinite Thought being demonstrated by the limitations of finite thought.

Scholars are now almost unanimously agreed that the internal features are best explained by the Graf-Wellhausen hypothesis .

The Graf-Wellhausen hypothesis , that the hierarchical law in its complete form in the Pentateuch stands at the close and not at the beginning of biblical history, that this mature Judaism was the fruit of the 5th century B.C. and not a divinely appointed institution at the exodus (nearly ten centuries previously), has won the recognition of almost all Old Testament scholars.

The Graf-Wellhausen hypothesis (§ 4) does not pretend to be complete in all its details and it is independent of its application to the historical criticism of the Old Testament.

No alternative hypothesis prevails, mere desultory criticism of the internal intricacies being quite inadequate.

But what was matter of immanent assumption with Erigena is in them an equating of two things which have been dealt with on the hypothesis that they are separate, and which, therefore, still retain that external relation to one another.

The depression westward of the Caspian and Aral basins, and the original connexion of these seas, have also come under the close investigation of Russian scientists, with the result that the theory of an ancient connexion between the Oxus and the Caspian has been displaced by the more recent hypothesis of an extension of the Caspian Sea eastwards into Trans-Caspian territory within the postPleiocene age.

One hypothesis supposes that the shores of the Mediterranean were originally inhabited by a homogeneous race neither Aryan nor Semitic.

This doctrine or hypothesis he usually speaks of as "the ideal system" or "the theory of ideas"; and to it he opposes his own analysis of the act of perception.

Chronology is against this hypothesis , since Louis and she lived on good terms together for two years after the Crusade.

Every hypothesis must be tested by an appeal to the facts of life, and modified or abandoned if it will not bear examination, unless we are convinced on genuine evidence that it may for a time be employed as a useful approximation, without prejudice to the later stages of the investigation we are conducting.

When the aim of the man of affairs and the hypothesis of the economist was unrestricted competition, and measures were being adopted to realize it, general theory such as the classical economists provided was perhaps a sufficiently trustworthy guide for practical statesmen and men of business.

These facts afford strong support to the hypothesis that the weight of the shell is the original cause of the torsion of the dorsal visceral mass in Gastropods.

But this hypothesis leaves the elevation of the visceral mass and the exogastric coiling of the shell in the ancestral form unexplained.

The actual sinfulness of all men Origen was able to explain by the theological hypothesis of pre-existence and the premundane fall of each individual soul.

The first hypothesis is not negatived by direct evidence, for we do not actually know the ontogeny of any of the Palaeozoic insects; it is, however, rendered highly improbable by the modern views as to the nature and origin of wings in insects, and by the fact that the Endopterygota include none of the lower existing forms of insects.

The hypothesis of "two voices" is now generally abandoned; there is no indication of a debate, of affirmations and responses.

In all the cases which have yet arisen in astronomy the extraneous forces are so small compared with the gravitation of the central body that the orbit is approximately an ellipse, and the preliminary computations, as well as all determinations in which a high degree of precision is not necessary, are made on the hypothesis of elliptic orbits.

Turning to the study of radioactivity, he noticed its association with the minerals which yield helium, and in support of the hypothesis that that gas is a disintegration-product of radium he proved in 1903 that it is continuously formed by the latter substance in quantities sufficiently great to be directly recognizable in the spectroscope.

Berzelius objected to the hypothesis that if two elements form only one compound, then the atoms combine one and one; and although he agreed theory.

A second inconsistency was presented when he was compelled by the researches of Dumas to admit Avogadro's hypothesis ; but here he would only accept it for the elementary gases, and denied it for other substances.

B aeyer has suggested that his hypothesis may also be applied to explain the instability of acetylene and its derivatives, and the still greater instability of the polyacetylene compounds.

Therefore, according to Kekule, the double linkages are in a state of continual oscillation, and if his dynamical notion of valency, or a similar hypothesis , be correct, then the difference between the 1.2 and 1.6 di-derivatives rests on the insufficiency of his formula, which represents the configuration during one set of oscillations only.

It remains, therefore, to consider Erlenmeyer's formula and those derived from the centric hypothesis .

The centric hypothesis has been applied to these rings by Bamberger and others; but as in the previous rings considered, the ordinary (3) (4) (5) representation with double and single linkages generally represents the syntheses, decompositions, &c.; exceptions, however, are known where it is necessary to assume an oscillation of the double linkage.

It remains for excavation to show whether this hypothesis is or is not correct.

He moreover accuses Eratosthenes, (whose determination of a degree he accepts without hesitation) with trusting too much to hypothesis in compiling his map instead of having recourse to latitudes and longitudes deduced by astronomical observations.

It encountered many difficulties, and until the definite proof of the stegomyia hypothesis of yellowfever inoculation made by the United States army surgeons in Cuba in 1900, the greatest problem seemed insoluble.

By taking fixed conditions for the hypothesis of such a proposition a definite department of mathematics is marked out.

In calculations the latter hypothesis is made because of its mathematical simplicity.

In these he seems suddenly to have cut adrift from every principle the truth of which he had himself so brilliantly demonstrated, and we find him discussing plans based on hypothesis , not knowledge, and on the importance of geographical points without reference to the enemy's field army.

This is a highly ingenious hypothesis to explain the discrepancies of the text, but is, after all, nothing but hypothesis .

Cardan in the 16th century, but this is a mere hypothesis without solid foundation.

The correctness of this hypothesis may, however, be doubted.

To explain these facts, Theodor Grotthus (1785-1822) in 1806 put forward an hypothesis which supposed that the opposite chemical constituents of an electrolyte interchanged partners all along the line between the electrodes when a current passed.

An alternative hypothesis is given by the idea of complex ions.

Hesse's canonical form shows at once that there cannot be more than two independent invariants; for if there were three we could, by elimination of the modulus of transformation, obtain two functions of the coefficients equal to functions of m, and thus, by elimination of m, obtain a relation between the coefficients, showing them not to be independent, which is contrary to the hypothesis .

Admitting Kant's hypothesis that by inner sense we are conscious of mental states only, he holds that this consciousness constitutes a knowledge of the "thing-in-itself" - which Kant denies.

Although Robert Hooke in 1668 and Ignace Pardies in 1672 had adopted a vibratory hypothesis of light, the conception was a mere floating possibility until Huygens provided it with a sure foundation.

Supposing Ewing's hypothesis to be correct, it is clear that if the magnetization of a piece of iron were reversed by a strong rotating field instead of by a field alternating through zero, the loss of energy by hysteresis should be little or nothing, for the molecules would rotate with the field and no unstable movements would be possible.'

Ferromagnetism was explained by Ampere on the hypothesis that the magnetization of the molecule is due to an electric current constantly circulating within it.

The theory now most in favour is merely a development of Ampere's hypothesis , and applies not only to ferromagnetics, but to paramagnetics as well.

Thomson (afterwards Lord Kelvin) in 1849 that while no physical evidence could be adduced in support of the hypothesis , certain discoveries, especially in electromagnetism, rendered it extremely improbable (Reprint, p. 344).

Ampere's experimental and theoretical investigation of the mutual action of electric currents, and of the equivalence of a closed circuit to a polar magnet, the latter suggesting his celebrated hypothesis that molecular currents were the cause of magnetism.

The balance of various considerations is against the latter hypothesis .

The discovery of the Coptic translation of these Acts in 1897, and its publication by C. Schmidt (Acta Pauli aus der Heidelberger koptischen Papyrushandschrift herausgegeben, Leipzig, 1894), have confirmed what had been previously only a hypothesis that the Acts of Thecla had formed a part of the larger Acts of Paul.

The famous "nebular hypothesis " of Laplace made its appearance in the Systeme du monde.

Laplace was, moreover, the first to offer a complete analysis of capillary action based upon a definite hypothesis - that of forces "sensible only at insensible distances"; and he made strenuous but unsuccessful efforts to explain the phenomena of light on an identical principle.

But, by hypothesis , n 1P1 is divisible by p!.

Lamarck had put forward the hypothesis that structural alterations acquired by (that is to say, superimposed upon) a parent in the course of its life are transmitted to the offspring, and that, as these structural alterations are acquired by an animal or plant in consequence of the direct action of the environment, the offspring inheriting them would as a consequence not unfrequently start with a greater fitness for those conditions than its parents started with.

Darwin himself, influenced by the consideration of certain classes of facts which seem to favour the Iamarckian hypothesis , was of the opinion that acquired characters are in some cases transmitted.

It is held 1 that the Darwinian doctrine of selection of fortuitous congenital variations is sufficient to account for all cases, that the Lamarckian hypothesis of transmission cf acquired characters is not supported by experimental evidence, and that the latter should therefore be dismissed.

Stas, the purpose of testing Prout's hypothesis , but he remained more disposed than the Belgian chemist to consider the possibility that it may have some degree of validity.

On this hypothesis we are able to explain the presence of certain poetical pieces both in the book of Chronicles and in the Psalter.

Until, however, further evidence is forthcoming in support of this syncytial theory of structure, it would be unwise to regard it as established sufficiently to constitute a serviceable working hypothesis ; hence, for the time being, we must accept the assertion that the cell represents the ultimate tissue-unit.

Cohnheim's hypothesis of " embryonic residues " provides that early in the development of the embryo some of the cells, or groups of cells, are separated from their organic continuity during the various foldings that take place in the actively growing embryo.

The " tissue-tension " hypothesis of Ribbert is a combination of the two foregoing.

Hansemann's "anaplasia " hypothesis seeks to find an explanation of the formation of new growths in the absence of the histological differentiation of the cell associated with a corresponding increase in its proliferative power and a suspension, or loss, of its functional activity.

Then we have Beard's " germ-cell " hypothesis , in which he holds that many of the germ-cells in the growing embryo fail to reach their proper position - the generative areas - and settle down and become quiescent in some somatic tissue of the embryo.

The parasitic hypothesis postulates the invasion of a parasite from without, thus making a new growth an infective process.

Some other observers, however, have not got such good results with a chloride-free diet, and Marishler, Scheel, Limbecx, Dreser and others, dispute Widal's hypothesis of a retention of chlorides as being the cause of oedema, in the case of renal dropsy at all events; they assert that the chlorides are held back in order to keep the osmotic pressure of the fluid, which they assume to have been effused, equal to that of the blood and tissues.

The local oedema seen in some nervous affections might be explained on the hypothesis of increased metabolic activity in these areas due to some local nervous stimulation.

His main avowed principle was to do without hypothesis , and study the actual diseases in an unbiassed manner.

The reform of practical medicine was effected by men who aimed at, and partly succeeded in, rejecting all hypothesis and returning to the unbiassed study of natural processes, as shown in health and disease.

Afterwards he modified his hypothesis , and referred the disturbances produced to the "nervous liquor," which he supposed to be a quantity of the "universal elastic matter" diffused through the universe, by which Newton explained the phenomena of light - i.e.

Haller's definition of irritability as a property of muscular tissue, and its distinction from sensibility as a property of nerves, struck at the root of the prevailing hypothesis respecting animal activity.

Before the end of the 19th century this discovery of the blood parasite of malaria was crowned by the hypothesis of Patrick Manson, proved by Ronald Ross, that malaria is propagated by a certain genus of gnat, which acts as an intermediate host of the parasite.

The balance of opinion has, however, always inclined to the hypothesis of an anagram on the name "Arouet le jeune," or "Arouet 1.

At a time when the Cartesian system of vortices universally prevailed, he found it necessary to investigate that hypothesis , and in the course of his investigations he showed that the velocity of any stratum of the vortex is an arithmetical mean between the velocities of the strata which enclose it; and from this it evidently follows that the velocity of a filament of water moving in a pipe is an arithmetical mean between the velocities of the filaments which surround it.

This calculus was first applied to the motion of water by d'Alembert, and enabled both him and Euler to represent the theory of fluids in formulae restricted by no particular hypothesis .

Messerschmidt, editor of the best collection of Hittite texts up to date, made a tabula rasa of all systems of decipherment, asserting that only one sign out of two hundred the bisected oval, determinative of divinity - had been interpreted with any certainty; and in view of this opinion, coupled with the steady refusal of historians to apply the results of any Hittite decipherment, and the obvious lack of satisfactory verification, without which the piling of hypothesis on hypothesis may only lead further from probability, there is no choice but to suspend judgment for some time longer as to the inscriptions and all deductions drawn from them.

On the other hand the enigmatical motion of the perihelion of Mercury has not yet found any plausible explanation except on the hypothesis that the gravitation of the sun diminishes at a rate slightly greater than that of the inverse square - the most simple modification being to suppose that instead of the exponent of the distance being exactly - 2, it is - 2.000 000 161 2.

These various forms are perfectly regular if the divine name was Yahweh, and, taken altogether, they cannot be explained on any other hypothesis .

This hypothesis is not intrinsically improbable - and in Aramaic, a language closely related to Hebrew, " to be " actually is hawa - but it should be noted that in adopting it we admit that, using the name Hebrew in the historical sense, Yahweh is not a Hebrew name.

This hypothesis he verified quantitatively by experiments, performed at the end of 1761.

The development of the Ectoprocta is intelligible on the hypothesis that the Entoprocta form the starting-point of the series.

The most plausible hypothesis is that men of this type are descendants of Korean colonists who, in prehistoric times, settled in the province of Izumo, on the west coast of Japan, having made their way thither from the Korean peninsula by the island of Oki, being carried by the cold current which flows along the eastern coast of Korea.

In The Development Hypothesis (1852) he objects strongly to the incredibility of the special creation of the myriad forms of life, without, however, suggesting how development has been effected.

This is at once connected with the nebular hypothesis , and subsequently deduced "from the ultimate law of the" persistence of force,"and finally supplemented by a counter-process of dissolution, all of which appears to Spencer only as" the addition of Von Baer's law to a number of ideas that were in harmony with it."It is clear, however, that Spencer's ideas as to the nature of evolution were already pretty definite when Darwin's Origin of Species (1859) revolutionized the subject of organic evolution by adding natural selection to the direct adaptation by use and disuse, and so suggesting an intelligible method of producing modifications in the forms of life.

He was also a great physicist and had arrived at the nebular hypothesis theory of the formation of the planets and the sun long before Kant and Laplace.

He wrote a lucid account of the phenomena of phosphorescence, and adduced a molecular magnetic theory which anticipated some of the chief features of the hypothesis of to-day.

This and other reasons led to his rejection of the dualistic hypothesis and the adoption, on the ground of probability, and much more from convenience, of the tenet that " acids are particular compounds of hydrogen, in which the latter can be replaced by metals "; while, on the constitution of salts, he held that " neutral salts are those compounds of the same class in which the hydrogen is replaced by its equivalent in metal.

Reuss, but since Graf was the first to introduce it into Germany, the theory, as developed by Julius Wellhausen, has been called the GrafWellhausen hypothesis .

But in proportion as an earlier date has become more probable for Homer, the hypothesis of Ionic origin has become less tenable, and the belief better founded (I) that the poems represent accurately a welldefined phase of culture in prehistoric Greece, and (2) that this " Homeric " or " Achaean " phase was closed by some such general catastrophe as is presumed by the legends.

The hypothesis that the state was steady, so that interchanges arising from convection and collisions of the molecules produced no aggregate result, enabled him to interpret the new constants involved in this law of distribution, in terms of the temperature and its spacial differential coefficients, and thence to express the components of the kinetic stress at each point in the medium in terms of these quantities.

As far as the order to which he carried the approximations - which, however, were based on a simplifying hypothesis that the molecules influenced each other through mutual repulsions inversely as the fifth power of their distance apart--the result was that the equations of motion of the gas, considered as subject to viscous and thermal stresses, could be satisfied by a state of equilibrium under a modified internal pressure equal in all directions.

Henderson prefers the hypothesis that Lennox had lost Crawford's notes; and that the identities are explained by the "remarkably good memories of Crawford and Mary, or by the more likely supposition that Crawford, before preparing his declaration for the conference" (at Westminster, December 1568) "refreshed his memory by the letter."

Such works are to be explained on what might be called the "fragmentary hypothesis ."

Others, like the Ascension of Isaiah, betray the handiwork of successive editors, and are accordingly to be explained on the "redaction hypothesis ."

Next it is noteworthy that in the second scheme here given Volter has abandoned his theory of a redaction hypothesis in favour of a sources hypothesis --a redactor.

As a result of the preceding inquiry we conclude that the student of the Apocalypse must make use of the following methods - the contemporaryhistorical, the literary-critical (fragmentary hypothesis ), the traditional-historical and the psychological.

But this Caligula hypothesis cannot be carried out unless by a vigorous use of the critical knife, in the course of which more than a third of the chapter is excised.

These inconsistencies are best explained by the hypothesis that our author was drawing upon a literary fixed tradition.

The validity of such an hypothesis was attacked as early as the 4th century by Dionysius of Alexandria in the fragment of his treatise irEpi 7ray yeAuA;v, in Eusebius, H.E.

This hypothesis , however, does not accord with the theory of the development of the earth from the state of a sphere of molt s en rock surrounded by an atmosphere of gaseous metals by which the first-formed clouds of aqueous vapour must have been absorbed.

From the hypothesis of an external world a series of contradictions are deduced, such as that the world is both finite and infinite, is movable and immovable, &c.; and finally, Aristotle and various other philosophers are quoted, to show that the external matter they dealt with, as mere potentiality, is just nothing at all.

In like manner, after the French mathematicians had attempted, with more or less ingenuity, to construct a theory of elastic solids from the hypothesis that they consist of atoms in equilibrium under the action of their mutual forces, Stokes and others showed that all the results of this hypothesis , so far at least as they agreed with facts, might be deduced from the postulate that elastic bodies exist, and from the hypothesis that the smallest portions into which we can divide them are sensibly homogeneous.

This hypothesis is introduced for the sake of simplicity, but is known to be unjustifiable in fact.

It carries the war into the camp of the enemy by seeking to demonstrate that the completely determined action which is set over against freedom as the basis of explanation in the material world is merely a hypothesis which, while it serves sufficiently well the limited purpose for which it is devised, is incapable of verification in the ultimate constituents of physical nature.

Thus in 1864 the spectroscope yielded him evidence that planetary and irregular nebulae consist of luminous gas - a conclusion tending to support the nebular hypothesis of the origin of stars and planets by condensation from glowing masses of fluid material.

That these purely mechanical arrangements have any psychic, occult or predictive meaning is a fantastic imagination, which seems to have a peculiar attraction for certain types of mind, and as there can be no fundamental hypothesis of correlation, its discussion does not lie within the province of reason.

When they are proved to do so, Tisserand's hypothesis will hold the field.

Eichhorn in favour of the "borrowing hypothesis " of the origin of the synoptical gospels, maintaining the priority of Matthew, the present Greek text having been the original.

The facts of the problem would all appear covered by the hypothesis that John the presbyter, the eleven being all dead, wrote the book of Revelation (its more ancient Christian portions) say in 69, and died at Ephesus say in loo; that the author of the Gospel wrote the first draft, here, say in 97; that this book, expanded by him, first circulated within a select Ephesian Christian circle; and that the Ephesian church officials added to it the appendix and published it in 110 -120.

Gauss, that the definite results attainable by the hypothesis of mutual atomic attractions really reposed on much wider and less special principles - those, namely, connected with the modern doctrine of energy.

The wider view, according to which the hypothesis of direct transmission of physical influences expresses only part of the facts, is that all space is filled with physical activity, and that while an influence is passing across from a body, A, to another body, B, there is some dynamical process in action in the intervening region, though it appears to the senses to be mere empty space.

This statement constitutes the famous hypothesis of Fresnel, which thus ensures that all phenomena of ray-path and refraction, and all those depending on phase, shall be unaffected by uniform convection of the material medium, in accordance with the results of experiment.

In this place it must suffice to indicate the gist of the more recent developments of the electro-optical theory, which involve the dynamical verification of Fresnel's hypothesis regarding optical convection and the other relations above described.

It is specially directed to the question of hypothesis , and holds that a hypothesis is justifiable only on the ground that it provides an explanation.

Giesbrecht and Hansen have shown that the mouth-organs consist of mandibles, first and second maxillae and maxillipeds; and Claus himself relinquished his long-maintained hypothesis that the last two pairs were the separated exopods and endopods of a single pair of appendages.

Even this verbal flaw would be obviated if Giesbrecht could prove his tentative hypothesis , that the Gymnoplea may have lost a pre-genital segment of the abdomen, and the Podoplea may have lost the last segment of the thorax.

The above sketch of the growth and general character of the Pauline Epistles is based upon the hypothesis that all thirteen are genuine.

On our hypothesis the Logia would have been a sort of Christian manual used with a similar object.

The phenomena which are sometimes supposed to require the hypothesis of an Ur-Marcus are more simply and satisfactorily explained as incidents in the transmission of the Marcan text.

The present writer is inclined to think the latter hypothesis not proven.

The phenomenon is perfectly intelligible without any such hypothesis .

It is difficult to explain this phrasing in any other hypothesis than that Layamon pictured to himself Arthur's hall as open on one side, and that, on a great feast-day, owing to the number of guests, the table extended beyond the covering afforded by the roof.

And we find accordingly in his great work a combination of inductive inquiry with a priori speculation founded on the "Nature" hypothesis .

It was Alcide Dessalines d'Orbigny (1802-1857) who pushed to an extreme Cuvier's ideas of the fixity of species and of successive extinctions, and finally developed the wild hypothesis of twenty-seven distinct creations.

This was nothing less than the foundation of a new astronomy, in which physical cause should replace arbitrary hypothesis .

This easily passes into the further and still more sceptical hypothesis that the works, as we have them, under Aristotle's name, are rather the works of the Peripatetic school, from Aristotle, Theophrastus and Eudemus downwards.

To save his hypothesis of late composition, Zeller resorts to the vagueness of the word " now " (vuv).

Aristotle had imputed to all living beings a soul, though to plants only in the sense of a vegetative, not a sensitive, activity, and in Moleschott's time many scientific men still accepted some sort of vital principle, not exactly soul, yet over and above bodily forces in organisms. Moleschott, like Lotze, not only resisted the whole hypothesis of a vital principle, but also, on the basis of Lavoisier's discovery that respiration is combustion, argued that the heat so produced is the only force developed in the organism, and that matter therefore rules man.

Thus in presence of the problem which is the crux of materialism, the origin of consciousness, he first propounds a gratuitous hypothesis that everything has mind, and then gives up the origin of conscious mind after all.

He supposes that this evolution does not remain cosmic, but becomes organic. In accordance with Lamarck's hypothesis , he supposes an evolution of organisms by hereditary adaptation to the environment (which he considers necessary to natural selection), and even the possibility of an evolution of life, which, according to him, is the continuous adjustment of internal to external relations.

By changing the meaning of "noumenon " from the thing apprehended (voouµevov) to the thought (vOnya), and in the hypothesis of a common consciousness, he started the view that a thing is not yours or my thought, but a common thought of all mankind, and led to the wider view of Schelling and Hegel that the world is an absolute thought of infinite mind.

The noumenal idealists of Germany assumed, like all psychological idealists, the unproved hypothesis that there is no sense of body, but there is a sense of sensations; and they usually accepted Kant's point, that to get from such sensations to knowledge there is a synthesis contributing mental elements beyond the mental data of sense.

On Schelling's idealistic pantheism, or the hypothesis that there is nothing but one absolute reason identifying the opposites of subjectivity and objectivity, Hegel based his panlogism.

Nevertheless he was too much a child of his age to keep things known steadily before him; having asked the metaphysical question he proceeded to find a psychological answer in a theory of sensation, which asserted the mere hypothesis that the being which we ascribe to things on the evidence of sensation consists in their being felt.

He really accepted, like Kant, the hypothesis of a sense of sensations which led to the Kantian conclusion that the Nature we know in time and space is mere sensible appearances in us.

This hypothesis of an acquired perception of a space mentally constructed by " local signs " supplied Lotze and many succeeding idealists, including Wundt, with a new argument for metaphysical idealism.

Secondly, he accepted the Leibnitzian hypothesis of immaterial elements without accepting their self-action.

Herbart and Lotze, both deeply affected by the Leibnitzian hypothesis of indivisible monads, supposed that man's soul is seated at a central point in the brain; and Lotze supposed that this supposition is necessary to explain the unity of consciousness.

At the very outset he started with his previous metaphysical hypothesis of parallelistic identity without interaction.

But by the hypothesis of the inclusion of spirit in spirit, he was further able to hold that what is unconscious in one spirit is conscious in a higher spirit, while everything whatever is in the consciousness of the highest spirit of God, who is the whole of reality of which the spirits are parts, while the so-called physical world is merely outer appearance of one spirit to another.

But his substitute was his own hypothesis of panpsychism, from which he deduced a "cosmorganic " evolution from a " cosmorganic " or original condition of the world as a living organism into the inorganic, by the principle of tendency to stability.

Shall we resign our traditional belief that the greater part of the world is mere body, but that its general adaptability to conscious organisms proves its creation and government by God, and take to the new hypothesis , which, by a transfer of design from God to Nature, supposes that everything physical is alive, and conducts its life by psychical impulses of its own?

This influence extended from Germany to Denmark, where it was embraced by Hoff ding, and to England, where it was accepted by Romanes, and in a more qualified manner as " a working hypothesis " by Stout.

He admits, indeed, Kant's hypothesis that by inner sense we are conscious only of mental states, but he contends that this very consciousness is a knowledge of a thing in itself.

Riehl, who in Der philosophische Kriti .cis- mus (1876, &c.) proposes the non-Kantian hypothesis that, though things in themselves are unknowable through reason alone, they are knowable by empirical intuition, and therefore also by empirical thought starting from intuition.

But, on the hypothesis that knowledge contains no inferences beyond experience, it follows that all the objects of knowledge, being objects of experience, are, or have been, or can be, present to an experiencing subject.

Immanent Philosophy is the hypothesis that the world is not transcendent, but immanent in consciousness.

At the same time Schuppe's hypothesis of one common consciousness uniting the given by a priori categories could hardly be accepted by Avenarius as pure experience, or as a natural view of the world.

Lastly, though the personal idealists are right in rejecting the hypothesis of one mind, they are too hasty in supposing that the hypothesis is useless for idealistic purposes.

Two psychological errors, among many others, constantly meet us in the history of idealism - the arbitrary hypothesis of a sense of sensations, or of ideas, and the intolerable neglect of logical inference.

It is spoilt by Locke's hypothesis that we do not perceive things but qualities implying things.

The three evidences, which are fatal to intuitive realism, do not prove hypothetical realism, or the hypothesis that we perceive something mental, but infer something bodily.

The observations of Moller, &c., on the germination cannot be assumed to negative the sexual hypothesis for the sexual cells of Ulothrix and Ectocarpus, for example From Strasburger's Lehrbuch der Botanik, by permission of Gustav Fischer.

Again, on the hypothesis that Christianity is true, the statistics at a particular period are no test of success at all.

Probably the latter hypothesis is the one more generally accepted now.

Nash, "he carried a sweeping hypothesis into the examination of the New Testament."

This gross misrepresentation has made hypothesis a kind of logical fashion.

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The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historical usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.

Related Articles

A hypothesis is a stepping stone to proving a theory. There are numerous types of hypotheses that can be employed when seeking to prove a theory. Additionally, there are many hypothesis examples that can help you form your own hypothesis.

The primary difference between a hypothesis and a theory is the point at which they are formed in the scientific process. A hypothesis is made before an experiment while a theory is formed after collecting a lot of scientific evidence. Explore how these terms differ from each other and similar science terms.

Words near hypothesis in the Dictionary

  • hypothenusal
  • hypothenuse
  • hypothermal
  • hypothermia
  • hypothermic
  • hypothesise
  • hypothesised
  • hypothesises
  • hypothesising
  • hypothesize


Hypothesis For Kids

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hypothesis kid sentence

Crafting a hypothesis isn’t just for scientists in white lab coats; even young budding researchers can join in the fun! When kids learn to frame their curious wonders as hypothesis statements, they pave the way for exciting discoveries. Our guide breaks down the world of hypothesis writing into kid-friendly chunks, complete with relatable thesis statement examples and easy-to-follow tips. Dive in to spark a love for inquiry and nurture young scientific minds!

What is an example of a Hypothesis for Kids?

Question: Do plants grow taller when they are watered with coffee instead of water?

Hypothesis: If I water a plant with coffee instead of water, then the plant will not grow as tall because coffee might have substances that aren’t good for plants.

This hypothesis is based on a simple observation or question a child might have, and it predicts a specific outcome (the plant not growing as tall) due to a specific condition (being watered with coffee). It’s presented in simple language suitable for kids.

100 Kids Hypothesis Statement Examples

Kids Hypothesis Statement Examples

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Children’s innate curiosity lays the foundation for numerous questions about the world around them. Framing these questions as good hypothesis statements can transform them into exciting learning experiments. Presented below are relatable and straightforward examples crafted especially for young minds, offering them a structured way to articulate their wonders and predictions.

  • Sunlight & Plant Growth : If a plant gets more sunlight, then it will grow taller.
  • Sugary Drinks & Tooth Decay : Drinking sugary drinks daily will lead to faster tooth decay.
  • Chocolates & Energy : Eating chocolate will make me feel more energetic.
  • Moon Phases & Sleep : I’ll sleep more during a full moon night.
  • Homework & Weekend Moods : If I finish my homework on Friday, I’ll be happier over the weekend.
  • Pets & Happiness : Owning a pet will make a child happier.
  • Rain & Worms : Worms come out more after it rains.
  • Shadows & Time of Day : Shadows are longer in the evening than at noon.
  • Snow & School Holidays : More snow means there’s a better chance of school being canceled.
  • Ice Cream & Brain Freeze : Eating ice cream too fast will give me a brain freeze.
  • Video Games & Dreams : Playing video games before bed might make my dreams more vivid.
  • Green Vegetables & Strength : Eating more green vegetables will make me stronger.
  • Bicycles & Balance : The more I practice, the better I’ll get at riding my bike without training wheels.
  • Stars & Wishes : If I wish on the first star I see at night, my wish might come true.
  • Cartoons & Laughing : Watching my favorite cartoon will always make me laugh.
  • Soda & Bone Health : Drinking soda every day will make my bones weaker.
  • Beach Visits & Sunburn : If I don’t wear sunscreen at the beach, I’ll get sunburned.
  • Loud Noises & Pet Behavior : My cat hides when she hears loud noises.
  • Bedtime & Morning Energy : Going to bed early will make me feel more energetic in the morning.
  • Healthy Snacks & Hunger : Eating a healthy snack will keep me full for longer. …
  • Toys & Sharing : The more toys I have, the more I want to share with my friends.
  • Homemade Cookies & Taste : Homemade cookies always taste better than store-bought ones.
  • Books & Imagination : The more books I read, the more adventures I can imagine.
  • Jumping & Height : The more I practice, the higher I can jump.
  • Singing & Mood : Singing my favorite song always makes me happy.
  • Snowmen & Temperature : If the temperature rises, my snowman will melt faster.
  • Costumes & Play : Wearing a costume will make playtime more fun.
  • Gardening & Patience : Waiting for my plants to grow teaches me patience.
  • Night Lights & Sleep : Having a night light makes it easier for me to sleep.
  • Handwriting & Practice : The more I practice, the better my handwriting will become.
  • Painting & Creativity : Using more colors in my painting lets me express my creativity better.
  • Puzzles & Problem Solving : The more puzzles I solve, the better I become at problem-solving.
  • Dancing & Coordination : The more I dance, the more coordinated I will become.
  • Stargazing & Constellations : If I stargaze every night, I’ll recognize more constellations.
  • Bird Watching & Species Knowledge : The more I watch birds, the more species I can identify.
  • Cooking & Skill : If I help in the kitchen often, I’ll become a better cook.
  • Swimming & Confidence : The more I swim, the more confident I become in the water.
  • Trees & Birds’ Nests : The taller the tree, the more likely it is to have birds’ nests.
  • Roller Skating & Balance : If I roller skate every weekend, I’ll improve my balance.
  • Drawing & Observation : The more I draw, the better I become at observing details.
  • Sandcastles & Water : If I use wet sand, I can build a stronger sandcastle.
  • Hiking & Endurance : The more I hike, the farther I can walk without getting tired.
  • Camping & Outdoor Skills : If I go camping often, I’ll learn more about surviving outdoors.
  • Magic Tricks & Practice : The more I practice a magic trick, the better I’ll get at performing it.
  • Stickers & Collection : If I collect stickers, my album will become more colorful.
  • Board Games & Strategy : The more board games I play, the better strategist I’ll become.
  • Pets & Responsibility : The more I take care of my pet, the more responsible I become.
  • Music & Concentration : Listening to calm music while studying will help me concentrate better.
  • Photographs & Memories : The more photos I take, the more memories I can preserve.
  • Rainbows & Rain : If it rains while the sun is out, I might see a rainbow.
  • Museums & Knowledge : Every time I visit a museum, I learn something new.
  • Fruits & Health : Eating more fruits will keep me healthier.
  • Stories & Vocabulary : The more stories I listen to, the more new words I learn.
  • Trees & Fresh Air : The more trees there are in a park, the fresher the air will be.
  • Diary & Feelings : Writing in my diary helps me understand my feelings better.
  • Planets & Telescopes : If I look through a telescope, I’ll see more planets clearly.
  • Crafting & Creativity : The more crafts I make, the more creative I become.
  • Snowflakes & Patterns : Every snowflake has a unique pattern.
  • Jokes & Laughter : The funnier the joke, the louder I’ll laugh.
  • Riddles & Thinking : Solving riddles makes me think harder.
  • Nature Walks & Observations : The quieter I am on a nature walk, the more animals I’ll spot.
  • Building Blocks & Structures : The more blocks I use, the taller my tower will be.
  • Kites & Wind : If there’s more wind, my kite will fly higher.
  • Popcorn & Movie Nights : Watching a movie with popcorn makes it more enjoyable.
  • Stars & Wishes : If I see a shooting star, I should make a wish.
  • Diets & Energy : Eating a balanced diet gives me more energy for playtime.
  • Clay & Sculptures : The more I play with clay, the better my sculptures will be.
  • Insects & Magnifying Glass : Using a magnifying glass will let me see more details of tiny insects.
  • Aquarium Visits & Marine Knowledge : Every time I visit the aquarium, I discover a new marine creature.
  • Yoga & Flexibility : If I practice yoga daily, I’ll become more flexible.
  • Toothpaste & Bubbles : The more toothpaste I use, the more bubbles I’ll get while brushing.
  • Journals & Memories : Writing in my journal every day helps me remember special moments.
  • Piggy Banks & Savings : The more coins I save, the heavier my piggy bank will get.
  • Baking & Measurements : If I measure ingredients accurately, my cake will turn out better.
  • Coloring Books & Art Skills : The more I color, the better I get at staying inside the lines.
  • Picnics & Outdoor Fun : Having a picnic makes a sunny day even more enjoyable.
  • Recycling & Environment : The more I recycle, the cleaner my environment will be.
  • Treasure Hunts & Discoveries : Every treasure hunt has a new discovery waiting.
  • Milk & Bone Health : Drinking milk daily will make my bones stronger.
  • Puppet Shows & Stories : The more puppet shows I watch, the more stories I learn.
  • Field Trips & Learning : Every field trip to a new place teaches me something different.
  • Chores & Responsibility : The more chores I do, the more responsible I feel.
  • Fishing & Patience : Fishing teaches me to be patient while waiting for a catch.
  • Fairy Tales & Imagination : Listening to fairy tales expands my imagination.
  • Homemade Pizza & Toppings : The more toppings I add, the tastier my homemade pizza will be.
  • Gardens & Butterflies : If I plant more flowers, I’ll see more butterflies in my garden.
  • Raincoats & Puddles : Wearing a raincoat lets me jump in puddles without getting wet.
  • Gymnastics & Balance : The more I practice gymnastics, the better my balance will be.
  • Origami & Craft Skills : The more origami I fold, the better my craft skills become.
  • Basketball & Shooting Skills : The more I practice, the better I get at shooting baskets.
  • Fireflies & Night Beauty : Catching fireflies makes summer nights magical.
  • Books & Knowledge : The more books I read, the smarter I become.
  • Pillows & Forts : With more pillows, I can build a bigger fort.
  • Lemonade & Summers : Drinking lemonade makes hot summer days refreshing.
  • Bicycles & Balance : The more I practice, the better I get at riding my bike without training wheels.
  • Pencils & Drawings : If I have colored pencils, my drawings will be more colorful.
  • Ice Cream & Happiness : Eating ice cream always makes me happy.
  • Beach Visits & Shell Collections : Every time I visit the beach, I find new shells for my collection.
  • Jump Ropes & Fitness : The more I jump rope, the fitter I become.
  • Tea Parties & Imagination : Hosting tea parties lets my imagination run wild.

Simple Hypothesis Statement Examples for Kids

Simple hypothesis are straightforward predictions that can be tested easily. They help children understand the relationship between two variables. Here are some examples tailored just for kids.

  • Plants & Sunlight : Plants placed near the window will grow taller than those in the dark.
  • Chocolates & Happiness : Eating chocolates can make kids feel happier.
  • Rain & Puddles : The more it rains, the bigger the puddles become.
  • Homework & Learning : Doing homework helps kids understand lessons better.
  • Toys & Sharing : Sharing toys with friends makes playtime more fun.
  • Pets & Care : Taking care of a pet fish helps it live longer.
  • Storytime & Sleep : Listening to a bedtime story helps kids sleep faster.
  • Brushing & Cavity : Brushing teeth daily prevents cavities.
  • Games & Skill : Playing a new game every day improves problem-solving skills.
  • Baking & Patience : Waiting for cookies to bake teaches patience.

Hypothesis Statement Examples for Kids Psychology

Child psychology hypothesis delves into how kids think, behave, and process emotions. These hypotheses help understand the psychological aspects of children’s behaviors.

  • Emotions & Colors : Kids might feel calm when surrounded by blue and energetic with red.
  • Friendship & Self-esteem : Making friends can boost a child’s self-confidence.
  • Learning Styles & Memory : Some kids remember better by seeing, while others by doing.
  • Play & Development : Pretend play is crucial for cognitive development.
  • Rewards & Motivation : Giving small rewards can motivate kids to finish tasks.
  • Music & Mood : Listening to soft music can calm a child’s anxiety.
  • Sibling Bonds & Sharing : Having siblings can influence a child’s willingness to share.
  • Feedback & Performance : Positive feedback can improve a kid’s academic performance.
  • Outdoor Play & Attention Span : Playing outside can help kids concentrate better in class.
  • Dreams & Reality : Kids sometimes can’t differentiate between dreams and reality.

Hypothesis Examples in Kid Friendly Words

Phrasing hypothesis in simple words makes it relatable and easier for kids to grasp. Here are examples with kid-friendly language.

  • Socks & Warmth : Wearing socks will keep my toes toasty.
  • Jumping & Energy : The more I jump, the more energy I feel.
  • Sandcastles & Water : A little water makes my sandcastle stand tall.
  • Stickers & Smiles : Getting a sticker makes my day shine brighter.
  • Rainbows & Rain : After the rain, I might see a rainbow.
  • Slides & Speed : The taller the slide, the faster I go.
  • Hugs & Love : Giving hugs makes me and my friends feel loved.
  • Stars & Counting : The darker it is, the more stars I can count.
  • Paint & Mess : The more paint I use, the messier it gets.
  • Bubbles & Wind : If I blow my bubble wand, the wind will carry them high.

Hypothesis Statement Examples for Kids in Research

Even in a research setting, research hypothesis should be age-appropriate for kids. These examples focus on concepts children might encounter in structured studies.

  • Reading & Vocabulary : Kids who read daily might have a richer vocabulary.
  • Games & Math Skills : Playing number games can improve math skills.
  • Experiments & Curiosity : Conducting science experiments can make kids more curious.
  • Doodles & Creativity : Drawing daily might enhance a child’s creativity.
  • Learning Methods & Retention : Kids who learn with visuals might remember lessons better.
  • Discussions & Understanding : Talking about a topic can deepen understanding.
  • Observation & Knowledge : Observing nature can increase a kid’s knowledge about the environment.
  • Puzzles & Cognitive Skills : Solving puzzles regularly might enhance logical thinking.
  • Music & Rhythmic Abilities : Kids who practice music might develop better rhythm skills.
  • Teamwork & Social Skills : Group projects can boost a child’s social skills.

Hypothesis Statement Examples for Kids Science Fair

Science fairs are a chance for kids to delve into the world of experiments and observations. Here are hypotheses suitable for these events.

  • Magnet & Metals : Certain metals will be attracted to a magnet.
  • Plants & Colored Light : Plants might grow differently under blue and red lights.
  • Eggs & Vinegar : An egg in vinegar might become bouncy.
  • Solar Panels & Sunlight : Solar panels will generate more power on sunny days.
  • Volcanoes & Eruptions : Mixing baking soda and vinegar will make a mini eruption.
  • Mirrors & Reflection : Shiny surfaces can reflect light better than dull ones.
  • Battery & Energy : Fresh batteries will make a toy run faster.
  • Density & Floating : Objects with lower density will float in water.
  • Shadows & Light Source : Moving the light source will change the shadow’s direction.
  • Freezing & States : Water turns solid when kept in the freezer.

Hypothesis Statement Examples for Science Experiments

Experiments let kids test out their predictions in real-time. Here are hypotheses crafted for various scientific tests.

  • Salt & Boiling Point : Adding salt will make water boil at a higher temperature.
  • Plants & Music : Playing music might affect a plant’s growth rate.
  • Rust & Moisture : Metals kept in a moist environment will rust faster.
  • Candles & Oxygen : A candle will burn out faster in an enclosed jar.
  • Fruits & Browning : Lemon juice can prevent cut fruits from browning.
  • Yeast & Sugar : Adding sugar will make yeast activate more vigorously.
  • Density & Layers : Different liquids will form layers based on their density.
  • Acids & Bases : Red cabbage juice will change color in acids and bases.
  • Soil Types & Water : Sandy soil will drain water faster than clay.
  • Thermometers & Temperatures : Thermometers will show higher readings in the sun.

Hypothesis Statement Examples for Kids At Home

These hypotheses are crafted for experiments and observations kids can easily make at home, using everyday items.

  • Chores & Time : Setting a timer will make me finish my chores faster.
  • Pets & Behavior : My cat sleeps more during the day than at night.
  • Recycling & Environment : Recycling more can reduce the trash in my home.
  • Cooking & Tastes : Adding spices will change the taste of my food.
  • Family Time & Bonding : Playing board games strengthens our family bond.
  • Cleaning & Organization : Organizing my toys daily will keep my room tidier.
  • Watering & Plant Health : Watering my plant regularly will keep its leaves green.
  • Decor & Mood : Changing the room decor can influence my mood.
  • Journals & Memories : Writing in my journal daily will help me remember fun events.
  • Photos & Growth : Taking monthly photos will show how much I’ve grown.

How do you write a hypothesis for kids? – A Step by Step Guide

Step 1: Start with Curiosity Begin with a question that your child is curious about. This could be something simple, like “Why is the sky blue?” or “Do plants need sunlight to grow?”

Step 2: Observe and Research Before formulating the hypothesis, encourage your child to observe the world around them. If possible, read or watch videos about the topic to gather information. The idea is to get a general understanding of the subject.

Step 3: Keep it Simple For kids, it’s essential to keep the hypothesis straightforward and concise. Use language that is easy to understand and relatable to their age.

Step 4: Make a Predictable Statement Help your child frame their hypothesis as an “If… then…” statement. For example, “If I water a plant every day, then it will grow taller.”

Step 5: Ensure Testability Ensure that the hypothesis can be tested using simple experiments or observations. It should be something they can prove or disprove through hands-on activities.

Step 6: Avoid Certainty Teach kids that a hypothesis is not a definitive statement of fact but rather a best guess based on what they know. It’s okay if the hypothesis turns out to be wrong; the learning process is more important.

Step 7: Review and Refine After forming the initial hypothesis, review it with your child. Discuss if it can be made simpler or clearer. Refinement aids in better understanding and testing.

Step 8: Test the Hypothesis This is the fun part! Plan an experiment or set of observations to test the hypothesis. Whether the hypothesis is proven correct or not, the experience provides a learning opportunity.

Tips for Writing Hypothesis for Kids

  • Encourage Curiosity : Always encourage your child to ask questions about the world around them. It’s the first step to formulating a hypothesis.
  • Use Familiar Language : Use words that the child understands and can relate to. Avoid jargon or technical terms.
  • Make it Fun : Turn the process of forming a hypothesis into a game or a storytelling session. This will keep kids engaged.
  • Use Visual Aids : Kids often respond well to visuals. Drawing or using props can help in understanding and formulating the hypothesis.
  • Stay Open-minded : It’s essential to teach kids that it’s okay if their hypothesis is wrong. The process of discovery and learning is what’s crucial.
  • Practice Regularly : The more often kids practice forming hypotheses, the better they get at it. Use everyday situations as opportunities.
  • Link to Real-life Scenarios : Relate the hypothesis to real-life situations or personal experiences. For instance, if discussing plants, you can relate it to a plant you have at home.
  • Collaborate : Sometimes, two heads are better than one. Encourage group activities where kids can discuss and come up with hypotheses together.
  • Encourage Documentation : Keeping a journal or notebook where they document their hypotheses and results can be a great learning tool.
  • Celebrate Efforts : Regardless of whether the hypothesis was correct, celebrate the effort and the learning journey. This reinforces the idea that the process is more important than the outcome.


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HYPOTHESIS in a Sentence Examples: 21 Ways to Use Hypothesis

sentence with Hypothesis

Have you ever wondered what a “hypothesis” is and how it fits into the scientific method? A hypothesis is a proposed explanation or educated guess that can be tested through research and experimentation to determine its validity.

In scientific inquiry, a hypothesis serves as the foundation for the study, guiding the direction of the research and helping to form conclusions based on the results. By formulating clear hypotheses, researchers can systematically investigate phenomena and gather evidence to support their claims.

Table of Contents

7 Examples Of Hypothesis Used In a Sentence For Kids

  • Hypothesis is a guess we can test.
  • We can make a hypothesis about what will happen.
  • Our hypothesis will help us learn new things.
  • Let’s think of a hypothesis to investigate.
  • We can use our hypothesis to solve a problem.
  • A good hypothesis can help us understand the world.
  • Remember, our hypothesis is just a starting point.

14 Sentences with Hypothesis Examples

  • Hypothesis : Students who study for at least 3 hours every day are likely to perform better in their exams.
  • It is important for college students to form a hypothesis before conducting any research project.
  • Hypothesis : Attending lectures regularly can significantly improve academic performance.
  • College students can test their hypothesis through interactive experiments and surveys.
  • Hypothesis : Using different study methods can have varied effects on information retention.
  • It is necessary for students to critically analyze data to support or reject their hypothesis .
  • Hypothesis : Students who engage in extracurricular activities may have a better overall college experience.
  • In a scientific study, researchers must clearly define their hypothesis before proceeding with the experiment.
  • Hypothesis : Regular exercise can positively impact a student’s mental health and academic performance.
  • It is crucial for college students to document their hypothesis and research findings accurately.
  • Hypothesis : Students who limit their social media usage may experience improved focus and productivity.
  • College projects often require students to brainstorm and formulate a solid hypothesis .
  • It is common for students to revise their hypothesis based on new information or research outcomes.
  • Hypothesis : Implementing study breaks can enhance retention and understanding of complex subjects.

How To Use Hypothesis in Sentences?

Hypothesis is an educated guess or prediction that can be tested through observation or experimentation. When incorporating this term into a sentence, it is important to clearly identify it so readers can understand its significance.

Here are some tips on how to use hypothesis effectively in a sentence:

Clearly state your hypothesis in a simple and concise manner. For example, “The scientist’s hypothesis is that plants will grow faster with added sunlight.”

Use the word hypothesis to introduce your prediction or expectation before testing it. For instance, “Our hypothesis is that students who study regularly will perform better on the exam.”

Make sure to refer back to your hypothesis when discussing the results of your experiment. For example, “The data supported our initial hypothesis that exercise leads to improved cardiovascular health.”

You can also use the word hypothesis when comparing multiple predictions. For instance, “There are several hypotheses about the cause of the mysterious illness, but more research is needed to determine the correct one.”

By following these guidelines, you can effectively incorporate hypothesis into your writing to communicate your predictions or expectations clearly and accurately.

In conclusion, sentences with the keyword “hypothesis” often express a proposed explanation or prediction that can be tested through research or observation. These sentences play a crucial role in scientific inquiry by guiding investigations and exploring relationships between variables. For example, “The researchers formulated a hypothesis to predict the effect of sunlight on plant growth” demonstrates how hypotheses are used to frame a study’s objectives and outcomes.

Clear and concise sentences with hypotheses are essential for building a solid foundation for scientific exploration and discovery. They provide a starting point for experiments, helping researchers to structure their methodologies and draw meaningful conclusions. By carefully crafting hypotheses, scientists can effectively test their theories, gather evidence, and contribute to the advancement of knowledge in various fields.

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hypothesis kid sentence

Writing a hypothesis and prediction

Part of Biology Working scientifically

  • A hypothesis is an idea about how something works that can be tested using experiments.
  • A prediction says what will happen in an experiment if the hypothesis is correct.

Why do scientists ask questions?

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To help find things out and solve problems.

Watch this video about how to make a scientific prediction.

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While you are watching, look out for how different types of variables are identified and used to make a prediction

Video Transcript Video Transcript

Presenter 1: We are going to look at the two words "prediction" and "hypothesis". It's important to know the difference between them.

Presenter 2: A hypothesis is an idea about how something works that can be tested using experiments.

Presenter 1: A prediction is a statement of what we think will happen if the hypothesis is correct.

Presenter 2: So you use your hypothesis to make a prediction.

Student 1: I reckon, because there's more oxygen, it'll last longer. So, I'm thinking maybe 40 seconds?

Presenter 1: Here, my hypothesis is that the more air and oxygen candles have, the longer they stay alight.

Presenter 2: So, if my hypothesis is correct, then my prediction is that candles in larger measuring beakers will burn for longer.

Presenter 1: As the volume of air increases, then the time the candle takes to go out also increases. Our graph shows us the pattern in our results.

Presenter 2: The bigger the measuring beaker, the more air and the longer the candle burnt.

Presenter 1: So, we have seen an experiment looking at how long a candle burns under different beakers.

Presenter 2: We have formed a hypothesis and then we have tested it, looking at the difference between the meaning of the word "hypothesis" and the word "prediction".

What's the question?

Science is all about asking questions and then trying to find answers to them. For example:

  • Why are there so many different animals on Earth?
  • Why is the sky blue?
  • Will humans need to live on the moon?

Science can provide answers to some questions, by using observations close Observation Something that can be seen happening. and experiments. Data is collected to help answer these questions.

hypothesis kid sentence

The scientific method is a useful way of guiding scientists through an investigation. A hypothesis is developed from an idea or question based on an observation . A prediction is then made, an experiment carried out to test this, then the results are analysed and conclusions can be drawn.

A prediction suggests that there is a relationship between which two types of variables?

Independent and dependent variables.

Prediction and hypothesis

A teenager rests their head on a desk, with books and laptop visible.

More on Working scientifically

Find out more by working through a topic

Planning an experiment

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hypothesis kid sentence

Maths skills for science

  • count 5 of 11

hypothesis kid sentence

Drawing scientific apparatus

  • count 6 of 11

hypothesis kid sentence

Observation and measurement skills

  • count 7 of 11

hypothesis kid sentence

What is a hypothesis?

No.  A hypothesis is sometimes described as an educated guess.  That's not the same thing as a guess and not really a good description of a hypothesis either.  Let's try working through an example.

If you put an ice cube on a plate and place it on the table, what will happen?  A very young child might guess that it will still be there in a couple of hours.  Most people would agree with the hypothesis that:

An ice cube will melt in less than 30 minutes.

You could put sit and watch the ice cube melt and think you've proved a hypothesis.  But you will have missed some important steps.

For a good science fair project you need to do quite a bit of research before any experimenting.  Start by finding some information about how and why water melts.  You could read a book, do a bit of Google searching, or even ask an expert.  For our example, you could learn about how temperature and air pressure can change the state of water.  Don't forget that elevation above sea level changes air pressure too.

Now, using all your research, try to restate that hypothesis.

An ice cube will melt in less than 30 minutes in a room at sea level with a temperature of 20C or 68F.

But wait a minute.  What is the ice made from?  What if the ice cube was made from salt water, or you sprinkled salt on a regular ice cube?  Time for some more research.  Would adding salt make a difference?  Turns out it does.  Would other chemicals change the melting time?

Using this new information, let's try that hypothesis again.

An ice cube made with tap water will melt in less than 30 minutes in a room at sea level with a temperature of 20C or 68F.

Does that seem like an educated guess?  No, it sounds like you are stating the obvious.

At this point, it is obvious only because of your research.  You haven't actually done the experiment.  Now it's time to run the experiment to support the hypothesis.

A hypothesis isn't an educated guess.  It is a tentative explanation for an observation, phenomenon, or scientific problem that can be tested by further investigation.

Once you do the experiment and find out if it supports the hypothesis, it becomes part of scientific theory.

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Definition of hypothesis

Did you know.

The Difference Between Hypothesis and Theory

A hypothesis is an assumption, an idea that is proposed for the sake of argument so that it can be tested to see if it might be true.

In the scientific method, the hypothesis is constructed before any applicable research has been done, apart from a basic background review. You ask a question, read up on what has been studied before, and then form a hypothesis.

A hypothesis is usually tentative; it's an assumption or suggestion made strictly for the objective of being tested.

A theory , in contrast, is a principle that has been formed as an attempt to explain things that have already been substantiated by data. It is used in the names of a number of principles accepted in the scientific community, such as the Big Bang Theory . Because of the rigors of experimentation and control, it is understood to be more likely to be true than a hypothesis is.

In non-scientific use, however, hypothesis and theory are often used interchangeably to mean simply an idea, speculation, or hunch, with theory being the more common choice.

Since this casual use does away with the distinctions upheld by the scientific community, hypothesis and theory are prone to being wrongly interpreted even when they are encountered in scientific contexts—or at least, contexts that allude to scientific study without making the critical distinction that scientists employ when weighing hypotheses and theories.

The most common occurrence is when theory is interpreted—and sometimes even gleefully seized upon—to mean something having less truth value than other scientific principles. (The word law applies to principles so firmly established that they are almost never questioned, such as the law of gravity.)

This mistake is one of projection: since we use theory in general to mean something lightly speculated, then it's implied that scientists must be talking about the same level of uncertainty when they use theory to refer to their well-tested and reasoned principles.

The distinction has come to the forefront particularly on occasions when the content of science curricula in schools has been challenged—notably, when a school board in Georgia put stickers on textbooks stating that evolution was "a theory, not a fact, regarding the origin of living things." As Kenneth R. Miller, a cell biologist at Brown University, has said , a theory "doesn’t mean a hunch or a guess. A theory is a system of explanations that ties together a whole bunch of facts. It not only explains those facts, but predicts what you ought to find from other observations and experiments.”

While theories are never completely infallible, they form the basis of scientific reasoning because, as Miller said "to the best of our ability, we’ve tested them, and they’ve held up."

  • proposition
  • supposition

hypothesis , theory , law mean a formula derived by inference from scientific data that explains a principle operating in nature.

hypothesis implies insufficient evidence to provide more than a tentative explanation.

theory implies a greater range of evidence and greater likelihood of truth.

law implies a statement of order and relation in nature that has been found to be invariable under the same conditions.

Examples of hypothesis in a Sentence

These examples are programmatically compiled from various online sources to illustrate current usage of the word 'hypothesis.' Any opinions expressed in the examples do not represent those of Merriam-Webster or its editors. Send us feedback about these examples.

Word History

Greek, from hypotithenai to put under, suppose, from hypo- + tithenai to put — more at do

1641, in the meaning defined at sense 1a

Phrases Containing hypothesis

  • counter - hypothesis
  • nebular hypothesis
  • null hypothesis
  • planetesimal hypothesis
  • Whorfian hypothesis

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This is the Difference Between a Hypothesis and a Theory

In scientific reasoning, they're two completely different things

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Cite this Entry

“Hypothesis.” Merriam-Webster.com Dictionary , Merriam-Webster, https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/hypothesis. Accessed 3 Jun. 2024.

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Writing a hypothesis

Frequently, when we hear the word ‘hypothesis’, we immediately think of an investigation in the form of a science experiment. This is not surprising, as science is the subject area where we are usually first introduced to the term.

However, the term hypothesis also applies to investigations and research in many diverse areas and branches of learning, leaving us wondering how to write a hypothesis in statistics and how to write a hypothesis in sociology alongside how to write a hypothesis in a lab report.

We can find hypotheses at work in areas as wide-ranging as history, psychology, technology, engineering, literature, design, and economics. With such a vast array of uses, hypothesis writing is an essential skill for our students to develop.

What Is a Hypothesis?

how to write a hypothesis | Hypothesis definition | HOW TO WRITE A HYPOTHESIS | literacyideas.com

A hypothesis is a proposed or predicted answer to a question. The purpose of writing a hypothesis is to follow it up by testing that answer. This test can take the form of an investigation, experiment, or writing a research paper that will ideally prove or disprove the hypothesis’s prediction.

Despite this element of the unknown, a hypothesis is not the same thing as a guess. Though the hypothesis writer typically has some uncertainty, the creation of the hypothesis is generally based on some background knowledge and research of the topic. The writer believes in the likelihood of a specific outcome, but further investigation will be required to validate or falsify the claim made in their hypothesis.

In this regard, a hypothesis is more along the lines of an ‘educated guess’ that has been based on observation and/or background knowledge.

A hypothesis should:

  • Make a prediction
  • Provide reasons for that prediction
  • Specifies a relationship between two or more variables
  • Be testable
  • Be falsifiable
  • Be expressed simply and concisely
  • Serves as the starting point for an investigation, an experiment, or another form of testing


how to write a hypothesis | procedural text writing unit 1 | HOW TO WRITE A HYPOTHESIS | literacyideas.com

This HUGE BUNDLE  offers 97 PAGES of hands-on, printable, and digital media resources. Your students will be WRITING procedures with STRUCTURE, INSIGHT AND KNOWLEDGE like never before.

Hypothesis Examples for Students and Teachers

If students listen to classical music while studying, they will retain more information.

Mold growth is affected by the level of moisture in the air.

Students who sleep for longer at night retain more information at school.

Employees who work more than 40 hours per week show higher instances of clinical depression.

Time spent on social media is negatively correlated to the length of the average attention span.

People who spend time exercising regularly are less likely to develop a cardiovascular illness.

If people are shorter, then they are more likely to live longer.

What are Variables in a Hypothesis?

Variables are an essential aspect of any hypothesis. But what exactly do we mean by this term?

Variables are changeable factors or characteristics that may affect the outcome of an investigation. Things like age, weight, the height of participants, length of time, the difficulty of reading material, etc., could all be considered variables.

Usually, an investigation or experiment will focus on how different variables affect each other. So, it is vital to define the variables clearly if you are to measure the effect they have on each other accurately.

There are three main types of variables to consider in a hypothesis. These are:

  • Independent Variables
  • Dependent Variables

The Independent Variable

The independent variable is unaffected by any of the other variables in the hypothesis. We can think of the independent variable as the assumed cause .

The Dependent Variable

The dependent variable is affected by the other variables in the hypothesis. It is what is being tested or measured. We can think of the dependent variable as the assumed effect .

For example, let’s investigate the correlation between test scores across different age groups. The age groups will be the independent variable, and the test scores will be the dependent variable .

Now that we know what variables are let’s look at how they work in the various types of hypotheses.

Types of Hypotheses

There are many different types of hypotheses, and it is helpful to know the most common of these if the student selects the most suitable tool for their specific job.

The most frequently used types of hypotheses are:

The Simple Hypothesis

The complex hypothesis, the empirical hypothesis, the null hypothesis, the directional hypothesis, the non-directional hypothesis.

This straightforward hypothesis type predicts the relationship between an independent and dependent variable.

Example: Eating too much sugar causes weight gain.

This type of hypothesis is based on the relationship between multiple independent and/or dependent variables.

Example: Overeating sugar causes weight gain and poor cardiovascular health.

Also called a working hypothesis, an empirical hypothesis is tested through observation and experimentation. An empirical hypothesis is produced through investigation and trial and error. As a result, the empirical hypothesis may change its independent variables in the process.

Example: Exposure to sunlight helps lettuces grow faster.

This hypothesis states that there is no significant or meaningful relationship between specific variables.

Example: Exposure to sunlight does not affect the rate of a plant’s growth.

This type of hypothesis predicts the direction of an effect between variables, i.e., positive or negative.

Example: A high-quality education will result in a greater number of career opportunities.

Similar to the directional hypothesis, this type of hypothesis predicts the nature of the effect but not the direction that effect will go in.

Example: A high-quality education will affect the number of available career opportunities.

How to Write a Hypothesis : A STEP-BY-STEP GUIDE

  • Ask a Question

The starting point for any hypothesis is asking a question. This is often called the research question . The research question is the student’s jumping-off point to developing their hypothesis. This question should be specific and answerable. The hypothesis will be the point where the research question is transformed into a declarative statement.

Ideally, the questions the students develop should be relational, i.e., they should look at how two or more variables relate to each other as described above. For example, what effect does sunlight have on the growth rate of lettuce?

  • Research the Question

The research is an essential part of the process of developing a hypothesis. Students will need to examine the ideas and studies that are out there on the topic already. By examining the literature already out there on their topic, they can begin to refine their questions on the subject and begin to form predictions based on their studies.

Remember, a hypothesis can be defined as an ‘educated’ guess. This is the part of the process where the student educates themself on the subject before making their ‘guess.’

  • Define Your Variables

By now, your students should be ready to form their preliminary hypotheses. To do this, they should first focus on defining their independent and dependent variables. Now may be an excellent opportunity to remind students that the independent variables are the only variables that they have complete control over, while dependent variables are what is tested or measured.

  • Develop Your Preliminary Hypotheses

With variables defined, students can now work on a draft of their hypothesis. To do this, they can begin by examining their variables and the available data and then making a statement about the relationship between these variables. Students must brainstorm and reflect on what they expect to happen in their investigation before making a prediction upon which to base their hypothesis. It’s worth noting, too, that hypotheses are typically, though not exclusively, written in the present tense.

Students revisit the different types of hypotheses described earlier in this article. Students select three types of hypotheses and frame their preliminary hypotheses according to each criteria. Which works best? Which type is the least suitable for the student’s hypothesis?

  • Finalize the Phrasing

By now, students will have made a decision on which type of hypothesis suits their needs best, and it will now be time to finalize the wording of their hypotheses. There are various ways that students can choose to frame their hypothesis, but below, we will examine the three most common ways.

The If/Then Phrasing

This is the most common type of hypothesis and perhaps the easiest to write for students. It follows a simple ‘ If x, then y ’ formula that makes a prediction that forms the basis of a subsequent investigation.

If I eat more calories, then I will gain weight.

Correlation Phrasing

Another way to phrase a hypothesis is to focus on the correlation between the variables. This typically takes the form of a statement that defines that relationship positively or negatively.

The more calories that are eaten beyond the daily recommended requirements, the greater the weight gain will be.

Comparison Phrasing

This form of phrasing is applicable when comparing two groups and focuses on the differences that the investigation is expected to reveal between those two groups.

Those who eat more calories will gain more weight than those who eat fewer calories.

Questions to ask during this process include:

  • What tense is the hypothesis written in?
  • Does the hypothesis contain both independent and dependent variables?
  • Is the hypothesis framed using the if/then, correlation, or comparison framework (or other similar suitable structure)?
  • Is the hypothesis worded clearly and concisely?
  • Does the hypothesis make a prediction?
  • Is the prediction specific?
  • Is the hypothesis testable?
  • Gather Data to Support/Disprove Your Hypothesis

If the purpose of a hypothesis is to provide a reason to pursue an investigation, then the student will need to gather related information together to fuel that investigation.

While, by definition, a hypothesis leans towards a specific outcome, the student shouldn’t worry if their investigations or experiments ultimately disprove their hypothesis. The hypothesis is the starting point; the destination is not preordained. This is the very essence of the scientific method. Students should trust the results of their investigation to speak for themselves. Either way, the outcome is valuable information.


  • Begin by asking a clear and compelling question. Your hypothesis is a response to the inquiry you are eager to explore.
  • Keep it simple and straightforward. Avoid using complex phrases or making multiple predictions in one hypothesis.
  • Use the right format. A strong hypothesis is often written in the form of an “if-then” statement.
  • Ensure that your hypothesis is testable. Your hypothesis should be something that can be verified through experimentation or observation.
  • Stay objective. Your hypothesis should be based on facts and evidence, not personal opinions or prejudices.
  • Examine different possibilities. Don’t limit yourself to just one hypothesis. Consider alternative explanations for your observations.
  • Stay open to the possibility of being wrong. Your hypothesis is just a prediction, and it may not always be correct.
  • Search for evidence to support your hypothesis. Investigate existing literature and gather data that supports your hypothesis.
  • Make sure that your hypothesis is pertinent. Your hypothesis should be relevant to the question you are trying to investigate.
  • Revise your hypothesis as necessary. If new evidence arises that contradicts your hypothesis, you may need to adjust it accordingly.


When teaching young scientists and writers, it’s essential to remember that the process of formulating a hypothesis is not always straightforward. It’s easy to make mistakes along the way, but with a bit of guidance, you can ensure your students avoid some of the most common pitfalls like these.

  • Don’t let your students be too vague. Remind them that when formulating a hypothesis, it’s essential to be specific and avoid using overly general language. Make sure their hypothesis is clear and easy to understand.
  • Being swayed by personal biases will impact their hypothesis negatively. It’s important to stay objective when formulating a hypothesis, so avoid letting personal biases or opinions get in the way.
  • Not starting with a clear question is the number one stumbling block for students, so before forming a hypothesis, you need to reinforce the need for a clear understanding of the question they’re trying to answer. Start with a question that is specific and relevant.

Hypothesis Warmup Activity: First, organize students into small working groups of four or five. Then, set each group to collect a list of hypotheses. They can find these by searching on the Internet or finding examples in textbooks . When students have gathered together a suitable list of hypotheses, have them identify the independent and dependent variables in each case. They can underline each of these in different colors.

It may be helpful for students to examine each hypothesis to identify the ‘cause’ elements and the ‘effect’ elements. When students have finished, they can present their findings to the class.

Task 1: Set your students the task of coming up with an investigation-worthy question on a topic that interests them. This activity works particularly well for groups.

Task 2: Students search for existing information and theories on their topic on the Internet or in the library. They should take notes where necessary and begin to form an assumption or prediction based on their reading and research that they can investigate further.

Task 3: When working with a talking partner, can students identify which of their partner’s independent and dependent variables? If not, then one partner will need to revisit the definitions for the two types of variables as outlined earlier.

Task 4: Organize students into smaller groups and task them with presenting their hypotheses to each other. Students can then provide feedback before the final wording of each hypothesis is finalized.

Procedural Writing Unit

Perhaps due to their short length, learning how to create a well-written hypothesis is not typically afforded much time in the curriculum.

However, though they are brief in length, they are complex enough to warrant focused learning and practice in class, particularly given their importance across many curriculum areas.

Learning how to write a hypothesis works well as a standalone writing skill. It can also form part of a more comprehensive academic or scientific writing study that focuses on how to write a research question, develop a theory, etc.

As with any text type, practice improves performance. By following the processes outlined above, students will be well on their way to writing their own hypotheses competently in no time.

Hypothesis in a Sentence  🔊

Definition of Hypothesis

a proposed explanation or theory that is studied through scientific testing

Examples of Hypothesis in a sentence

The scientist’s hypothesis did not stand up, since research data was inconsistent with his guess.  🔊

Each student gave a hypothesis and theorized which plant would grow the tallest during the study.  🔊

A hypothesis was presented by the panel, giving a likely explanation for why the trial medicine didn’t seem to have much of an effect on the patients.  🔊

During the study, the researcher changed her hypothesis to a new assumption that fit with current data.  🔊

To confirm his hypothesis on why the dolphin wasn’t eating, the marine biologists did several tests over a week’s time.  🔊

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Hypothesis facts for kids

Cellarius Harmonia Macrocosmica - Hypothesis Ptolemaica

A hypothesis is a proposed explanation for some event or problem.

Cardinal Bellarmine gave a well known example of the older sense of the word in his warning to Galileo in the early 17th century: that he must not treat the motion of the Earth as a reality, but merely as a hypothesis.

Today, a hypothesis refers to an idea that needs to be tested . A hypothesis needs more work by the researcher in order to check it. A tested hypothesis that works, may become part of a theory or become a theory itself. The testing should be an attempt to prove the hypothesis is wrong. That is, there should be a way to falsify the hypothesis, at least in principle.

People often call a hypothesis an "educated guess".

Experimenters may test and reject several hypotheses before solving the problem.

A 'working hypothesis' is just a rough kind of hypothesis that is provisionally accepted as a basis for further research. The hope is that a theory will be produced, even if the hypothesis ultimately fails.

Hypotheses are especially important in science. Several philosophers have said that without hypotheses there could be no science. In recent years, philosophers of science have tried to integrate the various approaches to testing hypotheses, and the scientific method in general, to form a more complete system. The point is that hypotheses are suggested ideas which are then tested by experiments or observations .

In statistics , people talk about correlation : correlation is how closely related two events or phenomena are. A proposition (or hypothesis) that two events are related cannot be tested in the same way as a law of nature is tested. An example would be to see if some drug is effective to treat a given medical condition. Even if there is a strong correlation that indicates that this is the case, some samples would still not fit the hypothesis.

There are two hypotheses in statistical tests, called the null hypothesis and the alternative hypothesis. The null hypothesis states that there is no link between the phenomena. The alternative hypothesis states that there is some kind of link. The alternative hypothesis may take several forms. It can be two-sided (for example: there is some effect, in a yet unknown direction) or one-sided (the direction of the supposed relation, positive or negative, is fixed in advance).

Related pages

  • Falsifiability
  • Thought experiment
  • This page was last modified on 16 October 2023, at 16:53. Suggest an edit .

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  • How to Write a Strong Hypothesis | Guide & Examples

How to Write a Strong Hypothesis | Guide & Examples

Published on 6 May 2022 by Shona McCombes .

A hypothesis is a statement that can be tested by scientific research. If you want to test a relationship between two or more variables, you need to write hypotheses before you start your experiment or data collection.

Table of contents

What is a hypothesis, developing a hypothesis (with example), hypothesis examples, frequently asked questions about writing hypotheses.

A hypothesis states your predictions about what your research will find. It is a tentative answer to your research question that has not yet been tested. For some research projects, you might have to write several hypotheses that address different aspects of your research question.

A hypothesis is not just a guess – it should be based on existing theories and knowledge. It also has to be testable, which means you can support or refute it through scientific research methods (such as experiments, observations, and statistical analysis of data).

Variables in hypotheses

Hypotheses propose a relationship between two or more variables . An independent variable is something the researcher changes or controls. A dependent variable is something the researcher observes and measures.

In this example, the independent variable is exposure to the sun – the assumed cause . The dependent variable is the level of happiness – the assumed effect .

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Step 1: ask a question.

Writing a hypothesis begins with a research question that you want to answer. The question should be focused, specific, and researchable within the constraints of your project.

Step 2: Do some preliminary research

Your initial answer to the question should be based on what is already known about the topic. Look for theories and previous studies to help you form educated assumptions about what your research will find.

At this stage, you might construct a conceptual framework to identify which variables you will study and what you think the relationships are between them. Sometimes, you’ll have to operationalise more complex constructs.

Step 3: Formulate your hypothesis

Now you should have some idea of what you expect to find. Write your initial answer to the question in a clear, concise sentence.

Step 4: Refine your hypothesis

You need to make sure your hypothesis is specific and testable. There are various ways of phrasing a hypothesis, but all the terms you use should have clear definitions, and the hypothesis should contain:

  • The relevant variables
  • The specific group being studied
  • The predicted outcome of the experiment or analysis

Step 5: Phrase your hypothesis in three ways

To identify the variables, you can write a simple prediction in if … then form. The first part of the sentence states the independent variable and the second part states the dependent variable.

In academic research, hypotheses are more commonly phrased in terms of correlations or effects, where you directly state the predicted relationship between variables.

If you are comparing two groups, the hypothesis can state what difference you expect to find between them.

Step 6. Write a null hypothesis

If your research involves statistical hypothesis testing , you will also have to write a null hypothesis. The null hypothesis is the default position that there is no association between the variables. The null hypothesis is written as H 0 , while the alternative hypothesis is H 1 or H a .

Hypothesis testing is a formal procedure for investigating our ideas about the world using statistics. It is used by scientists to test specific predictions, called hypotheses , by calculating how likely it is that a pattern or relationship between variables could have arisen by chance.

A hypothesis is not just a guess. It should be based on existing theories and knowledge. It also has to be testable, which means you can support or refute it through scientific research methods (such as experiments, observations, and statistical analysis of data).

A research hypothesis is your proposed answer to your research question. The research hypothesis usually includes an explanation (‘ x affects y because …’).

A statistical hypothesis, on the other hand, is a mathematical statement about a population parameter. Statistical hypotheses always come in pairs: the null and alternative hypotheses. In a well-designed study , the statistical hypotheses correspond logically to the research hypothesis.

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McCombes, S. (2022, May 06). How to Write a Strong Hypothesis | Guide & Examples. Scribbr. Retrieved 3 June 2024, from https://www.scribbr.co.uk/research-methods/hypothesis-writing/

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Homeschool Science for Kids

Science designed for your homeschool family

Hypothesis: A Science Process Skill

January 25, 2021 By Janice VanCleave

A Hypothesis is a Well Thoughtout Prediction.

Yes, asking groups of kids to guess what will happen can be fun. But, expecting a hypothesis for every experiment defeats the purpose for this science process skill.  A  hypothesis  relys on observations that have been previously made. Hypothesis are often called “educated” guesses. Please don’t require kids to give a hypothesis unless it can be based on previous knowledge.  In other words, a hypothesis must be based on  schema , which is previously learned information.

Using an Exploratory Experiment to provide needed schema for a hypothesis. 

Research  is any method used to learn more about a topic. Reading books, magazines as well as online sources and everyday observations of the world around you are good research methods. I suggest that research include exploratory experiments, such as those found in the science book shown. The following exploratory experiment was taken from , “201 Awesome, Magical, Bizarre & Incredible Experiments.” My intention in writing this and other experiment books was to provide fun experiments requiring around the house materials or materials easily found locally. These are exploratory experiments.

FYI:  My books are sold on Amazon as well as other online books suppliers. If you sell my books contact me and I will add a link to your website.

Book Jacket for 201 Awesome, Magical , Bizarre & Incredible Experiments

Facts:  Provide information that kids may not be familiar with before introducing the experiment.

  • Pressure is the force pressing against a surface.
  • Gas molecules move in a straight line until they collide with each other or their container. When colliding, the gas molecules, much like balls striking a wall changes direction and continues moving. Unlike a ball, each gas molecule collides, changes direction and continue at the same speed as before its collision.

 Exploratory Experiment #141 Increasing

Problem: How does temperature affect air pressure? Materials: empty glass soda bottle (any glass bottle with a small mouth) 9-inch (23-cm) round balloon

Something More

Now that kids are engaged –have their schema turned on– introduce a problem related to the previous exploratory experiment.

4. Observe and record the appearance of the balloon over the bottle.

5. Place the open bottle and the bottle with the balloon in a freezer for 15 or more minutes. Note: You can sit the bottles in an ice chest with ice. Make sure both bottles are equally cooled and the chest is closed.  Again, it is important for the air surrounding the bottles to be cold.

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Writing Beginner

How to Write a Hypothesis [31 Tips + Examples]

Writing hypotheses can seem tricky, but it’s essential for a solid scientific inquiry.

Here is a quick summary of how to write a hypothesis:

Write a hypothesis by clearly defining your research question, identifying independent and dependent variables, formulating a measurable prediction, and ensuring it can be tested through experimentation. Include an “if…then” statement for clarity.

I’ve crafted dozens in my research, from basic biology experiments to business marketing strategies.

Let me walk you through how to write a solid hypothesis, step by step.

Writing a Hypothesis: The Basics

Notebook and scientific diagrams glow amidst dramatic lighting -- How to Write a Hypothesis

Table of Contents

A hypothesis is a statement predicting the relationship between variables based on observations and existing knowledge. To craft a good hypothesis:

  • Identify variables – Determine the independent and dependent variables involved.
  • Predict relationships – Predict the interaction between these variables.
  • Test the statement – Ensure the hypothesis is testable and falsifiable.

A solid hypothesis guides your research and sets the foundation for your experiment.

31 Tips for Writing a Hypothesis

There are at least 31 tips to write a good hypothesis.

Keep reading to learn every tip plus three examples to make sure that you can instantly apply it to your writing.

Tip 1: Start with a Clear Research Question

A clear research question ensures your hypothesis is targeted.

  • Identify the broad topic you’re curious about, then refine it to a specific question.
  • Use guiding questions like “What impact does variable X have on variable Y?”
  • How does fertilizer affect plant growth?
  • Does social media influence mental health in teens?
  • Can personalized ads increase customer engagement?

Tip 2: Do Background Research

Research helps you understand current knowledge and any existing gaps.

  • Review scholarly articles, reputable websites, and textbooks.
  • Focus on understanding the relationships between variables in existing research.
  • Academic journals like ScienceDirect or JSTOR.
  • Google Scholar.
  • Reputable news articles.

Tip 3: Identify Independent and Dependent Variables

The independent variable is what you change or control. The dependent variable is what you measure.

  • Clearly define these variables to make your hypothesis precise.
  • Think of different factors that could be influencing your dependent variable.
  • Type of fertilizer (independent) and plant growth (dependent).
  • Amount of screen time (independent) and anxiety levels (dependent).
  • Marketing strategies (independent) and customer engagement (dependent).

Tip 4: Make Your Hypothesis Testable

A hypothesis must be measurable and falsifiable.

  • Ensure your hypothesis can be supported or refuted through data collection.
  • Include numerical variables or qualitative changes to ensure measurability.
  • “Increasing screen time will increase anxiety levels in teenagers.”
  • “Using fertilizer X will yield higher crop productivity.”
  • “A/B testing marketing strategies will show higher engagement with personalized ads.”

Tip 5: Be Specific and Concise

Keep your hypothesis straightforward and to the point.

  • Avoid vague terms that could mislead or cause confusion.
  • Clearly outline what you’re measuring and how the variables interact.
  • “Replacing chemical fertilizers with organic ones will result in slower plant growth.”
  • “A social media break will decrease anxiety in high school students.”
  • “Ads targeting user preferences will boost click-through rates by 10%.”

Tip 6: Choose Simple Language

Use simple, understandable language to ensure clarity.

  • Avoid jargon and overly complex terms that could confuse readers.
  • Make the hypothesis comprehensible to non-experts in the field.
  • “Organic fertilizer will reduce plant growth.”
  • “High schoolers will feel less anxious after a social media detox.”
  • “Targeted ads will increase customer engagement.”

Tip 7: Formulate a Null Hypothesis

A null hypothesis assumes no relationship between variables.

  • Create a counterpoint to your main hypothesis, asserting that there is no effect.
  • This allows you to compare results directly and identify statistical significance.
  • “Fertilizer type will not affect plant growth.”
  • “Social media use will not influence anxiety.”
  • “Targeted ads will not affect customer engagement.”

Tip 8: State Alternative Hypotheses

Provide alternative hypotheses to explore other plausible relationships.

  • They offer a contingency plan if your primary hypothesis is not supported.
  • These should still align with your research question and measurable variables.
  • “Fertilizer X will only affect plant growth if used in specific soil types.”
  • “Social media might impact anxiety only in certain age groups.”
  • “Customer engagement might only improve with highly personalized ads.”

Tip 9: Use “If…Then” Statements

“If…then” statements simplify the cause-and-effect structure.

  • The “if” clause identifies the independent variable, while “then” identifies the dependent.
  • It makes your hypothesis easier to understand and directly testable.
  • “If plants receive organic fertilizer, then their growth rate will slow.”
  • “If teens stop using social media, then their anxiety will decrease.”
  • “If ads are personalized, then click-through rates will increase.”

Tip 10: Avoid Assumptions

Don’t assume the audience understands your variables or relationships.

  • Clearly define terms and relationships to avoid misinterpretation.
  • Provide background context where necessary for clarity.
  • Define “anxiety” as a feeling of worry or unease.
  • Specify “plant growth” as the height and health of plants.
  • Describe “personalized ads” as ads matching user preferences.

Tip 11: Review Existing Literature

Previous research offers insights into forming a hypothesis.

  • Conduct a thorough literature review to identify trends and gaps.
  • Use these studies to refine and build upon your hypothesis.
  • Studies showing a link between screen time and anxiety.
  • Research on organic versus chemical fertilizers.
  • Customer behavior analysis in different marketing channels.

Tip 12: Consider Multiple Variables

Hypotheses with multiple variables can offer deeper insights.

  • Explore combinations of independent and dependent variables to see their relationships.
  • Plan experiments accordingly to distinguish separate effects.
  • Studying fertilizer type and soil composition effects on plant growth.
  • Testing social media use frequency and content type on anxiety.
  • Analyzing marketing strategies combined with product preferences.

Tip 13: Review Ethical Considerations

Ethics are essential for trustworthy research.

  • Avoid hypotheses that could cause harm to participants or the environment.
  • Seek approval from relevant ethical boards or committees.
  • Avoiding experiments causing undue stress to teenagers.
  • Preventing chemical contamination when testing fertilizers.
  • Respecting privacy with personalized ads.

Tip 14: Test with Pilot Studies

Small-scale pilot studies test feasibility and refine hypotheses.

  • Use them to identify potential issues and adjust before full-scale research.
  • Ensure pilot tests align with ethical standards.
  • Testing different fertilizer types on small plant samples.
  • Trying brief social media breaks with a small group of teens.
  • Conducting A/B tests on ad personalization with a subset of customers.

Tip 15: Build Hypotheses on Existing Theories

Existing theories provide strong foundations.

  • Use established frameworks to develop or refine your hypothesis.
  • Testing theoretical predictions can yield meaningful data.
  • Applying agricultural theories on soil and crop management.
  • Using psychology theories on screen addiction and mental health.
  • Referencing marketing theories like consumer behavior analysis.

Tip 16: Address Real-World Problems

Solve real-world problems through practical hypotheses.

  • Make sure your research question has relevant, impactful applications.
  • Focus on everyday challenges where actionable insights can help.
  • Testing new eco-friendly farming methods.
  • Reducing anxiety by improving digital wellbeing.
  • Improving marketing ROI with personalized strategies.

Tip 17: Aim for Clear, Measurable Outcomes

The results should be easy to measure and interpret.

  • Quantify your dependent variable or use defined qualitative measures.
  • Avoid overly broad or ambiguous outcomes.
  • Measuring plant growth as a percentage change in height.
  • Quantifying anxiety levels through standard surveys.
  • Tracking click-through rates as a percentage of total views.

Tip 18: Stay Open to Unexpected Results

Not all hypotheses yield expected results.

  • Be open to learning new insights, even if they contradict your prediction.
  • Unexpected findings often reveal unique, significant knowledge.
  • Unexpected fertilizer types boosting growth differently than anticipated.
  • Screen time affecting anxiety differently across various age groups.
  • Targeted ads backfiring with specific customer segments.

Tip 19: Keep Hypotheses Relevant

Ensure your hypothesis aligns with the purpose of your research.

  • Avoid straying from the original question or focusing on tangential issues.
  • Stick to the research scope to ensure accurate and meaningful data.
  • Focus on a specific type of fertilizer for plant growth.
  • Restrict studies to relevant age groups for anxiety research.
  • Keep marketing hypotheses within the same target customer segment.

Tip 20: Collaborate with Peers

Collaboration strengthens hypothesis development.

  • Work with colleagues or mentors for valuable feedback.
  • Peer review helps identify flaws or assumptions in your hypothesis.
  • Reviewing hypothesis clarity with a lab partner.
  • Sharing research plans with a mentor to refine focus.
  • Engaging in academic peer-review groups.

Tip 21: Re-evaluate Hypotheses Periodically

Revising hypotheses ensures relevance.

  • Update based on new literature, data, or technological advances.
  • A dynamic approach keeps your research current.
  • Refining fertilizer studies with recent organic farming research.
  • Adjusting social media hypotheses for new platforms like TikTok.
  • Modifying marketing hypotheses based on changing customer preferences.

Tip 22: Develop Compelling Visuals

Illustrating hypotheses can help communicate relationships effectively.

  • Use diagrams or flowcharts to show how variables interact visually.
  • Infographics make it easier for others to grasp your research concept.
  • A flowchart showing fertilizer effects on different plant growth stages.
  • Diagrams illustrating social media use and its psychological impact.
  • Infographics depicting how various marketing strategies boost engagement.

Tip 23: Refine Your Data Collection Plan

A solid data collection plan is vital for a testable hypothesis.

  • Determine the best ways to measure your dependent variable.
  • Ensure your data collection tools are reliable and accurate.
  • Using a ruler and image analysis software to measure plant height.
  • Designing standardized surveys to assess anxiety levels consistently.
  • Setting up click-through tracking with analytics software.

Tip 24: Focus on Logical Progression

Ensure your hypothesis logically follows your research question.

  • The relationship between variables should naturally flow from your observations.
  • Avoid logical leaps that might confuse your reasoning.
  • Predicting plant growth after observing effects of different fertilizers.
  • Linking anxiety to social media use based on screen time studies.
  • Connecting ad personalization with customer behavior data.

Tip 25: Test Against Diverse Samples

Testing across diverse samples ensures broader applicability.

  • Avoid drawing conclusions from overly narrow sample groups.
  • Try to include different demographics or subgroups in your testing.
  • Testing fertilizer effects on multiple plant species.
  • Including different age groups in anxiety research.
  • Experimenting with personalized ads across varied customer segments.

Tip 26: Use Control Groups

Control groups provide a baseline for comparison.

  • Compare your test group with a control group under unchanged conditions.
  • This allows you to isolate the effect of your independent variable.
  • Comparing plant growth with organic versus no fertilizer.
  • Testing anxiety levels with and without social media breaks.
  • Comparing personalized ads with general marketing content.

Tip 27: Consider Practical Constraints

Work within realistic constraints for your resources and timeline.

  • Assess the feasibility of testing your hypothesis.
  • Modify the hypothesis if the required testing is unmanageable.
  • Reducing fertilizer types to a manageable number for testing.
  • Shortening social media detox periods to realistic durations.
  • Targeting only specific marketing strategies to optimize testing.

Tip 28: Recognize Bias Risks

Biases can skew hypothesis formation.

  • Acknowledge your assumptions and how they may affect your research.
  • Minimize biases by clearly defining and measuring variables.
  • Avoiding assumptions that organic fertilizer is inherently better.
  • Ensuring survey questions don’t lead to specific anxiety outcomes.
  • Testing marketing strategies objectively without favoring any method.

Tip 29: Prepare for Peer Review

Peer review ensures your hypothesis holds up to scrutiny.

  • Provide a clear rationale for why your hypothesis is sound.
  • Address potential criticisms to strengthen your research.
  • Showing your plant growth study builds on existing fertilizer research.
  • Demonstrating social media anxiety links through data and literature.
  • Supporting your marketing hypotheses with solid behavioral data.

Tip 30: Create a Research Proposal

A proposal outlines your hypothesis, methodology, and significance.

  • It ensures your hypothesis is clear and your methods are well-thought-out.
  • Proposals also help secure funding or institutional approval.
  • A proposal for fertilizer studies linking plant growth and soil health.
  • Research plans connecting social media habits to anxiety measures.
  • Marketing proposals tying customer behavior to personalized advertising.

Tip 31: Document Your Findings

Recording findings helps validate or challenge your hypothesis.

  • Document the methodology, data, and conclusions clearly.
  • This allows others to verify, replicate, or expand on your work.
  • Recording fertilizer effects on plant height in different soil types.
  • Survey results linking social media use with anxiety levels.
  • Click-through data proving personalized ads’ impact on engagement.

Check out this really good video about how to write a hypothesis:

Hypothesis Examples for Different Situations

Let’s look at some examples of how to write a hypothesis in different circumstances.

  • Marketing Analysis : “If personalized ads are shown to our target demographic, then click-through rates will increase by at least 10%.”
  • Process Improvement : “If automated workflows replace manual data entry, then task completion times will decrease by 20%.”
  • Product Development : “If adding a chatbot feature to our app increases customer support efficiency, then user satisfaction will improve by 15%.”
  • Biology Experiment : “If students grow plants with different fertilizers, then the organic fertilizer will result in slower growth compared to the chemical fertilizer.”
  • Psychology Research : “If high school students take a break from social media, then their levels of anxiety will decrease.”
  • Environmental Study : “If a controlled forest area is exposed to a certain pollutant, then the local plant species will show signs of damage within two weeks.”

Professional Contacts

  • Medical Research : “If a novel treatment method is applied to patients with chronic illness, then their recovery rate will increase significantly compared to standard treatment.”
  • Technology Research : “If machine learning algorithms analyze big data sets, then the accuracy of predictive models will surpass traditional data analysis.”
  • Engineering Project : “If new composite materials replace standard components in bridge construction, then the resulting structure will be more durable.”

Super Personal

  • Gardening Experiment : “If different types of compost are used in home gardens, then plants receiving homemade compost will yield the most produce.”
  • Fitness Routine : “If consistent strength training is combined with a high-protein diet, then muscle mass will increase more than with diet alone.”
  • Cooking Techniques : “If searing is added before baking, then the resulting roast will retain more moisture.”

Final Thoughts: How to Write a Hypothesis

Crafting hypotheses is both a science and an art. It’s about channeling curiosity into testable questions that propel meaningful discovery.

Each well-thought-out hypothesis is a stepping stone that could lead to the breakthrough you’ve been seeking.

Stay curious and let your research journey unfold.

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Chad Daybell sentenced to death for killing wife and girlfriend’s 2 children in jury decision

Chad Daybell has been sentenced to death for the murders of his wife and his girlfriend’s two youngest children. An Idaho jury unanimously agreed that imposing the death penalty would be a just resolution to the triple-murder case.

FILE - Chad Daybell sits at the defense table after the jury's verdict in his murder trial was read at the Ada County Courthouse in Boise, Idaho, on Thursday, May 30, 2024. Daybell has been sentenced to death for murder of wife and girlfriend’s 2 youngest children on Saturday, June 1. (AP Photo/Kyle Green, Pool)

FILE - Chad Daybell sits at the defense table after the jury’s verdict in his murder trial was read at the Ada County Courthouse in Boise, Idaho, on Thursday, May 30, 2024. Daybell has been sentenced to death for murder of wife and girlfriend’s 2 youngest children on Saturday, June 1. (AP Photo/Kyle Green, Pool)

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BOISE, Idaho (AP) — A jury in Idaho unanimously agreed Saturday that convicted killer Chad Daybell deserves the death penalty for the gruesome murders of his wife and his girlfriend’s two youngest children, ending a grim case that began in 2019 with a search for two missing children.

The 55-year-old Daybell, wearing a dress shirt and tie, sat with his hands in his lap at the defense table. He showed no emotion when learning he would face the death penalty for the murders of Tammy Daybell, 16-year-old Tylee Ryan and 7-year-old Joshua “JJ” Vallow.

When asked by the judge whether he wanted to make a statement, Daybell declined.

Jurors found him guilty Thursday and decided on the death sentence after deliberating for just over a day.

The mother of the children is Lori Vallow Daybell, whom Chad Daybell married shortly after his wife’s death. Vallow Daybell was convicted last year in the three murders and is now awaiting trial in Arizona, charged with murder in connection with the shooting death of her fourth husband, Charles Vallow. Charles Vallow was JJ’s father.

Chad Daybell, right, stands with defense lawyer John Prior as the jury's verdict in his murder trial is read at the Ada County Courthouse in Boise, Idaho, on Thursday, May 30, 2024. Daybell was convicted of killing his wife and his new girlfriend's two youngest kids in a strange triple murder case that included claims of apocalyptic prophesies, zombie children and illicit affairs. (AP Photo/Kyle Green, Pool)

The case began in 2019, when a family member called police. Investigators soon realized both children were missing, and a multistate search ensued. Nearly a year later, their remains were found buried on Chad Daybell’s property. Tylee’s DNA was later found on a pickaxe and shovel in a shed on the property, and JJ’s body was wrapped in trash bags and duct tape, prosecutors have said.

During a nearly two-month-long trial, prosecutors said Chad Daybell, a self-published author who wrote doomsday-laced fiction, promoted unusual spiritual beliefs including apocalyptic prophecies and tales of possession by evil spirits in order to justify the killings.

“This has been a tough case because of its complexity, both in telling the story of an investigation that spanned years and trying to figure out the best way to present it in a way that would make sense to others,” Fremont County Prosecutor Lindsey Blake said outside the Boise courthouse after the sentencing.

Relatives of the victims welcomed the jury’s decision.

“This is the best justice we can possibly get. And again, it doesn’t change the outcome, but it is good news, and it brings closure for everybody that’s been hurt,” Colby Ryan, Vallow Daybell’s oldest child, told reporters.

Larry Woodcock, JJ’s grandfather, thanked the judge, law enforcement and the people who have followed the case and shared their support over the years.

“You are family,” he said. “I look at the faces, and I’m going to tell you all: I’m going to miss you.”

“We saw justice,” he added. “Equal, honest and righteous.”

Daybell’s defense attorney, John Prior, argued during the trial that there wasn’t enough evidence to tie Daybell to the killings, and suggested Vallow Daybell’s older brother, Alex Cox, was the culprit. Cox died in late 2019 and was never charged, and Vallow Daybell was convicted last year and sentenced to life in prison without parole .

During the sentencing hearing, Prior asked the jurors to judge Daybell on his life before he met Vallow Daybell, describing her as a bomb that blew him off the trajectory of an otherwise wholesome life. But Daybell also declined to offer any mitigating evidence during the sentencing hearing. Mitigating evidence is often used to encourage jurors to have sympathy for a defendant in an effort to show that a life sentence would be more appropriate than capital punishment.

Family members of the victims gave emotional statements to the jurors. JJ Vallow’s grandmother, Kay Woodcock, tearfully described how the 7-year-old would show empathy and compassion to others through soft touches and by frequently asking if those around him were OK. She also said Tylee was a doting big sister, and that it warmed her heart to see them together.

“I can’t express just how much I wish for more time to create memories,” Woodcock said, beginning to weep.

Ryan, Vallow Daybell’s oldest child, described what it was like to lose his entire family. His father died years earlier.

“My three kids will never know the kindness of Tylee’s heart or JJ’s silly and goofy personality ... The only way I could describe the impact of their lives being lost is like a nuclear bomb dropping,” he said. “It’s not an overstatement to say that I lost everything.”

To impose the death penalty, the jurors had to unanimously find that Daybell met at least one of the “aggravating circumstances” that state law says qualifies someone for capital punishment. They also had to agree that those aggravating factors weren’t outweighed by any mitigating factors that might have lessened his culpability or justified a lesser sentence.

The jury decided there were aggravating factors including an utter disregard for human life and the murders being especially heinous and cruel.

Idaho law allows for execution by lethal injection or firing squad, though firing squad executions have never been used in the state.

hypothesis kid sentence

Watch CBS News

Chad Daybell sentenced to death in triple murder by Idaho jury

By Allison Elyse Gualtieri

Updated on: June 1, 2024 / 9:20 PM EDT / CBS News

Chad Daybell was sentenced to death on Saturday in a triple murder case, nearly a year after his second wife, Lori Vallow Daybell, was convicted and sentenced to life in prison.

Daybell was convicted of first-degree murder of his first wife , Tammy Daybell, and two of his then-girlfriend Lori Vallow's children, Joshua "JJ" Vallow and Tylee Ryan, as well as for conspiracy in the murders and of insurance fraud. 

Lori Vallow Daybell was convicted of murder in their three deaths last year and was sentenced to life in prison without parole.

The case initially drew national attention in 2019 after 7-year-old JJ was reported missing by his grandparents and investigators learned Tylee had last been seen around the same time . Police first arrested Daybell and Vallow  during their honeymoon in Hawaii, just weeks after the death of Tammy Daybell.

Chad Daybell, Lori Vallow's husband, walks into court for his wife's hearing on child abandonment and other charges in Lihue, Hawaii, on February 21, 2020.

The children's bodies were discovered buried on Daybell's property months later.

The case shone a spotlight on the couple's fringe religious beliefs, which included that evil spirits could possess a person's body, turning them into a "zombie."

The jury that convicted Chad Daybell also deliberated on his sentence for the capital charges. Judge Steven Boyce, who presided over both Daybell and Vallow Daybell's Idaho trials , said Thursday he will be sentenced on the insurance fraud charges at a later date.

Victims filled the courtroom Friday as nine people, including Tammy Daybell's brother, Tylee and JJ's  older brother, and others offered victim impact statements.

Daybell, who had not testified in his own defense, also elected not to speak during the penalty phase.

Vallow Daybell was extradited to Arizona following her conviction in Idaho, where she is awaiting trial for murder in the 2019 death of her husband, Charles Vallow, who was shot by her brother, Alex Cox. Cox also died Iater that year.

  • Lori Vallow Daybell

Allison Elyse Gualtieri is a Senior News Editor for CBSNews.com, working on a wide variety of subjects including crime, longer-form features and feel-good news. She previously worked for the Washington Examiner and U.S. News and World Report, among other outlets.

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Chad Daybell sentenced to death for killing first wife, 2nd wife’s kids

hypothesis kid sentence

If you get Global News from Instagram or Facebook - that will be changing. Find out how you can still connect with us .

Chad Daybell should be put to death for the murders of his first wife and his second wife’s two youngest children, a jury has decided.

hypothesis kid sentence

The jury in Idaho unanimously agreed Saturday that Daybell, 55, deserves the death sentence for the gruesome murders of Tammy Daybell, 16-year-old Tylee Ryan and 7-year-old Joshua “JJ” Vallow.

He was found guilty of first-degree murder and conspiracy charges last Thursday, after a lengthy case where prosecutors argued his crimes were fuelled by sex, money, power and “doomsday” spiritual motivations.

According to CNN, Daybell maintained a neutral expression as the death sentence was read in court. The judge said jurors had “found beyond a reasonable doubt … that the aggravating circumstances when weighed against the mitigating circumstances do not make the imposition of the death penalty unjust.”

To impose the death penalty, the jurors had to unanimously find that Daybell met at least one of the “aggravating circumstances” that state law says qualifies someone for capital punishment. They also had to agree that those aggravating factors weren’t outweighed by any mitigating factors that might have lessened his culpability or justified a lesser sentence.

The jury decided there were aggravating factors including an utter disregard for human life and the murders being especially heinous and cruel.

Last week’s guilty verdict came about a year after Lori Vallow Daybell , Daybell’s second wife, was also convicted for the murder of her children and sentenced to life in prison without the possibility of parole. She was also convicted of conspiring to murder Daybell’s first wife, Tammy, and has been accused of arranging her fourth husband’s murder so she and Daybell could be together.

The Daybell and Vallow Daybell investigation began in late 2019 when several family members reported concerns to police that they hadn’t seen or spoken to JJ and Tylee in months. Their bodies were eventually found buried in Chad’s yard in eastern Idaho in 2020.

Friends of the couple would go on to tell police, and testify in court, that the pair held fringe religious beliefs , including that they had been reincarnated in order to gather people before a biblical apocalypse.

Before Vallow Daybell’s two youngest children disappeared, she referred to them as “zombies,” former friend Melanie Gibb testified during last year’s trial. The couple claimed that zombies were people who had been possessed by dark spirits, and the only way to free the person’s trapped soul was to destroy their body by killing them.

Authorities believe the two children were killed in September 2019 . Tammy was found dead on Oct. 19, 2019, a few weeks before Daybell and Vallow Daybell married, although it was initially believed she died in her sleep.

During Daybell’s nearly two-month-long trial, prosecutors painted a picture of a self-published author who wrote doomsday-laced fiction, promoted unusual spiritual beliefs including apocalyptic prophecies and tales of possession by evil spirits in order to justify the killings .

hypothesis kid sentence

“This has been a tough case because of its complexity, both in telling the story of an investigation that spanned years and trying to figure out the best way to present it in a way that would make sense to others,” Fremont County Prosecutor Lindsey Blake said outside the Boise courthouse after the sentencing.

Daybell’s lawyer, John Prior, argued during the trial that there wasn’t enough evidence to tie Daybell to the killings, and suggested Vallow Daybell’s older brother, Alex Cox, was the culprit. Cox died in late 2019 and was never charged.

During the sentencing hearing, Prior asked the jurors to judge Daybell on his life before he met Vallow Daybell, describing her as a bomb that blew him off the trajectory of an otherwise wholesome life. But Daybell also declined to offer any mitigating evidence during the sentencing hearing. Mitigating evidence is often used to encourage jurors to have sympathy for a defendant in an effort to show that a life sentence would be more appropriate than capital punishment.

— With files from The Associated Press

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Top FTX Executive Sentenced to 7½ Years in Prison

Ryan Salame, the head of FTX’s subsidiary in the Bahamas, was the first of Sam Bankman-Fried’s deputies to be sentenced since the crypto exchange collapsed in November 2022.

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Ryan Salame, in a blue suit and dark sunglasses, walking with a woman and a man closely behind him.

By David Yaffe-Bellany

Reporting from federal court in New York

Ryan Salame , a top executive at the collapsed cryptocurrency exchange FTX, was sentenced to seven and a half years in prison on Tuesday, making him the first of Sam Bankman-Fried’s circle of advisers at FTX to receive prison time.

Mr. Salame, 30, a trusted lieutenant of Mr. Bankman-Fried, the exchange’s founder, pleaded guilty last year to a campaign finance law violation and a charge of operating an unlicensed money transmitting business. He is one of four top deputies in the FTX empire who have pleaded guilty to crimes since the company imploded in November 2022.

Mr. Salame’s sentence exceeded the five to seven years that prosecutors had recommended. Defense lawyers had asked for 18 months.

Wearing a blue suit and socks emblazoned with the Bitcoin logo, Mr. Salame stood facing Judge Lewis A. Kaplan as the sentence was read aloud in U.S. District Court in Manhattan. Judge Kaplan called Mr. Salame’s crimes “astonishing.”

“The state of our political life in this country is in jeopardy,” he said. “Efforts like that undertaken by Mr. Salame and Bankman-Fried only make matters worse.”

Mr. Salame is set to surrender on Aug. 29. His lawyers requested that he serve his sentence at the federal prison in Cumberland, Md., near his home. Mr. Bankman-Fried is serving a 25-year sentence, after he was convicted of fraud and conspiracy at a trial last year.

Before FTX failed, Mr. Salame was a key figure at the exchange, overseeing its subsidiary in the Bahamas, where the company was based. As FTX grew into a $32 billion business, Mr. Salame spent lavishly. He enjoyed expensive cars and private jets, and bought restaurants in the Berkshires in Massachusetts. He was also a prolific political donor, giving more than $24 million in the 2022 midterm elections, mostly to Republicans.

When FTX imploded, Mr. Salame became a target of federal prosecutors, who searched his home in Maryland. Mr. Bankman-Fried was charged with stealing $8 billion from FTX’s customers and using the money to finance political contributions, venture investments and luxury real estate purchases. Three top FTX executives — Gary Wang, Nishad Singh and Caroline Ellison — pleaded guilty to financial crimes and agreed to cooperate with the government. They all await sentencing.

In September, Mr. Salame also pleaded guilty, admitting that he had acted as an illegal “straw donor” who made political contributions at the direction of Mr. Bankman-Fried to evade federal disclosure requirements. In a sentencing memo, prosecutors called it “one of the largest ever” campaign finance offenses in American history.

As part of his plea deal, Mr. Salame agreed to pay a $6 million fine and more than $5 million in restitution, and to forfeit two properties in Massachusetts, as well as his Porsche.

In the memo, prosecutors argued that Mr. Salame had been motivated by a desire for money and influence. Even as FTX crumbled, he withdrew $5 million from the exchange, using the funds to pay off personal expenses and hire a public-relations firm. Hours before the bankruptcy, the prosecutors wrote, Mr. Salame withdrew another $600,000 from his account on FTX’s U.S. platform.

Judge Kaplan invoked those withdrawals at the hearing on Tuesday. “It was me first — I’m getting in the lifeboat first,” he said of Mr. Salame. “To heck with all those customers.”

In their own memo to Judge Kaplan, Mr. Salame’s defense lawyers said he had not been aware that Mr. Bankman-Fried was stealing billions of dollars from customers. That news “was as shocking and dismaying to Ryan Salame as to everyone else in the world,” the lawyers wrote.

They said that Mr. Salame’s life had been “decimated” and that FTX’s demise had brought “shame and instability” to his family. Mr. Salame is in a long-term relationship with Michelle Bond, a former crypto industry lobbyist who also supported Mr. Bankman-Fried. In November, Ms. Bond gave birth to the couple’s first child, the memo said. Mr. Salame has also begun to grapple with a substance-abuse problem, his lawyers wrote, and is planning to attend law school.

Addressing the court on Tuesday, Jason Linder, a lawyer for Mr. Salame, described his client as “merely a tool” of Mr. Bankman-Fried’s. Unlike Mr. Wang, Mr. Singh and Ms. Ellison, Mr. Salame did not testify against Mr. Bankman-Fried in court last year. But his lawyers said he had voluntarily produced documents and “offered assistance and cooperation” to the government as it prepared for the trial.

At Tuesday’s hearing, Mr. Linder pointed to rows filled with friends and family members who had accompanied Mr. Salame, including Ms. Bond and Mr. Salame’s mother and aunt.

Before the sentence was announced, Mr. Salame briefly addressed the court, apologizing to FTX’s customers and his family. “Mom, I can’t imagine how this feels for you,” he said, his voice breaking.

But Judge Kaplan said a long sentence was necessary to send a message to wealthy people about “the consequences of perverting our electoral system and its rules.”

Mr. Salame “knowingly and willfully assisted in destroying the limited transparency that the laws of the United States provide in this area,” he said.

David Yaffe-Bellany writes about the crypto industry from San Francisco. He can be reached at [email protected]. More about David Yaffe-Bellany

Inside the World of Cryptocurrencies

Federal regulators approved an investment product tied  to the cryptocurrency Ether, the most valuable digital asset after Bitcoin, in a major boost for the crypto industry.

For years, an Australian cryptocurrency enthusiast claimed to be Satoshi Nakamoto, the mysterious creator of Bitcoin. Then the courts got involved .

Changpeng Zhao , the billionaire founder of the giant cryptocurrency exchange Binance, was sentenced to four months in prison , a much lighter penalty than other crypto executives have faced since the industry imploded in 2022.

Two years after the cryptocurrency market crashed, there are signs that crypto is booming again in the Philippines , long a center of crypto activity.

Pushed by a nonprofit with ties to the Trump administration, Arkansas became the first state to shield noisy cryptocurrency operators from unhappy neighbors. A furious backlash has some lawmakers considering a statewide ban .

hypothesis kid sentence

Chad Daybell Sentenced to Death for Murdering Lori Vallow’s 2 Kids and His First Wife

Daybell was convicted of murdering Joshua "J.J." Vallow, Tylee Ryan and Tammy Daybell on May 30, among other charges

Chad Daybell has been sentenced to death for murdering 7-year-old  Joshua "J.J." Vallow , 16-year-old  Tylee Ryan and his first wife, 49-year-old  Tammy Daybell .

On Thursday, May 30, Chad was found guilty of six counts in connection with their deaths and two counts of insurance fraud.

The Ada County courts in Idaho revealed on Saturday, June 1, that a verdict had been reached by its sequestered jury, per CNN , before Judge Steven Boyce imposed the sentence following a recess.

ABC News reported that Chad did not show emotion when Boyce read the jury's verdict.

J.J. and Tylee were the children of Chad's second wife, Lori Vallow . Vallow was sentenced to life in prison without the possibility of parole in July 2023 for murdering her children and conspiracy to commit murder in Tammy's death.

Unlike Chad, she did not face the death penalty.

Related: Chad Daybell Found Guilty of Murdering Lori Vallow’s 2 Kids and His 1st Wife Tammy Daybell

The jury in the murder trial took two days to come to their decision following the conviction.

CNN reported that the jury deliberated Chad's fate for 6 hours on Friday, before breaking for the night. They later deliberated again on Saturday morning, until the court made its announcement.

In a statement shared Saturday by the Tammy Douglas Daybell Foundation , the Douglas family thanked "law enforcement, the prosecution, the media" and those who "watched and listened to the trial and prayed for us."

After stating that they were "grateful for the relationships we have created through this horrible time and the support and love we were able to give each other," the family added that it was time to "start to heal from the terrible losses we have suffered."

"We will miss Tammy every single day of our lives but we have some comfort knowing we will see her again," the statement continued.

Want to keep up with the latest crime coverage? Sign up for  PEOPLE's free True Crime newsletter  for breaking crime news, ongoing trial coverage and details of intriguing unsolved cases.

Chad was a doomsday author when he met Vallow in 2018 . In September of 2019, J.J. and Tylee disappeared. The following month, on October 19, Tammy died at the home she shared with Chad.

Two weeks later on November 5,  Lori and Chad  married in Hawaii while J.J.'s grandparents reported the children missing.

Before wrapping this week, Chad's capital murder trial lasted nearly two months with testimony from witnesses, including Chad's two adult children, Emma Murray and Garth Daybell. (Chad was married to Tammy for nearly 30 years and had five children with her.)

Related: Detective Describes Lori Vallow Daybell's Reaction to Husband's Killing: 'Unemotional' and 'Nonchalant'

Nearly nine months after J.J. and Tylee disappeared on June 9, 2020, their badly decomposed remains were found buried on Chad's Idaho property. Tylee had been dismembered and burned; J.J. was wrapped in plastic and bound by duct tape.

During Vallow's 2022 trial, a forensic pathologist revealed during testimony that J.J. was asphyxiated with a plastic bag and duct tape over his mouth,  East Idaho News ,  KTVB reporter Alexandra Duggan  and  Fox 10 reported at the time.

Related: Forensic Pathologist Reveals How Lori Vallow Daybell's Son J.J. Was Killed, Daughter's Cause of Death Unknown

Tylee's cause of death was undetermined due to how badly her remains were burned, the outlets reported.

Fremont County Prosecuting Attorney Lindsey Blake also revealed during Lori's trial that  Tammy's cause of death was asphyxiation . It was initially ruled accidental.

J.J.'s grandfather Larry Woodcock spoke after Chad's conviction during a press conference shared by KSL . "It's a sad day," he said. "J.J. would have been 12 years old, guys. For what?"

He also shared thoughts about Tylee and Tammy, before adding: "J.J., Papa loves you. J.J., I miss you."

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Read the original article on People .

John Roark/Post Register/Pool/AP


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