• USC Libraries
  • Research Guides

Organizing Your Social Sciences Research Paper

  • 9. The Conclusion
  • Purpose of Guide
  • Design Flaws to Avoid
  • Independent and Dependent Variables
  • Glossary of Research Terms
  • Reading Research Effectively
  • Narrowing a Topic Idea
  • Broadening a Topic Idea
  • Extending the Timeliness of a Topic Idea
  • Academic Writing Style
  • Applying Critical Thinking
  • Choosing a Title
  • Making an Outline
  • Paragraph Development
  • Research Process Video Series
  • Executive Summary
  • The C.A.R.S. Model
  • Background Information
  • The Research Problem/Question
  • Theoretical Framework
  • Citation Tracking
  • Content Alert Services
  • Evaluating Sources
  • Primary Sources
  • Secondary Sources
  • Tiertiary Sources
  • Scholarly vs. Popular Publications
  • Qualitative Methods
  • Quantitative Methods
  • Insiderness
  • Using Non-Textual Elements
  • Limitations of the Study
  • Common Grammar Mistakes
  • Writing Concisely
  • Avoiding Plagiarism
  • Footnotes or Endnotes?
  • Further Readings
  • Generative AI and Writing
  • USC Libraries Tutorials and Other Guides
  • Bibliography

The conclusion is intended to help the reader understand why your research should matter to them after they have finished reading the paper. A conclusion is not merely a summary of the main topics covered or a re-statement of your research problem, but a synthesis of key points derived from the findings of your study and, if applicable, where you recommend new areas for future research. For most college-level research papers, two or three well-developed paragraphs is sufficient for a conclusion, although in some cases, more paragraphs may be required in describing the key findings and their significance.

Conclusions. The Writing Center. University of North Carolina; Conclusions. The Writing Lab and The OWL. Purdue University.

Importance of a Good Conclusion

A well-written conclusion provides you with important opportunities to demonstrate to the reader your understanding of the research problem. These include:

  • Presenting the last word on the issues you raised in your paper . Just as the introduction gives a first impression to your reader, the conclusion offers a chance to leave a lasting impression. Do this, for example, by highlighting key findings in your analysis that advance new understanding about the research problem, that are unusual or unexpected, or that have important implications applied to practice.
  • Summarizing your thoughts and conveying the larger significance of your study . The conclusion is an opportunity to succinctly re-emphasize  your answer to the "So What?" question by placing the study within the context of how your research advances past research about the topic.
  • Identifying how a gap in the literature has been addressed . The conclusion can be where you describe how a previously identified gap in the literature [first identified in your literature review section] has been addressed by your research and why this contribution is significant.
  • Demonstrating the importance of your ideas . Don't be shy. The conclusion offers an opportunity to elaborate on the impact and significance of your findings. This is particularly important if your study approached examining the research problem from an unusual or innovative perspective.
  • Introducing possible new or expanded ways of thinking about the research problem . This does not refer to introducing new information [which should be avoided], but to offer new insight and creative approaches for framing or contextualizing the research problem based on the results of your study.

Bunton, David. “The Structure of PhD Conclusion Chapters.” Journal of English for Academic Purposes 4 (July 2005): 207–224; Conclusions. The Writing Center. University of North Carolina; Kretchmer, Paul. Twelve Steps to Writing an Effective Conclusion. San Francisco Edit, 2003-2008; Conclusions. The Writing Lab and The OWL. Purdue University; Assan, Joseph. "Writing the Conclusion Chapter: The Good, the Bad and the Missing." Liverpool: Development Studies Association (2009): 1-8.

Structure and Writing Style

I.  General Rules

The general function of your paper's conclusion is to restate the main argument . It reminds the reader of the strengths of your main argument(s) and reiterates the most important evidence supporting those argument(s). Do this by clearly summarizing the context, background, and necessity of pursuing the research problem you investigated in relation to an issue, controversy, or a gap found in the literature. However, make sure that your conclusion is not simply a repetitive summary of the findings. This reduces the impact of the argument(s) you have developed in your paper.

When writing the conclusion to your paper, follow these general rules:

  • Present your conclusions in clear, concise language. Re-state the purpose of your study, then describe how your findings differ or support those of other studies and why [i.e., what were the unique, new, or crucial contributions your study made to the overall research about your topic?].
  • Do not simply reiterate your findings or the discussion of your results. Provide a synthesis of arguments presented in the paper to show how these converge to address the research problem and the overall objectives of your study.
  • Indicate opportunities for future research if you haven't already done so in the discussion section of your paper. Highlighting the need for further research provides the reader with evidence that you have an in-depth awareness of the research problem but that further investigations should take place beyond the scope of your investigation.

Consider the following points to help ensure your conclusion is presented well:

  • If the argument or purpose of your paper is complex, you may need to summarize the argument for your reader.
  • If, prior to your conclusion, you have not yet explained the significance of your findings or if you are proceeding inductively, use the end of your paper to describe your main points and explain their significance.
  • Move from a detailed to a general level of consideration that returns the topic to the context provided by the introduction or within a new context that emerges from the data [this is opposite of the introduction, which begins with general discussion of the context and ends with a detailed description of the research problem]. 

The conclusion also provides a place for you to persuasively and succinctly restate the research problem, given that the reader has now been presented with all the information about the topic . Depending on the discipline you are writing in, the concluding paragraph may contain your reflections on the evidence presented. However, the nature of being introspective about the research you have conducted will depend on the topic and whether your professor wants you to express your observations in this way. If asked to think introspectively about the topics, do not delve into idle speculation. Being introspective means looking within yourself as an author to try and understand an issue more deeply, not to guess at possible outcomes or make up scenarios not supported by the evidence.

II.  Developing a Compelling Conclusion

Although an effective conclusion needs to be clear and succinct, it does not need to be written passively or lack a compelling narrative. Strategies to help you move beyond merely summarizing the key points of your research paper may include any of the following:

  • If your essay deals with a critical, contemporary problem, warn readers of the possible consequences of not attending to the problem proactively.
  • Recommend a specific course or courses of action that, if adopted, could address a specific problem in practice or in the development of new knowledge leading to positive change.
  • Cite a relevant quotation or expert opinion already noted in your paper in order to lend authority and support to the conclusion(s) you have reached [a good source would be from your literature review].
  • Explain the consequences of your research in a way that elicits action or demonstrates urgency in seeking change.
  • Restate a key statistic, fact, or visual image to emphasize the most important finding of your paper.
  • If your discipline encourages personal reflection, illustrate your concluding point by drawing from your own life experiences.
  • Return to an anecdote, an example, or a quotation that you presented in your introduction, but add further insight derived from the findings of your study; use your interpretation of results from your study to recast it in new or important ways.
  • Provide a "take-home" message in the form of a succinct, declarative statement that you want the reader to remember about your study.

III. Problems to Avoid

Failure to be concise Your conclusion section should be concise and to the point. Conclusions that are too lengthy often have unnecessary information in them. The conclusion is not the place for details about your methodology or results. Although you should give a summary of what was learned from your research, this summary should be relatively brief, since the emphasis in the conclusion is on the implications, evaluations, insights, and other forms of analysis that you make. Strategies for writing concisely can be found here .

Failure to comment on larger, more significant issues In the introduction, your task was to move from the general [the field of study] to the specific [the research problem]. However, in the conclusion, your task is to move from a specific discussion [your research problem] back to a general discussion framed around the implications and significance of your findings [i.e., how your research contributes new understanding or fills an important gap in the literature]. In short, the conclusion is where you should place your research within a larger context [visualize your paper as an hourglass--start with a broad introduction and review of the literature, move to the specific analysis and discussion, conclude with a broad summary of the study's implications and significance].

Failure to reveal problems and negative results Negative aspects of the research process should never be ignored. These are problems, deficiencies, or challenges encountered during your study. They should be summarized as a way of qualifying your overall conclusions. If you encountered negative or unintended results [i.e., findings that are validated outside the research context in which they were generated], you must report them in the results section and discuss their implications in the discussion section of your paper. In the conclusion, use negative results as an opportunity to explain their possible significance and/or how they may form the basis for future research.

Failure to provide a clear summary of what was learned In order to be able to discuss how your research fits within your field of study [and possibly the world at large], you need to summarize briefly and succinctly how it contributes to new knowledge or a new understanding about the research problem. This element of your conclusion may be only a few sentences long.

Failure to match the objectives of your research Often research objectives in the social and behavioral sciences change while the research is being carried out. This is not a problem unless you forget to go back and refine the original objectives in your introduction. As these changes emerge they must be documented so that they accurately reflect what you were trying to accomplish in your research [not what you thought you might accomplish when you began].

Resist the urge to apologize If you've immersed yourself in studying the research problem, you presumably should know a good deal about it [perhaps even more than your professor!]. Nevertheless, by the time you have finished writing, you may be having some doubts about what you have produced. Repress those doubts! Don't undermine your authority as a researcher by saying something like, "This is just one approach to examining this problem; there may be other, much better approaches that...." The overall tone of your conclusion should convey confidence to the reader about the study's validity and realiability.

Assan, Joseph. "Writing the Conclusion Chapter: The Good, the Bad and the Missing." Liverpool: Development Studies Association (2009): 1-8; Concluding Paragraphs. College Writing Center at Meramec. St. Louis Community College; Conclusions. The Writing Center. University of North Carolina; Conclusions. The Writing Lab and The OWL. Purdue University; Freedman, Leora  and Jerry Plotnick. Introductions and Conclusions. The Lab Report. University College Writing Centre. University of Toronto; Leibensperger, Summer. Draft Your Conclusion. Academic Center, the University of Houston-Victoria, 2003; Make Your Last Words Count. The Writer’s Handbook. Writing Center. University of Wisconsin Madison; Miquel, Fuster-Marquez and Carmen Gregori-Signes. “Chapter Six: ‘Last but Not Least:’ Writing the Conclusion of Your Paper.” In Writing an Applied Linguistics Thesis or Dissertation: A Guide to Presenting Empirical Research . John Bitchener, editor. (Basingstoke,UK: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010), pp. 93-105; Tips for Writing a Good Conclusion. Writing@CSU. Colorado State University; Kretchmer, Paul. Twelve Steps to Writing an Effective Conclusion. San Francisco Edit, 2003-2008; Writing Conclusions. Writing Tutorial Services, Center for Innovative Teaching and Learning. Indiana University; Writing: Considering Structure and Organization. Institute for Writing Rhetoric. Dartmouth College.

Writing Tip

Don't Belabor the Obvious!

Avoid phrases like "in conclusion...," "in summary...," or "in closing...." These phrases can be useful, even welcome, in oral presentations. But readers can see by the tell-tale section heading and number of pages remaining that they are reaching the end of your paper. You'll irritate your readers if you belabor the obvious.

Assan, Joseph. "Writing the Conclusion Chapter: The Good, the Bad and the Missing." Liverpool: Development Studies Association (2009): 1-8.

Another Writing Tip

New Insight, Not New Information!

Don't surprise the reader with new information in your conclusion that was never referenced anywhere else in the paper. This why the conclusion rarely has citations to sources. If you have new information to present, add it to the discussion or other appropriate section of the paper. Note that, although no new information is introduced, the conclusion, along with the discussion section, is where you offer your most "original" contributions in the paper; the conclusion is where you describe the value of your research, demonstrate that you understand the material that you’ve presented, and position your findings within the larger context of scholarship on the topic, including describing how your research contributes new insights to that scholarship.

Assan, Joseph. "Writing the Conclusion Chapter: The Good, the Bad and the Missing." Liverpool: Development Studies Association (2009): 1-8; Conclusions. The Writing Center. University of North Carolina.

  • << Previous: Limitations of the Study
  • Next: Appendices >>
  • Last Updated: May 30, 2024 9:38 AM
  • URL: https://libguides.usc.edu/writingguide
  • Link to facebook
  • Link to linkedin
  • Link to twitter
  • Link to youtube
  • Writing Tips

How to Write a Conclusion for a Research Paper

How to Write a Conclusion for a Research Paper

3-minute read

  • 29th August 2023

If you’re writing a research paper, the conclusion is your opportunity to summarize your findings and leave a lasting impression on your readers. In this post, we’ll take you through how to write an effective conclusion for a research paper and how you can:

·   Reword your thesis statement

·   Highlight the significance of your research

·   Discuss limitations

·   Connect to the introduction

·   End with a thought-provoking statement

Rewording Your Thesis Statement

Begin your conclusion by restating your thesis statement in a way that is slightly different from the wording used in the introduction. Avoid presenting new information or evidence in your conclusion. Just summarize the main points and arguments of your essay and keep this part as concise as possible. Remember that you’ve already covered the in-depth analyses and investigations in the main body paragraphs of your essay, so it’s not necessary to restate these details in the conclusion.

Find this useful?

Subscribe to our newsletter and get writing tips from our editors straight to your inbox.

Highlighting the Significance of Your Research

The conclusion is a good place to emphasize the implications of your research . Avoid ambiguous or vague language such as “I think” or “maybe,” which could weaken your position. Clearly explain why your research is significant and how it contributes to the broader field of study.

Here’s an example from a (fictional) study on the impact of social media on mental health:

Discussing Limitations

Although it’s important to emphasize the significance of your study, you can also use the conclusion to briefly address any limitations you discovered while conducting your research, such as time constraints or a shortage of resources. Doing this demonstrates a balanced and honest approach to your research.

Connecting to the Introduction

In your conclusion, you can circle back to your introduction , perhaps by referring to a quote or anecdote you discussed earlier. If you end your paper on a similar note to how you began it, you will create a sense of cohesion for the reader and remind them of the meaning and significance of your research.

Ending With a Thought-Provoking Statement

Consider ending your paper with a thought-provoking and memorable statement that relates to the impact of your research questions or hypothesis. This statement can be a call to action, a philosophical question, or a prediction for the future (positive or negative). Here’s an example that uses the same topic as above (social media and mental health):

Expert Proofreading Services

Ensure that your essay ends on a high note by having our experts proofread your research paper. Our team has experience with a wide variety of academic fields and subjects and can help make your paper stand out from the crowd – get started today and see the difference it can make in your work.

Share this article:

Post A New Comment

Got content that needs a quick turnaround? Let us polish your work. Explore our editorial business services.

9-minute read

How to Use Infographics to Boost Your Presentation

Is your content getting noticed? Capturing and maintaining an audience’s attention is a challenge when...

8-minute read

Why Interactive PDFs Are Better for Engagement

Are you looking to enhance engagement and captivate your audience through your professional documents? Interactive...

7-minute read

Seven Key Strategies for Voice Search Optimization

Voice search optimization is rapidly shaping the digital landscape, requiring content professionals to adapt their...

4-minute read

Five Creative Ways to Showcase Your Digital Portfolio

Are you a creative freelancer looking to make a lasting impression on potential clients or...

How to Ace Slack Messaging for Contractors and Freelancers

Effective professional communication is an important skill for contractors and freelancers navigating remote work environments....

How to Insert a Text Box in a Google Doc

Google Docs is a powerful collaborative tool, and mastering its features can significantly enhance your...

Logo Harvard University

Make sure your writing is the best it can be with our expert English proofreading and editing.

How to Write an APA Research Paper

Psychology/neuroscience 201, v iew in pdf format.

An APA-style paper includes the following sections: title page, abstract, introduction, method, results, discussion, and references. Your paper may also include one or more tables and/or figures. Different types of information about your study are addressed in each of the sections, as described below.

General formatting rules are as follows:

Do not put page breaks in between the introduction, method, results, and discussion sections.

The title page, abstract, references, table(s), and figure(s) should be on their own pages. The entire paper should be written in the past tense, in a 12-point font, double-spaced, and with one-inch margins all around.

(see sample on p. 41 of APA manual)

  • Title should be between 10-12 words and should reflect content of paper (e.g., IV and DV).
  • Title, your name, and Hamilton College are all double-spaced (no extra spaces)
  • Create a page header using the “View header” function in MS Word. On the title page, the header should include the following: Flush left: Running head: THE RUNNING HEAD SHOULD BE IN ALL CAPITAL LETTERS. The running head is a short title that appears at the top of pages of published articles. It should not exceed 50 characters, including punctuation and spacing. (Note: on the title page, you actually write the words “Running head,” but these words do not appear on subsequent pages; just the actual running head does. If you make a section break between the title page and the rest of the paper you can make the header different for those two parts of the manuscript). Flush right, on same line: page number. Use the toolbox to insert a page number, so it will automatically number each page.

Abstract (labeled, centered, not bold)

No more than 120 words, one paragraph, block format (i.e., don’t indent), double-spaced.

  • State topic, preferably in one sentence. Provide overview of method, results, and discussion.

Introduction

(Do not label as “Introduction.” Title of paper goes at the top of the page—not bold)

The introduction of an APA-style paper is the most difficult to write. A good introduction will summarize, integrate, and critically evaluate the empirical knowledge in the relevant area(s) in a way that sets the stage for your study and why you conducted it. The introduction starts out broad (but not too broad!) and gets more focused toward the end. Here are some guidelines for constructing a good introduction:

  • Don’t put your readers to sleep by beginning your paper with the time-worn sentence, “Past research has shown (blah blah blah)” They’ll be snoring within a paragraph!  Try to draw your reader in by saying something interesting or thought-provoking right off the bat.  Take a look at articles you’ve read. Which ones captured your attention right away? How did the authors accomplish this task? Which ones didn’t?  Why not?  See if you can use articles you liked as a model. One way to begin (but not the only way) is to provide an example or anecdote illustrative of your topic area.
  • Although you won’t go into the details of your study and hypotheses until the end of the intro, you should foreshadow your study a bit at the end of the first paragraph by stating your purpose briefly, to give your reader a schema for all the information you will present next.
  • Your intro should be a logical flow of ideas that leads up to your hypothesis. Try to organize it in terms of the ideas rather than who did what when. In other words, your intro shouldn’t read like a story of “Schmirdley did such-and-such in 1991. Then Gurglehoff did something-or-other in 1993.  Then....(etc.)” First, brainstorm all of the ideas you think are necessary to include in your paper. Next, decide which ideas make sense to present first, second, third, and so forth, and think about how you want to transition between ideas. When an idea is complex, don’t be afraid to use a real-life example to clarify it for your reader. The introduction will end with a brief overview of your study and, finally, your specific hypotheses. The hypotheses should flow logically out of everything that’s been presented, so that the reader has the sense of, “Of course. This hypothesis makes complete sense, given all the other research that was presented.”
  • When incorporating references into your intro, you do not necessarily need to describe every single study in complete detail, particularly if different studies use similar methodologies. Certainly you want to summarize briefly key articles, though, and point out differences in methods or findings of relevant studies when necessary. Don’t make one mistake typical of a novice APA-paper writer by stating overtly why you’re including a particular article (e.g., “This article is relevant to my study because…”). It should be obvious to the reader why you’re including a reference without your explicitly saying so.  DO NOT quote from the articles, instead paraphrase by putting the information in your own words.
  • Be careful about citing your sources (see APA manual). Make sure there is a one-to-one correspondence between the articles you’ve cited in your intro and the articles listed in your reference section.
  • Remember that your audience is the broader scientific community, not the other students in your class or your professor.  Therefore, you should assume they have a basic understanding of psychology, but you need to provide them with the complete information necessary for them to understand the research you are presenting.

Method (labeled, centered, bold)

The Method section of an APA-style paper is the most straightforward to write, but requires precision. Your goal is to describe the details of your study in such a way that another researcher could duplicate your methods exactly.

The Method section typically includes Participants, Materials and/or Apparatus, and Procedure sections. If the design is particularly complicated (multiple IVs in a factorial experiment, for example), you might also include a separate Design subsection or have a “Design and Procedure” section.

Note that in some studies (e.g., questionnaire studies in which there are many measures to describe but the procedure is brief), it may be more useful to present the Procedure section prior to the Materials section rather than after it.

Participants (labeled, flush left, bold)

Total number of participants (# women, # men), age range, mean and SD for age, racial/ethnic composition (if applicable), population type (e.g., college students). Remember to write numbers out when they begin a sentence.

  • How were the participants recruited? (Don’t say “randomly” if it wasn’t random!) Were they compensated for their time in any way? (e.g., money, extra credit points)
  • Write for a broad audience. Thus, do not write, “Students in Psych. 280...” Rather, write (for instance), “Students in a psychological statistics and research methods course at a small liberal arts college….”
  • Try to avoid short, choppy sentences. Combine information into a longer sentence when possible.

Materials (labeled, flush left, bold)

Carefully describe any stimuli, questionnaires, and so forth. It is unnecessary to mention things such as the paper and pencil used to record the responses, the data recording sheet, the computer that ran the data analysis, the color of the computer, and so forth.

  • If you included a questionnaire, you should describe it in detail. For instance, note how many items were on the questionnaire, what the response format was (e.g., a 5-point Likert-type scale ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree)), how many items were reverse-scored, whether the measure had subscales, and so forth. Provide a sample item or two for your reader.
  • If you have created a new instrument, you should attach it as an Appendix.
  • If you presented participants with various word lists to remember or stimuli to judge, you should describe those in detail here. Use subheadings to separate different types of stimuli if needed.  If you are only describing questionnaires, you may call this section “Measures.”

Apparatus (labeled, flush left, bold)

Include an apparatus section if you used specialized equipment for your study (e.g., the eye tracking machine) and need to describe it in detail.

Procedure (labeled, flush left, bold)

What did participants do, and in what order? When you list a control variable (e.g., “Participants all sat two feet from the experimenter.”), explain WHY you did what you did.  In other words, what nuisance variable were you controlling for? Your procedure should be as brief and concise as possible. Read through it. Did you repeat yourself anywhere? If so, how can you rearrange things to avoid redundancy? You may either write the instructions to the participants verbatim or paraphrase, whichever you deem more appropriate. Don’t forget to include brief statements about informed consent and debriefing.

Results (labeled, centered, bold)

In this section, describe how you analyzed the data and what you found. If your data analyses were complex, feel free to break this section down into labeled subsections, perhaps one section for each hypothesis.

  • Include a section for descriptive statistics
  • List what type of analysis or test you conducted to test each hypothesis.
  • Refer to your Statistics textbook for the proper way to report results in APA style. A t-test, for example, is reported in the following format: t (18) = 3.57, p < .001, where 18 is the number of degrees of freedom (N – 2 for an independent-groups t test). For a correlation: r (32) = -.52, p < .001, where 32 is the number of degrees of freedom (N – 2 for a correlation). For a one-way ANOVA: F (2, 18) = 7.00, p < .001, where 2 represents the between and 18 represents df within Remember that if a finding has a p value greater than .05, it is “nonsignificant,” not “insignificant.” For nonsignificant findings, still provide the exact p values. For correlations, be sure to report the r 2 value as an assessment of the strength of the finding, to show what proportion of variability is shared by the two variables you’re correlating. For t- tests and ANOVAs, report eta 2 .
  • Report exact p values to two or three decimal places (e.g., p = .042; see p. 114 of APA manual).  However, for p-values less than .001, simply put p < .001.
  • Following the presentation of all the statistics and numbers, be sure to state the nature of your finding(s) in words and whether or not they support your hypothesis (e.g., “As predicted …”). This information can typically be presented in a sentence or two following the numbers (within the same paragraph). Also, be sure to include the relevant means and SDs.
  • It may be useful to include a table or figure to represent your results visually. Be sure to refer to these in your paper (e.g., “As illustrated in Figure 1…”). Remember that you may present a set of findings either as a table or as a figure, but not as both. Make sure that your text is not redundant with your tables/figures. For instance, if you present a table of means and standard deviations, you do not need to also report these in the text. However, if you use a figure to represent your results, you may wish to report means and standard deviations in the text, as these may not always be precisely ascertained by examining the figure. Do describe the trends shown in the figure.
  • Do not spend any time interpreting or explaining the results; save that for the Discussion section.

Discussion (labeled, centered, bold)

The goal of the discussion section is to interpret your findings and place them in the broader context of the literature in the area. A discussion section is like the reverse of the introduction, in that you begin with the specifics and work toward the more general (funnel out). Some points to consider:

  • Begin with a brief restatement of your main findings (using words, not numbers). Did they support the hypothesis or not? If not, why not, do you think? Were there any surprising or interesting findings? How do your findings tie into the existing literature on the topic, or extend previous research? What do the results say about the broader behavior under investigation? Bring back some of the literature you discussed in the Introduction, and show how your results fit in (or don’t fit in, as the case may be). If you have surprising findings, you might discuss other theories that can help to explain the findings. Begin with the assumption that your results are valid, and explain why they might differ from others in the literature.
  • What are the limitations of the study? If your findings differ from those of other researchers, or if you did not get statistically significant results, don’t spend pages and pages detailing what might have gone wrong with your study, but do provide one or two suggestions. Perhaps these could be incorporated into the future research section, below.
  • What additional questions were generated from this study? What further research should be conducted on the topic? What gaps are there in the current body of research? Whenever you present an idea for a future research study, be sure to explain why you think that particular study should be conducted. What new knowledge would be gained from it?  Don’t just say, “I think it would be interesting to re-run the study on a different college campus” or “It would be better to run the study again with more participants.” Really put some thought into what extensions of the research might be interesting/informative, and why.
  • What are the theoretical and/or practical implications of your findings? How do these results relate to larger issues of human thoughts, feelings, and behavior? Give your readers “the big picture.” Try to answer the question, “So what?

Final paragraph: Be sure to sum up your paper with a final concluding statement. Don’t just trail off with an idea for a future study. End on a positive note by reminding your reader why your study was important and what it added to the literature.

References (labeled, centered, not bold)

Provide an alphabetical listing of the references (alphabetize by last name of first author). Double-space all, with no extra spaces between references. The second line of each reference should be indented (this is called a hanging indent and is easily accomplished using the ruler in Microsoft Word). See the APA manual for how to format references correctly.

Examples of references to journal articles start on p. 198 of the manual, and examples of references to books and book chapters start on pp. 202. Digital object identifiers (DOIs) are now included for electronic sources (see pp. 187-192 of APA manual to learn more).

Journal article example: [Note that only the first letter of the first word of the article title is capitalized; the journal name and volume are italicized. If the journal name had multiple words, each of the major words would be capitalized.] 

Ebner-Priemer, U. W., & Trull, T. J. (2009). Ecological momentary assessment of mood disorders and mood dysregulation. Psychological Assessment, 21, 463-475. doi:10.1037/a0017075

Book chapter example: [Note that only the first letter of the first word of both the chapter title and book title are capitalized.]

Stephan, W. G. (1985). Intergroup relations. In G. Lindzey & E. Aronson (Eds.), The handbook of social psychology (3 rd ed., Vol. 2, pp. 599-658). New York: Random House.

Book example: Gray, P. (2010). Psychology (6 th ed.). New York: Worth

Table There are various formats for tables, depending upon the information you wish to include. See the APA manual. Be sure to provide a table number and table title (the latter is italicized). Tables can be single or double-spaced.

Figure If you have more than one figure, each one gets its own page. Use a sans serif font, such as Helvetica, for any text within your figure. Be sure to label your x- and y-axes clearly, and make sure you’ve noted the units of measurement of the DV. Underneath the figure provide a label and brief caption (e.g., “Figure 1. Mean evaluation of job applicant qualifications as a function of applicant attractiveness level”). The figure caption typically includes the IVs/predictor variables and the DV. Include error bars in your bar graphs, and note what the bars represent in the figure caption: Error bars represent one standard error above and below the mean.

In-Text Citations: (see pp. 174-179 of APA manual) When citing sources in your paper, you need to include the authors’ names and publication date.

You should use the following formats:

  • When including the citation as part of the sentence, use AND: “According to Jones and Smith (2003), the…”
  • When the citation appears in parentheses, use “&”: “Studies have shown that priming can affect actual motor behavior (Jones & Smith, 2003; Klein, Bailey, & Hammer, 1999).” The studies appearing in parentheses should be ordered alphabetically by the first author’s last name, and should be separated by semicolons.
  • If you are quoting directly (which you should avoid), you also need to include the page number.
  • For sources with three or more authors, once you have listed all the authors’ names, you may write “et al.” on subsequent mentions. For example: “Klein et al. (1999) found that….” For sources with two authors, both authors must be included every time the source is cited. When a source has six or more authors, the first author’s last name and “et al.” are used every time the source is cited (including the first time). 

Secondary Sources

“Secondary source” is the term used to describe material that is cited in another source. If in his article entitled “Behavioral Study of Obedience” (1963), Stanley Milgram makes reference to the ideas of Snow (presented above), Snow (1961) is the primary source, and Milgram (1963) is the secondary source.

Try to avoid using secondary sources in your papers; in other words, try to find the primary source and read it before citing it in your own work. If you must use a secondary source, however, you should cite it in the following way:

Snow (as cited in Milgram, 1963) argued that, historically, the cause of most criminal acts... The reference for the Milgram article (but not the Snow reference) should then appear in the reference list at the end of your paper.

Tutor Appointments

Peer tutor and consultant appointments are managed through TracCloud (login required). Find resources and more information about the ALEX centers using the following links.

Office / Department Name

Nesbitt-Johnston Writing Center

Contact Name

Jennifer Ambrose

Writing Center Director

Hamilton College blue wordmark

Help us provide an accessible education, offer innovative resources and programs, and foster intellectual exploration.

Site Search

how to write a conclusion for a research paper apa

Get science-backed answers as you write with Paperpal's Research feature

How to Write a Conclusion for Research Papers (with Examples)

How to Write a Conclusion for Research Papers (with Examples)

The conclusion of a research paper is a crucial section that plays a significant role in the overall impact and effectiveness of your research paper. However, this is also the section that typically receives less attention compared to the introduction and the body of the paper. The conclusion serves to provide a concise summary of the key findings, their significance, their implications, and a sense of closure to the study. Discussing how can the findings be applied in real-world scenarios or inform policy, practice, or decision-making is especially valuable to practitioners and policymakers. The research paper conclusion also provides researchers with clear insights and valuable information for their own work, which they can then build on and contribute to the advancement of knowledge in the field.

The research paper conclusion should explain the significance of your findings within the broader context of your field. It restates how your results contribute to the existing body of knowledge and whether they confirm or challenge existing theories or hypotheses. Also, by identifying unanswered questions or areas requiring further investigation, your awareness of the broader research landscape can be demonstrated.

Remember to tailor the research paper conclusion to the specific needs and interests of your intended audience, which may include researchers, practitioners, policymakers, or a combination of these.

Table of Contents

What is a conclusion in a research paper, summarizing conclusion, editorial conclusion, externalizing conclusion, importance of a good research paper conclusion, how to write a conclusion for your research paper, research paper conclusion examples.

  • How to write a research paper conclusion with Paperpal? 

Frequently Asked Questions

A conclusion in a research paper is the final section where you summarize and wrap up your research, presenting the key findings and insights derived from your study. The research paper conclusion is not the place to introduce new information or data that was not discussed in the main body of the paper. When working on how to conclude a research paper, remember to stick to summarizing and interpreting existing content. The research paper conclusion serves the following purposes: 1

  • Warn readers of the possible consequences of not attending to the problem.
  • Recommend specific course(s) of action.
  • Restate key ideas to drive home the ultimate point of your research paper.
  • Provide a “take-home” message that you want the readers to remember about your study.

how to write a conclusion for a research paper apa

Types of conclusions for research papers

In research papers, the conclusion provides closure to the reader. The type of research paper conclusion you choose depends on the nature of your study, your goals, and your target audience. I provide you with three common types of conclusions:

A summarizing conclusion is the most common type of conclusion in research papers. It involves summarizing the main points, reiterating the research question, and restating the significance of the findings. This common type of research paper conclusion is used across different disciplines.

An editorial conclusion is less common but can be used in research papers that are focused on proposing or advocating for a particular viewpoint or policy. It involves presenting a strong editorial or opinion based on the research findings and offering recommendations or calls to action.

An externalizing conclusion is a type of conclusion that extends the research beyond the scope of the paper by suggesting potential future research directions or discussing the broader implications of the findings. This type of conclusion is often used in more theoretical or exploratory research papers.

Align your conclusion’s tone with the rest of your research paper. Start Writing with Paperpal Now!  

The conclusion in a research paper serves several important purposes:

  • Offers Implications and Recommendations : Your research paper conclusion is an excellent place to discuss the broader implications of your research and suggest potential areas for further study. It’s also an opportunity to offer practical recommendations based on your findings.
  • Provides Closure : A good research paper conclusion provides a sense of closure to your paper. It should leave the reader with a feeling that they have reached the end of a well-structured and thought-provoking research project.
  • Leaves a Lasting Impression : Writing a well-crafted research paper conclusion leaves a lasting impression on your readers. It’s your final opportunity to leave them with a new idea, a call to action, or a memorable quote.

how to write a conclusion for a research paper apa

Writing a strong conclusion for your research paper is essential to leave a lasting impression on your readers. Here’s a step-by-step process to help you create and know what to put in the conclusion of a research paper: 2

  • Research Statement : Begin your research paper conclusion by restating your research statement. This reminds the reader of the main point you’ve been trying to prove throughout your paper. Keep it concise and clear.
  • Key Points : Summarize the main arguments and key points you’ve made in your paper. Avoid introducing new information in the research paper conclusion. Instead, provide a concise overview of what you’ve discussed in the body of your paper.
  • Address the Research Questions : If your research paper is based on specific research questions or hypotheses, briefly address whether you’ve answered them or achieved your research goals. Discuss the significance of your findings in this context.
  • Significance : Highlight the importance of your research and its relevance in the broader context. Explain why your findings matter and how they contribute to the existing knowledge in your field.
  • Implications : Explore the practical or theoretical implications of your research. How might your findings impact future research, policy, or real-world applications? Consider the “so what?” question.
  • Future Research : Offer suggestions for future research in your area. What questions or aspects remain unanswered or warrant further investigation? This shows that your work opens the door for future exploration.
  • Closing Thought : Conclude your research paper conclusion with a thought-provoking or memorable statement. This can leave a lasting impression on your readers and wrap up your paper effectively. Avoid introducing new information or arguments here.
  • Proofread and Revise : Carefully proofread your conclusion for grammar, spelling, and clarity. Ensure that your ideas flow smoothly and that your conclusion is coherent and well-structured.

Write your research paper conclusion 2x faster with Paperpal. Try it now!

Remember that a well-crafted research paper conclusion is a reflection of the strength of your research and your ability to communicate its significance effectively. It should leave a lasting impression on your readers and tie together all the threads of your paper. Now you know how to start the conclusion of a research paper and what elements to include to make it impactful, let’s look at a research paper conclusion sample.

how to write a conclusion for a research paper apa

How to write a research paper conclusion with Paperpal?

A research paper conclusion is not just a summary of your study, but a synthesis of the key findings that ties the research together and places it in a broader context. A research paper conclusion should be concise, typically around one paragraph in length. However, some complex topics may require a longer conclusion to ensure the reader is left with a clear understanding of the study’s significance. Paperpal, an AI writing assistant trusted by over 800,000 academics globally, can help you write a well-structured conclusion for your research paper. 

  • Sign Up or Log In: Create a new Paperpal account or login with your details.  
  • Navigate to Features : Once logged in, head over to the features’ side navigation pane. Click on Templates and you’ll find a suite of generative AI features to help you write better, faster.  
  • Generate an outline: Under Templates, select ‘Outlines’. Choose ‘Research article’ as your document type.  
  • Select your section: Since you’re focusing on the conclusion, select this section when prompted.  
  • Choose your field of study: Identifying your field of study allows Paperpal to provide more targeted suggestions, ensuring the relevance of your conclusion to your specific area of research. 
  • Provide a brief description of your study: Enter details about your research topic and findings. This information helps Paperpal generate a tailored outline that aligns with your paper’s content. 
  • Generate the conclusion outline: After entering all necessary details, click on ‘generate’. Paperpal will then create a structured outline for your conclusion, to help you start writing and build upon the outline.  
  • Write your conclusion: Use the generated outline to build your conclusion. The outline serves as a guide, ensuring you cover all critical aspects of a strong conclusion, from summarizing key findings to highlighting the research’s implications. 
  • Refine and enhance: Paperpal’s ‘Make Academic’ feature can be particularly useful in the final stages. Select any paragraph of your conclusion and use this feature to elevate the academic tone, ensuring your writing is aligned to the academic journal standards. 

By following these steps, Paperpal not only simplifies the process of writing a research paper conclusion but also ensures it is impactful, concise, and aligned with academic standards. Sign up with Paperpal today and write your research paper conclusion 2x faster .  

The research paper conclusion is a crucial part of your paper as it provides the final opportunity to leave a strong impression on your readers. In the research paper conclusion, summarize the main points of your research paper by restating your research statement, highlighting the most important findings, addressing the research questions or objectives, explaining the broader context of the study, discussing the significance of your findings, providing recommendations if applicable, and emphasizing the takeaway message. The main purpose of the conclusion is to remind the reader of the main point or argument of your paper and to provide a clear and concise summary of the key findings and their implications. All these elements should feature on your list of what to put in the conclusion of a research paper to create a strong final statement for your work.

A strong conclusion is a critical component of a research paper, as it provides an opportunity to wrap up your arguments, reiterate your main points, and leave a lasting impression on your readers. Here are the key elements of a strong research paper conclusion: 1. Conciseness : A research paper conclusion should be concise and to the point. It should not introduce new information or ideas that were not discussed in the body of the paper. 2. Summarization : The research paper conclusion should be comprehensive enough to give the reader a clear understanding of the research’s main contributions. 3 . Relevance : Ensure that the information included in the research paper conclusion is directly relevant to the research paper’s main topic and objectives; avoid unnecessary details. 4 . Connection to the Introduction : A well-structured research paper conclusion often revisits the key points made in the introduction and shows how the research has addressed the initial questions or objectives. 5. Emphasis : Highlight the significance and implications of your research. Why is your study important? What are the broader implications or applications of your findings? 6 . Call to Action : Include a call to action or a recommendation for future research or action based on your findings.

The length of a research paper conclusion can vary depending on several factors, including the overall length of the paper, the complexity of the research, and the specific journal requirements. While there is no strict rule for the length of a conclusion, but it’s generally advisable to keep it relatively short. A typical research paper conclusion might be around 5-10% of the paper’s total length. For example, if your paper is 10 pages long, the conclusion might be roughly half a page to one page in length.

In general, you do not need to include citations in the research paper conclusion. Citations are typically reserved for the body of the paper to support your arguments and provide evidence for your claims. However, there may be some exceptions to this rule: 1. If you are drawing a direct quote or paraphrasing a specific source in your research paper conclusion, you should include a citation to give proper credit to the original author. 2. If your conclusion refers to or discusses specific research, data, or sources that are crucial to the overall argument, citations can be included to reinforce your conclusion’s validity.

The conclusion of a research paper serves several important purposes: 1. Summarize the Key Points 2. Reinforce the Main Argument 3. Provide Closure 4. Offer Insights or Implications 5. Engage the Reader. 6. Reflect on Limitations

Remember that the primary purpose of the research paper conclusion is to leave a lasting impression on the reader, reinforcing the key points and providing closure to your research. It’s often the last part of the paper that the reader will see, so it should be strong and well-crafted.

  • Makar, G., Foltz, C., Lendner, M., & Vaccaro, A. R. (2018). How to write effective discussion and conclusion sections. Clinical spine surgery, 31(8), 345-346.
  • Bunton, D. (2005). The structure of PhD conclusion chapters.  Journal of English for academic purposes ,  4 (3), 207-224.

Paperpal is a comprehensive AI writing toolkit that helps students and researchers achieve 2x the writing in half the time. It leverages 21+ years of STM experience and insights from millions of research articles to provide in-depth academic writing, language editing, and submission readiness support to help you write better, faster.  

Get accurate academic translations, rewriting support, grammar checks, vocabulary suggestions, and generative AI assistance that delivers human precision at machine speed. Try for free or upgrade to Paperpal Prime starting at US$19 a month to access premium features, including consistency, plagiarism, and 30+ submission readiness checks to help you succeed.  

Experience the future of academic writing – Sign up to Paperpal and start writing for free!  

Related Reads:

  • 5 Reasons for Rejection After Peer Review
  • Ethical Research Practices For Research with Human Subjects

7 Ways to Improve Your Academic Writing Process

  • Paraphrasing in Academic Writing: Answering Top Author Queries

Preflight For Editorial Desk: The Perfect Hybrid (AI + Human) Assistance Against Compromised Manuscripts

You may also like, how to write the first draft of a..., mla works cited page: format, template & examples, how to write a high-quality conference paper, academic editing: how to self-edit academic text with..., measuring academic success: definition & strategies for excellence, phd qualifying exam: tips for success , ai in education: it’s time to change the..., is it ethical to use ai-generated abstracts without..., what are journal guidelines on using generative ai..., quillbot review: features, pricing, and free alternatives.

how to write a conclusion for a research paper apa

How to Write a Conclusion for a Research Paper

how to write a conclusion for a research paper apa

When you're wrapping up a research paper, the conclusion is like the grand finale of a fireworks show – it's your chance to leave a lasting impression. In this article, we'll break down the steps to help you write a winning research paper conclusion that not only recaps your main points but also ties everything together. Consider it the "So what?" moment – why should people care about your research? Our professional essay writers will guide you through making your conclusion strong, clear, and something that sticks with your readers long after they've put down your paper. So, let's dive in and ensure your research ends on a high note!

What Is a Conclusion in a Research Paper

In a research paper, the conclusion serves as the final segment, where you summarize the main points and findings of your study. It's not just a repetition of what you've already said but rather a chance to tie everything together and highlight the significance of your research. As you learn how to start a research paper , a good conclusion also often discusses the implications of your findings, suggests potential areas for further research, and leaves the reader with a lasting impression of the importance and relevance of your work in the broader context of the field. Essentially, it's your last opportunity to make a strong impact and leave your readers with a clear understanding of the significance of your research. Here’s a research paper conclusion example:

In conclusion, this research paper has navigated the intricacies of sustainable urban development, shedding light on the pivotal role of community engagement and innovative planning strategies. Through applying qualitative and quantitative research methods, we've uncovered valuable insights into the challenges and opportunities inherent in fostering environmentally friendly urban spaces. The implications of these findings extend beyond the confines of this study, emphasizing the imperative for continued exploration in the realms of urban planning and environmental sustainability. By emphasizing both the practical applications and theoretical contributions, this research underscores the significance of community involvement and forward-thinking strategies in shaping the future of urban landscapes. As cities evolve, incorporating these insights into planning and development practices will create resilient and harmonious urban environments.

Conclusion Outline for Research Paper

This outline for a research paper conclusion provides a structured framework to ensure that your ending effectively summarizes the key elements of your research paper and leaves a lasting impression on your readers. Adjust the content based on the specific requirements and focus of your research.

Restate the Thesis Statement

  • Briefly restate the main thesis or research question.
  • Emphasize the core objective or purpose of the study.

Summarize Key Findings

  • Recap the main points and key findings from each section of the paper.
  • Provide a concise overview of the research journey.

Discuss Implications

  • Explore the broader implications of the research findings.
  • Discuss how the results contribute to the existing body of knowledge in the field.

Address Limitations

  • Acknowledge any limitations or constraints encountered during the research process.
  • Explain how these limitations may impact the interpretation of the findings.

Suggest Areas for Future Research

  • Propose potential directions for future studies related to the topic.
  • Identify gaps in the current research that warrant further exploration.

Reaffirm Significance

  • Reaffirm the importance and relevance of the research in the broader context.
  • Highlight the practical applications or real-world implications of the study.

Concluding Statement

  • Craft a strong, memorable closing statement that leaves a lasting impression.
  • Sum up the overall impact of the research and its potential contribution to the field.

Study the full guide on how to make a research paper outline here, which will also specify the conclusion writing specifics to improve your general prowess.

Tips on How to Make a Conclusion in Research

Here are key considerations regarding a conclusion for research paper to not only recap the primary ideas in your work but also delve deeper to earn a higher grade:

Research Paper Conclusion

  • Provide a concise recap of your main research outcomes.
  • Remind readers of your research goals and their accomplishments.
  • Stick to summarizing existing content; refrain from adding new details.
  • Emphasize why your research matters and its broader implications.
  • Clearly explain the practical or theoretical impact of your findings.
  • Prompt readers to reflect on how your research influences their perspective.
  • Briefly discuss the robustness of your research methods.
  • End with a suggestion for future research or a practical application.
  • Transparently address any constraints or biases in your study.
  • End on a powerful note, leaving a memorable impression on your readers.

devices in research paper conclusion

For your inspiration, we’ve also prepared this research proposal example APA , which dwells on another important aspect of research writing.

How to Write a Research Paper Conclusion

As you finish your research paper, the conclusion takes center stage. In this section, we've got five practical tips for writing a conclusion for a research paper. We'll guide you through summarizing your key findings, revisiting your research goals, discussing the bigger picture, addressing any limitations, and ending on a powerful note. Think of it as your roadmap to creating a conclusion that not only wraps up your research but also leaves a lasting impact on your readers. Let's dive in and make sure your conclusion stands out for all the right reasons!

How to Write a Research Paper Conclusion

Synthesize Core Discoveries. Initiate your conclusion by synthesizing the essential discoveries of your research. Offer a succinct recapitulation of the primary points and outcomes you have elucidated in your paper. This aids in reinforcing the gravity of your work and reiterates the pivotal information you have presented.

Revisit Research Objectives. Revisit the research objectives or questions you outlined at the beginning of your paper. Assess whether you have successfully addressed these objectives and if your findings align with the initial goals of your research. This reflection helps tie your conclusion back to the purpose of your study.

Discuss Implications and Contributions. Discuss the broader implications of your research and its potential contributions to the field. Consider how your findings might impact future research, applications, or understanding of the subject matter. This demonstrates the significance of your work and places it within a larger context.

Address Limitations and Future Research. Acknowledge any limitations in your study, such as constraints in data collection or potential biases. Briefly discuss how these limitations might have affected your results. Additionally, suggest areas for future research that could build upon your work, addressing any unanswered questions or unexplored aspects. This demonstrates a thoughtful approach to your research.

End with a Strong Conclusion Statement. Conclude your research paper with a strong and memorable statement that reinforces the key message you want readers to take away. This could be a call to action, a proposal for further investigation, or a reflection on the broader significance of your findings. Leave your readers with a lasting impression that emphasizes the importance of your research. Remember that you can buy a research paper anytime if you lack time or get stuck in writer’s block.

Want to Enjoy the Benefits of Academic Freedom?

With our top-notch writers and 24/7 support, you can relax and focus on what really matters

Stylistic Devices to Use in a Conclusion

Discover distinctive stylistic insights that you can apply when writing a conclusion for a research paper:

  • Rhetorical Questions. When using rhetorical questions, strategically place them to engage readers' minds. For instance, you might pose a question that prompts reflection on the broader implications of your findings, leaving your audience with something to ponder.
  • Powerful Language. Incorporate strong language to convey a sense of conviction and importance. Choose words that resonate with the overall tone of your research and amplify the significance of your conclusions. This adds weight to your key messages.
  • Repetitions. Repetitions can be employed to reinforce essential ideas. Reiterate key phrases or concepts in a way that emphasizes their importance without sounding redundant. This technique serves to drive home your main points.
  • Anecdotes. Integrating anecdotes into your conclusion can provide a human touch. Share a brief and relevant story that connects with your research, making the information more relatable and memorable for your audience.
  • Vivid Imagery. Lastly, use vivid imagery to paint a picture in the minds of your readers. Appeal to their senses by describing scenarios or outcomes related to your research. This creates a more immersive and lasting impression.

If you have a larger paper to write, for example a thesis, use our custom dissertation writing can help you in no time.

How to Make a Conclusion Logically Appealing

Knowing how to write a conclusion for a research paper that is logically appealing is important for leaving a lasting impression on your readers. Here are some tips to achieve this:

Logical Sequencing

  • Present your conclusion in a structured manner, following the natural flow of your paper. Readers should effortlessly follow your thought process, making your conclusion more accessible and persuasive.

Reinforce Main Arguments

  • Emphasize the core arguments and findings from your research. By reinforcing key points, you solidify your stance and provide a logical culmination to your paper.

Address Counterarguments

  • Acknowledge and address potential counterarguments or limitations in your research. Demonstrate intellectual honesty and strengthen your conclusion by preemptively addressing potential doubts.

Connect with Introduction

  • Revisit themes or concepts introduced in your introduction to create a cohesive narrative, allowing readers to trace the logical progression of your research from start to finish.

Propose Actionable Insights

  • Suggest practical applications or recommendations based on your findings. This will add a forward-looking dimension, making your conclusion more relevant and compelling.

Highlight Significance

  • Clearly articulate the broader implications of your research to convey the importance of your work and its potential impact on the field, making your conclusion logically compelling.

Are you ready to produce an A-grade assignment? If not, opt for a custom research paper from our skilled writers across various disciplines.

Avoid These Things When Writing a Research Paper Conclusion

As you write your conclusion of research paper, there’s a list of things professional writers don’t recommend doing. Consider these issues carefully:

Avoid in Your Research Paper Conclusion

  • Repetition of Exact Phrases
  • Repetitively using the same phrases or sentences from the main body. Repetition can make your conclusion seem redundant and less engaging.
  • Overly Lengthy Summaries
  • Providing excessively detailed summaries of each section of your paper. Readers may lose interest if the conclusion becomes too long and detailed.
  • Unclear Connection to the Introduction
  • Failing to connect the conclusion back to the introduction. A lack of continuity may make the paper feel disjointed.
  • Adding New Arguments or Ideas
  • Introducing new arguments or ideas that were not addressed in the body. This can confuse the reader and disrupt the coherence of your paper.
  • Overuse of Complex Jargon
  • Using excessively complex or technical language without clarification. Clear communication is essential in the conclusion, ensuring broad understanding.
  • Apologizing or Undermining Confidence
  • Apologizing for limitations or expressing doubt about your work. Maintain a confident tone; if limitations exist, present them objectively without undermining your research.
  • Sweeping Generalizations
  • Making overly broad or unsupported generalizations. Such statements can weaken the credibility of your conclusion.
  • Neglecting the Significance
  • Failing to emphasize the broader significance of your research. Readers need to understand why your findings matter in a larger context.
  • Abrupt Endings
  • Concluding abruptly without a strong closing statement. A powerful ending leaves a lasting impression; avoid a sudden or weak conclusion.

Research Paper Conclusion Example

That covers the essential aspects of summarizing a research paper. The only remaining step is to review the conclusion examples for research paper provided by our team.

Like our examples? Order our research proposal writing service to write paper according to your instructions to avoid plagiarizing and to keep your academic integrity strong.

Final Thoughts

In conclusion, the knowledge of how to write the conclusion of a research paper is pivotal for presenting your findings and leaving a lasting impression on your readers. By summarizing the key points, reiterating the significance of your research, and offering avenues for future exploration, you can create a conclusion that not only reinforces the value of your study but also encourages further academic discourse. Remember to balance brevity and completeness, ensuring your conclusion is concise yet comprehensive. Emphasizing the practical implications of your research and connecting it to the broader academic landscape will help solidify the impact of your work. Pay someone to write a research paper if you are having a hard time finishing your coursework on time.

Tired of Stressing Over Endless Essays and Deadlines? 

Let us take the load off your shoulders! Order your custom research paper today and experience the relief of knowing that your assignment is in expert hands

How To Write A Conclusion For A Research Paper?

What should the conclusion of a research paper contain, how to start a conclusion paragraph for a research paper.

Daniel Parker

Daniel Parker

is a seasoned educational writer focusing on scholarship guidance, research papers, and various forms of academic essays including reflective and narrative essays. His expertise also extends to detailed case studies. A scholar with a background in English Literature and Education, Daniel’s work on EssayPro blog aims to support students in achieving academic excellence and securing scholarships. His hobbies include reading classic literature and participating in academic forums.

how to write a conclusion for a research paper apa

is an expert in nursing and healthcare, with a strong background in history, law, and literature. Holding advanced degrees in nursing and public health, his analytical approach and comprehensive knowledge help students navigate complex topics. On EssayPro blog, Adam provides insightful articles on everything from historical analysis to the intricacies of healthcare policies. In his downtime, he enjoys historical documentaries and volunteering at local clinics.

Related Articles

research paper

Purdue Online Writing Lab Purdue OWL® College of Liberal Arts

APA Formatting and Style Guide (7th Edition)

OWL logo

Welcome to the Purdue OWL

This page is brought to you by the OWL at Purdue University. When printing this page, you must include the entire legal notice.

Copyright ©1995-2018 by The Writing Lab & The OWL at Purdue and Purdue University. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, reproduced, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed without permission. Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our terms and conditions of fair use.

In-Text Citations

Resources on using in-text citations in APA style

Reference List

Resources on writing an APA style reference list, including citation formats

Other APA Resources

  • AI Content Shield
  • AI KW Research
  • AI Assistant
  • SEO Optimizer
  • AI KW Clustering
  • Customer reviews
  • The NLO Revolution
  • Press Center
  • Help Center
  • Content Resources
  • Facebook Group

How to Effectively Write APA Research Conclusions

Table of Contents

In the world of academic research, acronyms can get you confused. From MLA to APA, there is no shortage of acronyms.

However, the writing style developed by the American Psychology Association is preferred for research papers in the social sciences. Some departments in the humanities also use it, although the MLA style is more popular.

This article shows you  how to write APA conclusion .

How to Write APA Conclusion

Writing a conclusion for your APA paper isn’t quite different from other styles. However, to make your paper stand out, you’ll want to clear up any confusion you might have.

Remember, the order of your points matters. You should make sure that every sentence in this section doesn’t cause further confusion. The aim is to bring the essay to an end without and answer any lingering questions.

Restate the Problem

The first part of your conclusion reminds your readers of the problem your research aims to solve . Do so by restating the study’s statement and conclusion from the introduction.

Restating doesn’t necessarily mean you should write it verbatim. Instead, you should endeavor to find a way to circle back to the problem.

Summarize the Paper

Now that you have restated the problem, it’s time to summarize the findings.

Make it clear what your paper’s conclusions are and state them clearly. This part should show how your paper addressed the research problem. You need to describe how the findings fit into a larger picture or break down the researchers’ findings into key points. 

Discuss the Implications of Your Findings

Don’t get confused. The previous step only summarizes the findings of your paper. This step spells out the implications of your findings to make your conclusion better.

Essentially, you also want to make sure that all of your findings are connected with your conclusions. These implications aren’t just a summary of your research. Rather it dwells on all the information you found that is pertinent to your conclusions.

Without doing this, readers may find it hard to understand the significance of your findings. You should dedicate a few paragraphs to this. Be sure to point out the connections in these paragraphs. You should also show what the study adds to the field.

Can Conclusions Be Written With AI?

Yes, you can write conclusions using AI writing tools. A well-written AI research conclusion has the touch of a human hand. The tool won’t write conclusions for you out of thin air. You have to input certain details related to your essay or content.

INK offers a conclusion paragraph tool to help users write more engaging conclusion paragraphs easily. The tool is easy to use and only requires a few details from the user. Instead of spending long hours behind your screen, you should let INK do it for you.

The conclusion of your research paper should be the one place you get a chance to make the work stand out.

Your reader should know what’s new in your findings, so they can relate the paper to previous knowledge. Essentially, it shows where your study fits in the overall body of knowledge.

How to Effectively Write APA Research Conclusions

Abir Ghenaiet

Abir is a data analyst and researcher. Among her interests are artificial intelligence, machine learning, and natural language processing. As a humanitarian and educator, she actively supports women in tech and promotes diversity.

Explore All Blog Post Conclusion Articles

A guide to writing a conclusion for a speech.

A quality speech or presentation is comparable to a quality play, film, or song. It begins by grabbing the listener’s…

  • Blog Post Conclusion

The Ideal Length Of a Conclusion Paragraph

You have spent a lot of time writing your essay by the time you reach the final paragraph, so your…

Writing a Conclusion for Persuasive Essays!

Conclusions bring everything you have been discussing in your paper to a close. In the introduction and body paragraphs, you…

Clear Guide to Introduction & Conclusion Paragraphs Examples

The introduction and conclusion play a major role in academic essays. Writing these paragraphs typically requires much of your focus.…

Effective Guide to Write a Discussion & Conclusion

How to write a discussion and conclusion section of a paper? This is often one of the most confusing aspects,…

Importance of Good Conclusion Paragraph for a Research Paper

Writing a good conclusion paragraph for a research paper can sometimes be challenging. Writers often find it difficult to draft…

How to Write a Good Conclusion (With Examples) 

How to Write a Good Conclusion (With Examples) 

  • Smodin Editorial Team
  • Published: May 31, 2024

Students often spend a great deal of time crafting essay introductions while leaving the conclusion as an afterthought. While the introduction is one of the most vital aspects of an essay, a good conclusion can have just as much of an impact on its effectiveness. Knowing how to write a good conclusion is crucial, as it encapsulates your main points and leaves a lasting impression on the reader.

A well-crafted conclusion should serve as the final pitch for your arguments. Your reader should walk away with a clear understanding of what they just read and how it applies to the core of your thesis. With the right approach, your conclusion can transform a good essay into a great one, making it both memorable and impactful.

This article will guide you through four simple steps of writing compelling conclusions. Each step is designed to help you reinforce your thesis and articulate your final thoughts in a way that will resonate with your teacher or professor. With a bit of practice, you can learn how to stick the landing and give every essay the finale it deserves.

What Is the Purpose of the Conclusion Paragraph?

Understanding the purpose of the conclusion paragraph is essential for effective essay writing. The conclusion paragraph should be more than just a summary of your essay. It should consolidate all your arguments and tie them back to your thesis.

Remember, all good writing inspires emotion. Whether to inspire, provoke, or engage is up to you, but the conclusion should always leave a lasting impression.

If in doubt, Smodin’s AI Chat tool can be handy for gauging the emotional impact of your conclusion.

By mastering the art of writing a powerful conclusion, you equip yourself with the tools to ensure your essays stand out. Whether it’s the first or last essay you’re writing for the class, it’s your chance to leave a definitive mark on your reader.

How to Write a Good Conclusion

student writing a conclusion

This approach ensures your conclusion adds value and reinforces your arguments’ coherence. Here are three simple and effective practices to help you craft a solid conclusion.

Restating Your Thesis

Restating your thesis in the conclusion is a common practice in essay writing, and for good reason. It helps underscore how your understanding has deepened or shifted based on the evidence you provided.

Just understand that a restatement of your original thesis doesn’t mean a complete word-for-word repeat. You should rephrase your original thesis so that it elucidates the insights you touched on throughout the essay. Smodin’s AI Rewriter can help refine your restatement to ensure it is fresh and impactful.

Here are a few tips to effectively restate your thesis

  • Show Complexity : If your essay added layers or nuances to the original statement, be sure to articulate that clearly.
  • Integrate Key Findings : Incorporate the main findings of your essay to reinforce how they supported or refined your thesis.
  • Keep It Fresh : Again, you want to avoid repeating the same things twice. Use different wording that reflects a nuanced perspective.

Finally, always ensure that the restated thesis connects seamlessly with the rest of your essay. Always try to showcase the coherence of your writing to provide the reader with a strong sense of closure.

Using AI tools like Smodin’s Outliner and Essay Writer can ensure your writing flows smoothly and is easy to follow.

Providing an Effective Synthesis

Providing an effective synthesis should enhance your original thesis. All good arguments should evolve and shift throughout the essay. Rather than simply summarizing these findings, you should integrate critical insights and evidence to demonstrate a deeper or more nuanced understanding.

Draw connections between the main points discussed and show how they collectively support your thesis. Also, reflect on the implications of these insights for the broader context of your subject. And once again, always use fresh and engaging language to maintain the reader’s interest.

The last thing you want is for your reader to view your essay as a collection of individual points. A good essay should read as a unified whole, with all the pieces tying together naturally. You affirm your argument’s significance when you tie all the pieces together in your conclusion.

Providing New Insights

provide insights when writing conclusion paragraph

Also, think of this step as your opportunity to propose future research directions based on your findings. What could a student or researcher study next? What unanswered questions remain? If you’re having trouble answering these questions, consider using Smodin’s research tools to expand your knowledge of the topic.

That isn’t to say you can leave open-ended or unanswered questions about your own thesis. On the contrary, your conclusion should firmly establish the validity of your argument. That said, any deep and insightful analysis naturally leads to further exploration. Draw attention to these potential areas of inquiry.

(Optional) Form a Personal Connection With the Reader

Forming a connection with the reader in the conclusion can personalize and strengthen the impact of your essay. This technique can be powerful if implemented correctly, making your writing more relatable, human, and memorable.

That said, slime academics discourage using “I” in formal essays. It’s always best to clarify your teacher’s or professor’s stance before submitting your final draft.

If it is allowed, consider sharing a brief personal reflection or anecdote that ties back to the main themes of your essay. A personal touch can go a long way toward humanizing your arguments and creating a connection with the reader.

Whatever you choose, remember that your conclusion should always complement the analytical findings of your essay. Never say anything that detracts from your thesis or the findings you presented.

Examples of Good Conclusions

Let’s explore some examples to illustrate what a well-crafted conclusion looks and sounds like. The following are two hypothetical thesis essays from the fields of science and literature.

  • Thesis Topic: The Impact of Climate Change on Coral Reefs
  • Introduction: “Coral reefs act as the guardians of the ocean’s biodiversity. These underwater ecosystems are among the most vibrant and essential on the entire planet. However, the escalating impact of climate change poses a severe threat to their health and survival. This essay aims to dissect specific environmental changes contributing to coral degradation while proposing measures for mitigation.”
  • Conclusion: “This investigation into the impact of climate change on coral reefs has revealed a disturbing acceleration of coral bleaching events and a significant decline of reef biodiversity. The findings presented in this study establish a clear link between increased sea temperatures and coral reef mortality. Future research should focus on the resilience mechanisms of coral species that could influence conservation strategies. The fate of the coral reefs depends on humanity’s immediate and concentrated action to curb global emissions and preserve these vital ecosystems for future generations.”

Notice how the conclusion doesn’t simply restate the thesis. Instead, it highlights the definitive connection between climate change and coral health. It also reiterates the issue’s urgency and extends a call of action for ongoing intervention. The last sentence is direct, to the point, and leaves a lasting impression on the reader.

If you’re struggling with your closing sentence (or any sentence, for that matter), Smodin’s Rewriter can create hundreds of different sentences in seconds. Then, choose the sentences and phrases that resonate the most and use them to craft a compelling conclusion.

  • Thesis Topic: The Evolution of the American Dream in 20th-Century American Literature
  • Introduction: “The American Dream was once defined by prosperity and success. However, throughout the 20th century, the representation of the American Dream in popular literature has undergone significant changes. Are these representations indicative of a far-reaching sentiment that lay dormant among the American public? Or were these works simply the result of disillusioned writers responding to the evolving challenges of the times?”
  • Conclusion: “Works by F. Scott Fitzgerald, John Steinbeck, and Toni Morrison illustrate the American Dream’s evolution from unbridled optimism to a more critical examination of the American ethos. Throughout modernist and post-modernist literature, the American Dream is often at odds with core American values. These novels reflect broader societal shifts that continue to shape the national consciousness. Further research into contemporary literature could provide greater insight into the complexities of this concept.”

You will know exactly what this essay covers by reading the introduction and conclusion alone. It summarizes the evolution of the American Dream by examining the works of three unique authors. It then analyzes these works to demonstrate how they reflect broader societal shifts. The conclusion works as both a capstone and a bridge to set the stage for future inquiries.

Write Better Conclusions With Smodin

Always remember the human element behind the grading process when crafting your essay. Your teachers or professors are human and have likely spent countless hours reviewing essays on similar topics. The grading process can be long and exhaustive. Your conclusion should aim to make their task easier, not harder.

A well-crafted conclusion serves as the final piece to your argument. It should recap the critical insights discussed above while shedding new light on the topic. By including innovative elements and insightful observations, your conclusion will help your essay stand out from the crowd.

Make sure your essay ends on a high note to maximize your chances of getting a better grade now and in the future. Smodin’s comprehensive suite of AI tools can help you enhance every aspect of your essay writing. From initial research to structuring, these tools can streamline the process and improve the quality of your essays.

  • Essay Editor

Biographical Essay: Tips and Tricks for Writing a Perfect Biography

Biographical Essay: Tips and Tricks for Writing a Perfect Biography

Biographical essays are some of the most common texts you can find on the Internet. When you browse a Wiki article about your favorite singer, you are basically reading a biography paper.

However, in academia, there are certain rules students need to follow to get perfect marks for their papers. In this article, we will explore what a biographical essay is, why it matters, and how to write an essay about a person.

What is a biographical essay?

A biographical essay is a paper that focuses on telling the life story of a person. Depending on the assignment, the person in question can be a famous historical or contemporary figure, someone from an author’s surroundings, or the author themselves.

The contents of a biography essay generally include information about a person’s accomplishments and a story of their path to succeed in their field.

What does a biography look like?

Typical biographical writing focuses on providing a comprehensive overview of a person’s life. It starts with the subject’s childhood and shows their progression into adulthood. This generally includes mentions of their family, education, personal relationships, and notable events that may have led them to obtain an achievement. At the same time, true biographies often uncover struggles and difficulties that their subjects go through to present a full and trustworthy context of their lives.

However, when writing a biography paper, students have a certain word limit. This makes it hard to relay the entire life story of a person, so you have to pick and choose what you want to put in your writing.

How to choose a subject for a biography paper

Unless your assignment takes care of it, you have to choose a person to write an essay about on your own. There are several things to consider to solve this issue:

  • Contribution . Sometimes, you might have to write an essay about your neighbor for a creative writing class, but in academic writing, you have to choose a highly accomplished individual. Make sure that the subject of your future essay has contributed to their field of study or profession. Achievements and contributions are the most important things to write about in a biographical essay.
  • Recognition . It is hard to write essays about someone who is hardly known in their industry. The more recognition a person gets, the more sources you can find about their life and accomplishments.
  • Relevance . Choose someone whose work and contribution are still relevant to this day. This way, you can also include a passage about their significance in modern academia and how they continue to transform the world because of their brilliance.
  • Personal interest . It is more enjoyable to write about someone you find interesting. The research and writing will be much easier if you choose a person whom you personally consider a role model.

With these things in mind, selecting a subject for your biography paper will be a piece of cake. Just make sure that your future essay follows the guidelines set by your professor.

How to write a biography essay

After you choose a subject for your essay, it is time to begin writing. Let’s look at the biography essay outline you need to follow.

Introduction of a biographical essay

The first thing you need to understand is how to start a biography essay.

Every academic paper always starts with an introduction. In the introduction, you have to introduce a problem, express your opinion (though not always), and state a thesis statement which you will then defend with arguments.

A biographical essay introduction follows the same plan. But since the subject matter of this essay type is a real person, your task is to provide an overview of their achievements and why you consider their contribution to their field noteworthy.

Body of a biographical essay

In the body of your biography paper, you need to present important facts from the life of your subject.

However, it is essential to understand that not all aspects of a person's life have to be mentioned in a biography essay. For instance, you don’t need to mention how many spouses they had because it generally has nothing to do with their notable achievements. (Unless your essay is about Henry VIII!)

Let’s break down what points you may describe in the body of your biography paper.

  • Childhood . This part of your biographical essay should focus on the early life of your subject. Describe the conditions of their upbringing. When were they born? What country did they spend their childhood in? Who were their parents and what role did they play in your subject’s future accomplishments? Did the person in question start exhibiting their affinity to their field in childhood? Make sure to be brief in your writing, but still mention important details that can help your audience understand your subject’s genius better.
  • Education . You should also bring up your subject’s education. Make sure to pay special attention to their professional or higher education and their first achievements. Even if they didn’t get any education, you should also mention it and elaborate on what they did instead that helped them gain knowledge and experience to achieve recognition later.
  • Career and accomplishments . Generally, most well-known people start gaining recognition in the course of their careers. That’s why your biographical writing should also include a brief overview of your subject’s professional path. How did they start their career? What choices did they make that helped them get closer to success? When and what exactly did they do that brought them fame? This is where you can also give a timeline of their main achievements.
  • Contribution . This part has less to do with chronological description of a person’s life and more to do with how their accomplishments affected their field or industry. Bring up quotes from your subject’s contemporaries or look for newspaper articles and other official documentation that confirms their contribution. Summarize how this contribution changed or even revolutionized their field.

Use these guidelines to write the main part of your biographical essay. Always remember that the body of your paper should support the claim made in the introduction. So if your thesis states that John Doe was the greatest radiologist of his time, the facts you present in the body should serve as arguments in favor of this statement.

Conclusion of a biographical essay

Now, let’s learn how to end a biography essay. Like with other academic writing, your conclusion should summarize the main ideas written in the main part of your essay. You can reference your thesis once more and briefly explain why the subject of your essay is a notable figure in their field. However, you must not copy the same wording used in the earlier sections of your texts. 

You may end your paper by explaining how the contributions made by the subject of the biography are still relevant to this day.

Summary: Biographical essay

Biographical essays are important assignments that help us learn more about famous people of the past. Learning about their contribution to society helps us keep their memory alive and better understand our history.

If you need help with writing your biography paper, you can rely on AI-generator Aithor. With Aithor, you can quickly find lists of trustworthy sources, create essay outlines, check your writing for grammatical errors, and much more! Write your perfect biographical essay with Aithor.

Related articles

Literary analysis essay example: discover how to analyze literature and improve your writing skills.

Creating a literary analysis essay is one of the most interesting assignments during college and high school studies. It needs both good text interpreting and analytical skills. The number of proper forms is great, including short stories and novels, poems and ballads, comedies and dramas. Any literary work may be analyzed. In brief, when writing this paper a student should give a summary of the text and a detailed review of the language, structure, and other stuff the author used to express hi ...

Create a Perfect Essay Structure

Hello Aithors! We're back again with another feature highlight. Today, we want to talk about a tool that can be a game-changer for your essay writing process - our Table of Contents tool. Writing an essay isn't just about getting your ideas down on paper. It's about presenting them in a clear, structured way that makes sense to your reader. However, figuring out the best structure for your essay can sometimes be a tough nut to crack. That's why we developed the Table of Contents feature. The b ...

APA or MLA: Choosing the Right Citation Style for Your Paper

When it comes to academic writing, properly citing your sources is crucial. It not only helps you avoid plagiarism but also adds credibility to your work by showing that you've done your research. However, with various citation styles out there, it can be tricky to know which one to use. Two of the most common styles are APA (American Psychological Association) and MLA (Modern Language Association). In this article, we'll take a closer look at the APA vs MLA format to help you decide which is ri ...

How To Write Reflection Essays

How often do you contemplate how the tapestry of your experiences shapes your thoughts? A reflection paper lets you explore that. It's like deep diving into your life’s precious moments, examining how stories, books, events, or even lectures have influenced your views. This type of academic essay integrates a personal perspective, allowing you to openly express your opinions. In this guide, we will delve into the specifics of reflective writing, share some tips, and show some self-reflection es ...

Proposal Essay Examples: Convincing Ideas for Your Research Paper or Essay

Struggling to craft a captivating and well-built proposal essay? Many students find it challenging to compose a proposal-based essay and struggle to generate convincing ideas. If this sounds familiar, read on. In this comprehensive guide, we streamline the process of brainstorming and composing work, offering resources like suggestions on how to write a proposal essay, suggested steps when writing, useful examples, and efficient essay-crafting tips. Developed through several years of expertise ...

Ace Your Graduation Speech with Aithor

Hello, Aithors! Can you feel it? That's the buzz of graduation season in the air:) And while we're all about the caps flying and the proud smiles, we also know that being asked to write a graduation speech can feel a bit like being handed a mountain to climb. Crafting a graduation speech is all about capturing the spirit of the journey you've been on, from the triumphs to the trials, and everything in between. It's a reflection of where you've been, and a beacon of light pointing towards where ...

How to Write an Evaluation Essay That Engages and Persuades: Helpful Tips and Inspiring Examples

Are you feeling unsure about how to effectively evaluate a subject from your own perspective in an evaluation essay? If you're struggling to understand how to present a balanced assessment, don't worry! We're here to guide you through the process of writing an evaluation that showcases your critical thinking skills. What Is an Evaluation Essay?  An evaluation essay is a type of writing in which the writer gives their opinion on a topic. You look at something carefully and think about how good ...

Will I Get Caught Using Chat GPT?

ChatGPT has been around for a little over a year but already found popularity among all groups of users. School and college students have taken a particular liking to it. However, many students avoid using the chatbot for fear that their teacher might catch them. Read this article to learn more about ChatGPT, its features, and whether your teacher can actually find out if you use it for your homework. What is Chat GPT? ChatGPT was first introduced to the world in November 2022. At the time, ...

IMAGES

  1. Apa Format Example Paper Conclusion

    how to write a conclusion for a research paper apa

  2. How to Write a Research Paper Conclusion: Tips & Examples

    how to write a conclusion for a research paper apa

  3. Best Tips and Help on How to Write a Conclusion for Your Essay

    how to write a conclusion for a research paper apa

  4. APA Paper Conclusion Writing Tips

    how to write a conclusion for a research paper apa

  5. conclusion example apa

    how to write a conclusion for a research paper apa

  6. how to write a conclusion apa

    how to write a conclusion for a research paper apa

VIDEO

  1. How to Write Conclusion in Thesis in APA 7

  2. Write Conclusion of Research Paper in 1 min using AI tool

  3. How to Write Method in Thesis in APA 7?

  4. FAQ: How to write a satisfying conclusion for a reader

  5. How to write a research paper conclusion

  6. How to Write Results in Thesis in APA 7

COMMENTS

  1. Writing a Research Paper Conclusion

    Table of contents. Step 1: Restate the problem. Step 2: Sum up the paper. Step 3: Discuss the implications. Research paper conclusion examples. Frequently asked questions about research paper conclusions.

  2. Conclusions

    Conclusions. Conclusions wrap up what you have been discussing in your paper. After moving from general to specific information in the introduction and body paragraphs, your conclusion should begin pulling back into more general information that restates the main points of your argument. Conclusions may also call for action or overview future ...

  3. How to Write an Introduction & Conclusion for an APA Style Paper

    The introduction is the first paragraph of the main body of your paper. If your instructor requires you to write an abstract, your paper will begin on the page after the abstract; otherwise, begin on the page following the title page. Use a serif typeface, such as Times New Roman, and set your word processing program to double space the lines.

  4. Leaving a Lasting Impression: Writing Effective Conclusions in APA 7

    Concluding an academic paper effectively is as crucial as its beginning. A conclusion in APA 7 not only wraps up your arguments but also leaves a lasting impression on your reader. Here's how to create a conclusion that resonates and reinforces your research findings. 1. Restate Your Thesis: Begin by restating your thesis or main research ...

  5. 9. The Conclusion

    The conclusion is intended to help the reader understand why your research should matter to them after they have finished reading the paper. A conclusion is not merely a summary of the main topics covered or a re-statement of your research problem, but a synthesis of key points derived from the findings of your study and, if applicable, where you recommend new areas for future research.

  6. PDF Student Paper Setup Guide, APA Style 7th Edition

    Indent the first line of every paragraph of text 0.5 in. using the tab key or the paragraph-formatting function of your word-processing program. Page numbers: Put a page number in the top right corner of every page, including the title page or cover page, which is page 1. Student papers do not require a running head on any page.

  7. How to Write a Conclusion for a Research Paper

    Begin your conclusion by restating your thesis statement in a way that is slightly different from the wording used in the introduction. Avoid presenting new information or evidence in your conclusion. Just summarize the main points and arguments of your essay and keep this part as concise as possible. Remember that you've already covered the ...

  8. How to Write an APA Research Paper

    Title page. (see sample on p. 41 of APA manual) Title should be between 10-12 words and should reflect content of paper (e.g., IV and DV). Title, your name, and Hamilton College are all double-spaced (no extra spaces) Create a page header using the "View header" function in MS Word. On the title page, the header should include the following:

  9. How to Write a Conclusion for Research Papers (with Examples)

    Generate the conclusion outline: After entering all necessary details, click on 'generate'. Paperpal will then create a structured outline for your conclusion, to help you start writing and build upon the outline. Write your conclusion: Use the generated outline to build your conclusion.

  10. A step-by-step guide for creating and formatting APA Style student papers

    Double-space the whole title page. Place the paper title three or four lines down from the top of the page. Add an extra double-spaced blank like between the paper title and the byline. Then, list the other title page elements on separate lines, without extra lines in between.

  11. How to Write a Conclusion for a Research Paper

    Present your conclusion in a structured manner, following the natural flow of your paper. Readers should effortlessly follow your thought process, making your conclusion more accessible and persuasive. Reinforce Main Arguments. Emphasize the core arguments and findings from your research.

  12. PDF 7th Edition Discussion Phrases Guide

    Papers usually end with a concluding section, often called the "Discussion.". The Discussion is your opportunity to evaluate and interpret the results of your study or paper, draw inferences and conclusions from it, and communicate its contributions to science and/or society. Use the present tense when writing the Discussion section.

  13. Reporting Research Results in APA Style

    Reporting Research Results in APA Style | Tips & Examples. Published on December 21, 2020 by Pritha Bhandari.Revised on January 17, 2024. The results section of a quantitative research paper is where you summarize your data and report the findings of any relevant statistical analyses.. The APA manual provides rigorous guidelines for what to report in quantitative research papers in the fields ...

  14. Sample papers

    These sample papers formatted in seventh edition APA Style show the format that authors should use to submit a manuscript for publication in a professional journal and that students should use to submit a paper to an instructor for a course assignment. ... Students may write the same types of papers as professional authors (e.g., quantitative ...

  15. How to Write a Conclusion for a Research Paper

    A conclusion is the final paragraph of a research paper and serves to help the reader understand why your research should matter to them. The conclusion of a conclusion should: Restate your topic and why it is important. Restate your thesis/claim. Address opposing viewpoints and explain why readers should align with your position.

  16. APA Sample Paper

    Crucially, citation practices do not differ between the two styles of paper. However, for your convenience, we have provided two versions of our APA 7 sample paper below: one in student style and one in professional style. Note: For accessibility purposes, we have used "Track Changes" to make comments along the margins of these samples.

  17. APA Formatting and Style Guide (7th Edition)

    Resources on writing an APA style reference list, including citation formats. Basic Rules Basic guidelines for formatting the reference list at the end of a standard APA research paper Author/Authors Rules for handling works by a single author or multiple authors that apply to all APA-style references in your reference list, regardless of the ...

  18. How to Write a Thesis or Dissertation Conclusion

    Step 1: Answer your research question. Step 2: Summarize and reflect on your research. Step 3: Make future recommendations. Step 4: Emphasize your contributions to your field. Step 5: Wrap up your thesis or dissertation. Full conclusion example. Conclusion checklist. Other interesting articles.

  19. How to Effectively Write APA Research Conclusions

    Summarize the Paper. Now that you have restated the problem, it's time to summarize the findings. Make it clear what your paper's conclusions are and state them clearly. This part should show how your paper addressed the research problem. You need to describe how the findings fit into a larger picture or break down the researchers ...

  20. How to Write a Good Conclusion (With Examples)

    The conclusion paragraph should be more than just a summary of your essay. It should consolidate all your arguments and tie them back to your thesis. Remember, all good writing inspires emotion. Whether to inspire, provoke, or engage is up to you, but the conclusion should always leave a lasting impression.

  21. How to Write an APA Methods Section

    To structure your methods section, you can use the subheadings of "Participants," "Materials," and "Procedures.". These headings are not mandatory—aim to organize your methods section using subheadings that make sense for your specific study. Note that not all of these topics will necessarily be relevant for your study.

  22. Biographical Essay: Tips and Tricks for Writing a Perfect Biography

    The research and writing will be much easier if you choose a person whom you personally consider a role model. ... Like with other academic writing, your conclusion should summarize the main ideas written in the main part of your essay. You can reference your thesis once more and briefly explain why the subject of your essay is a notable figure ...

  23. Language impairments in people with autoimmune ...

    Results: We found 171 studies meeting our inclusion criteria. These comprised group studies and case studies. Language impairments differed largely among types of ANDs. Neurological findings were mentioned in most of the papers, but specific language tests were rarely used. Conclusions: Language symptoms in people with ANDs are commonly reported.