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How to Cite and Reference a Conference Paper in the Harvard Style

How to Cite and Reference a Conference Paper in the Harvard Style

  • 2-minute read
  • 8th March 2023

Conference papers are a common resource for academics . But how do you cite and reference one as a source using Harvard? Here’s our quick guide. We’ll focus on the Open University style , but Harvard conventions can vary between institutions, so make sure you check your own style guide too.

Citing a Conference Paper

An in-text citation includes the name and year in parentheses, like this:

If you use a direct quote, you’ll need to add page numbers as well:

If you’re citing two authors, include both surnames separated by and . If you’re citing three or more authors, list the first surname followed by “et al.” If you’re missing an author’s name, you can use the name of the organization that published the paper. And if you’re missing a date, you can use “n.d.”

Referencing a Conference Paper

When adding a conference paper to a Harvard reference list, follow this format:

Author, A. (year of publication) “Title of Paper”, Title of Conference. Location, date of conference. Place of publication, Publisher, page numbers.

If you found the conference paper online, format the entry this way:

Author, A. (year of publication) “Title of Paper,” Title of Conference. Location, date of conference. Publisher [Online]. Available at URL (Accessed date).

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If you’re referencing an unpublished conference paper, you can omit the publisher information:

Author, A. (year of publication) “Title of Paper,” paper presented at Title of Conference . Location, date of conference.

Variations of Harvard Referencing

As we’ve said, the Harvard style has many variations. We’ve looked at the Open University version in this post, but make sure you check your institution’s style guide. And when in doubt, be sure to keep everything consistent.

Of course, you can always send your work our way! Our editors are Harvard referencing experts and will make sure you’ve formatted your references and citations correctly. They’ll also check your work for grammar, spelling, punctuation, and more! Try it out for free today.

Frequently Asked Questions

What is the format for a harvard citation.

Harvard uses author–date citations, with the author’s name and the year of publication in parentheses: (Smith, 2012).

How do you add an online conference paper to a Harvard reference list?

Follow a typical Harvard reference format but omit the location, add [Online] after the publisher name, and include the URL as well as the date you accessed the site.

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Harvard Citation Style: Conference Proceedings

Introduction

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Company Information

Conference Proceedings

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Journal Articles

Lecture Notes

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In This Guide...

Click on the links below for further information on referencing each material type

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Newspaper Articles

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  • A table of examples in all formats for quick reference

Citing Conference Proceedings

When citing Conference Proceedings papers the techniques used are very similar to those employed when citing journal articles

The name of the overall proceedings should appear in italics

Reference should be made to the corporate body hosting the conference and the location of the conference

Citing Conference Proceedings: Examples

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Cite A Conference proceedings in Harvard style

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  • Select style:
  • Archive material
  • Chapter of an edited book
  • Conference proceedings
  • Dictionary entry
  • Dissertation
  • DVD, video, or film
  • E-book or PDF
  • Edited book
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  • Government publication
  • Music or recording
  • Online image or video
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Use the following template or our Harvard Referencing Generator how to cite a conference. For help with other source types, like books, PDFs, or websites, check out our other guides. To have your reference list or bibliography automatically made for you, try our free citation generator .

Reference list

Place this part in your bibliography or reference list at the end of your assignment.

In-text citation

Place this part right after the quote or reference to the source in your assignment.

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  • How to cite a Conference proceedings in Harvard style
  • How to cite a Court case in Harvard style
  • How to cite a Dictionary entry in Harvard style
  • How to cite a Dissertation in Harvard style
  • How to cite a E-book or PDF in Harvard style
  • How to cite a Edited book in Harvard style
  • How to cite a Email in Harvard style
  • How to cite a Encyclopedia article in Harvard style
  • How to cite a Government publication in Harvard style
  • How to cite a Interview in Harvard style
  • How to cite a Legislation in Harvard style
  • How to cite a Magazine in Harvard style
  • How to cite a Music or recording in Harvard style
  • How to cite a Newspaper in Harvard style
  • How to cite a Patent in Harvard style
  • How to cite a Podcast in Harvard style
  • How to cite a Presentation or lecture in Harvard style
  • How to cite a Press release in Harvard style
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  • How to cite a Report in Harvard style
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Harvard Referencing Guide

  • Conference papers, presentations, theses

Conference papers, presentations

  • For conference papers published online, hyperlink the title . If you’re citing a PDF, avoid linking directly to the PDF. Instead link to the page that hosts the PDF.

Published conference paper and presentation

Elements of the reference, author a (day month year) ‘title of paper: subtitle of paper’ [conference presentation],  name of conference , place of conference, accessed day month year., in-text citation, blunden (2007) or (blunden 2007), reference list, blunden j (9–12 may 2007) ‘ plain or just dull collateral damage from the plain english movement ’ [conference presentation],  3rd iped conference , tasmania, accessed 3 may 2019., unpublished conference paper, author a (day month year) ‘title of paper: subtitle of paper’ [unpublished conference presentation],  name of conference , place of conference., blunden j (9–12 may 2007) ‘plain or just dull collateral damage from the plain english movement’ [unpublished conference presentation],  3rd iped conference , hobart..

  • If the thesis is online, hyperlink the title and include an accessed date. If you’re citing a PDF, avoid linking directly to the PDF. Instead link to the page that hosts the PDF.

Published thesis

Author a (year)  title of thesis: subtitle of thesis  [type of thesis], name of university, accessed day month year., (rahman 2013) or rahman (2013), rahman m (2013)  using authentic materials in the writing classes: tertiary level scenario  [master’s thesis], brac university, accessed 5 may 2017., unpublished thesis, author a (year)  title of thesis: subtitle of thesis  [unpublished type of thesis], name of university, accessed day month year., rahman m (2013)  using authentic materials in the writing classes: tertiary level scenario  [unpublished master’s thesis], brac university, accessed 5 may 2017..

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Harvard Referencing Guide

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  • Videos and Audio material
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  • Social Media
  • Legal Sources
  • Personal Communication

Conference papers

Conference papers should be referenced in a similar way to journal articles. List the titles of papers in single quotation marks and sentence case, followed by the name of the conference proceedings in italics and title case. For proceedings accessed online, include the doi or accessed date Day Month Year and URL, or the database.

Rule : Author A (Year) ‘Title of article: subtitle of article’,  Name of Conference Proceedings , volume(issue):page–page, doi:number

Mohamed, S. (2019) ‘A Critical Praxis in the Information Literacy Education Classroom: Using the ACRL Framework for Information Literacy for Higher Education’, in  Information Literacy in Everyday Life . [Online]. Cham: Springer International Publishing. pp. 506–521.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-13472-3

Khomokhoana, P. J. & Nel, L. (2019) ‘Decoding Source Code Comprehension: Bottlenecks Experienced by Senior Computer Science Students’, in  ICT Education . [Online]. Cham: Springer International Publishing. pp. 17–32.

García-Macías, V. et al. (2018) ‘Endohaptic: virtual system for endodontic training using haptic devices’, in  Proceedings of the 7th Mexican Conference on human-computer interaction . ACM. pp. 1–4., https://doi.org/10.1145/3293578.3293594

Jantjies, M. et al. (2018) ‘Experiential learning through Virtual and Augmented Reality in Higher Education’, in  Proceedings of the 2018 International Conference on education technology management . [Online]. 2018 ACM. pp. 42–45.

Theses and Dissertation

University theses can be sourced in hardcopy or online via repositories. present the title of the thesis (also called a dissertation in some countries) in italics and sentence case. describe the type of thesis, i.e. phd or masters, and the university that awarded the degree (including its location) following the title. reference the accessed date and url or database or publisher..

Rule: Author A (Year)  Title of thesis: subtitle of thesis  [type of thesis], Name of University, accessed date Day Month Year, URL or database.

Walters, J. (2020).  Diagnostic accuracy of maxillary periapical pathology perforating the sinus floor: a comparison of pantomograph and CBCT images  . Thesis. University of the Western Cape. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/11394/7349 2020.  

Mkhize, M. (2014)  A retrospective assessment of the upper LIP response following upper INCISOR retraction . Thesis (M.A.)--University of the Western Cape, 2014.  

Ngema, M. N. (2012)  A cephalometric comparison of class II extraction cases treated with tip-edge and edgewise techniques . Thesis (M.Ch.D.)--University of the Western Cape, 2012.

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Harvard Style Guide: Conferences

  • Introduction
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  • Film/ television
  • YouTube Film or Talk
  • Music/ audio
  • Encyclopaedia and dictionaries
  • Email communication

Conferences

  • Official publications
  • Book reviews
  • Case studies
  • Group or individual assignments
  • Legal Cases (Law Reports)
  • No date of publication
  • Personal communications
  • Repository item
  • Citing same author, multiple works, same year

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Reference : Author(s) Last Name, Initials. (Year) ‘Title of paper’, Title of conference: subtitle . Location and date of conference. Place of publication: Publisher, Pages numbers.

Example : O’Connor, J. (2009) ‘Towards a greener Ireland’, Discovering our natural sustainable resources: future proofing . University College Dublin, 15 – 16 March. Dublin: Irish Environmental Institute, pp. 65 – 69.

In-Text-Citation :

  • Author(s) Last name (Year)
  • (Author(s) Last name, Year)    
  • O’Connor (2009) was able to highlight….
  • Others (O’Connor, 2009) have shown …..

Still unsure what in-text citation and referencing mean? Check here . 

Still unsure why you need to reference all this information? Check here .

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Harvard Referencing - SETU Libraries Waterford Guide: Conference Papers

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  • Paraphrasing and Direct Quotations
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  • Building Regulations
  • Company Annual Reports
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Conference Papers

  • Dictionaries
  • Discussion boards (Course)
  • European union (EU) legal sources
  • Exhibition catalogues
  • Lecture notes (including tutorial handouts, moodle etc.)
  • Legislation - Statutory Instruments
  • Newspaper Articles
  • Personal Communications (conversations, letters, e-mails, other online services etc)
  • Photographs taken from websites or social media.
  • Photographs you have taken yourself
  • PowerPoint presentations/seminars
  • Reference Books (Encyclopaedias, bibliographies, dictionaries)
  • RTE News Online Items
  • X ( formerly Twitter)
  • YouTube or TED Talk
  • Book, article or web page that has referenced something else (secondary referencing)
  • Citing several authorities to support the same point
  • Finding the date of a web page
  • Author's Initials
  • Referencing work by the same author from different years
  • Online Library Tutorials

Author. (Year of publication) ‘Title of paper’, Title of conference: subtitle . Location and date of conference. Publisher. Available at: URL (Accessed: date) or doi:.

Kleiman, P. (2011) ‘Student voices, student lives: a reality check on engagement’, Engaging minds: fifth annual conference of the NAIRTL . NUI Galway, 9 & 10 June. NAIRTL. Available at: http://www.nairtl.ie/documents/Engaging%20Minds%20Proceedings_FINAL.pdf (Accessed: 19 June 2017).

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Harvard referencing style

  • In-text citations and reference list

Conference papers

Conference proceedings.

  • Video, film, television
  • Figures and tables
  • Standards and patents
  • Computer software and mobile applications
  • Legal sources
  • Thesis or dissertation
  • Personal communications

Chiang, S.B. & Chien, K. 2014, 'The optimization of color-mixed LED lighting', paper presented to the IEEE Industry Application Society Annual Meeting , Vancouver, BC, Canada, 5-9 October.

With a DOI (from a database)

Liu, L., Jing, D. & Ding, J. 2018, 'Adaptive extraction of fused feature for panoramic visual tracking', paper presented to the 2018 IEEE 3rd International Conference on Image, Vision and Computing (ICIVC), 27-29 June 2018, https://doi.org/10.1109/ICIVC.2018.8492737

Without a DOI (from a database)

Kadi, A., Kutay, C. & Canning, J. 2017, 'Flipped learning not flopped learning', paper presented to the 28th Annual Conference of the Australasian Association for Engineering Education (AAEE 2017) , Sydney, Australia, 10-13 December 2017, viewed 24 September 2019, https://search-informit-com

Online, not published

Heideker, S. 2019, 'Consumers’ future orientation and the effect of temporal framing on health risk perception', paper presented to the A sia-Pacific Advances in Consumer Research , Ahmedabad, India, viewed 24 September 2019, http://www.acrwebsite.org/search/view-conference-proceedings.aspx?Id=1700301

Treat published conference proceedings as a book or electronic book.

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Harvard Referencing (2002 version)

  • Number of authors
  • Information for EndNote users
  • Books and eBooks
  • Chapter of a Book/eBook

Conference paper - Presented at a conference

Conference paper - published in proceedings.

  • Dictionary & Encyclopedia
  • Government publications, ABS
  • Film/Television/Radio
  • Image, Tables & Figures
  • Journal article
  • Lecture notes/Class handout
  • Newspaper article
  • Personal communication
  • Podcast/Blog/YouTube/Social Media
  • Web site/Web document

Paper author, AA year of publication, 'Title of paper', paper presented at Name of conference , Place of conference, date-date Month year (of conference).

Paper author, AA year of publication, 'Title of paper', paper presented at  Name of conference , Place of conference, date-date Month year (of conference), viewed day Month year, <URL>.

Abbott, K & Seymour, J 1997, 'Trapping the papaya fruit fly in North Queensland', paper presented at the Australian Entomological Society conference , Melbourne, 28-30 September 1997.

Bayne, S & Ross, J 2007, 'The ‘digital native’ and ‘digital immigrant’: a dangerous opposition', paper presented at the  Annual Conference of the Society for Research into Higher Education (SRHE),  Brighton, Sussex, 11-13 December 2007, viewed 9 October 2011, <http://www.malts.ed.ac.uk/staff/sian/natives_final.pdf>.

In-text citation:

Abbott and Seymour (1997) describe trapping the fruit fly ...

  Format:

Paper author, AA year of publication, 'Title of paper', Title of conference proceedings , Publisher, Place of Publication, pp. xx-xx.

Gleeson, L 1996, 'Inside looking out', Claiming a place: proceedings from the third national conference of the Children's Book Council of Australia , D.W. Thorpe, Port Melbourne, pp. 22-34.

Children's books are ... (Gleeson 1997).

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  • Thesis or dissertation
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  • Census data
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  • Mathematical equation
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  • Book illustration, Figure or Diagram
  • Inscription on a building
  • Installation
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  • Interview (on the internet)
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  • Conference paper
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To be made up of:

  • Author/editor.
  • Year of publication (in round brackets).
  • Title of conference (in italics).
  • Location and date of conference.
  • Place of Publication.

If seen online, add:

  • Available at: URL
  • (Accessed: date).

In-text citation:

(Institute for Large Businesses, 1999)

Reference List:

Institute for Large Businesses (1999).  Large firms policy and research conference . University of Birmingham, December 18-19. Leeds: Institute for Large Businesses.

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Conference paper: how to cite in Harvard style?

Create a spot-on reference in harvard.

Select a source type:

  • Journal article
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  • All types...
  • Archival document
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General rules

Within the Harvard referencing system, a conference paper published in conference proceedings is treated as a chapter of an edited book, due to which the templates for bibliographic references are almost the same as for a book chapter .

In this case, the title of the conference proceedings is considered as the general book title; the difference from a book chapter is that the title of the proceedings also includes the date and place of the conference.

Reference template:

Author(s) , ( year ). Paper title . In: Editor(s) , ed(s). Conference title , conference date , Conference place . City of publication : Publisher . p(p).   page(s) .

For a conference abstract available online, use the following reference template:

Author(s) , ( year ). Paper title . In: Editor(s) , ed(s). Conference title , conference date , Conference place [online]. City of publication : Publisher . p(p).   page(s) . [Viewed date viewed ]. Available from: doi: DOI

If the publication does not have a DOI and is located at an ordinary URL address, modify the corresponding reference element as follows:

Available from: URL

  • If no names of editors are given in the conference proceedings, the corresponding element is omitted from the reference.
  • The city and country are given in the 'Conference place' element.
  • The names of editors in the reference are indicated with the initials before the last name. For details, see the article on the principles of indicating authors' names according to the Harvard citation style .
  • See this article for the differences between indicating a URL and a DOI.

Examples in a list of references

Bizzoni,   Y., Senaldi,   M.   S.   G. and Lenci,   A., (2017). Deep-learning the ropes: modeling idiomaticity with neural networks. In: R.   Basili, M.   Nissim and G.   Satta, eds. Proceedings of the Fourth Italian Conference on Computational Linguistics CLiC-it 2017, 11–12 December 2017, Rome, Italy [online]. Torino: Accademia University Press. pp.   36–41. [Viewed 12 January 2021]. Available from: doi: 10.4000/books.aaccademia.2314

Türkmen,   R., (2016). B1 level undergraduate EFL students’ acceptance of Moodle technology. In: F.   Kılıçkaya, ed. The 5th International Conference on Language, Literature and Culture, 12 May 2016, Burdur, Turkey [online]. Burdur: Mehmet Akif Ersoy University. p.   11. [Viewed 12 January 2021]. Available from: https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED569939.pdf

Other citation styles:

  • What is APA Style (7th ed.)?
  • Examples of bibliographic references in APA (7th ed.)
  • APA 7 vs APA 6: key differences
  • How to cite authors?
  • How to format the references page with APA (7th ed.)?
  • In-text citations
  • Dictionary/encyclopedia/dictionary entry/encyclopedia article
  • Dissertation (thesis)
  • Software / mobile app
  • Video game / computer game
  • What is MLA Style (8th ed.)?
  • Examples of references in works cited in MLA (8th ed.)
  • How to format the works cited page in MLA (8th ed.)?
  • What is Chicago Style?
  • Examples of bibliographic references in Chicago Style – notes and bibliography (17th ed.)
  • How to format the bibliography page?
  • Notes and in-text citations
  • Examples of bibliographic references in Chicago Style – author-date (17th ed.)
  • What is Harvard referencing style?
  • Examples of bibliographic references in Harvard style
  • Online video
  • What is IEEE Style?
  • Examples of bibliographic references in IEEE Style
  • How to format the references pages in IEEE Style?
  • What is Vancouver Style?
  • Examples of bibliographic references in Vancouver Style

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A Quick Guide to Harvard Referencing | Citation Examples

Published on 14 February 2020 by Jack Caulfield . Revised on 15 September 2023.

Referencing is an important part of academic writing. It tells your readers what sources you’ve used and how to find them.

Harvard is the most common referencing style used in UK universities. In Harvard style, the author and year are cited in-text, and full details of the source are given in a reference list .

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Table of contents

Harvard in-text citation, creating a harvard reference list, harvard referencing examples, referencing sources with no author or date, frequently asked questions about harvard referencing.

A Harvard in-text citation appears in brackets beside any quotation or paraphrase of a source. It gives the last name of the author(s) and the year of publication, as well as a page number or range locating the passage referenced, if applicable:

Note that ‘p.’ is used for a single page, ‘pp.’ for multiple pages (e.g. ‘pp. 1–5’).

An in-text citation usually appears immediately after the quotation or paraphrase in question. It may also appear at the end of the relevant sentence, as long as it’s clear what it refers to.

When your sentence already mentions the name of the author, it should not be repeated in the citation:

Sources with multiple authors

When you cite a source with up to three authors, cite all authors’ names. For four or more authors, list only the first name, followed by ‘ et al. ’:

Sources with no page numbers

Some sources, such as websites , often don’t have page numbers. If the source is a short text, you can simply leave out the page number. With longer sources, you can use an alternate locator such as a subheading or paragraph number if you need to specify where to find the quote:

Multiple citations at the same point

When you need multiple citations to appear at the same point in your text – for example, when you refer to several sources with one phrase – you can present them in the same set of brackets, separated by semicolons. List them in order of publication date:

Multiple sources with the same author and date

If you cite multiple sources by the same author which were published in the same year, it’s important to distinguish between them in your citations. To do this, insert an ‘a’ after the year in the first one you reference, a ‘b’ in the second, and so on:

Prevent plagiarism, run a free check.

A bibliography or reference list appears at the end of your text. It lists all your sources in alphabetical order by the author’s last name, giving complete information so that the reader can look them up if necessary.

The reference entry starts with the author’s last name followed by initial(s). Only the first word of the title is capitalised (as well as any proper nouns).

Harvard reference list example

Sources with multiple authors in the reference list

As with in-text citations, up to three authors should be listed; when there are four or more, list only the first author followed by ‘ et al. ’:

Reference list entries vary according to source type, since different information is relevant for different sources. Formats and examples for the most commonly used source types are given below.

  • Entire book
  • Book chapter
  • Translated book
  • Edition of a book

Journal articles

  • Print journal
  • Online-only journal with DOI
  • Online-only journal with no DOI
  • General web page
  • Online article or blog
  • Social media post

Sometimes you won’t have all the information you need for a reference. This section covers what to do when a source lacks a publication date or named author.

No publication date

When a source doesn’t have a clear publication date – for example, a constantly updated reference source like Wikipedia or an obscure historical document which can’t be accurately dated – you can replace it with the words ‘no date’:

Note that when you do this with an online source, you should still include an access date, as in the example.

When a source lacks a clearly identified author, there’s often an appropriate corporate source – the organisation responsible for the source – whom you can credit as author instead, as in the Google and Wikipedia examples above.

When that’s not the case, you can just replace it with the title of the source in both the in-text citation and the reference list:

Harvard referencing uses an author–date system. Sources are cited by the author’s last name and the publication year in brackets. Each Harvard in-text citation corresponds to an entry in the alphabetised reference list at the end of the paper.

Vancouver referencing uses a numerical system. Sources are cited by a number in parentheses or superscript. Each number corresponds to a full reference at the end of the paper.

A Harvard in-text citation should appear in brackets every time you quote, paraphrase, or refer to information from a source.

The citation can appear immediately after the quotation or paraphrase, or at the end of the sentence. If you’re quoting, place the citation outside of the quotation marks but before any other punctuation like a comma or full stop.

In Harvard referencing, up to three author names are included in an in-text citation or reference list entry. When there are four or more authors, include only the first, followed by ‘ et al. ’

Though the terms are sometimes used interchangeably, there is a difference in meaning:

  • A reference list only includes sources cited in the text – every entry corresponds to an in-text citation .
  • A bibliography also includes other sources which were consulted during the research but not cited.

Cite this Scribbr article

If you want to cite this source, you can copy and paste the citation or click the ‘Cite this Scribbr article’ button to automatically add the citation to our free Reference Generator.

Caulfield, J. (2023, September 15). A Quick Guide to Harvard Referencing | Citation Examples. Scribbr. Retrieved 22 February 2024, from https://www.scribbr.co.uk/referencing/harvard-style/

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Conference papers and proceedings

Reference elements.

Annotated example of online conference proceedings

In-text citation

Reference , print conference paper, unpublished conference paper.

This page contains the correct format for both recorded and non-recorded webinars. 

Annotated reference example for a recorded webinar

Non recorded

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Quick guide to Harvard referencing (Cite Them Right)

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There are different versions of the Harvard referencing style. This guide is a quick introduction to the commonly-used Cite Them Right version. You will find further guidance available through the OU Library on the Cite Them Right Database .

For help and support with referencing and the full Cite Them Right guide, have a look at the Library’s page on referencing and plagiarism . If you need guidance referencing OU module material you can check out which sections of Cite Them Right are recommended when referencing physical and online module material .

This guide does not apply to OU Law undergraduate students . If you are studying a module beginning with W1xx, W2xx or W3xx, you should refer to the Quick guide to Cite Them Right referencing for Law modules .

Table of contents

In-text citations and full references.

  • Secondary referencing
  • Page numbers
  • Citing multiple sources published in the same year by the same author

Full reference examples

Referencing consists of two elements:

  • in-text citations, which are inserted in the body of your text and are included in the word count. An in-text citation gives the author(s) and publication date of a source you are referring to. If the publication date is not given, the phrase 'no date' is used instead of a date. If using direct quotations or you refer to a specific section in the source you also need the page number/s if available, or paragraph number for web pages.
  • full references, which are given in alphabetical order in reference list at the end of your work and are not included in the word count. Full references give full bibliographical information for all the sources you have referred to in the body of your text.

To see a reference list and intext citations check out this example assignment on Cite Them Right .

Difference between reference list and bibliography

a reference list only includes sources you have referred to in the body of your text

a bibliography includes sources you have referred to in the body of your text AND sources that were part of your background reading that you did not use in your assignment

Back to top

Examples of in-text citations

You need to include an in-text citation wherever you quote or paraphrase from a source. An in-text citation consists of the last name of the author(s), the year of publication, and a page number if relevant. There are a number of ways of incorporating in-text citations into your work - some examples are provided below. Alternatively you can see examples of setting out in-text citations in Cite Them Right .

Note: When referencing a chapter of an edited book, your in-text citation should give the author(s) of the chapter.

Online module materials

(Includes written online module activities, audio-visual material such as online tutorials, recordings or videos).

When referencing material from module websites, the date of publication is the year you started studying the module.

Surname, Initial. (Year of publication/presentation) 'Title of item'. Module code: Module title . Available at: URL of VLE (Accessed: date).

OR, if there is no named author:

The Open University (Year of publication/presentation) 'Title of item'. Module code: Module title . Available at: URL of VLE (Accessed: date).

Rietdorf, K. and Bootman, M. (2022) 'Topic 3: Rare diseases'. S290: Investigating human health and disease . Available at: https://learn2.open.ac.uk/mod/oucontent/view.php?id=1967195 (Accessed: 24 January 2023).

The Open University (2022) ‘3.1 The purposes of childhood and youth research’. EK313: Issues in research with children and young people . Available at: https://learn2.open.ac.uk/mod/oucontent/view.php?id=1949633&section=1.3 (Accessed: 24 January 2023).

You can also use this template to reference videos and audio that are hosted on your module website:

The Open University (2022) ‘Video 2.7 An example of a Frith-Happé animation’. SK298: Brain, mind and mental health . Available at: https://learn2.open.ac.uk/mod/oucontent/view.php?id=2013014&section=4.9.6 (Accessed: 22 November 2022).

The Open University (2022) ‘Audio 2 Interview with Richard Sorabji (Part 2)’. A113: Revolutions . Available at: https://learn2.open.ac.uk/mod/oucontent/view.php?id=1960941&section=5.6 (Accessed: 22 November 2022).

Note: if a complete journal article has been uploaded to a module website, or if you have seen an article referred to on the website and then accessed the original version, reference the original journal article, and do not mention the module materials. If only an extract from an article is included in your module materials that you want to reference, you should use secondary referencing, with the module materials as the 'cited in' source, as described above.

Surname, Initial. (Year of publication) 'Title of message', Title of discussion board , in Module code: Module title . Available at: URL of VLE (Accessed: date).

Fitzpatrick, M. (2022) ‘A215 - presentation of TMAs', Tutor group discussion & Workbook activities , in A215: Creative writing . Available at: https://learn2.open.ac.uk/mod/forumng/discuss.php?d=4209566 (Accessed: 24 January 2022).

Note: When an ebook looks like a printed book, with publication details and pagination, reference as a printed book.

Surname, Initial. (Year of publication) Title . Edition if later than first. Place of publication: publisher. Series and volume number if relevant.

For ebooks that do not contain print publication details

Surname, Initial. (Year of publication) Title of book . Available at: DOI or URL (Accessed: date).

Example with one author:

Bell, J. (2014) Doing your research project . Maidenhead: Open University Press.

Adams, D. (1979) The hitchhiker's guide to the galaxy . Available at: http://www.amazon.co.uk/kindle-ebooks (Accessed: 23 June 2021).

Example with two or three authors:

Goddard, J. and Barrett, S. (2015) The health needs of young people leaving care . Norwich: University of East Anglia, School of Social Work and Psychosocial Studies.

Example with four or more authors:

Young, H.D. et al. (2015) Sears and Zemansky's university physics . San Francisco, CA: Addison-Wesley.

Note: You can choose one or other method to reference four or more authors (unless your School requires you to name all authors in your reference list) and your approach should be consistent.

Note: Books that have an editor, or editors, where each chapter is written by a different author or authors.

Surname of chapter author, Initial. (Year of publication) 'Title of chapter or section', in Initial. Surname of book editor (ed.) Title of book . Place of publication: publisher, Page reference.

Franklin, A.W. (2012) 'Management of the problem', in S.M. Smith (ed.) The maltreatment of children . Lancaster: MTP, pp. 83–95.

Surname, Initial. (Year of publication) 'Title of article', Title of Journal , volume number (issue number), page reference.

If accessed online:

Surname, Initial. (Year of publication) 'Title of article', Title of Journal , volume number (issue number), page reference. Available at: DOI or URL (if required) (Accessed: date).

Shirazi, T. (2010) 'Successful teaching placements in secondary schools: achieving QTS practical handbooks', European Journal of Teacher Education , 33(3), pp. 323–326.

Shirazi, T. (2010) 'Successful teaching placements in secondary schools: achieving QTS practical handbooks', European Journal of Teacher Education , 33(3), pp. 323–326. Available at: https://libezproxy.open.ac.uk/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/log... (Accessed: 27 January 2023).

Barke, M. and Mowl, G. (2016) 'Málaga – a failed resort of the early twentieth century?', Journal of Tourism History , 2(3), pp. 187–212. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1080/1755182X.2010.523145

Surname, Initial. (Year of publication) 'Title of article', Title of Newspaper , Day and month, Page reference.

Surname, Initial. (Year of publication) 'Title of article', Title of Newspaper , Day and month, Page reference if available. Available at: URL (Accessed: date).

Mansell, W. and Bloom, A. (2012) ‘£10,000 carrot to tempt physics experts’, The Guardian , 20 June, p. 5.

Roberts, D. and Ackerman, S. (2013) 'US draft resolution allows Obama 90 days for military action against Syria', The Guardian , 4 September. Available at: http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/sep/04/syria-strikes-draft-resolut... (Accessed: 9 September 2015).

Surname, Initial. (Year that the site was published/last updated) Title of web page . Available at: URL (Accessed: date).

Organisation (Year that the page was last updated) Title of web page . Available at: URL (Accessed: date).

Robinson, J. (2007) Social variation across the UK . Available at: https://www.bl.uk/british-accents-and-dialects/articles/social-variation... (Accessed: 21 November 2021).

The British Psychological Society (2018) Code of Ethics and Conduct . Available at: https://www.bps.org.uk/news-and-policy/bps-code-ethics-and-conduct (Accessed: 22 March 2019).

Note: Cite Them Right Online offers guidance for referencing webpages that do not include authors' names and dates. However, be extra vigilant about the suitability of such webpages.

Surname, Initial. (Year) Title of photograph . Available at: URL (Accessed: date).

Kitton, J. (2013) Golden sunset . Available at: https://www.jameskittophotography.co.uk/photo_8692150.html (Accessed: 21 November 2021).

stanitsa_dance (2021) Cossack dance ensemble . Available at: https://www.instagram.com/p/COI_slphWJ_/ (Accessed: 13 June 2023).

Note: If no title can be found then replace it with a short description.

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Conferences

Citing and referencing: conferences.

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Harvard Contents

  • Journals/Periodicals/Newspapers
  • Social media
  • Government sources/industry reports
  • Legal sources (including Treaties and United Nations Declarations)
  • Theses/dissertations
  • Data, figures and images
  • Speeches/broadcasts/ audiovisual/music scores/interviews
  • Live performances
  • Abbreviations and symbols used in referencing
  • Appendix A - Figure and table captions; Music notations
  • Appendices B & C - Quick guides to referencing articles and in-text citations
  • Appendix D - Sample Harvard style reference list

Page contents

  • Conference paper, in conference proceedings, print
  • Conference paper, online
  • Conference proceedings, published, print
  • Conference proceedings, online

Conference paper , in conference proceedings, print *‘proceedings’ means the collection of papers from a conference

Conference paper, online *the words ‘paper presented at’ indicate that this is an unpublished paper (the paper may also be published elsewhere)

Conference proceedings, published, print *to refer to the proceedings as a whole *‘proceedings’ means the collection of papers from a conference

Conference proceedings, online *to refer to the proceedings as a whole *‘proceedings’ means the collection of papers from a conference

  

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  • Leeds Harvard referencing examples

Conference presentation

Leeds harvard: conference presentation, reference examples.

Family name, INITIAL(S) (of the presenter). Year. Title of the presentation . Title of conference, date of conference, location of conference.

Newton, A.J. and Pullinger, D.J. 2012. Acting on PhD student feedback to create new learning resources. Librarians' Information Literacy Annual Conference, 11 April, Glasgow.

Slides from a conference presentation

Family name, INITIAL(S) (of the presenter). Year. Title of the presentation [PowerPoint presentation]. Title of conference, date of conference, location of conference.

Newton, A.J. and Pullinger, D.J. 2012. Acting on PhD student feedback to create new learning resources [PowerPoint presentation] . Librarians' Information Literacy Annual Conference, 11 April, Glasgow.

Citation examples

Author and date.

When the author name is not mentioned in the text, the citation consists of the author’s name and the year of publication in brackets.

It was emphasised that citations in the text should be consistent (Jones, 2017).

If you have already named the author in the text, only the publication year needs to be mentioned in brackets.

Jones (2017) emphasised that citations in the text should be consistent.

Three or more authors

If a source has three or more authors, the name of the first author should be given, followed by the phrase "et al."

It was emphasised that citations in a text should be consistent (Jones et al., 2017).

Jones et al. (2017) emphasised that citations in a text should be consistent.

Leeds Harvard does not use ibid to refer to previously cited items. If you are citing the same item twice in a row (i.e. you do not cite any other items in the text between the two citations) you must write the full citation again. As usual, if you are directly quoting or paraphrasing specific ideas, you should include a page number (if there is one). 

Jones et al. (2017, p.24) emphasised that citations in a text should be consistent and argued that referencing is a key part of academic integrity (2017, p.27). Furthermore, having a broad range of references in a text is an indicator of the breadth of a scholar's reading and research (Jones et al., 2017, p.14).

Common issues

When you're referencing with Leeds Harvard you may come across issues with missing details, multiple authors, edited books, references to another author's work or online items, to name a few. Here are some tips on how to deal with some common issues when using Leeds Harvard.

Skip straight to the issue that affects you:

  • Online items
  • URL web addresses
  • Multiple authors
  • Corporate author(s) or organisation(s)
  • Multiple publisher details
  • Editions and reprints
  • Missing details
  • Multiple sources with different authors
  • Sources written by the same author in the same year
  • Sources with the same author in different years
  • Two authors with the same surname in the same year
  • The work of one author referred to by another
  • Anonymising sources for confidentiality
  • Share full article

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Even so, the Harvard Corporation has been relatively quiet, other than to confirm that its leader, Penny Pritzker, a philanthropist and former Obama administration official, would stay on and conduct a new presidential search, just as she led the one that chose the previous president, Claudine Gay.

The Corporation has drawn criticism for its selection and support of Dr. Gay, who resigned on Jan. 2 after an uproar over her testimony to Congress that calling for the genocide of Jews was not necessarily a violation of Harvard’s code of conduct, depending on the context.

The Corporation has been faulted for not acting more quickly to address the matter, “letting the university twist in the wind,” as Steven Pinker, an outspoken psychology professor, put it in an interview. (He was quick to note that he had not called for Dr. Gay’s ouster.)

Among some members of the faculty, though, there is a sense that the university may go too far in appeasing its critics.

At the December congressional hearing that doomed Dr. Gay, Virginia Foxx, a North Carolina Republican, singled out a class at Harvard, “Race and Racism in the Making of the United States as a Global Power,” as an example of “ideology at work.”

The teacher of that class, Khalil Gibran Muhammad, said the charge was “absurd,” and that the class includes readings on the history of antisemitism in the United States. He said he was concerned that new conduct rules adopted in September, prohibiting discrimination by “political beliefs,” would lead students to complain if, like Dr. Foxx, they objected to the content of his classes.

“Prominent Black folks at this university do have reasons to worry” that their credentials will be questioned, he said.

In the fraught atmosphere, good intentions have sometimes led to problems.

Harvard’s decision to create task forces on antisemitism and Islamophobia on campus — usually the most anodyne of institutional responses — ran into trouble in late January, after Derek Penslar, a prominent scholar of Jewish studies, was tapped to co-chair the antisemitism task force.

Critics objected to his appointment, citing an open letter signed by Dr. Penslar and other academics and published before the Oct. 7 attacks, accusing Israel of being “a regime of apartheid.” The critics scoffed at his remarks, quoted in the Jewish press, saying that the degree of antisemitism at Harvard had been exaggerated.

Harvard’s failure to anticipate the skeptical response to Dr. Penslar’s appointment points to a leadership that is too insular, according to David Wolpe, a prominent rabbi and visiting scholar at Harvard’s divinity school.

“There’s an inability of the university to see how it would be seen, and there’s a maladroitness that is dispiriting to many of the Jewish students and faculty and staff,” Rabbi Wolpe said.

Dr. Penslar, who remains co-chair of the task force, declined to comment for this article. His supporters bristled at what they saw as facile criticism of a respected scholar.

“For him to be vetoed, from the outside, for expressing his views — particularly given that they’re pretty mainstream views — is just a terrible, terrible precedent,” said Steven Levitsky, a professor of Latin American studies and government at Harvard. Contrary to the public portrayal, Dr. Penslar is “a self-avowed Zionist,” Dr. Levitsky said.

Some alumni are trying to shake things up. Several independent candidates mounted a campaign for seats on Harvard’s Board of Overseers, the university’s second governing body. The candidates failed to gather enough petition signatures to get on the ballot, but have vowed to keep pushing.

One of those candidates, Sam Lessin, a 2005 Harvard graduate and venture capitalist, said the election process itself exposed the issues with leadership.

Harvard’s governance system is “almost like a peacetime organization,” not suited to navigating troubled waters, he said. Candidates for the Board of Overseers are normally nominated through the alumni association, and the position is often perceived as “a glorified reward for being a booster.”

Some faculty members are also organizing. About 170 Harvard professors have joined a council on academic freedom, co-founded last spring by Dr. Pinker, to counter what he describes as “an intellectual monoculture.”

Dr. Pinker believes that if Harvard had adopted a policy of institutional neutrality and refrained from taking stands on vexing issues of the day, some of the agony of recent months might have been avoided.

“Universities should get out of the habit of giving mini-sermons every time there’s an event in the news,” he said.

Dr. Pinker has made a puckish hobby of collecting headlines and cartoons that make fun of Harvard’s reputational troubles. A bumper sticker in his collection says, “My son didn’t go to Harvard.”

For all that, though, Harvard “still has the brand, it has the legacy,” Dr. Pinker said. “Whether it’ll get back on track, I don’t know. I suspect it will.”

Stephanie Saul contributed reporting. Sheelagh McNeill contributed research.

Anemona Hartocollis is a national reporter for The Times, covering higher education. More about Anemona Hartocollis

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  1. Harvard Style Citation Guide

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  4. Harvard Referencing Style: Guide to Academic Writing

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COMMENTS

  1. Conference paper

    Reference list: Jones, D. (1999). 'Developing big business', Large firms policy and research conference. University of Birmingham, 18-19 December. Leeds: Institute for Large Businesses. Last Updated: Feb 15, 2024 9:40 AM University College London, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT +44 (0)20 7679 2000

  2. How to Cite and Reference a Conference Paper in the Harvard Style

    Referencing a Conference Paper When adding a conference paper to a Harvard reference list, follow this format: Author, A. (year of publication) "Title of Paper", Title of Conference. Location, date of conference. Place of publication, Publisher, page numbers. If you found the conference paper online, format the entry this way:

  3. Referencing: Conference paper (harvard)

    Reference conference papers using Harvard style Conference paper - paper presented at conference: Format: Paper author, AA year of publication, 'Title of paper', paper presented at Name of conference, Place of conference, date-date Month year.

  4. Conference Proceedings

    Introduction Why is Referencing Important? Getting Started Reference Formats References by Format Citing Info Someone Else has Cited Books/eBooks No Authors 1, 2 or More Authors No Editors 1, 2 or More Editors Chapters in Books Company Information Company Reports Company Profiles Conference Proceedings Print Online Internet/Websites Websites Blogs

  5. How to Cite Conference Papers in Harvard Style

    To cite a conference paper in your reference list, you must include the following: Author name Conference date Title of the paper Title of the conference Location of the conference Link to online presentation (where available) Format for citing a conference paper: Harvard style Surname, Initial (s).

  6. Conference paper or conference proceedings

    If the proceedings have been published as a book, you should reference them as follows: Print Family name, INITIAL (S). Year. Title of paper. In: Family name, INITIAL (S) (of editor if known). ed. Title of conference proceedings, date of conference, location of conference. Place of publication: Publisher, page number (s). Example:

  7. Referencing

    Example source: This conference paper was presented as part of this conference event. Citing in the main text of your work. e.g. In their 2016 conference paper, Standaert and Jarvenpaa (p.2) state "[Quoted text would be inserted here]"... Referencing in list at the end of your work. Surname/Family Name, INITIALS., Year. Title of contribution.

  8. Cite A Conference proceedings in Harvard style

    Cite A Conference proceedings in Harvard style Use the following template or our Harvard Referencing Generator how to cite a conference. For help with other source types, like books, PDFs, or websites, check out our other guides. To have your reference list or bibliography automatically made for you, try our free citation generator. Reference list

  9. Library guides: Harvard Referencing Guide: Conference papers

    Reference list Rahman M (2013) Using authentic materials in the writing classes: tertiary level scenario [master's thesis], BRAC University, accessed 5 May 2017. Unpublished thesis Elements of the reference Author A (Year) Title of thesis: subtitle of thesis [unpublished type of thesis], Name of University, accessed Day Month Year. Reference list

  10. Conference Papers and Theses

    Conference papers should be referenced in a similar way to journal articles. List the titles of papers in single quotation marks and sentence case, followed by the name of the conference proceedings in italics and title case. For proceedings accessed online, include the doi or accessed date Day Month Year and URL, or the database.

  11. Conferences

    Newspapers Secondary sources Back to Academic Integrity guide Conferences Reference: Author (s) Last Name, Initials. (Year) 'Title of paper', Title of conference: subtitle. Location and date of conference. Place of publication: Publisher, Pages numbers.

  12. Conference Papers

    Conference papers are usually published in specific journals or online on the conference website: Reference an individual paper published in a journal as a journal article - See Journal Articles page. Reference an individual paper published online as: Author. (Year of publication) 'Title of paper', Title of conference: subtitle.

  13. Library Guides: Harvard referencing style: Conference papers

    Kadi, A., Kutay, C. & Canning, J. 2017, 'Flipped learning not flopped learning', paper presented to the 28th Annual Conference of the Australasian Association for Engineering Education (AAEE 2017), Sydney, Australia, 10-13 December 2017, viewed 24 September 2019, https://search-informit-com.

  14. Conference paper

    Conference paper - Harvard Referencing (2002 version) - Library Guides at James Cook University Harvard Referencing (2002 version) Conference paper - Presented at a conference Format: Paper author, AA year of publication, 'Title of paper', paper presented at Name of conference, Place of conference, date-date Month year (of conference).

  15. 11. Conference papers and proceedings

    Conference papers and proceedings - USQ Harvard AGPS Referencing Guide. 11. Conference papers and proceedings. 1. PUBLISHED PAPERS. For papers collected and published as proceedings, include page numbers at the end of the reference list entry. Further description can be provided after the conference title if useful. (Author Surname Year, p.

  16. Guides and databases: Harvard: Conference proceedings

    Reference List: Institute for Large Businesses (1999). Large firms policy and research conference. University of Birmingham, December 18-19. Leeds: Institute for Large Businesses. Quick links Last Updated: Feb 15, 2024 9:40 AM https://library-guides.ucl.ac.uk/harvard University College London, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT +44 (0)20 7679 2000

  17. Conference paper: how to cite in Harvard style?

    Within the Harvard referencing system, a conference paper published in conference proceedings is treated as a chapter of an edited book, due to which the templates for bibliographic references are almost the same as for a book chapter.

  18. A Quick Guide to Harvard Referencing

    When you cite a source with up to three authors, cite all authors' names. For four or more authors, list only the first name, followed by ' et al. ': Number of authors. In-text citation example. 1 author. (Davis, 2019) 2 authors. (Davis and Barrett, 2019) 3 authors.

  19. Conference papers and webinars

    Format: Example: Conference paper published online: Author, AA (Day Month Year) 'Title of paper: subtitle of paper' [conference paper], Name of Conference, Place of Conference, accessed Day Month Year. Winstone, N and Boud, D (6-8 December 2017) 'Supporting students' engagement with feedback: the adoption of student-focused feedback practices in the UK and Australia' [conference ...

  20. Harvard Referencing

    Reference a Conference Paper in Harvard There are two essential components of the Harvard Referencing Style, in-text citations and the reference list. Every in-text citation should have a corresponding entry in the reference list and vice versa.

  21. Quick guide to Harvard referencing (Cite Them Right)

    There are different versions of the Harvard referencing style. This guide is a quick introduction to the commonly-used Cite Them Right version. You will find further guidance available through the OU Library on the Cite Them Right Database. For help and support with referencing and the full Cite Them Right guide, have a look at the Library's ...

  22. Subject guides: Citing and referencing: Conferences

    7) point out, conferences 'have mainly featured examples of curricula and experience reports'. *pinpoint the quote. *use and in sentence. Quoting - Information prominent. 'Novel questions for this just emerging discipline' are the focus of the conference papers (van der Veer, Sloep & van Eekelen 2011, p. 7).

  23. Conference presentation

    Library Study and research support Referencing Leeds Harvard referencing examples Conference presentation Leeds Harvard: Conference presentation Reference examples Conference presentation Family name, INITIAL (S) (of the presenter). Year. Title of the presentation. Title of conference, date of conference, location of conference. Example:

  24. Sponsors: 3rd International Conference on Engineering and Science

    References Co-Reads Similar Papers Volume Content Graphics Metrics Export Citation NASA/ADS. Sponsors: 3rd International Conference on Engineering and Science Abstract. Publication: American Institute of Physics Conference Series. Pub Date: February 2024 DOI: 10.1063/12.0024455 Bibcode: 2024AIPC.3051a0002. ...

  25. At Harvard, Some Wonder What It Will Take to Stop the Spiral

    When 70 university presidents gathered for a summit at the end of January, the topic on everyone's mind was the crisis at Harvard. The hosts of the summit treated the university, battered by ...