paradise toni morrison essay

Toni Morrison

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Paradise begins with nine unnamed men attacking a Convent , which houses a group of women the men believe to be sinful. As the men see the women escaping, they fire their guns.

The story then moves back in time to chronicle how the women came to the Convent and why the men have come to kill them. The first woman to move to the Convent is Mavis , whose husband Frank has abused her to the point of constant self-doubt and paranoia. After she accidentally kills her infant children by leaving them in the car, she flees Frank and finds her way to the Convent, which stands outside the all-Black town of Ruby, Oklahoma.

A middle-aged woman named Connie lives in the Convent with an old woman she calls Mother , and they welcome Mavis to stay. Connie herself came to the Convent as a child, when Mother (a nun named Mary Magna) took Connie from the streets of Brazil and raised her in the Convent, which formerly served as a residential school for Native American girls. Connie has since been utterly devoted to Mary Magna.

Gigi arrives next. She’s a confident and sensual woman who left home in search of a legendary rock formation. The rock formation, which her ex-lover described to her, allegedly resembles a couple having sex, but Gigi finds no evidence the rock formation exists. She comes to Ruby after hearing of a different legend, and though she does not find that either, she chooses to stay at the Convent, much to Mavis’s dismay.

Next to arrive is Seneca , who was abandoned by her teen mother as a child and has since tried to appease everyone in her life to keep them from leaving. Like Mavis, Seneca leaves an abusive partner, but she only finds the strength to leave after her boyfriend is sent to prison and his mother tells her to leave. Seneca then enters a degrading relationship with a wealthy older woman. After the woman dismisses her, Seneca hitchhikes around the country until she ends up at the Convent.

The final woman to come to the Convent is Pallas , a wealthy high schooler who runs away from home with her older boyfriend Carlos . The couple goes to stay with Pallas’s estranged mother Dee Dee , but Pallas runs away again when she discovers that Dee Dee and Carlos are having an affair. While on the run, Pallas is assaulted by a group of boys and hides in a body of water. She falls ill and is taken to a hospital, where an employee from Ruby named Billie Delia recognizes her and sends her to the Convent.

For several years, the Convent’s community is disjointed, which only worsens when Mary Magna dies and the Convent’s leader Connie falls into a deep depression; Connie’s hatred for her healing power of “stepping in,” which pious Connie believes to be unholy, only worsens her mental health. Eventually, though, Connie decides the women need to come together in order to heal their individual traumas, and her leadership brings the Convent together as a tight-knit, supportive community.

Interweaved with the women’s arrivals is the story of Ruby’s founding and the mounting conflict that arises between the town’s older and younger generations. Ruby is founded by nine Black families who come from Haven, another all-Black town founded by Zechariah Morgan. Haven was founded after a group of Black travelers were rejected by other Black towns for being too dark-skinned, and that exclusion made Haven––and eventually Ruby––determined to preserve the town’s isolation.

After Haven started to crumble, Zechariah’s twin grandsons Steward and Deek led nine families to found a new town, bringing with them the Oven that served as Haven’s town center. The patriarchs of these founding families exert their control over Ruby for years, but as Black people around the country start uniting for civil rights in the 1960s, Ruby’s young people begin to push against the isolationism of their elders. The older generation takes this as a disrespect to tradition, and conflicts break out on both town-wide and more personal scales.

These conflicts come to a head at the Oven. Zechariah Morgan engraved a phrase on the Oven that has since faded, leaving only the words “…the Furrow of His Brow.” Tradition maintains that the intended message is “Beware the Furrow of His Brow,” but the young people find this cowardly and passive. They insist that the initial engraving was really “Be the Furrow of His Brow.”

Supporting the young people is Reverend Misner , a civil rights activist who is new to town, and his girlfriend Anna Flood . On the opposing side are the conservative Reverend Pulliam and the Morgan brothers. Many of the older women of Ruby are unsure which side to support, including Dovey and Soane Morgan , the wives of Steward and Deek. Pat Best , a schoolteacher and the mother of Billie Delia, has been shunned her entire life because her mother was a light-skinned outsider, yet she still rejects the young people’s call for change and defends Ruby’s traditions to Reverend Misner.

The leaders of Ruby seek a scapegoat for the conflicts in town, and they decide to blame the Convent women. Lone DuPres , Ruby’s elderly midwife, overhears nine men planning to attack the Convent. Among these men are the Morgan twins and their nephew K.D. Deek Morgan formerly had an affair with Connie, and his internalized shame about it largely fuels his hatred for the her. Steward, on the other hand, is simply outraged at the women’s defiance of what he believes a woman should be and how a woman should act.

Lone tries to rally the townspeople against the men, but they are unwilling to take immediate action, giving the nine men enough time to break into the Convent and murder its inhabitants. Deek tries to stop Steward from shooting Connie, and when Steward shoots her anyway, the bond between the brothers severs.

After the massacre, Ruby sees the first death within the town limits since its founding: an infant named Save-Marie, one of four severely ill children of Jeff Fleetwood , who was one of the nine attackers. This death marks the future’s arrival in Ruby, as the town can no longer remain stuck in the past. The bodies of the women disappear from the Convent, and when Misner and Anna Flood go to investigate, they sense some kind of doorway on the property. In a series of short scenes, the women appear to their family members. Connie sits somewhere called Paradise, watching a boat of new arrivals come to do the endless work they were all created for.

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Summary and Study Guide

Toni Morrison’s novel Paradise was published in 1997, just a few years after she won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1993. According to Morrison, it is the last book of a trilogy that includes Beloved and Jazz . Morrison is an esteemed American novelist, having also received the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction (1998) and the Coretta Scott King Award for Authors (2005), among other awards. She was educated at Howard University and Cornell University, and she wrote a great deal of critical scholarship on race as well as on the practice of writing. This guide cites the First Vintage International Edition, published in 2014. This guide also briefly mentions sexual assault, self-harm, abortion, and gun violence, as they appear in the narrative .

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Spanning five generations and 15 families, Paradise tells the story of the development, maintenance, and unraveling of an isolated all-Black Oklahoma town named Ruby. Seventeen miles south is a closed-down Convent that houses five women who live outside the values that Ruby holds dear. The novel explores love, hatred, and the lengths to which people will go to protect their “paradise.” A book that offers a nuanced take on women’s empowerment, Paradise ’s chapters are each named after a woman in the novel. In this sprawling text, Morrison creates a complete picture of Ruby, the Convent , and the men and women who inhabit them.

Chapter 1 begins with a group of armed men from the town of Ruby walking through the Convent in deadly search of the five women who live there. They believe the women to be immoral and an evil influence on their town. Ruby is a small, all-Black town that deliberately excludes outsiders. This fear comes from Ruby’s troubled past, its relationship to a failed town called Haven, and a continued caution against racism. Conflicts and intergenerational division are brewing in Ruby, and the elders look to the Convent as a scapegoat for the unrest. The men aim their rifles at three of the fleeing Convent women.

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The next chapter, “Mavis,” introduces a 27-year-old woman being interviewed by a local journalist about the accidental deaths of her twin infants, Merle and Pearl. Mavis left the children in a car on a hot day while she went shopping. Mavis is also in a destructive relationship with a man named Frank. She suffers from what seem to be paranoid delusions that Frank and her other children are plotting to kill her. When Mavis flees this situation, she stumbles upon the Convent.

The next chapter, “Grace,” takes its name from the character of Gigi, though it opens on K.D. arguing with Arnette in Ruby. Annette is pregnant with K. D.’s baby, causing much family discord as they worry about the family’s prominence in Ruby. Gigi arrives in Ruby looking every bit the outsider, and once the book shifts back to her, we learn that she’s recently separated from her boyfriend Mikey, who has been sentenced to three months in jail. Eventually, Gigi makes it to the Convent.

In “Seneca,” we meet Dovey Morgan and her husband, Steward. Chapter 4 introduces twin brothers Steward and Deacon “Deek” Morgan. The growing generational divide in Ruby is upsetting to the brothers, who recall the story of how the Old Fathers founded Haven, the town that preceded Ruby. Meanwhile, we meet Seneca , who is wandering after leaving her incarcerated abusive boyfriend. While hitchhiking, she sees Sweetie Fleetwood and randomly decides to follow her to the Convent.

“Divine” opens with a sermon about love at K. D. and Arnette’s wedding that only highlights the townspeople’s lack of empathy for the Convent and one another. The Convent women—with the new addition, Pallas—are kicked out of the wedding reception for behaving wildly. Pallas ran away from home after learning that her mother, Divine “Dee Dee” Truelove, was having an affair with her boyfriend. This chapter also illuminates the alternative histories lived by the men and the women of Ruby, who, though together, have very different experiences.

“Consolata” features Connie, who lives at the Convent and suffers from depression and alcoholism. The chapter focuses on the idea that we seek out and create new families when our biological ones fail us. The next chapter, “Lone,” focuses on a former midwife in Ruby and reveals that one of the city’s main projects is to control the town’s women.

The final chapter, “Save-Marie,” is named after a now-deceased girl. Her death inspires Ruby’s minister to chastise the town’s people and question the attack at the Convent. That attack seemingly broke a deal with God. The novel ends as the spirits of the Convent’s women appear to people from their pasts. Paradise explores the themes of gender and the tensions that come with it, organized religion and loose spirituality, and the pursuit of a personal paradise .

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Paradise summary and analysis of "patricia".

It is December 1974, and Patricia Best is preparing for the annual school Christmas play. She thinks of her father, Roger Best , who currently runs an ambulance and mortuary business. He does not have much work, as no one seems to die in Ruby. However, he is continually coming up with new schemes, and his newest is that he wants to open a gas station. He believes that if he is able to establish a franchise, they might pave the roads to Ruby, though he also knows that the older generations will refuse this as they like that Ruby is isolated and inaccessible. Roger had once hoped to be a doctor, but was unable to attend medical school. It is common belief in Ruby that Roger in some way caused the death of his wife Delia, but from Patricia’s recollection it seems to have been an accident.

Pat has been working a project: a collection of the family trees and histories of the citizens of Ruby. However, she has run into a wall because families - or specifically the women - will only tell her so much. Additionally, the oral histories she is able to obtain from the women lack the kind of documentation evidence that Pat would want to back them up. Though this project was initially a hobby, Pat has become deeply invested in the task. She painstakingly records the “nine large intact families who made the original journey” (188) from Haven to Ruby. These nine original families made up around 81 people, and were joined by fragments of other families making up 50 or so more. On this journey, the families were cast out of a town they sought help in, the town of Fairly, Oklahoma. This is an event they now call ‘the Disallowing’. Although the founding group was hostile to whites, this “horror” was “abstract” (189). “They saved the clarity of their hatred for the men who had insulted them in ways too confounding for language” (189) - that is, the light-skinned blacks who refused to offer them shelter for longer than a night. Though the residents of Fairly took up a collection for the journeying group and offered food and blankets, the founding fathers refused to take any of it. It was the women who secretly brought the food, though not the money or blankets, to distribute to the children. Lone DuPres was one of two orphans the group picked up along the way. She was adopted into the DuPres family and to this day serves as the midwife in Ruby, though in recent times her services have been shunned in favor of hospital births, which hurts Lone as she knows that some superstitiously still blame her for the Fleetwood babies. Pat speculates that K.D. and Arnette will not have many children, as Arnette’s mother only had two, and the Morgans themselves have not had as many children in the most recent generation as in those past.

In her tree, Pat marks each of the original nine families with the note, “8-R.” This stands for “eight-rock,” itself referencing “a deep deep level in the coal mines” (193). The 8-R families are very dark-skinned: “blue-black peole, tall and graceful” (193). Their ancestors believed the pertinent divisions to be those of slavery and wealth, but in the post-Civil War world they realized they faced another kind of discrimination: discrimination by light-skinned blacks against the dark-skinned. They were denied jobs and socially shunned: “the racial purity they had taken for granted had become a stain” (194). Zechariah Morgan long feared the dispersal of the 8-rock families through marriage to outsiders. Pat notes that the men of Ruby going to war and mixing with the outside world could and should have spelled the end of pure lineages in Ruby. However, the insularity of the community was only reinforced, because the young men who went out into the world found that the same color prejudice existed then as it had a half-century earlier.

Pat notes that her father, Roger Best, was the first to break the unspoken color rule by marrying her light-skinned mother, Delia. Pat writes to her father in her history that people don’t hate the Bests because of the circumstances of Delia’s death, but rather because “she looked like a cracker and was bound to have cracker-looking children like me” (196). She recalls that Menus, too, brought home “a pretty sandy-haired girl from Virginia” (195) to marry, and was pressured into giving her up. He lost - or was perhaps forced out of - the house he bought for the two of them to live in (the house where Dovey now stays in town), and has been an alcoholic ever since.

Pat writes in the history to her mother Delia. Delia died in childbirth. The wives of Ruby had wanted to drive out to the Convent to seek the help of a nun who had worked in a hospital, but the men made various excuses - seemingly to avoid bringing a white person into town, or asking a white person to help, or out of spite for Delia and Roger. By the time Reverent Pulliam could be convinced to go get help, it was too late. Delia and Ruby Smith, K.D.’s mother, are the only people to ever have died in Ruby, and Pat writes that the seeming immortality of Ruby’s citizens might somehow be to spite Roger and his mortuary business.

Pat reflects on the rift between her and Billie Delia. Like everyone in town, Pat believes her daughter is sinful and promiscuous, reinforced by the relationship she has observed between her daughter and the Poole boys. A year ago, they had a fight because Pat did not believe Billie Delia’s claim of innocence; the fight turned violent and Billie Delia fled to the Convent, where she stayed for two weeks before announcing to her mother that she was moving away. She wonders why she has always felt wary of her daughter. She notes that if Billie Delia had been 8-rock, she is certain the episode with the horse would not have been held against her. Pat does not know whether she has “defended Billie Delia or sacrificed her” (203).

Nathan DuPres , as is the tradition since he is believed to be the oldest person in Ruby, gives a speech before the Christmas play. Everyone believes Nathan to be rambling incoherently as he describes a dream he had about a bean crop that looks strong, but which an Indian tells him is the wrong color and crippled by polluted water. Nathan relates his dream to the Nativity story that is about to be performed, saying that it “shows the strength of our crop if we understand it” (205), but the danger of it if they do not.

Pat has a conversation with Reverend Misner. Misner is trying to figure out if something is wrong at the Pooles’, but Pat refuses to help, telling him that in Ruby people keep to themselves. Pat and Reverend Misner also disagree about the education of the young; Misner says that the young want to learn about their African roots, but Pat dismisses this, saying that Africa has nothing to do with the residents of Ruby today. Misner says that people need roots and context, that “isolation kills generations” (210). Pat asks him whether he thinks the elders of Ruby love their children. Misner responds that he thinks “they love them to death” (210).

Richard notes that the nativity play seems to be a re-enactment of the founding of Ruby. Just like the Holy Family was denied at the inn, the founders of Ruby were rejected during the Disallowing. There are not just one Mary and Joseph, but rather seven pairs. He asks Pat why, however, there are only seven, when there were nine original families. Pat brushes him off, but reflects that he is right to ask why there are only seven. She thinks that one of the absences reflects the Cato family, whose line was cut when Billy, Pat’s husband, died. She cannot figure out, however, which family the latest absence reflects. When she gets home, she asks her father about it, but he is circumspect: Roger does not see the intentional malice that Pat sees in the residents of Ruby. Suddenly, Pat decides to burn the papers from her project in the backyard.

This section develops concretely a theme that has been alluded to in previous sections: the idea of alternative histories, especially ones maintained by women. Though there is an official history surrounding the founding of Ruby that centers on the heroism, glory and moral rectitude of the founding fathers, there are other sides to the story that have only been maintained orally by women. The women to whom Pat speaks, who have kept the record of forgotten wives and disowned brothers, exemplify this. However, Pat, who is attempting to make a record and investigate these concealed stories, also exemplifies this theme. Evident in this alternative history is also the way in which the pride and heroism of the men has occasionally come at the expense of practicality: when the Disallowing occured, the men were so offended that they left behind the food offered to them by the residents of Fairly. The women, however, returned for the food in order to feed the children.

With the revelation of Pat’s eight-rock classification, the narrative continues to complicate: we learn that not only did Roger Best not contribute to the death of his wife, but also that she might have died because of prejudice against light-skinned blacks. We learn that Menus might be an alcoholic, and might have been swindled out of his house, not simply because of financial difficulty but because of opposition in town to his marrying a light-skinned outsider. Finally, we learn that the reason why the episode from Billie Delia’s early childhood has followed her around might be because she is the granddaughter of Delia Best , and therefore from a “contaminated” line.

The Disallowing, it becomes clear, is one of the central founding myths of Ruby. Whereas Steward and Deek’s vision of the nineteen Negro ladies is a positive founding myth, demonstrating what the brothers would want Ruby to be, the Disallowing is a negative myth, shared by the entire town and representative of what they have been denied in the outside world. Pat’s reflections on the history of Ruby definitively show that it is not just fear or defiance of a white world that motivates Ruby. In fact, more precisely defiance of a world beholden to colorism, where the light-skinned black person would reject the dark-skinned black person, fuels the isolationist tendencies of Ruby citizens.

Everyone has their own prejudices. Pat can perceive clearly the hatefulness of the eight-rock families and how it has led to such tragedies as her mother’s death and the alcoholism of Menus; however, she cannot see how she is wrong about her own daughter, and how the same hatred that she resents in the eight-rock families has poisoned her relationship with Billie Delia. Pat realizes that “ever since Billie Delia was an infant, she thought of her as a liability somehow. Vulnerable to the possibility of not being quite as much of a lady as Patricia Cato would like” (203).

Nathan DuPres’ oration before the Christmas play is one of a number of significant dreams in the novel. Though Nathan appears to digress randomly and everyone takes it for granted that his speech is incoherent, his dream is in fact very meaningful. He has a vision of a crop that appears strong and healthy, but which a Cheyenne Indian - alluding to the history of the land before the residents of Ruby arrived there - points out to him is the wrong color, red. The Indian also shows him that the water source nourishing the plants is polluted. Nathan suggests that the dream shows the “the strength of our crop if we understand it,” but how “it can break us if we don’t” (205). It is a clear analogue for the youth of Ruby. They are passionate and strong-minded, and could bolster Ruby if the adults are willing to listen to them. However, the generational conflict could also tear Ruby apart if the adults remain unwilling to listen to the youth.

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Paradise Questions and Answers

The Question and Answer section for Paradise is a great resource to ask questions, find answers, and discuss the novel.

How Old was Lone when she started to drive a car in Toni Morrison's Paradise?

Lone was seventy-nine-years old.

Chapter 3, Class 6

The only reference to "sweetness" in Chapter Three, Grace, is Misner's reference to the "sweetest of sleeps", which he attributes to having eaten Anna's food. Milk and sugar are not mentioned.

what would be a good thesis statement for a seminar paper that looks at the concept of black exceptionalism in "Paradise" by Toni Morrison

Wow, a thesis statement for a seminar paper is an important thing. Check out colorism below:

Study Guide for Paradise

Paradise is a novel by Toni Morrison. The Paradise study guide contains a biography of author Toni Morrison, literature essays, quiz questions, major themes, characters, and a full summary and analysis.

  • About Paradise
  • Paradise Summary
  • Character List

Essays for Paradise

Paradise essays are academic essays for citation. These papers were written primarily by students and provide critical analysis of literary work Paradise by Toni Morrison.

  • The of Role of Myth in Morrison's Paradise
  • A Song of the People
  • Abort the Matriarchy?: Failed Mothers of the Patriarchal Systems within Faulkner’s As I Lay Dying and Morrison’s Paradise

Lesson Plan for Paradise

  • About the Author
  • Study Objectives
  • Common Core Standards
  • Introduction to Paradise
  • Relationship to Other Books
  • Bringing in Technology
  • Notes to the Teacher
  • Related Links
  • Paradise Bibliography

Wikipedia Entries for Paradise

  • Introduction
  • Films and television

paradise toni morrison essay

Love Theme in “Paradise” by Toni Morrison

Introduction, the determination of steward, steward’s tribulations, dovey’s insights and approaches.

The novel Paradise was written in 1997, and it was Morrison’s first book after winning the Nobel Prize in literature in 1993. Paradise stresses the affection of God, and it is the author’s third novel focusing on various kinds of love. All the chapters in the book are dedicated to specific characters, allowing them to air their views. Morrison tells two parallel stories, one in Ruby and Haven, and another in the Convent. One of the protagonists who assist in developing the author’s themes is Ruby Steward (Morrison 33). For every material that Steward gets, he sacrifices something of more value without his realization.

Steward and Deacon witness much discrimination against the Blacks as well as racial prejudice in Haven, which is the place they call home. Determined to continue the mission of self-sufficiency which was started by their parents, they depart from Haven with a group of 15 people to begin a new town for the black people only. The men led by Steward leave with the oven because they regard it as the most valuable item in comparison with other objects. They painstakingly build the town, although it is for symbolic and not practical purposes (Morrison 55). The town is eventually named Ruby after the name of Morgan’s sister who died because of being denied medical attention due to racial discrimination.

Steward Morgan, who is one of the major characters, is undergoing one misery after another because of the mysterious damages he is experiencing. He owns a bank together with his brother Deacon but the benefits of the financial institution are less than the bitter losses he is getting. Steward is faced with several issues: firstly, he marries Dovey, but they are unable to bear children. Secondly, he continues to experience problems during his entire life, because, irrespective of his achievements in material gains, he is not regarded as the head of the family; rather the Morgans are the ones who are given that responsibility. Steward continues to suffer untold miseries despite his relative material acquisition. He continues to be alienated from his family members due to the events caused by the attack, and their divergent attitudes towards the events leading to the raid (Morrison 57). However, of the two brothers, Steward is the most outspoken because he articulates his issues openly without fear. The more Steward is blessed materially, the less connected he becomes to the natural world leaving him in a state of desperation. He loses several things in his life including his taste buds, hair, and the trees on his land, which leaves him devastated. Steward is in total anguish because he has broken linkage to the land which his ancestors desired to own freely (Morrison 59). He has completely been disconnected from God because he is not accustomed to the realities of nature. Steward loses his sense of taste because of chewing tobacco for many decades. His wife is in deep reflection of the things they have forfeited since they got married; which gives her great pain because that was not her expectation when they began living together. According to her assessment, the more the husband gains in terms of money, the more he is subjected to visible complications. Every time Steward gets something extra in his life, the wife thinks that he will fail in something else which is more important than the one that is achieved (Morrison 63). The discovery that they would not be able to have children in their lives is the biggest harm that will never be erased from her mind. Steward and his wife are traumatized by life, and they are left with psychological injuries that hamper them from being tolerant of trusting anybody. When Steward makes a handsome real estate deal that would bring much money, Dovey feels that the husband is going to lose the battle with Reverend Misner of a slogan that was attached to the oven. The problem that Steward and Morgan cannot have children is compounded by the death of Soane and Deek’s sons at war leaving the family without any imminent heir. Steward and Deacon are the epitomai of a unified authority because they share the common purpose and belief until the murder which took place in July leading to their division (Morrison 68). Each of them interprets the words described in the holy oven based on their relationship with the oven originator.

Motherhood is one of the central themes in the novel as portrayed by most of the female characters in the book. Dovey searches for parental care, freedom, love, and peace despite the challenges she is undergoing in her family. She is fighting for the Haven of women where they are not prisoners of patriarchy which had permeated every aspect of the society. She is one of the women who are clamoring for equality irrespective of one’s color or race, and she does not possess any ideals of only material gains. She believes that, as the acquisition of wealth is important, there should be a balance between the spiritual and material things (Morrison 70). She develops this belief after realizing how her husband is gaining material wealth but trailing in other aspects because he has lost connection with nature. Dovey believes that one can only be successful if one creates a balance between the visible and invisible worlds, which represent the things that can be seen and the ones that cannot. She is convinced that the tribulation her husband is going through is because of not creating a balance between those issues. She is also of the opinion that spiritual matters are as important as cultural ones. That is the reason she is concerned that her husband will disagree with Reverend Misner because they represent two contrary views. She tries to reconcile them through the comments she makes when she is referring to the problems her husband is undergoing (Morrison 73). Dovey seems to be a woman of insight who is not corrupted by the cultural issues that are dear to her husband. Dovey Morgan is utterly worried about the future of her town as well as the fate of her husband regarding the series of losses he is incurring. It demonstrates that she was happier at the time she was married but after sometimes family problems increased. She cannot help thinking about the difficulties her husband has been experiencing ranging from the loss of hair on his head, taste, and land. She is aware that their inability to have children is due to her husband but she is not ready to confront him over the issue. Dovey thinks deeply about Ruby and the problems the town has been confronting in recent times. She peruses the list of individuals: the drunkards in town, the unruly teenagers, and the daughters who do not respect their mothers (Morrison 88). All these issues disturb her immensely, and she is not settled at all as she tries to find a solution. The two main characters, Steward and Dovey, undergo untold misery in their marriage lives because of their divergent views regarding life. However, both converge on the fact that all people should be treated equally irrespective of their color or race. Steward has tried his best to ensure that he lives according to the desires of his ancestors but, he is encountering problems that have thwarted his desire.

Morrison, Toni. Paradise . Vintage Books. 1997

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15 men brought to military enlistment office after mass brawl in Moscow Oblast

Local security forces brought 15 men to a military enlistment office after a mass brawl at a warehouse of the Russian Wildberries company in Elektrostal, Moscow Oblast on Feb. 8, Russian Telegram channel Shot reported .

29 people were also taken to police stations. Among the arrested were citizens of Kyrgyzstan.

A mass brawl involving over 100 employees and security personnel broke out at the Wildberries warehouse in Elektrostal on Dec. 8.

Read also: Moscow recruits ‘construction brigades’ from Russian students, Ukraine says

We’re bringing the voice of Ukraine to the world. Support us with a one-time donation, or become a Patron !

Read the original article on The New Voice of Ukraine

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The University of Texas at Austin

19th Edition of Global Conference on Catalysis, Chemical Engineering & Technology

  • Victor Mukhin

Victor Mukhin, Speaker at Chemical Engineering Conferences

Victor M. Mukhin was born in 1946 in the town of Orsk, Russia. In 1970 he graduated the Technological Institute in Leningrad. Victor M. Mukhin was directed to work to the scientific-industrial organization "Neorganika" (Elektrostal, Moscow region) where he is working during 47 years, at present as the head of the laboratory of carbon sorbents.     Victor M. Mukhin defended a Ph. D. thesis and a doctoral thesis at the Mendeleev University of Chemical Technology of Russia (in 1979 and 1997 accordingly). Professor of Mendeleev University of Chemical Technology of Russia. Scientific interests: production, investigation and application of active carbons, technological and ecological carbon-adsorptive processes, environmental protection, production of ecologically clean food.   

Title : Active carbons as nanoporous materials for solving of environmental problems

Quick links.

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  1. Paradise

    paradise toni morrison essay

  2. Book Review: Toni Morrison || Paradise

    paradise toni morrison essay

  3. Paradise

    paradise toni morrison essay

  4. Paradise

    paradise toni morrison essay

  5. Paradise

    paradise toni morrison essay

  6. Paradise by Toni Morrison

    paradise toni morrison essay


  1. Paradise

    PARADISE, Toni Morrison's first novel since she was awarded the 1993 Nobel Prize in Literature, rises easily to the level of her best work. It takes place in Ruby, Oklahoma, the second...

  2. Paradise Study Guide

    Summary Welcome to the LitCharts study guide on Toni Morrison's Paradise. Created by the original team behind SparkNotes, LitCharts are the world's best literature guides. Paradise: Introduction A concise biography of Toni Morrison plus historical and literary context for Paradise. Paradise: Plot Summary

  3. Essay on Paradise by Toni Morrison

    Essay on Paradise by Toni Morrison 1825 Words 8 Pages Paradise by Toni Morrison Throughout many of Toni Morrison?s novels, the plot is built around some conflict for her characters to overcome. Paradise, in particular, uses the relationships between women as a means of reaching this desired end.

  4. Paradise by Toni Morrison Plot Summary

    Intro Paradise Summary Next Ruby Paradise begins with nine unnamed men attacking a Convent, which houses a group of women the men believe to be sinful. As the men see the women escaping, they fire their guns. The story then moves back in time to chronicle how the women came to the Convent and why the men have come to kill them.

  5. Paradise Suggested Essay Topics

    Chapter 1 - Ruby 1. What specific details most made an impression on you? Which details seemed to communicate a mood? 2. Try to describe the personalities, beliefs, and histories of the men, based...

  6. Paradise (Morrison novel)

    (October 2023) The novel is structured into nine sections. The first is named "Ruby" after the town on which the book centers. The rest are named for women implicated variously in the life of the town and the Convent.

  7. Paradise Critical Evaluation

    Paradise is one of Toni Morrison's most controversial novels, criticized for appearing to bracket racial injustice to concentrate on gender oppression, particularly the systematic...

  8. Paradise Essay Topics

    41 pages • 1 hour read Toni Morrison Paradise Fiction | Novel | Adult | Published in 1997 A modern alternative to SparkNotes and CliffsNotes, SuperSummary offers high-quality Study Guides with detailed chapter summaries and analysis of major themes, characters, and more. Download PDF Access Full Guide Study Guide Summary

  9. Reading and Insight in Toni Morrison's Paradise

    rations of truth and law. In an essay titled "Home," Morrison discusses her approach in Paradise: "Unlike the suc-cessful advancement of an argument, narration requires the active complicity of a reader willing to step outside established boundaries of the racial imaginary" (8-9). In Paradise Morrison confronts the racial imaginary in its

  10. Paradise Summary and Study Guide

    Toni Morrison's novel Paradise was published in 1997, just a few years after she won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1993.According to Morrison, it is the last book of a trilogy that includes Beloved and Jazz.Morrison is an esteemed American novelist, having also received the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction (1998) and the Coretta Scott King Award for Authors (2005), among other awards.

  11. Paradise Summary

    by Toni Morrison Buy Study Guide Paradise Summary The book is structured into nine sections. The first is named "Ruby" after the town on which the book centers. The rest are named for women implicated variously in the life of the town and the Convent.

  12. Toni Morrison: Paradise

    In Paradise —her first novel since she was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature—Toni Morrison gives us a bravura performance. As the book begins deep in Oklahoma early one morning in 1976, nine men from Ruby (pop. 360), in defense of "the one all-black town worth the pain," assault the nearby Convent and the women in it.

  13. Paradise Essay Questions

    1 What does "Paradise" mean in the context of the novel? "Paradise" has many meanings in the context of the novel. One is the paradise that the citizens of Ruby attempt to create by founding the town. The town is supposed to be a self-sufficient haven away from the racism of the outside world.

  14. Paradise "Patricia" Summary and Analysis

    Summary It is December 1974, and Patricia Best is preparing for the annual school Christmas play. She thinks of her father, Roger Best, who currently runs an ambulance and mortuary business. He does not have much work, as no one seems to die in Ruby.

  15. PDF 4-Magic Realism in Morrison's Paradise

    Keywords: Magic realism, Toni Morrison, Paradise Introduction Magical realism is a weapon that Morrison manifests in her novels in which the multicomponent integration of various past, present and future, unfamiliar weird plot, and metaphysical illusion in concrete scene typically ... This essay will analyses: firstly, Morrison's narrative ...

  16. The Identity Challenge in Toni Morrison's "Paradise"

    <p>This thesis analyzes identity in Toni Morrison's "Paradise." I argue that identity is portrayed as informed by relationships of the self and the other. Relying on Lacan's notion of the mirror phase I point out that the other is depicted as mirrored in the self.

  17. Paradise Themes

    Discussion of themes and motifs in Toni Morrison's Paradise. eNotes critical analyses help you gain a deeper understanding of Paradise so you can excel on your essay or test.

  18. PDF The Trouble With Paradise

    Although the notion of paradise has many different meanings, even within this essay, other paradise visions will be signified as such, while "paradise" alone will be a reference to the American ... (1998), Toni Morrison's Paradise (1999), and Thomas King's Green Grass, Running Water (1993). Eileen Pollack explores modern Jewish identity ...

  19. Love Theme in "Paradise" by Toni Morrison

    The novel Paradise was written in 1997, and it was Morrison's first book after winning the Nobel Prize in literature in 1993. Paradise stresses the affection of God, and it is the author's third novel focusing on various kinds of love. All the chapters in the book are dedicated to specific characters, allowing them to air their views.

  20. 15 men brought to military enlistment office after mass brawl in Moscow

    Local security forces brought 15 men to a military enlistment office after a mass brawl at a warehouse of the Russian Wildberries company in Elektrostal, Moscow Oblast on Feb. 8, Russian Telegram channel Shot reported.. 29 people were also taken to police stations. Among the arrested were citizens of Kyrgyzstan. A mass brawl involving over 100 employees and security personnel broke out at the ...

  21. Gale Family Foundation Spring 2024 Lecture: "Child of Two Genocides

    Bestselling author David Treuer is Ojibwe from Leech Lake Reservation in northern Minnesota. He is the recipient of a Pushcart Prize, two Minnesota Book Awards, and fellowships from the NEH, Bush Foundation, and the Guggenheim Foundation. His most recent book The Heartbeat of Wounded Knee: Native America from 1890 to the Present was a New York Times bestseller, a National Book Award finalist ...


    Find company research, competitor information, contact details & financial data for BETA GIDA, OOO of Elektrostal, Moscow region. Get the latest business insights from Dun & Bradstreet.

  23. Victor Mukhin

    Catalysis Conference is a networking event covering all topics in catalysis, chemistry, chemical engineering and technology during October 19-21, 2017 in Las Vegas, USA. Well noted as well attended meeting among all other annual catalysis conferences 2018, chemical engineering conferences 2018 and chemistry webinars.

  24. Moscow Metro: Atlantic photo essay

    A visit to Russia is my to-do list. Great people & culture. [ Reply To This Message ] [ Share Thread on Facebook ] [ Start a New Thread ] [ Back to Thread List ]