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Corruption In India Essay

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Corruption refers to dishonest or fraudulent behaviour by individuals in positions of power or authority, such as government officials, politicians, business leaders, or law enforcement officers. Corruption can take many forms, including bribery, embezzlement, nepotism, abuse of power, and fraud. Here are a few sample essays on corruption in India.

100 Words Essay On Corruption In India

200 words essay on corruption in india, 500 words essay on corruption in india, addressing the problem of corruption.

Corruption In India Essay

Corruption is a significant problem in India that has been prevalent for decades. It affects all levels of society, from the poorest to the richest. Corruption in India can take many forms, including bribery, embezzlement, nepotism, and misuse of public resources. Corruption in India has resulted in the misallocation of resources, poor governance, and a lack of accountability. It also leads to a loss of trust in public institutions, weakens the rule of law, and hinders economic development. Despite various efforts to curb corruption, it remains a significant challenge for India, requiring continued vigilance and strong political will to address this issue.

Corruption is a widespread problem in India that has been a matter of concern for several decades. It is a menace that plagues all levels of society, from the poorest to the richest. Corruption in India takes various forms, such as bribery, embezzlement, nepotism, and misuse of public resources. The root cause of corruption in India is a lack of transparency, accountability, and a weak legal system.

Consequences | Corruption in India has severe consequences on the country's social and economic development. It has resulted in the misallocation of resources, poor governance, and a lack of essential services to the people. Corruption has also undermined democracy and the rule of law, with political parties and leaders using corruption as a means to maintain power and control.

Measures | The Indian government has taken several measures to address corruption, such as setting up anti-corruption agencies, enacting laws and regulations, and promoting transparency and accountability in public institutions. However, corruption remains a significant challenge in India, requiring continued efforts and political will to combat.

Citizens also have a crucial role to play in fighting corruption by refusing to participate in corrupt practices, reporting corruption, and demanding accountability from their leaders. Addressing corruption in India requires a collective effort from all stakeholders, including the government, civil society, and citizens, to build a more transparent, accountable, and fair society.

Corruption has been a rampant problem in India for decades, plaguing all levels of society, from the poorest to the richest. Corruption in India takes many forms, such as bribery, embezzlement, nepotism, and misuse of public resources. It undermines the country's democratic institutions, weakens the rule of law, and has severe consequences on social and economic development.

Causes For Corruption

Lack of transparency in public institutions provides an environment conducive to corruption. When there is no transparency in government functioning, it is easier for officials to engage in corrupt practices without fear of detection or punishment.

The weak legal system in India is also a significant contributor to corruption. Corrupt officials can evade justice, and the lack of severe punishments acts as a deterrent to corrupt practices.

Political influence is another significant cause of corruption in India. Politicians use their power and influence to benefit themselves and their associates, often at the expense of the public interest.

Poverty and a lack of economic opportunities create an environment where corruption thrives. People in positions of power often exploit the vulnerable to engage in corrupt practices.

Despite various anti-corruption measures, a lack of political will to tackle corruption remains a significant challenge. Corruption often goes unchecked because of a lack of will to enforce laws and regulations.

Addressing the root causes of corruption in India requires a comprehensive approach that involves structural reforms, strengthening of institutions, and a change in societal attitudes towards corruption. It requires a concerted effort from all stakeholders, including the government, civil society, and citizens, to build a more transparent, accountable, and fair society.

Reducing corruption in India is a complex and challenging task that requires a multi-faceted approach. Here are some steps that can be taken to decrease corruption in India.

Strengthening institutions such as the judiciary, law enforcement agencies, and anti-corruption bodies can help reduce corruption. These institutions should be provided with adequate resources, training, and autonomy to perform their functions effectively.

Greater transparency in government functioning can help prevent corruption. Measures such as public disclosure of government contracts, budgets, and decision-making processes can help reduce opportunities for corruption.

Encouraging citizen participation and creating channels for feedback is another method that can help in the eradication of corruption. This can be done by promoting citizen engagement in decision-making processes, creating whistleblower protection laws, and establishing grievance redressal mechanisms.

Strict enforcement of laws and regulations is critical to reducing corruption. This requires political will to prosecute corrupt officials and to ensure that they are held accountable for their actions.

Promoting ethical leadership can help reduce corruption by ensuring that leaders at all levels of government are selected based on their integrity and track record of ethical behavior.

The use of technology can help reduce corruption. For example, e-governance systems, online portals for filing complaints, and digital payment systems can reduce opportunities for corruption.

Educating the public about the negative effects of corruption and promoting ethical behavior is crucial to reduce corruption. This can be done through awareness campaigns, education in schools and colleges, and public service announcements.

Explore Career Options (By Industry)

  • Construction
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  • Information Technology

Data Administrator

Database professionals use software to store and organise data such as financial information, and customer shipping records. Individuals who opt for a career as data administrators ensure that data is available for users and secured from unauthorised sales. DB administrators may work in various types of industries. It may involve computer systems design, service firms, insurance companies, banks and hospitals.

Bio Medical Engineer

The field of biomedical engineering opens up a universe of expert chances. An Individual in the biomedical engineering career path work in the field of engineering as well as medicine, in order to find out solutions to common problems of the two fields. The biomedical engineering job opportunities are to collaborate with doctors and researchers to develop medical systems, equipment, or devices that can solve clinical problems. Here we will be discussing jobs after biomedical engineering, how to get a job in biomedical engineering, biomedical engineering scope, and salary. 

GIS officer work on various GIS software to conduct a study and gather spatial and non-spatial information. GIS experts update the GIS data and maintain it. The databases include aerial or satellite imagery, latitudinal and longitudinal coordinates, and manually digitized images of maps. In a career as GIS expert, one is responsible for creating online and mobile maps.

Remote Sensing Technician

Individuals who opt for a career as a remote sensing technician possess unique personalities. Remote sensing analysts seem to be rational human beings, they are strong, independent, persistent, sincere, realistic and resourceful. Some of them are analytical as well, which means they are intelligent, introspective and inquisitive. 

Remote sensing scientists use remote sensing technology to support scientists in fields such as community planning, flight planning or the management of natural resources. Analysing data collected from aircraft, satellites or ground-based platforms using statistical analysis software, image analysis software or Geographic Information Systems (GIS) is a significant part of their work. Do you want to learn how to become remote sensing technician? There's no need to be concerned; we've devised a simple remote sensing technician career path for you. Scroll through the pages and read.

Database Architect

If you are intrigued by the programming world and are interested in developing communications networks then a career as database architect may be a good option for you. Data architect roles and responsibilities include building design models for data communication networks. Wide Area Networks (WANs), local area networks (LANs), and intranets are included in the database networks. It is expected that database architects will have in-depth knowledge of a company's business to develop a network to fulfil the requirements of the organisation. Stay tuned as we look at the larger picture and give you more information on what is db architecture, why you should pursue database architecture, what to expect from such a degree and what your job opportunities will be after graduation. Here, we will be discussing how to become a data architect. Students can visit NIT Trichy , IIT Kharagpur , JMI New Delhi . 

Ethical Hacker

A career as ethical hacker involves various challenges and provides lucrative opportunities in the digital era where every giant business and startup owns its cyberspace on the world wide web. Individuals in the ethical hacker career path try to find the vulnerabilities in the cyber system to get its authority. If he or she succeeds in it then he or she gets its illegal authority. Individuals in the ethical hacker career path then steal information or delete the file that could affect the business, functioning, or services of the organization.

Data Analyst

The invention of the database has given fresh breath to the people involved in the data analytics career path. Analysis refers to splitting up a whole into its individual components for individual analysis. Data analysis is a method through which raw data are processed and transformed into information that would be beneficial for user strategic thinking.

Data are collected and examined to respond to questions, evaluate hypotheses or contradict theories. It is a tool for analyzing, transforming, modeling, and arranging data with useful knowledge, to assist in decision-making and methods, encompassing various strategies, and is used in different fields of business, research, and social science.

Water Manager

A career as water manager needs to provide clean water, preventing flood damage, and disposing of sewage and other wastes. He or she also repairs and maintains structures that control the flow of water, such as reservoirs, sea defense walls, and pumping stations. In addition to these, the Manager has other responsibilities related to water resource management.

Budget Analyst

Budget analysis, in a nutshell, entails thoroughly analyzing the details of a financial budget. The budget analysis aims to better understand and manage revenue. Budget analysts assist in the achievement of financial targets, the preservation of profitability, and the pursuit of long-term growth for a business. Budget analysts generally have a bachelor's degree in accounting, finance, economics, or a closely related field. Knowledge of Financial Management is of prime importance in this career.

Operations Manager

Individuals in the operations manager jobs are responsible for ensuring the efficiency of each department to acquire its optimal goal. They plan the use of resources and distribution of materials. The operations manager's job description includes managing budgets, negotiating contracts, and performing administrative tasks.

Finance Executive

A career as a Finance Executive requires one to be responsible for monitoring an organisation's income, investments and expenses to create and evaluate financial reports. His or her role involves performing audits, invoices, and budget preparations. He or she manages accounting activities, bank reconciliations, and payable and receivable accounts.  

Product Manager

A Product Manager is a professional responsible for product planning and marketing. He or she manages the product throughout the Product Life Cycle, gathering and prioritising the product. A product manager job description includes defining the product vision and working closely with team members of other departments to deliver winning products.  

Investment Banker

An Investment Banking career involves the invention and generation of capital for other organizations, governments, and other entities. Individuals who opt for a career as Investment Bankers are the head of a team dedicated to raising capital by issuing bonds. Investment bankers are termed as the experts who have their fingers on the pulse of the current financial and investing climate. Students can pursue various Investment Banker courses, such as Banking and Insurance , and  Economics to opt for an Investment Banking career path.


An underwriter is a person who assesses and evaluates the risk of insurance in his or her field like mortgage, loan, health policy, investment, and so on and so forth. The underwriter career path does involve risks as analysing the risks means finding out if there is a way for the insurance underwriter jobs to recover the money from its clients. If the risk turns out to be too much for the company then in the future it is an underwriter who will be held accountable for it. Therefore, one must carry out his or her job with a lot of attention and diligence.

Fund Manager

Are you searching for a fund manager job description? A fund manager is a stock market professional hired by a mutual fund company to manage the funds’ portfolio of numerous clients and oversee their trading activities. In an investment company, multiple managers oversee the clients’ money and make their respective decisions. 

Welding Engineer

Welding Engineer Job Description: A Welding Engineer work involves managing welding projects and supervising welding teams. He or she is responsible for reviewing welding procedures, processes and documentation. A career as Welding Engineer involves conducting failure analyses and causes on welding issues. 

Transportation Planner

A career as Transportation Planner requires technical application of science and technology in engineering, particularly the concepts, equipment and technologies involved in the production of products and services. In fields like land use, infrastructure review, ecological standards and street design, he or she considers issues of health, environment and performance. A Transportation Planner assigns resources for implementing and designing programmes. He or she is responsible for assessing needs, preparing plans and forecasts and compliance with regulations.

Construction Manager

Individuals who opt for a career as construction managers have a senior-level management role offered in construction firms. Responsibilities in the construction management career path are assigning tasks to workers, inspecting their work, and coordinating with other professionals including architects, subcontractors, and building services engineers.

Environmental Engineer

Individuals who opt for a career as an environmental engineer are construction professionals who utilise the skills and knowledge of biology, soil science, chemistry and the concept of engineering to design and develop projects that serve as solutions to various environmental problems. 

Naval Architect

A Naval Architect is a professional who designs, produces and repairs safe and sea-worthy surfaces or underwater structures. A Naval Architect stays involved in creating and designing ships, ferries, submarines and yachts with implementation of various principles such as gravity, ideal hull form, buoyancy and stability. 

Field Surveyor

Are you searching for a Field Surveyor Job Description? A Field Surveyor is a professional responsible for conducting field surveys for various places or geographical conditions. He or she collects the required data and information as per the instructions given by senior officials. 

Highway Engineer

Highway Engineer Job Description:  A Highway Engineer is a civil engineer who specialises in planning and building thousands of miles of roads that support connectivity and allow transportation across the country. He or she ensures that traffic management schemes are effectively planned concerning economic sustainability and successful implementation.

Conservation Architect

A Conservation Architect is a professional responsible for conserving and restoring buildings or monuments having a historic value. He or she applies techniques to document and stabilise the object’s state without any further damage. A Conservation Architect restores the monuments and heritage buildings to bring them back to their original state.

Orthotist and Prosthetist

Orthotists and Prosthetists are professionals who provide aid to patients with disabilities. They fix them to artificial limbs (prosthetics) and help them to regain stability. There are times when people lose their limbs in an accident. In some other occasions, they are born without a limb or orthopaedic impairment. Orthotists and prosthetists play a crucial role in their lives with fixing them to assistive devices and provide mobility.

Veterinary Doctor

A veterinary doctor is a medical professional with a degree in veterinary science. The veterinary science qualification is the minimum requirement to become a veterinary doctor. There are numerous veterinary science courses offered by various institutes. He or she is employed at zoos to ensure they are provided with good health facilities and medical care to improve their life expectancy.


A career in pathology in India is filled with several responsibilities as it is a medical branch and affects human lives. The demand for pathologists has been increasing over the past few years as people are getting more aware of different diseases. Not only that, but an increase in population and lifestyle changes have also contributed to the increase in a pathologist’s demand. The pathology careers provide an extremely huge number of opportunities and if you want to be a part of the medical field you can consider being a pathologist. If you want to know more about a career in pathology in India then continue reading this article.

Speech Therapist


Gynaecology can be defined as the study of the female body. The job outlook for gynaecology is excellent since there is evergreen demand for one because of their responsibility of dealing with not only women’s health but also fertility and pregnancy issues. Although most women prefer to have a women obstetrician gynaecologist as their doctor, men also explore a career as a gynaecologist and there are ample amounts of male doctors in the field who are gynaecologists and aid women during delivery and childbirth. 

An oncologist is a specialised doctor responsible for providing medical care to patients diagnosed with cancer. He or she uses several therapies to control the cancer and its effect on the human body such as chemotherapy, immunotherapy, radiation therapy and biopsy. An oncologist designs a treatment plan based on a pathology report after diagnosing the type of cancer and where it is spreading inside the body.


The audiologist career involves audiology professionals who are responsible to treat hearing loss and proactively preventing the relevant damage. Individuals who opt for a career as an audiologist use various testing strategies with the aim to determine if someone has a normal sensitivity to sounds or not. After the identification of hearing loss, a hearing doctor is required to determine which sections of the hearing are affected, to what extent they are affected, and where the wound causing the hearing loss is found. As soon as the hearing loss is identified, the patients are provided with recommendations for interventions and rehabilitation such as hearing aids, cochlear implants, and appropriate medical referrals. While audiology is a branch of science that studies and researches hearing, balance, and related disorders.

Cardiothoracic Surgeon

Cardiothoracic surgeons are an important part of the surgical team. They usually work in hospitals, and perform emergency as well as scheduled operations. Some of the cardiothoracic surgeons also work in teaching hospitals working as teachers and guides for medical students aspiring to become a cardiothoracic surgeon. A career as a cardiothoracic surgeon involves treating and managing various types of conditions within their speciality that includes their presence at different locations such as outpatient clinics, team meetings, and ward rounds. 

For an individual who opts for a career as an actor, the primary responsibility is to completely speak to the character he or she is playing and to persuade the crowd that the character is genuine by connecting with them and bringing them into the story. This applies to significant roles and littler parts, as all roles join to make an effective creation. Here in this article, we will discuss how to become an actor in India, actor exams, actor salary in India, and actor jobs. 

Individuals who opt for a career as acrobats create and direct original routines for themselves, in addition to developing interpretations of existing routines. The work of circus acrobats can be seen in a variety of performance settings, including circus, reality shows, sports events like the Olympics, movies and commercials. Individuals who opt for a career as acrobats must be prepared to face rejections and intermittent periods of work. The creativity of acrobats may extend to other aspects of the performance. For example, acrobats in the circus may work with gym trainers, celebrities or collaborate with other professionals to enhance such performance elements as costume and or maybe at the teaching end of the career.

Video Game Designer

Career as a video game designer is filled with excitement as well as responsibilities. A video game designer is someone who is involved in the process of creating a game from day one. He or she is responsible for fulfilling duties like designing the character of the game, the several levels involved, plot, art and similar other elements. Individuals who opt for a career as a video game designer may also write the codes for the game using different programming languages.

Depending on the video game designer job description and experience they may also have to lead a team and do the early testing of the game in order to suggest changes and find loopholes.

Talent Agent

The career as a Talent Agent is filled with responsibilities. A Talent Agent is someone who is involved in the pre-production process of the film. It is a very busy job for a Talent Agent but as and when an individual gains experience and progresses in the career he or she can have people assisting him or her in work. Depending on one’s responsibilities, number of clients and experience he or she may also have to lead a team and work with juniors under him or her in a talent agency. In order to know more about the job of a talent agent continue reading the article.

If you want to know more about talent agent meaning, how to become a Talent Agent, or Talent Agent job description then continue reading this article.

Radio Jockey

Radio Jockey is an exciting, promising career and a great challenge for music lovers. If you are really interested in a career as radio jockey, then it is very important for an RJ to have an automatic, fun, and friendly personality. If you want to get a job done in this field, a strong command of the language and a good voice are always good things. Apart from this, in order to be a good radio jockey, you will also listen to good radio jockeys so that you can understand their style and later make your own by practicing.

A career as radio jockey has a lot to offer to deserving candidates. If you want to know more about a career as radio jockey, and how to become a radio jockey then continue reading the article.


Careers in videography are art that can be defined as a creative and interpretive process that culminates in the authorship of an original work of art rather than a simple recording of a simple event. It would be wrong to portrait it as a subcategory of photography, rather photography is one of the crafts used in videographer jobs in addition to technical skills like organization, management, interpretation, and image-manipulation techniques. Students pursue Visual Media , Film, Television, Digital Video Production to opt for a videographer career path. The visual impacts of a film are driven by the creative decisions taken in videography jobs. Individuals who opt for a career as a videographer are involved in the entire lifecycle of a film and production. 

Multimedia Specialist

A multimedia specialist is a media professional who creates, audio, videos, graphic image files, computer animations for multimedia applications. He or she is responsible for planning, producing, and maintaining websites and applications. 

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In a career as a copywriter, one has to consult with the client and understand the brief well. A career as a copywriter has a lot to offer to deserving candidates. Several new mediums of advertising are opening therefore making it a lucrative career choice. Students can pursue various copywriter courses such as Journalism , Advertising , Marketing Management . Here, we have discussed how to become a freelance copywriter, copywriter career path, how to become a copywriter in India, and copywriting career outlook. 

Careers in journalism are filled with excitement as well as responsibilities. One cannot afford to miss out on the details. As it is the small details that provide insights into a story. Depending on those insights a journalist goes about writing a news article. A journalism career can be stressful at times but if you are someone who is passionate about it then it is the right choice for you. If you want to know more about the media field and journalist career then continue reading this article.

For publishing books, newspapers, magazines and digital material, editorial and commercial strategies are set by publishers. Individuals in publishing career paths make choices about the markets their businesses will reach and the type of content that their audience will be served. Individuals in book publisher careers collaborate with editorial staff, designers, authors, and freelance contributors who develop and manage the creation of content.

In a career as a vlogger, one generally works for himself or herself. However, once an individual has gained viewership there are several brands and companies that approach them for paid collaboration. It is one of those fields where an individual can earn well while following his or her passion. 

Ever since internet costs got reduced the viewership for these types of content has increased on a large scale. Therefore, a career as a vlogger has a lot to offer. If you want to know more about the Vlogger eligibility, roles and responsibilities then continue reading the article. 

Individuals in the editor career path is an unsung hero of the news industry who polishes the language of the news stories provided by stringers, reporters, copywriters and content writers and also news agencies. Individuals who opt for a career as an editor make it more persuasive, concise and clear for readers. In this article, we will discuss the details of the editor's career path such as how to become an editor in India, editor salary in India and editor skills and qualities.

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Fashion journalism involves performing research and writing about the most recent fashion trends. Journalists obtain this knowledge by collaborating with stylists, conducting interviews with fashion designers, and attending fashion shows, photoshoots, and conferences. A fashion Journalist  job is to write copy for trade and advertisement journals, fashion magazines, newspapers, and online fashion forums about style and fashion.

Corporate Executive

Are you searching for a Corporate Executive job description? A Corporate Executive role comes with administrative duties. He or she provides support to the leadership of the organisation. A Corporate Executive fulfils the business purpose and ensures its financial stability. In this article, we are going to discuss how to become corporate executive.

Production Manager

Quality controller.

A quality controller plays a crucial role in an organisation. He or she is responsible for performing quality checks on manufactured products. He or she identifies the defects in a product and rejects the product. 

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Production Engineer

A career as a Production Engineer is crucial in the manufacturing industry. He or she ensures the functionality of production equipment and machinery to improve productivity and minimise production costs to drive revenues and increase profitability. 

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Individuals who opt for a career as product designers are responsible for designing the components and overall product concerning its shape, size, and material used in manufacturing. They are responsible for the aesthetic appearance of the product. A product designer uses his or her creative skills to give a product its final outlook and ensures the functionality of the design. 

Students can opt for various product design degrees such as B.Des and M.Des to become product designers. Industrial product designer prepares 3D models of designs for approval and discusses them with clients and other colleagues. Individuals who opt for a career as a product designer estimate the total cost involved in designing.

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A Commercial Manager negotiates, advises and secures information about pricing for commercial contracts. He or she is responsible for developing financial plans in order to maximise the business's profitability.

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An AWS Solution Architect is someone who specializes in developing and implementing cloud computing systems. He or she has a good understanding of the various aspects of cloud computing and can confidently deploy and manage their systems. He or she troubleshoots the issues and evaluates the risk from the third party. 

Azure Administrator

An Azure Administrator is a professional responsible for implementing, monitoring, and maintaining Azure Solutions. He or she manages cloud infrastructure service instances and various cloud servers as well as sets up public and private cloud systems. 

Information Security Manager

Individuals in the information security manager career path involves in overseeing and controlling all aspects of computer security. The IT security manager job description includes planning and carrying out security measures to protect the business data and information from corruption, theft, unauthorised access, and deliberate attack 

Computer Programmer

Careers in computer programming primarily refer to the systematic act of writing code and moreover include wider computer science areas. The word 'programmer' or 'coder' has entered into practice with the growing number of newly self-taught tech enthusiasts. Computer programming careers involve the use of designs created by software developers and engineers and transforming them into commands that can be implemented by computers. These commands result in regular usage of social media sites, word-processing applications and browsers.

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Challenges of Corruption

Last updated on November 16, 2023 by ClearIAS Team


Corruption is defined as the abuse of entrusted power for private gain. There are several challenges and impacts associated with corruption.

India ranked 85th out of 180 countries (score 40) in Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) 2021, released by Transparency International, which measures the corruption level of a country’s public sector.

Table of Contents

Why Corruption is Unhealthy?

Corruption destroys morale, undermines democracy, represses economic growth, and makes inequality, poverty, social division, and the environmental problem worse.

Causes of Corruption

Before learning about the challenges and impacts of corruption, let’s understand what are the causes of corruption. According to a survey conducted in 2017, the following factors have been attributed as causes of corruption:

  • Higher levels of bureaucracy and inefficiency in administrative structures
  • Weak property rights
  • Low levels of education
  • Lack of commitment to society
  • Extravagant family
  • Low press freedom
  • Low economic freedom
  • Large ethnic divisions and high levels of in-group favoritism
  • The greed of money, and desires.
  • Higher levels of market and political monopolization
  • Low levels of democracy
  • Weak civil participation
  • Low political transparency
  • Gender inequality
  • Contagion from corrupt neighboring countries
  • Political instability
  • Unemployment
  • Lack of proper policies against corruption

Impacts of Corruption

Corruption has a wide-ranging impact on organizations, individuals, and communities as well.

Hampering Sustainable Development Goals

The achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals of the United Nations is hampered by corruption. The SDGs are comprehensive, therefore it is not surprising that corruption might undermine them.

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Countries that lack the capacity to govern effectively are unable to end poverty, eradicate hunger, provide their population with high-quality healthcare and education, ensure gender equality and other human rights, lower inequality, and other goals.

To be more precise,  Goal 16 of the SDGs which is “Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all, and build effective, accountable, and inclusive institutions at all levels,”, which is highly relevant, is difficult to achieve if corruption in public services persists.

In addition, resolutions passed by the Conference of the States Parties to UNCAC have consistently stressed the connection between corruption and sustainable development. Therefore, if the global community is serious about achieving the SDGs, it must recognize corruption as a barrier to their achievement and strengthen its anti-corruption measures.

Inefficiency and Economic Loss

Although it is challenging to find precise figures for the economic consequences of corruption, International Monetary Fund (IMF) research from 2016 indicated that the cost of bribery alone varies from $1.5 to $2 trillion annually.

This amounts to an overall economic loss of about 2% of the world’s GDP.

However, it does not account for the financial costs associated with all other types of corruption. In developing nations, corruption may contribute to underdevelopment.

According to a report published by Transparency International, “The Impact of Corruption on Growth and Inequality”, At the macro level, research generally shows that corruption has a detrimental, direct effect on economic development and growth.

Additionally, corruption has an indirect impact on a country’s economic performance by influencing a number of variables that spur economic growth, including investment, taxation, public spending level, composition, and effectiveness.

Rigged Political System

Citizens who uphold high moral standards lose representation, influence, and power.

The World Bank  (2019) estimates that more than 50% of people in the oil-rich country live in extreme poverty. This illustration demonstrates how wealth redistribution occurs when corrupt players use the political and economic systems to their advantage.

Corruption makes it possible for party officials, bureaucrats, and contractors to use funds allocated for elections, health care, education, and poverty assistance as a means of personal gain. As a result, social programs, and political systems’ potential for redistribution degrade.

Violation of Human Rights

The Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) of the United Nations has recently attracted attention to important connections between corruption and human rights violations.

Corruption itself reduces the capacity of the State to address violations of civil and political rights and to enact the necessary safeguards, including socioeconomic rights, which frequently call for complex government initiatives.

Dysfunctioning of Public and Private Sector

Dysfunction is the result of several corrupt actions added together. The quality of products and services declines, whether they are provided by the public or private sectors, and accessing them becomes more expensive, time-consuming, and unfair.

Instead of promoting innovation and efficiency, state-owned organizations and sectors are designed to benefit government officials. In organizations, this may result in the loss of intrinsic motivation.  People start to question the worth of effort and innovation.

Partial Justice

People can no longer trust judges and prosecutors to do their jobs when corruption penetrates the legal system.

Citizens may be falsely accused of crimes, denied due process, and wrongfully imprisoned, especially those who lack finances or strong allies.

Organized Crime and Terrorism

Because money can be laundered, funding can be hidden, and judges and politicians can be bribed, nefarious parts of society can flourish. As levels of intimidation rise, so do levels of violence, illicit drug use, prostitution, and sexual slavery.

In addition to being the result of corruption, organized crime can also be brought about by corrupt opportunities created by a weak, ignorant, or inefficient government.

Failure in Infrastructure

It is a well-known fact that the Mafia uses the construction sector as a means of money laundering and a major source of earnings.

Buildings that are fundamentally hazardous are present everywhere throughout the country as a result of obvious violations of land-use and permission restrictions, purportedly accomplished by bribery, favoritism, and influence-peddling.

Damage to Climate and Biodiversity

Funding and measures to combat climate change are hampered by corruption, which is a challenge that undermines programs to conserve forests and manage them sustainably. It also encourages wildlife-related crimes.

Measures to Combat Corruption

The government of India is committed to “Zero Tolerance Against Corruption” and has taken several measures to combat the challenges associated with corruption which include:

Systemic reforms to provide transparency in citizen-friendly services to reduce corruption. That includes:

  • The direct and transparent distribution of welfare benefits to citizens under various government programs through the Direct Benefit Transfer project.
  • E-tendering is in public procurement.
  • Introduction of e-Government and simplification of processes and systems
  • Introduction of the Government e-Marketplace (GeM) for government procurement.
  • Discontinuation of interviews in the recruitment of Group ‘B’ (Non-Gazetted) and Group ‘C’ posts in the Government Departments.
  • The Central Civil Services (Classification, Control, and Appeal) Rules and the All India Services (Disciplinary and Appeal) Rules have both been revised to provide precise timelines for disciplinary processes.
  • The Prevention of Corruption Act, 1988 has been amended to clearly criminalizes the act of giving bribe.
  • Through a number of decrees and circulars, the Central Vigilance Commission (CVC) encouraged all organizations involved in significant procurement activities to establish an Integrity Pact in order to ensure an effective and prompt inquiry whenever any irregularity or misconduct is identified.
  • Under the 1988 Prevention of Corruption Act, Lokpal is legally required to receive and handle complaints about alleged offenses against public employees.
  • The Right to Information (RTI) Act was passed in 2005 to establish a practical framework for the right to information, allowing citizens to secure access to data that is under the control of public authorities.

Read:  Corruption in Civil Services

Article Written By: Priti Raj

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Corruption in India: Status, Causes & Impacts

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From Current Affairs Notes for UPSC » Editorials & In-depths » This topic

The menace of corruption is the most talked-about issue in India which grapples the sphere of public debate very often. The phenomenon touches every human being from the one living in slums to the person occupying the highest echelons of the State system. Just like the fictional Voldemort, corruption grows at every utterance of it. In the words of Kautilya “Just as it is impossible not to taste the honey that finds itself in the tip of the tongue, so it is impossible for a government assistant not to eat up, at least a bit of King’s revenue.”

corruption in India upsc

This topic of “Corruption in India: Status, Causes & Impacts” is important from the perspective of the UPSC IAS Examination , which falls under General Studies Portion.

What is Corruption?

Transparency International (TI) defines corruption as “The abuse of entrusted power for private gain. It can be classified as grand, petty and political, depending on the amounts of money lost and the sector where it occurs”

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  • General Science – Biology
  • General Studies (GS) 4 – Ethics
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  • Public Administration


What is the Status of corruption in India?

  • In 2021, the country was ranked 85th out of 180 in the Corruption Perceptions Index, with the lowest-ranked countries perceived to have the most honest public sector. Corruption is caused by a variety of factors, including officials stealing money from government social welfare programmes.
  • CPI, 2019 highlighted that unfair and opaque political financing, undue influence in decision-making and lobbying by powerful corporate interest groups, has resulted in stagnation or decline in the control of corruption.
  • As per the India Corruption Survey 2019, 51% of the respondents admitted to paying bribes. Rajasthan and Bihar fared the worst in the country with 78% and 75% of respondents admitting to paying bribes.

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What are the causes of corruption?

Inquiry into the causes of corruption presents a detailed picture of a socio-political-economic-administrative scenario that breeds corruption on a daily basis.

  • Legacy issues –
  • Rampant poverty and empty coffers of the government at the dawn of independence leading to chronic low salaries of the government officials.
  • Pre liberalization license permit raj catered by Monopolies and restrictive trade practices facilitated the corruption. The lack of economic freedom led to abuse of the system.
  • Necessities of development overshadowed vigilance procedures.
  • Political system
  • Use of black money in elections to win at any cost (breaching statutory spending limits) creates the need for the recovery of that cost through malpractices.
  • Election funding is not transparent making it prone to the usage of black money and funding based on quid pro quo.
  • It leads to crony capitalism, an unholy nexus between politicians and corporates.
  • Criminalization of politics- when the rule-breakers become rule makers, the casualty is the rule of law.
  • Economic structure
  • Low levels of formalization (merely 10%) of the economy breed black money.
  • Stringent compliance rules for entry and exit for businesses result in bribery.
  • Unequal distribution of wealth- Transparency International data suggests that corruption is directly proportionate to the economic gap in a nation.
  • Faulty process of liberalisation- we first opened ourselves to the world and then took to legislation for various sectors like FDI, resource auction making it easy for foreign companies to manipulate the system.
  • Legal lacunae
  • Archaic laws like IPC 1860 don’t capture the complexities of administration and lead to the escape of wrongdoers.
  • narrows down the definition of corruption,
  • increases the burden of proof
  • prior approval from the government for inquiry or investigation of officials
  • Lacunae in the Lokpal act and delays in the appointments both at the state and central levels.
  • Dilution of the RTI act and political misuse of CBI and other agencies.
  • Loopholes give discretionary powers to the officials making working prone to corruption.
  • Lack of resources, funding, infrastructure and manpower in the vigilance institutions.
  • Lack of incorporation of standard practices by organizations like Banks, sports organizations which results in multi-billion-rupee scams. E.g. Punjab National Bank scam, commonwealth scam.
  • Delays and dying away from the corruption cases at the judicial level due to lack of evidence or faulty investigation. It also showcases politician-public servant-judicial (lower levels) nexus.
  • Lack of protection to good Samaritans
  • Targeting of upright and non-corrupt officials and rewards to corrupt officials
  • Near non-existent whistleblowers protection
  • Social problems
  • The mindset of the citizenry that doesn’t look at the problems seriously and even accepts it as a necessary part of the system.
  • Illiteracy, poverty, and inability to understand complex procedures.
  • Increasing consumerism in the new middle class that is ready to bribe to get things done.
  • Failure of social morality, education system to inculcate the values.

What are the impacts of corruption?

  • Hindrances to developmental process
  • loss of wealth due to corruption and siphoning away of taxpayers’ money leave little to spend in the social sector.
  • many developmental projects cannot be completed or get dragged for decades because of red-tapism, corruption cases raising the expenditure
  • out of pocket expenditure by the poor to get things done creates a vicious cycle of poverty.
  • Corruption in the social sectors like PDS, health and education schemes lead to demographic disadvantage.
  • It misdirects developmental strategy from decentralized, directed projects to big-budget projects on account of crony capitalism.
  • Economic loss
  • Undermines ease of doing business
  • Corruption in the public services sector carries high risks for conducting good businesses. Companies are likely to unwanted red tapes, petty corruption, bribes for finalizing any procedures or deals.
  • Wrong allocation policies result in undervaluation of resources like Coal blocks, Hydrocarbon projects, Spectrum allocation. Eg. 2G scam, Coalgate. This mismanagement of resources leads to environmental degradation and exploitation.
  • Low tax collection due to tax authority- corporate corruption. It results in low spending in the capital building.
  • Corruption of financial sector officials like Banks, the stock market erodes the strength of the economy. E.g. PNB scam, PMC scam, Harshad Mehta scandal
  • Rising black money artificially enhances the market capability which is always at the risk of collapse.
  • Harmful to national security
  • We have a history of corruption in defense procurement and consequent litigation. It undermines the preparedness of the armed.
  • Corruption in the border security establishment creates problems of terrorist infiltration. Illegal migration has caused the issue of NRC implementation
  • Social sector losses
  • Corruption in government projects targeting poor and vulnerable section of the society increases the economic gap between the rich and the poor
  • Corruption is always paid by the poor. The loss of exchequer by the big scams are always recovered by higher taxes. It hampers intergenerational parity in taxation.
  • The corrupt system denies the poor a chance to improve their status rendering them eternally poor
  • On the political front, corruption is a major obstacle to democracy and the rule of law.
  • It then leads to the loss of legitimacy of the political systems and gives free hand to non-state actors. E.g. Left-wing extremism
  • Judicial corruption too undermines its legitimacy.

Way forward

There is a need for windfall reforms in each and every section of the system to fight the menace. Every aspect of governance must be improved for efficiency, economy, and effectiveness .

  • Barring the criminals from even participating in the elections as suggested by the election commission.
  • Imposing limits on the overall expenditure of the political parties.
  • Making state funding of elections a reality.
  • Empowering ECI by giving legal force to MCC and making paid news a criminal offence.
  • Strengthening of autonomous institutions
  • Protecting the autonomy of CIC-giving him a constitutional status
  • Provision of required manpower, infrastructure, training of vigilance agencies
  • Eliminate overlapping of jurisdiction- e.g. Lokpal and CBI
  • Administrative reforms
  • Establishing the Civil Service Board to curb the excessive political control over the administration
  • Reducing the hierarchy levels in the governments
  • Conducting periodic sensitivity training for the civil servants
  • Simplifying the disciplinary proceedings and strengthening preventive vigilance within the departments to ensure corrupt civil servant do not occupy the sensitive position
  • Police and judicial reforms- implementation of Prakash Singh recommendations
  • Governance reforms
  • e-gov apart from advancing the good governance objectives of accountability and transparency also seeks to reduce the manual interface between state and citizen thus preventing the incidences of bribery
  • Drives like Digital India projects like Government e-Marketplace must be implemented.
  • Enactment of the right to service act. E.g. Rajasthan social accountability bill
  • Economic reforms
  • Negating legal lacunae in banking, stock market legislations.
  • Improving corporate governance by implementing corporate governance committee reports
  • Formalisation of the economy
  • Refining and speedy implementation of GST
  • Social sector improvements

As Transparency International chairman Delia Ferreira Rubio says, “People’s indifference is the best breeding ground to the corruption”. citizen empowerment is a basic need in the fight against corruption

  • Awareness of citizenry by training them in RTI act, Citizens charter, social audits.
  • Increasing democratization of the masses.
  • Curriculum reforms to inculcate values even in higher education by which youngsters acquire high standards of ethical mindset.

Integrity, transparency, and fight against corruption have to be part of the culture. They must be thought of as fundamental values of the society we live in. corruption should not be seen as cancer to be eliminated root and branch for now. A practical approach would be to see it at obsession to be cured.  An incremental approach to the problem will lead to an achievable target-setting and faster completion. People should be aware that they can change the system. India against corruption movement of 2011 was not the last fight as we have seen and it cannot be either. There has to be continuous checks and balances in the system. Corruption can be tackled effectively. But it needs homegrown solutions that eliminate indigenous problems.

  • India has dropped to 82nd position in 2021, five places down from 77th rank last year, in a global list that ranks countries based on business bribery risks. The list by TRACE, an anti-bribery standard-setting organization, measures business bribery risk in 194 countries, territories, and autonomous and semi-autonomous regions.
  • A strict anti-corruption law is “necessary” because corruption is hollowing out the country, the Centre told a five-judge constitution bench of the Supreme Court, which was considering whether public servants can be prosecuted for bribery if bribe givers fail to record their statements or turn hostile.


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CORRUPTION IN INDIA The development of India and its people and the future is irreparably destroyed due to the massive corruption, bribery and influence peddling. The rule of law is ignored. India is faced with absolute lawlessness, no one is safe and no one’s property is safe. The Higher Judiciary to take stern action against the corrupt politicians, executives and the who’s who of India. In pandemic the leaders have failed its people and caused massive death. Ramesh Mishra Victoria, British Columbia, Canada

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Essay on Corruption for Students and Children

500+ words essay on corruption.

Essay on Corruption – Corruption refers to a form of criminal activity or dishonesty. It refers to an evil act by an individual or a group. Most noteworthy, this act compromises the rights and privileges of others. Furthermore, Corruption primarily includes activities like bribery or embezzlement. However, Corruption can take place in many ways. Most probably, people in positions of authority are susceptible to Corruption. Corruption certainly reflects greedy and selfish behavior.

Essay on Corruption

Methods of Corruption

First of all, Bribery is the most common method of Corruption. Bribery involves the improper use of favours and gifts in exchange for personal gain. Furthermore, the types of favours are diverse. Above all, the favours include money, gifts, company shares, sexual favours, employment , entertainment, and political benefits. Also, personal gain can be – giving preferential treatment and overlooking crime.

Embezzlement refers to the act of withholding assets for the purpose of theft. Furthermore, it takes place by one or more individuals who were entrusted with these assets. Above all, embezzlement is a type of financial fraud.

The graft is a global form of Corruption. Most noteworthy, it refers to the illegal use of a politician’s authority for personal gain. Furthermore, a popular way for the graft is misdirecting public funds for the benefit of politicians .

Extortion is another major method of Corruption. It means to obtain property, money or services illegally. Above all, this obtainment takes place by coercing individuals or organizations. Hence, Extortion is quite similar to blackmail.

Favouritism and nepotism is quite an old form of Corruption still in usage. This refers to a person favouring one’s own relatives and friends to jobs. This is certainly a very unfair practice. This is because many deserving candidates fail to get jobs.

Abuse of discretion is another method of Corruption. Here, a person misuses one’s power and authority. An example can be a judge unjustly dismissing a criminal’s case.

Finally, influence peddling is the last method here. This refers to illegally using one’s influence with the government or other authorized individuals. Furthermore, it takes place in order to obtain preferential treatment or favour.

Get the huge list of more than 500 Essay Topics and Ideas

Ways of Stopping Corruption

One important way of preventing Corruption is to give a better salary in a government job. Many government employees receive pretty low salaries. Therefore, they resort to bribery to meet their expenses. So, government employees should receive higher salaries. Consequently, high salaries would reduce their motivation and resolve to engage in bribery.

essay on anti corruption in india

Tough laws are very important for stopping Corruption. Above all, strict punishments need to be meted out to guilty individuals. Furthermore, there should be an efficient and quick implementation of strict laws.

Applying cameras in workplaces is an excellent way to prevent corruption. Above all, many individuals would refrain from indulging in Corruption due to fear of being caught. Furthermore, these individuals would have otherwise engaged in Corruption.

The government must make sure to keep inflation low. Due to the rise in prices, many people feel their incomes to be too low. Consequently, this increases Corruption among the masses. Businessmen raise prices to sell their stock of goods at higher prices. Furthermore, the politician supports them due to the benefits they receive.

To sum it up, Corruption is a great evil of society. This evil should be quickly eliminated from society. Corruption is the poison that has penetrated the minds of many individuals these days. Hopefully, with consistent political and social efforts, we can get rid of Corruption.

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Essay on Corruption 1000+ Words

Corruption is a grave issue that has plagued India for many years, hindering its progress and development. This essay will argue that corruption in India is a formidable challenge, undermining trust in institutions, siphoning resources away from essential services, and impeding the nation’s growth. We will delve into the causes and consequences of corruption, as well as potential solutions to address this pressing problem.

The Prevalence of Corruption

Corruption in India is alarmingly prevalent, with numerous cases reported at various levels of government and society. According to Transparency International’s Corruption Perceptions Index, India consistently ranks low, indicating a high level of perceived corruption. This issue affects citizens from all walks of life.

Causes of Corruption

Corruption in India has deep-rooted causes, including the lack of transparency, bureaucratic red tape, and political influence. Experts opine that complex regulations and excessive discretion in decision-making provide fertile ground for corrupt practices. Additionally, poverty and low wages in some sectors may drive individuals to engage in corruption for financial gain.

Economic Impact

Corruption has a detrimental economic impact on India. Funds allocated for public projects and welfare schemes often get siphoned off through corrupt practices. This not only hampers the country’s economic growth but also perpetuates poverty and inequality, as resources meant for the marginalized are diverted.

Erosion of Trust in Institutions

Widespread corruption erodes trust in public institutions, including the government and the judiciary. When citizens lose faith in these institutions, it weakens the democratic fabric of the nation. People become disillusioned with the idea of justice and equitable governance.

Social Consequences

Corruption has severe social consequences, as it can lead to a breakdown of ethical values and moral degradation. When corruption becomes the norm, society suffers from a loss of integrity, hindering the nation’s social progress.

Impediment to Foreign Investment

Foreign investors may be hesitant to invest in a country known for its corruption. The perception of corruption can deter foreign investment, limiting opportunities for economic growth and job creation. This hinders India’s potential as a global economic player.

Legal Measures and Accountability

Efforts have been made to combat corruption through legal measures and accountability. Initiatives such as the Right to Information Act and the establishment of anti-corruption bodies like the Central Vigilance Commission aim to increase transparency and hold corrupt individuals accountable.

Public Awareness and Education

Educating the public about the negative consequences of corruption is crucial. Awareness campaigns and educational programs can empower citizens to resist corruption and report unethical practices.

Strengthening Institutions

To address corruption effectively, institutions must be strengthened. This includes reforms in the legal and judicial systems, as well as improvements in administrative processes to reduce bureaucratic red tape.

Encouraging Ethical Leadership

Promoting ethical leadership is vital to combat corruption. Leaders at all levels of government and society must lead by example, demonstrating integrity and accountability.

Conclusion of Essay on Corruption

In conclusion, corruption in India is a pressing issue that poses significant challenges to the nation’s progress and prosperity. It erodes trust in institutions, hampers economic growth, and has far-reaching social consequences. While legal measures and accountability mechanisms have been put in place, addressing corruption requires a collective effort. Public awareness, education, and strengthening institutions are essential steps toward curbing corruption in India. As a nation, India must unite to combat corruption, fostering a culture of integrity and accountability for a brighter future.

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Essay on Corruption in Public Services | India | Public Administration

essay on anti corruption in india


Here is an essay on ‘Corruption in Public Services’ for class 9, 10, 11 and 12. Find paragraphs, long and short essays on ‘Corruption in Public Services’ especially written for school and college students.

Essay on Corruption  

Essay Contents:

  • Essay on the Anti-Corruption Measures in India

Essay # 1. Historical Perspective of Corruption:

Corruption is a relic of the past. It has always existed in human society in one form or the other. Kautilya in his famous work—’Arthashastra’—refers to the various forms of corruption. Evidently corruption prevailed in his times otherwise he could not have given thought to this idea. Presumably, scope of corruption was fairly limited in the past as the civil servants in that era did not have a sway on all aspects of our lives.

A handful of officials, who were required for collection of taxes and enforcing of law and order, did however, make misuse of their discretionary powers in the absence of written laws or rules.

With the fall of Mughal Empire and the ushering in of a new era—era of British rule in India—corruption assumed alarming proportions. The East Indian Company—a body of British traders—exploited India, amassed wealth and brought India on the verge of bankruptcy.

The British king appeared in the garb of a benevolent despot seemingly to put an end to the corrupt East India Company’s rule and run the administration of India with caution and care. No doubt the British monarchy through its representative, the Governor-General, tried to build up a good administrative machinery in India.

Yet some of the departments, viz., Police, Revenue and Excise which were vested with vast discretionary powers were susceptible to corruption. A sizable number of judges in the lower layer of judiciary also was said to be corrupt to the core.

However, till the outbreak of the World War, corruption was confined to the lower strata of administrators. The top officials who were mostly British were not corrupt, firstly, because they got highly alluring remuneration; secondly, because they did not remain in touch with the community.

Besides the confinement of the British administrative machinery to a small com­pass, the depression of economy of British India, the restricted circulation of money were also the potent reasons responsible for keeping corruption under limits.

The outbreak of war unleashed forces of corruption. The unscrupulous officials got golden opportunity to grab wealth. According to the Bengal Administration Enquiry Committee (1944- 45).

“The Second World War…breeds conditions which make money making easy… The possession of a license became a thing of high value and dishonest and unscrupulous persons did not hesitate to offer bribes in order to secure the license to trade in the commodities effected War conditions, thus, provided the opportunity, but it cannot be denied that it became all too easy for dishonest men to seize the opportunity of illicit gain by reason of two things, namely,- (a) Ill-advised administrative action; (b) Defects in the Law which make detection of offences difficult and which provide inadequate penalties for convicted offenders.”

With the dawn of independence, India embarked upon era of welfare state. As such, the activities of the government got multiplied. The officials were entrusted new and unfamiliar tasks. This resulted in the emergence of new regulations, controls, licenses and permits which provided ample opportunities for corruption.

The lust for power and craze for higher status added to the gravity of the malady. Efforts were made to bring the corrupt officials to book but the methods employed fostered a belief that government was not serious in eradicating corrup­tion. Another notion which gained momentum with the passage of time was that while govern­ment stood against corruption, it did not believe in weeding out corrupt officials.

Things became still worse when democratically elected representatives who were both bound to serve their constituents with dedication and utmost honesty also got entangled in the vicious circle. The so-called custodians of Indian nationalism and the saviours of her territorial integrity themselves became the cause of gradual erosion of cherishingly built Indian democratic super­structure.

They craved for monopoly in politics, through fair and foul methods. Doling out loaves and fishes to their political adherents and distributing quotas and permits amongst their henchmen resulted in accentuation of suspicion against their integrity.

The official, who danced to the tune of political Godfathers also did not lag behind in making hay while the sun shone brightly It led to the utter frustration of the honest and conscientious officials whereas unscru­pulous yes-men who signed the dittoed lines and obliged their political bosses were amply re­warded by lucrative assignments, choicest station of postings and letters of appreciation for commendable work.

The tales of supersession, frequent transfers to god-forsaken places and less prestigious placements for those who failed to appease the political high ups began to be repeated. Thus corruption reached the climax within few decades of our attainment of indepen­dence.

Charges of corruption have been leveled in almost all the states of India against the Chief Ministers and other Cabinet Ministers, not only by the opposition political parties but also the faction within the party itself The Das Commission’s report against Punjab Chief Minister, P.S. Kairon, was revealing.

The Commission unmasked the infirmities of administrative officials in appeasing the Chief Minister by extending patronage to his kith and kins and extending to them maximum possible concessions in the minimum possible time.

The Commission remarked, “The speed with which those officers moved was unusual and remarkable. It is true that there can be no objection to expedition if the thing done is not in itself objectionable… Such break­neck speed in the disposal of a serious matter for which elaborate rules have been framed to be observed and performed is not at all normal and can be attributable only to some powerful force regulating the speed.”

The disproportionate wealth possessed by bureaucrats of the status of Chief Secretary of a state or Chairman of Delhi Milk Scheme—in the sensational revelations by C.B.I. — Excise Taxation officials, Income Tax officers, Central Excise officials and most recently M.P.s, MLAs, and even judges of High Courts and the lower courts speak volumes about corruption going deep into the roots of our- administrative edifice.

The critics go to the extent of saying that corruption has been institutionalized. The critics sarcastically suggest nationalization of corruption in our country at no distant future.

The legislators are playing havoc with their constituents whom they are supposed to serve. The ministries barring a few exceptions, fleece the needy to fill their coffers with jingling coins.

The bureaucrats propitiating their political godfathers at the cost of the distressed masses are more worried about securing their position or a lucrative place of posting rather than devoting attention to the developmental work for the masses.

The judiciary particularly at the lower level has become a laughing stock on account of its dilatory tactics and partial judgments allegedly due to pecuniary allurements. A Supreme Court judge, formerly Chief Justice of Haryana & Punjab High Court had to face legal consequences due to his corrupt deeds and financial irregularities at the hands of high power judicial committee.

The Tehelka scam of March, 2001 exposed through cameras the evil deeds of the politicians and public servants while negotiating defence deal.

The recent scam of ‘cash for query’ or ‘vote for cash’, in a vote of confidence against the previous UPA Government headed by Dr. Manmohan Singh might have chilled democratic spirit in higher circles even and widely exposed corrupt methods and practices even at the highest level.

A month after, an additional judge of the Allahabad High Court was sacked for alleged involvement in Ghaziabad Provident Fund scam.

More recently four High Court judges have been transferred to allow CBI to conduct a thorough probe in fair and impartial manner 35 judges in all – one in Supreme Court, 10 in High Court and 24 in lower courts were accused of involvement in fraudulent withdrawal of Rs. 23 crores from Provident Front account of employees. The scam came to light on the report of Vigilance Officer to Allahabad High Court.

The Chief Justice of India – K.G. Balakrishnan recently expressed concern over judicial corruption in a seminar at Delhi on November 18, 2008 and said, who will watch the watch – dog. He pointed out “disparity in pay scales of public and private sector could be one of the reasons behind corruption”.

Such type of instances can be multiplied. The Jain Hawala case, the Animal husbandry scam in Bihar, the Security Scam ; ‘Vote for Cash’ in the Parliament in a Vote of confidence for the UPA Government under P.M. or Manmohan Singh, cash for asking or not asking ques­tions scams in the Parliament?

Are a few major scandals involving high dignitaries – Politicians and bureaucrats and even some judicial dignitaries. It is contended by the critics that the mo­nopoly of political power in the hands of any one political party gives ample opportunities to its corrupt members to pull wires from top to the bottom.

The ruling party is generally hesitant to investigate cases of corruption against its corrupt politicians holding offices and their henchmen. It has resulted in emergence of nexus of interest between the politicians and dishonest civil servants who indulge in corrupt practices with a sense of immunity from punishment.

Essay # 2. Meaning of Corruption :

Before we make an appraisal of the causes of corruption among the civil services, it is essential to define the term ‘corruption’.

In general terms corruption is a “deliberate and inten­tional exploitation of one’s position, status, or resources directly or indirectly for personal ag­grandizement whether it to be in terms of material gain or enhancement of power, prestige or influence, beyond what is legitimate or sanctioned by commonly accepted norms, to the detri­ment of the interests of other persons or the community as a whole.”

The Indian Penal Code has also defined corruption in legal terms:

“Whoever being or expecting to be a public servant accepts or obtains or agrees to accept or attempts to obtain from any person for himself or for any other person any gratification whatever other than legal remuneration as a motive or reward for doing or forbearing to do any official act or for showing or to show in the exercise of his official function favour Parliament or Legislature of any State or with any public servant as such, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to three years or with fine or with both.”

Extravagant expenditure of public money, provision of employment for kith and kins, friends and supporters, getting of ‘speed money’ for doing a work, placing governmental machinery at the disposal of a particular candidate for winning the elections, and then getting favours from the political boss if he is elected, writing of good remarks in confidential reports and personal files after, expecting the concerned subordinate to dance attendance at the departmental head’s residence, a craving to stay at a station of one’s choice by greasing the palm of the concerned boss and the dealing hands, entering into transaction with the government by giving some per­centage to the officials are some of the modes of corruption which have to be kept in mind while discussing the causes of the malady of corruption and efforts to eradicate them.

Essay # 3. Causes of Corruption:

Ex-President, Dr. Radhakrishnan, in a message to Samyukta Sadachar Samiti correctly remarked, “Corruption was an evil which has to be fought on all fronts, at all levels.” In all developing democracies, corruption has become a malady.

Following are the main reasons for the rapid spread of corruption among the employees:

(i) Historical:

Corruption in all the developing democracies of Asia is a relic of the colonial past. The erstwhile rulers believed in reserving all the top positions for their own na­tionals whereas low positions were earmarked for the subject nationals. Naturally the latter de­veloped tendency of exploiting the people to lead a comfortable and more enjoyable lives like their bosses, whose way of living made them envious.

The scarcities caused due to the World War II resulted in the spread of virus of bribery and corruption among all ranks of civil ser­vices. After the attainment of independence, the National Governments of these countries under­took to race with the time for effecting economic development.

Hence there arose the necessity of controls, permits, and quotas. It opened the gates of black marketing. The black money began to be unscrupulously displayed to win over the governmental officials. Thus, a large scale racket of wholesale corruption became the order of the day.

(ii) Economic:

Corruption has its economic moorings. The salaries paid to the govern­ment officers either have been inadequate or as compared with the business executives working in big companies much less. The occasional rise in D.A. hardly helped in neutralizing the ever-rising prices of the commodities.

In recent years, the ever-shooting cost of living has brought down the real income of various sections of the community particularly that of the salaried employees. Thus the standard of living has suffered an eclipse.

An employee who cannot af­ford to be a silent spectator to the ever-deteriorating economic standards, takes to accepting of illegal gratification to make both ends meet and maintain his standard of living in keeping with his status and position in the administrative hierarchy.

In India, rapid growth of population had added to the gravity of the problem. Family planning campaigns have not fully succeeded. The low class employees having no other source of recreation take to sex play remitting in multiplication of families. This makes the situation still worse. As fond parents, they will not like their children to starve and live in the state of poverty and abject helplessness.

Hence they are apt to get corrupted. The corrupters—the hoard­ers of black money—are readily available to pay the ‘speed money’ to get their work done speedily. The Santhanam Committee rightly stated, “Possession of larger amounts of unac­counted money by various persons including those belonging to the industrial and commercial classes is a major impediment in the purification of public life.”

(iii) Sociological:

Corruption is rooted in our acquisitive society where greatness of indi­viduals and nobility of their family is judged by what they possess rather than by what they are. The acquisition of wealth has become sine qua non of life. People indulge in acquiring wealth without caring for the means they adopt.

Even Gods and God’s men are propitiated with by the avaricious people to attain their worldly goals, viz., victory in games, triumph in lottery, acquittal from courts, success in examination, even in vicious missions of dacoity or robbery etc.

If a tendency to bribe Gods exists why should not the dealing civil services make hay while all round the sun of (corruption) shines? The best way to get one’s work done or for an expeditious disposal of a file concerning the long pending work, is to grease the palm of the corrupt employees. This enables him to maintain certain standard in the modern society where grandly dress and outward appearance matters.

(iv) Procedural Causes:

The defective procedural systems and poor anti-corruption law also cause corruption in public services. The Railway Corruption Enquiry Committee revealed lacunae in the rules and regulations which ultimately lead to corruption. The Santhanam Com­mittee also referred to cumbersome and dilatory procedures in government offices. Red tapism and ‘passing the buck’ have become the permanent features of Indian offices.

The enterprising and shrewd businessmen having lot of black money are thus prepared to pay the ‘speed money’ to get their work done speedily. The procedural red-tapism has enabled the officers on the verge of retirement to show special favours to the business magnets by speeding up their work and secure jobs in return after their retirement.

(v) Environmental:

The fast urbanization and industrialization have resulted in change of values. Simplicity of primitive and medieval times has given place to ostentatious and luxurious life.

Material possessions, administrative status and economic powers are determinant of the status and prestige of a person in a society—may it be a developed or developing. However, in a developing society, the environments are more amenable to corruption.

The governments of the developing democracies cannot afford to pay even a bare minimum wage to their employees. On the other hand, enough of black money is available with the industrialists.

Naturally the ill paid a status conscious employees will be tempted to make fortunes which are apt to flow to them in lieu of the service rendered by them to the industrialists when they visit the dealing government officer.

C. Rajagopalachari rightly pointed out, “The system of permits, licenses, allocation of transport routes, quotas and similar attempts to administer the economy of a big and busy nation from the secretariat, instead of leaving such things to the consumer and competition in the market, is at the root of corruption. The contract between the official and party bosses on the one side and the very clever, far too clever businessman on the other, with a tremendous lot of money expected in the business produces the national malady we call corruption….”

(vi) Lack of Civic Consciousness:

Bulk of people in the developing democracies are illiterate. As such, they lack civic consciousness and do not clamour for the redress of their grievances. The civil services being more enlightened take undue advantage of the general apa­thy, ignorance and indifference of the common men.

They indulge in nefarious activities without fearing the public wrath or mass denunciation. The public, in fact, is keen to shield such officers who are pinpricks for the government in developing democracies like India. People feel con­cerned only when they are individually going to be affected by the action of the officials.

The Railway Corruption Enquiry Committee rightly observed, “….citizens of a free country have the right, nay the duty, to insist that public servants under due service for which they are paid from public coffers…citizens themselves will have to be vigilant and they must insist upon their rights. They should also be prepared to pay, if necessary, the price of such insistence with some tem­porary loss or inconvenience to themselves. A strong public opinion must therefore be created and a determined effort made to withhold payment of illegal gratification.”

(vii) Political:

Since the ushering in of a democratic era, in a developing democracy like India corruption has reached the zenith. It is not only the ministers at the Central or State levels but also the M.Ps. and M.L.As., the Pradhan and the Sarpanches exert pressures on the officials at their respective levels and get the illegal things done.

What to talk of the administrative officers, even the judges are not safe from the overwhelming influence of the ruling party and its top bosses.

The judges who are committed to the ideology of the ruling party may seek promotions and elevation to higher offices while the others not toeing its line may be by-passed or superseded.

The recent example of supersession of the judges of the Indian Supreme Court particularly when they were opposed to the majority verdict on the 24th and 25th amendments is said to be a glaring example of political corruption of a very high order.

Evidently the serv­ices who dance to the tune of political bosses and act according to their dictates alone can flourish and bask in the sunshine of prosperity bestowed upon them by their political God fathers. The Vora Committee found a close nexus between criminal gangsters, politicians and bureaucrats and highlighted it in its Report.

(viii) Special Causes:

(a) Non-Cooperation of Commercial Classes:

Unscrupulous indus­trial magnets and commercial classes constitute a major impediment in the purification of public t life. It is indispensable to weed out these dishonest agents of corruption so as to end corruption in the public services. The Trade Missions, the Federation of Employees and the Indian Cham­ber of Commerce can play a vital role in fighting against corruption by voicing their grievances against the erring officials.

(b) Safeguards for Public Services:

According to the law of our land, both the giver and receiver of bribes are held guilty. Hence, it is difficult to procure evidence against the guilty. The heads of the departments, though unaware of the crime of their subordinates, are not in a position to take action against them for want of adequate proof for their conviction.

They are sometimes not even courageous enough to make adverse entries in the confidential reports of their subordinates fearing that they won’t be able to substantiate them when challenged by the latter or get adequate support from their administrative head if the political bosses are out to support the erring subordinates who earned bad report, at their hands.

Sometimes the erring subordinates who are nuisance for a particular official enjoy political support as they manage the ‘vote bank’ of the political head. Hence they are apt to lend their support to such employees whatever the case. This makes the position of the concerned officer awkward and demoralizes him. Such a support is a sort of corruption which invites denunciation.

(c) There is too much Security of Tenure Assured to Bureaucracy in India:

No civil servant shall be dismissed or removed by an authority subordinate to that by which he was appointed. Moreover, no such person shall be dismissed or removed or reduced in rank until he has been given a reasonable opportunity of showing cause against the action proposed to be taken in regard to him.

According to the 15th amendment of the Constitution, effected in 1963, instead of two full-fledged opportunities of defence, the accused employee can only make one represen­tation against the penalty proposed to be imposed upon him, on the basis of the evidence al­ready adduced during the inquiry into the charges against him without the necessity of any fresh evidence or other extraneous matters.

This has improved the situation to some extent but not solved the problem.

All these causes have led to vitiating of atmosphere in India. Corruption is on the ascendance. Honest and scrupulous employees are becoming rare commodities. A vicious circle has been created by some corrupt politicians, dishonest administrators and some of the so-called custo­dians of justice.

Efforts are, however, afoot to rid the nation of this malady of corruption which is deeply rooted in the Indian polity and is eroding our democratic edifice.

Essay # 4. Anti-Corruption Measures in India:

(i) central bureau of investigation (cbi):.

Corruption in public ser­vices assumed alarming form during the World War. Hence, the Government of India set up special Police Establishment (S.P.E.) in 1941, to investigate cases of bribery and corruption in transactions with which the war and supply departments were concerned. At the end of 1942, cases of corruption in the Railway Department were also entrusted to it.

On April, 1963, the Central Bureau of Investigation was set up and the Special Police Establishment was made one of its divisions. It did not effect any change in the jurisdiction, powers and functions of the Establishment. The C.B.I plays a supplementary role to the States’ Police Forces.

To avoid duplication of efforts, the administrative arrangement has been arrived at between the Central and the State Governments regarding the type of cases to be earmarked for the CBI.

The cases which essentially and substantially involve Central government employ­ees or their officers, or certain state government employees are referred to the CBI. The CBI can also take up cases against employees of statutory bodies or public undertakings established and financed by the Government of India.

The CBI has three main divisions:

(i) Anti Corruption Division

(ii) Special Crime Divi­sion

(iii) Economic Offences Division.

The Bureau is headed by a Director assisted by 3 addi­tional directors and 15 joint directors, a Legal advisor and supporting staff. The CBI’s investigation play a conspicuous role in the political and economic life of the nation.

It deals with criminal cases pertaining to corruption, fraud committed by Government department, Delhi Public Sector undertakings and financial institutions. Secondly it deals with economic crimes including bank frauds. Thirdly, it deals with special crimes viz.., Terrorism, Blasts. Fourthly, it investigates Cyber Crime Cases.

An analytical appraisal of the functioning of the CBI reveals that it has established itself as a premier, investigating agency of the Central Government which create awe and fear in the minds of corrupt officials and plays a vital role in preservation of essential values for unim­peachable public life.

In the last over six decades and a half it has built up image of being the most potent agency for checking the corruption which is eating into the vitals of Indian democ­racy. Due to its meritorious work it has been kept directly under cabinet secretariat and not Ministry of Personnel since January 30, 2003.

(ii) Santhanam Committee’s Recommendations:

With the ever rising corruption, Parlia­ment got alarmed. On its insistence, a committee consisting of seven members—5 M.Ps and 2 senior officials of the Ministry of Home Affairs and with K. Santhanam as Chairman—was appointed in June, 1962. It was authorized to review existing instruments for combating corrup­tion and advising on practical steps to make anti-corruption measures more vigorous.

In a way, it was required to examine the working of the vigilance machinery of the Government of India and recommend improvements in their working. It was also expected to suggest improvements in the Government Servants’ Conduct Rules and see to the speedy trial of cases of bribery, corruption and criminal misconduct.

The Committee produced a very elaborate report comprising 304 pages.

Suggestions of the Committee:

(a) Article 311 of the Constitution may be amended in order to make the judicial process in corruption cases easy and speedy.

(b) There should be a Central Vigilance Commission having autonomous powers.

(c) The Government Servants’ Conduct Rules may be amended so as to restrict the re­employment of retired government employees by private businessman.

(d) Some amendments in the Defence of India Act, 1962, may be made.

In order to implement these recommendations, the Government of India strengthened the CBI and vested it with additional powers.

Further with a view to improve co-ordination and co­operation between the Administration and the CBI, the Home Ministry issued a directive to all Ministries and Departments of the Government that their vigilance officers and Heads should report to the CBI for investigating such cases in which charges of corruption and bribery are made against public servants.

It was suggested that all records and documents required by the CBI should be placed at their disposal for inspection and scrutiny within a fortnight of such a request. Likewise if the CBI suggested transfer of an employee during the course of investiga­tion, it should be readily complied with by the Department concerned.

The investigation of offences alleged to have been committed under the Prevention of Corruption Act, 1988 were henceforth brought under the purview of the Central Vigilance Com­mission section 8 of the Central Vigilance Commission, 1999.

(iii) Vigilance Machinery at the Administration Level:

Two types of vigilance organizations at the department level exist:

(a) The Administrative Vigilance Division in the Ministry of Home Affairs and

(b) The Vigilance Units in the respec­tive Ministries and Departments and their counterparts in the public sector undertakings.

The Administrative Vigilance Division was established in August, 1955. It assumed the over-all responsibility and provided the necessary drive, direction and co-ordination to ensure sustained and vigorous action by individual ministries and departments. The Ministry of Home Affairs deals with cases involving the All India service personnel.

(iv) Central Vigilance Commission (C.V.C.):

The Central Vigilance Commission is to consist of three directorates, viz., the Directorate of General Complaint and Redress, the Central Police Organisation and the Directorate of Vigi­lance. The Central Vigilance Commissioner is to be the chief executive of the commission. He is to be appointed by the President of India for a period of six years or until he attains the age of 65 years whichever is earlier.

The Commission was located in the Ministry of Home Affairs in the initial stages but accorded a statutory status. In addition to the Commissioner, it consists of a Secretary, one Officer on special duty, one Chief Technical Commissioner, 3 Commission­ers for Departmental Enquiries, 2 Under-Secretaries and 6 Technical Commissioners.

Its juris­diction extends to all employees of the Central Government and the employees in the public undertakings, corporate bodies and other organizations dealing with matters falling within the executive powers of the Central Government. Even the Delhi Metropolitan Council and the New Delhi Municipal Committee fall within the jurisdiction of the Commission.

It’s Functions:

(a) To undertake an enquiry into any transaction in which a public servant is suspected or alleged to have acted for an improper purpose or in a corrupt manner.

(b) To investigate into any complaint against a public servant who has exercised or re­frained from exercising his powers for improper or corrupt purposes.

(c) To ask for reports from agencies so as to enable it to exercise general check and supervision over the vigilance and anti corruption work in them.

(d) To take over under its direct control complaints for further action which may pertain either – (i) to ask the Central Bureau of Investigation (C.B.I.) to register a regular case and inves­tigate it or (ii) to enlist it for enquiry to the C.B.I, or the concerned agency.

(e) To initiate review of procedures and practices of administration which concern the maintenance of integrity in the administration.

(f) Since 1999 under section 8 of the Central Vigilance Committee the commission in­vestigates offences committed under the P.C. Act 1988. The commission reviews the progress of investigations into offences alleged under the Act and also the progress of the action on requests for sanctioning prosecution under the Act.

The Commission is required to submit an annual report to the Ministry of Home Affairs about its activities. The Ministry of Home Affairs places this report before each House of Par­liament.

The Government considered the recommendations of the Santhanam Committee too far reaching. Hence, they were rejected partially. Instead of setting up a statutory commission of high officials, the Government established a commission of non-officials in 1964. A retired Senior Administrator of I.C.S. status was appointed as the Chairman of this Commission.

Be­sides the Chairman, six part-time members were also appointed—five being members of the Parliament and one an ex-civil servant. The Commission possessed the powers of investigation of corruption. The S.P.E. and C.B.I do not fall within its purview. This clearly reflects that the commission is a mere shadow of the proposed Central Vigilance Organization.

Consequent to the Supreme Court’s decision of December 18, 1997 the Government has set up a four member CVC, two of whom will be non-bureaucrats. It has been given the power of superintendence over the CBI functioning.

(v) Vigilance Organization in Ministry:

The Santhanam Committee made elaborate recommendations for the strengthening of the vigilance organisation in each Ministry/Department. An officer in each Ministry has been des­ignated as chief vigilance officer and vested with vigilance powers. He acts as a Special Assis­tant to the Secretary or the Head of the Department in all matters pertaining to vigilance.

He provides a link between the Central Vigilance Commission and the Ministries. Likewise, a vigilance officer has been attached with subordinate offices and public sector undertakings. Some of the chief vigilance officers/vigilance officers are whole-time officers while others are part-timers.

Each chief vigilance officer is to be appointed in consultation with the Central Vigilance Commission and the vigilance officers in the attached offices in consultation with the chief vigilance officer of the respective ministry. The chief vigilance officer is of the rank of a deputy secretary and vigilance officers are of the rank of under secretaries.

The Central Vigilance Commission (CVC) has been empowered to assess the work of the Chief Vigilance Officer. The assessment is recorded in the character rolls of the officers.

The Chief Vigilance Officers review the existing arrangements in the organisation under their charge in order to take suitable steps for strengthening the existing set-up wherever nec­essary. All proposals for re-organizing or strengthening the vigilance organisation are referred to the Central Vigilance Commission for scrutiny.

Under the CVC Act, the jurisdiction of the commission extends to:

(a) Members of All -India services and Group A officers of the Central Government.

(b) Board level employees and senior officers up to 2 grades below the Board level em­ployees and senior officers up to 2 grades below the Board level in the Public sector undertak­ings of the Central Government.

(c) Officers of the rank scale V and above in the Public Sector Banks.

(d) Officers of the rank of Assistant Manager and above in the Insurance sector.

(e) Officers drawing basic pay of Rs. 8,000 p.m. and above in autonomous bodies/local authorities or societies owned or controlled by the Central Government.

(vi) Vigilance Machinery of States:

There is a State Vigilance Commission in each State. Further in each State as at the Centre, there is a Special Police Establishment. The State Vigilance Commission deals with matters within executive powers of the State concerned. However, it cannot investigate cases of political corruption.

The powers of these commissions with the minor variations from State to State are as follows:

(i) To undertake enquiry into any transaction in which a public servant is suspected or alleged to have acted for an improper purpose or in a corrupt manner.

(ii) It causes an inquiry or investigation into any complaint that a public servant has exercised or refrained from exercising his powers for improper or corrupt purposes. It holds enquiry into any complaint of corruption, misconduct, lack of integrity or other kinds of mal­practices or misdemeanor on the part of a public servant. It also receives under its direct control such complaints, information or cases as it deems fit.

(iii) It initiates review of procedure and practices of administration which deal with the maintenance of integrity in administration.

(iv) It collects statistics and other information needed for exercising general check and supervision over anti-corruption work.

These commissions are headed by State Vigilance Commissioner who enjoys status of a high court judge. He holds office for a period of five years and is ineligible for any employment either under the Union or State Government. Besides the Commissioner, there is a Commissioner for Departmental Inquiries who conducts departmental enquiries into charges of corruption.

The commission submits an annual report to the State Government about its activities. This report is to be laid before the State Legislature.

(vii) Vigilance at Division and District Levels:

At the Divisional level, a Divisional Vigilance Board has been set up it comprises the Divisional Commissioner, Deputy Inspector General of Police and a Division Vigilance Officer. At the District level, a District Vigilance Officer heads the vigilance organisation. He is appointed by the District Collector/Deputy Commissioner from among his gazetted assistants in consultation with the Divisional Vigilance Board.

To streamline this quest for integrity, the vigilance commissioners of all States hold an annual conference under the chairmanship of the Chief Vigilance Commissioner. This annual conference provides a forum for discussion of mutual problems and exchange of experiences.

Moreover, it gives publicity to vigilance efforts of the Government at both the Central and State levels. Such a step inspires people’s confidence in the government’s sincerity of purpose. A few years back, it blew the lid and exposed the names of members of IAS and IPS retired am) serving. It brought transparency into the area.’ As many as 88 such cases were brought to light.

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Essay on Corruption: 100 Words, 200 Words

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essay on corruption

Corruption is an act of bribery that involves taking gifts and favours in exchange for some gain in terms of services and acceptance. In easy words, corruption means the misuse of power and any positions for personal and financial gain. Whether it’s a public official accepting bribes, a company engaging in fraudulent practices, or a student cheating on an exam, corruption takes various forms. This blog sheds light on the term corruption and the effects of corruption and lists down essay on corruption in 100 and 200 words. 

This Blog Includes:

Effects on corruption, essay on corruption in 100 words, essay on corruption in 200 words.

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Here are some effects of corruption on individuals and society:

  • When people in power are corrupt, people lose trust in them. People start doubting their decisions and intentions for everyone. People can also revolt against them and take any action.
  • Corruption can make life unfair. Instead of the most deserving person getting a job or a chance, it might go to someone who paid a bribe. 
  • Corruption slows down a country’s progress. Money that should be used to build roads, and schools and also the living conditions get worse. This means the country doesn’t become better and people’s lives stay hard.
  • Corruption can block opportunities for many people. If anyone needs a job, education or any healthcare facility and is not able to afford to pay bribes, their opportunities get lost.

Also Read: Essay On Subhash Chandra Bose for Students

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Corruption is when people misuse power for their gain. It’s like cheating the system. Corruption hurts a lot of people. Corruption makes people lose interest and trust in leaders. 

Money meant for schools, hospitals, and roads gets stolen. Jobs might go to those who pay bribes, not the deserving. This may seem unfair to a lot of people. 

Corruption slows down progress and makes life tough. We must stop corruption by being honest and also taking a stand against it. When we fight corruption, we make our world a better place for everyone.

Corruption is a big problem that hurts everyone. It happens when people in power misuse their authority for personal gain. To a lot of people, it may seem unfair. 

The first cause can be that corruption breaks trust. People start doubting if their leaders are working for them personally or for themselves. It also makes them feel upset and also feel disappointed.

Second, corruption wastes money. Money that should help schools, hospitals, and roads ends up in the wrong hands. It means that people who do not get the things that they need for their betterment of life.

Corruption also creates unfairness. People who deserve opportunities might not get them if they can’t pay bribes. It also makes the life of people tough and lose a lot of opportunities. It can also impact the progress of the country and weaken the strong pillars of the country.

To fight corruption, the candidates need to be honest and take steps to stand against it. People can demand transparency and fairness in the country to make the issue sustainable. With the contribution of people, they can create a world where people in power are working for everyone not just for themselves. 

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Some of the adverse effects of corruption in today’s society are lost trust, lost opportunities, and slows down the country’s progress.

The negative emotions related to corruption are anxiety, anger and disappointment.

To write a short essay on corruption, make sure to include the effects of corruption and all the aspects of the term.

Hence, we hope that this blog has assisted you in comprehending what an essay on Corruption must include. If you are struggling with your career choices and need expert guidance, our Leverage Edu mentors are here to guide you at any point of your academic and professional journey thus ensuring that you take informed steps towards your dream career.

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Insights weekly essay challenges 2017 – week 32: corruption in india: neither systemic reforms nor surgical strikes would end it.

Tags: Corruption in India: Neither Systemic Reforms nor Surgical Strikes would End it , Corruption in India: Neither Systemic Reforms nor Surgical Strikes would End it essay , essay on corruption in india

Insights Weekly Essay Challenges 2017 – Week 32 Archives 20 August  2017 Write an essay on the following topic in not more than 1000-1200 words:   Corruption in India: Neither Systemic Reforms nor Surgical Strikes would End it

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Guest Essay

The Sun Is Setting on Indonesia’s Democratic Era

A man, the Indonesian presidential candidate Prabowo Subianto, standing before a crowd of waving people.

By Gordon LaForge

Mr. LaForge is a senior policy analyst at New America, a liberal think tank.

Indonesia’s transformation into a stable democracy over the past quarter-century was as improbable as it was remarkable.

In 1998, the country was on the brink of collapse from a devastating financial crisis and protests that brought down the brutal and corrupt 32-year Suharto dictatorship. Ethnic and religious violence across the sprawling archipelago raised the specter of Balkanization or a military crackdown.

Then, against the odds, the nation’s entrenched elites acceded to public demands for reform and the military withdrew from political life, ushering in an era of open, competitive elections. Corruption and dysfunction persisted, but the world’s fourth-most-populous country emerged as a rare bright spot for liberalism.

Dark clouds are gathering again. Indonesians will vote for a new president on Wednesday to succeed the outgoing Joko Widodo. But the man expected to win — and the anti-democratic path that Mr. Joko has set the country on — threaten many of the gains Indonesians have achieved.

The overwhelming front-runner in the race is Prabowo Subianto , a 72-year-old former army general under Mr. Suharto who has been implicated in human rights abuses , including the abduction and torture of pro-democracy activists during the anti-Suharto uprising. More than a dozen of those people remain missing and are feared dead; Mr. Prabowo was never formally charged.

He has grasped for the presidency ever since. Mr. Prabowo has criticized the reforms of the democratic era and previously called for reinstating the original 1945 Constitution, which would remove checks on presidential power and abolish direct elections. Many critics fear that he would return Indonesia to autocracy.

Perhaps equally disturbing is that Mr. Prabowo’s chances have been greatly boosted by Mr. Joko, who was once a symbol of the nation’s young democracy but has helped undermine institutions and the rule of law during his decade in power. Despite this, he leaves office, after completing the maximum two five-year terms, with approval rating s around 80 percent thanks in large part to the country’s strong economy.

Under Mr. Joko, many Indonesians have seen their lives materially improve through expanded social assistance and the building of airports, highways, seaports and other badly needed infrastructure. The economy is growing by 5 percent a year, and Mr. Joko has sought to use Indonesia’s vast nickel reserves to entice electric vehicle manufacturers such as Tesla and China’s BYD to build factories in the country.

Voters want more. What’s happening in Indonesia is emblematic of a dispiriting global trend in which countries that once championed liberal democracy are allowing it to wither, such as India under Narendra Modi and Trump-era America. Democracy is not dying suddenly or in darkness, but gradually and right before our eyes, as elites weaken democratic norms and institutions for the sake of political expediency while complacent, forgetful citizens look on.

After losing to Mr. Joko in 2014, Mr. Prabowo ran again in 2019 with a blatantly Trumpian campaign in which he embraced nationalist populism and hard-line Islamism, despite being a member of the Indonesian oligarchy — he was at one point Mr. Suharto’s son-in-law — with dubious religious credentials . Railing against elites, he pledged to “ make Indonesia great again .” After losing yet again, he whipped up supporters by denying the results . Postelection riots left several people dead.

But six months after the election, Mr. Joko appointed Mr. Prabowo as defense minister, bringing the ex-general’s hard-right Gerindra Party into the governing coalition as part of an apparent strategy to counter parliamentary opposition to the president’s economic agenda. Mr. Prabowo’s star rose again, and last October he named Mr. Joko’s 36-year-old son, Gibran Rakabuming Raka, the first-term mayor of a small city, as his running mate. Indonesian law bars anyone under 40 from becoming vice president, but the country’s Constitutional Court announced an exemption for existing officeholders like Mr. Gibran. The court’s chief justice is Mr. Joko’s brother-in-law.

Rather than bridle at this blatant interference and the whiff of nepotism, many voters instead seemed to take it as an endorsement of Mr. Prabowo by the wildly popular incumbent, propelling the Prabowo-Gibran ticket to a commanding lead in polls. Mr. Prabowo now tells voters he will continue Mr. Joko’s economic agenda. He has sought to rebrand himself as an avuncular elder statesman who performs silly dances at rallies, but his demagogic nature continues to surface in debates and campaign events.

More than half of the Indonesian electorate is under 40, and many voters are too young to remember Mr. Prabowo’s brutality during the Suharto era. Economic issues, not human rights or civil liberties, top surveys of voter concerns.

Mr. Joko, once the exemplar of his country’s democratic values, has betrayed them. A former furniture manufacturer from the slums of Surakarta, he served as the city’s mayor and later as governor of Jakarta, building a reputation as a squeaky-clean reformer in a notoriously corrupt system. That, and a folksy man-of-the-people appeal , propelled him to the presidency in 2014 and prompted fawning Western media to dub him Indonesia’s Obama .

But he leaves office with Indonesian democracy more fragile than at any time since the Suharto dictatorship. He weakened the country’s independent anti-corruption commission and signed an overhaul of the criminal code that curtailed freedom of expression, criminalized nonmarital sex and gave the government wide and ill-defined powers to prosecute critics and opponents. He has dispensed patronage , has been criticized for meddling in the internal affairs of rival political parties and allowed the military to play a greater role in civilian life.

Much of this can perhaps be blamed on the nature of Indonesian politics, which can resemble “Game of Thrones” with its horse-trading, dynasticism and the constant need to build and maintain power bases. Mr. Joko was the first president since independence in 1945 to come from outside the political or military elite. Without a network of such backing, Mr. Joko has appeased and co-opted power-brokers and rivals to ensure the passage and survival of his agenda and legacy projects like an ambitious plan to build a new capital city on the island of Borneo.

Those ambitions strongly appeal to voters. But nothing is guaranteed, especially with Mr. Prabowo. The Indonesian presidency has immense powers, and while Mr. Prabowo may campaign on continuity, he is famously erratic and ill tempered . Who knows what he will do if he finally wins the prize he has sought for so long? Even a steady continuation of Mr. Joko’s governing practices would mean democratic decline; Mr. Prabowo is likely to accelerate that.

Other large multiethnic democracies face similar threats. There is India, where big-ticket public works projects have fueled Mr. Modi’s popularity even as he rolls back democratic rights; Brazil, where militarism is en vogue as the horrors of past military dictatorships fade from memory; and the United States, where Donald Trump may get another shot at the presidency.

Mr. Prabowo is not a lock to win. He is running against Ganjar Pranowo, a former governor from central Java, and Anies Baswedan, a former university president and Jakarta’s former governor. So far, Mr. Prabowo has polled far ahead, at around 50 percent. If he fails to win an outright majority on Wednesday, there will be a runoff in June between the two top finishers.

Much could happen between now and then. For the sake of the world’s third-largest democracy, let’s hope something does.

Gordon LaForge (@gordonlaforge) is a senior policy analyst at New America. He is a former Indonesia Fulbright Fellow and has worked in the country as a journalist.

The Times is committed to publishing a diversity of letters to the editor. We’d like to hear what you think about this or any of our articles. Here are some tips . And here’s our email: [email protected] .

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