Essay on Air Pollution in India

Students are often asked to write an essay on Air Pollution in India in their schools and colleges. And if you’re also looking for the same, we have created 100-word, 250-word, and 500-word essays on the topic.

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100 Words Essay on Air Pollution in India


Air pollution in India is a serious issue. It is caused by various factors like vehicle emissions, industrial waste, and burning of fossil fuels.

Causes of Air Pollution

Major causes include vehicles releasing harmful gases, factories emitting smoke, and the burning of coal and wood. These activities release pollutants into the air.

Effects of Air Pollution

Air pollution harms our health, causing diseases like asthma and lung cancer. It also affects the environment, leading to global warming and harming wildlife.

To reduce air pollution, we must limit harmful activities and promote cleaner alternatives. Let’s work together for a cleaner, healthier India.

250 Words Essay on Air Pollution in India

Air pollution in India is an escalating issue, with deadly implications on both human health and the environment. The rapid industrialization, urbanization, and population growth have exacerbated the situation, making India home to some of the world’s most polluted cities.

The primary contributors to air pollution are vehicular emissions, industrial processes, residential energy usage, and agricultural practices. Vehicular emissions, particularly from diesel engines, release a significant amount of particulate matter and nitrogen oxides. The burning of fossil fuels in power plants and industries leads to the emission of harmful gases like sulphur dioxide and carbon monoxide. Furthermore, crop burning, a common practice in India’s agricultural sector, releases vast quantities of smoke into the atmosphere.

Air pollution’s impact is far-reaching, affecting not only human health but also the environment. It is linked to a range of health issues, from respiratory problems to cardiovascular diseases, and is a significant cause of premature deaths in India. The environmental effects include acid rain, which damages crops and water bodies, and climate change.

Addressing India’s air pollution crisis requires a multi-pronged approach. This includes stricter enforcement of emission standards, promotion of clean energy, and public awareness campaigns. As India continues to develop, it is crucial that this growth is sustainable and does not come at the expense of the environment and public health. The fight against air pollution is not just a technical challenge, but a socio-economic one that demands comprehensive action.

500 Words Essay on Air Pollution in India

Air pollution in India is a pressing issue with severe implications for the health and well-being of its citizens. As the world’s second-most populous country, India grapples with a unique set of challenges that exacerbate its air pollution problem.

The Prevalence of Air Pollution

India’s air quality is among the world’s worst, with 21 out of the 30 most polluted cities globally located within its borders. The situation is particularly alarming in the Northern Plains, where cities like Delhi, Patna, and Lucknow regularly experience extremely high levels of particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10).

Contributing Factors

Several factors contribute to India’s air pollution crisis. Rapid industrialization, fueled by a growing economy, has led to increased emissions from factories and power plants. The burning of fossil fuels, primarily coal, is a significant contributor to air pollution.

Transportation is another major source, with millions of vehicles, many of which are outdated and inefficient, crowding the roads. Additionally, agricultural practices such as stubble burning contribute significantly to air pollution, particularly in the northern regions.

Urbanization and deforestation have also played a role in exacerbating the problem. The loss of green cover reduces the capacity to absorb CO2 and other pollutants, while the construction activities associated with urbanization release large amounts of dust and other pollutants into the air.

Health Implications

The health implications of air pollution in India are grave. Prolonged exposure to polluted air can lead to respiratory diseases, cardiovascular problems, and even lung cancer. According to the Lancet Commission, air pollution contributes to over a million premature deaths in India annually.

Policy Response and Solutions

In response to the crisis, the Indian government launched the National Clean Air Programme (NCAP) in 2019, aiming to reduce PM2.5 and PM10 concentration by 20-30% by 2024. The program includes city-specific action plans, increasing the number of monitoring stations, and enhancing public awareness.

However, addressing air pollution requires a multi-faceted approach. Transitioning to renewable energy sources, improving vehicle emission standards, and promoting public transportation can significantly reduce pollution from power plants and vehicles.

Agricultural reforms are also needed to provide farmers with alternatives to stubble burning. Urban planning should focus on creating green spaces and implementing construction practices that minimize dust pollution.

Air pollution in India is a complex issue that requires concerted efforts from government, industry, and citizens. While the challenge is immense, the collective will to combat this crisis can lead to a cleaner, healthier future for India. Through policy initiatives, technological innovation, and public participation, India can turn the tide against air pollution.

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India’s Air Pollution Challenge Spans Rural and Urban Areas

A new analysis of satellite data shows that despite some recent progress, air pollution remains a persistent problem across India.

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Co-authored by Rachit Sharma, 2023 India Science and Health Intern

Across the globe, the health burden of air pollution from burning fossil fuels is substantial, resulting in increased risk of premature mortality, reduced life expectancy, and decreased quality of life. Scientists estimate that air pollution was responsible for at least  7 million deaths globally in 2019 , ranking as the fourth highest risk factor for premature mortality, surpassed only by high blood pressure, dietary risks, and tobacco usage. Reducing air pollution and transitioning to cleaner and renewable energy sources is crucial for protecting public health and promoting sustainable development. Developing countries like India are leading this charge , but air quality challenges persist.

Air pollution remains a pressing public health concern in India, threatening both rural and urban populations. A recent  report by Climate Trends reveals high levels of  fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) —one of the most dangerous forms of air pollution—throughout the country, indicating that air pollution is not confined to specific urban regions but is, in fact, a nationwide issue.

Air Pollution Knows No Boundaries

This new analysis of fine-scaled satellite data reveals that air pollution is a pervasive problem in India. Last year’s annual PM 2.5  air pollution averages for both rural and urban areas continue to exceed the annual limit of 40 µg/m 3 in India set by the Central Pollution Control Board and are well above the World Health Organization’s recently revised Air Quality Guidelines of 5 µg/m 3 :

pollution problem of india essay

India state-level map showing annual average PM2.5 concentrations (in µg/m3) across rural areas in 2022 using Global Human Settlement Layer (GHSL) data for urban and rural classification.

NRDC (using Climate Trends report data)

pollution problem of india essay

India state-level map showing annual average PM 2.5  concentrations (in µg/m 3 ) across urban areas in 2022 using Global Human Settlement Layer (GHSL) data for urban and rural classification. Map created by NRDC using Climate Trends report data.

The encouraging news is that this analysis indicates that nationally averaged PM 2.5 levels in rural and urban areas across India have both declined to similar extents (about 19 percent) over the past five years. The report illuminates important geographical differences in air pollution trends across the country. Among Indian states, Uttar Pradesh has shown remarkable progress in air pollution control, with urban PM 2.5  levels reduced by 37.8 percent and rural levels by 38.1 percent between 2017-2022. In contrast, Maharashtra experienced only a marginal 7.7 percent decline in urban PM 2.5  levels and Gujarat achieved an 8.2 percent reduction in rural PM 2.5  levels. Among union territories, Chandigarh was the only one that witnessed a slight increase of 0.3 percent in urban PM 2.5  levels.

The northern and eastern regions performed better than the South and West. Specifically, the western region witnessed only a 10.6 percent reduction in urban PM 2.5  levels and an 11% reduction in rural PM 2.5  levels. On the other hand, the eastern region demonstrated the most notable improvement, with urban PM 2.5  levels decreasing by 20.4 percent and rural PM 2.5  levels decreasing by 22.5 percent .  However, it is worth noting that while the air pollution levels across north India get the majority of the media attention, PM 2.5  levels are still exceeding the 40 µg/m 3  cut-off   in rural and urban areas in all regions except the south:  

pollution problem of india essay

Variation of annual PM 2.5  concentrations at the regional scale (north, south, east, and west) for urban (U) and rural (R) areas from 2017-2020.

Climate Trends

Another key finding from this report is that, across all regions, rural areas have experienced stronger reductions in PM 2.5  levels compared to urban areas. This finding may, in part, be attributable to the progress made under the  Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana . This initiative, launched by the Indian government in 2016, aims to provide clean cooking fuel, specifically liquefied petroleum gas, to women in socioeconomically disadvantaged households to reduce household air pollution generated by burning solid fuels such as wood, coal, and biomass for cooking, heating, and lighting needs. However, a significant portion of the rural population in India still depends on solid fuels and estimates suggest that PM 2.5  emissions from  household sources contribute about 30 to 50 percent of overall ambient PM 2.5  levels in the country .

Persistent Challenges and Health Harms

The declines in PM 2.5  levels over the past years are encouraging in light of India’s ambitious  National Clean Air Progamme (NCAP) goals, which aim to reduce PM 2.5  pollution substantially by 2024,but also highlight the importance of air pollution issues outside of urban settings. The objective of the NCAP is to substantially decrease air pollution levels in cities across the country that currently surpass India's National Ambient Air Quality Standards established to safeguard public health with an acceptable level of safety. India’s Ministry of Environment, Forests, and Climate Change has set a national target of reducing annual levels of PM 2.5  by 20-30 percent by 2024, relative to a 2017 baseline. However, as of 2023, four years into NCAP implementation, the  progress made so far is inconsistent and falls short of achieving the desired results by 2024. Air pollution is not confined to geographical boundaries and requires a comprehensive approach beyond the scope of urban-focused programs like the NCAP. 

Furthermore, it is important to acknowledge that these declines in dangerous air pollution levels need to continue because the current, absolute PM 2.5  levels remain unhealthy. The concerning trend holds true when comparing states that are with or without ‘non-attainment cities’ included under NCAP, suggesting that many Indians are being exposed to long-term air pollution that is responsible for a range of dangerous health impacts , including respiratory diseases, cardiovascular diseases, neurological disorders, and premature death. According to the 2022  State of Global Air Report , at least 1.6 million deaths were attributable to air pollution alone in India in 2019, making it the leading environmental hazard in the country. A separate analysis estimated that in 2019,  the economic losses in India resulting from premature deaths and illnesses linked to air pollution were estimated to be $ 29 billion and $8 billion, respectively.

Leveraging Satellite Data for New Insights

India’s air pollution monitoring network is still limited but quickly growing, and this new analysis highlights the value of satellite data in tracking air pollution trends. Satellite-derived PM 2.5 levels provide comprehensive insights into pollution patterns and their sources, enabling a better understanding of air quality in both rural and urban areas. This information is vital for designing targeted interventions and implementing effective mitigation strategies.

However, since  rural areas are often excluded from air quality monitoring programs, reliance on the current network of air monitors to validate satellite-derived data can result in biased results that do not adequately capture rural pollution levels. To improve the interpretation of satellite data, the establishment of a denser rural air monitoring network is crucial. To accurately reflect air quality trends, experts  estimate that India needs a minimum of 4,000 monitoring stations, with 2,800 stations in urban areas and 1,200 stations in rural ones. This target is well above the  NCAP national target of 1,500 stations by 2024. A robust monitoring network can be supplemented by long-term chemical speciation sites to identify pollution sources accurately for targeted mitigation efforts. At the household level, conducting systematic surveys and utilizing sensor-based monitoring can help capture shifts in fuel choices. By enhancing the reach of ground-level air monitoring data, policymakers can obtain a more nuanced understanding of air pollution in different regions and develop more effective strategies to address priority sources.

Towards Cleaner Air for All

Overall, this new report underscores the value of satellite data in tracking pollution trends and highlights the importance of addressing pollution sources in both rural and urban settings to safeguard public health in India. Despite differences in sources of air pollution, observed levels of PM 2.5  are similarly high in both urban and rural areas. As a result, both urban and rural populations alike face health risks from breathing in contaminated air. It is worth noting that air pollution is often seen as an issue primarily affecting urban areas, resulting in less media attention being given to rural regions, even though rural areas encompass about 64 percent of the country's population.

This new analysis of PM 2.5 levels highlights the urgency of addressing this issue through comprehensive and targeted measures. Primary sources of PM 2.5  in India include household emissions, power sector emissions, industrial activities, transportation, open burning of crops and waste, and dust.  Household emissions have a dominant role throughout India, while vehicular exhaust and dust resuspension are the primary  local sources in Indian cities . Although most PM 2.5  sources in urban areas are local, non-local contributions can be significant. In Delhi, for example, local sources account for around 70 percent of total PM 2.5 , with  non-local sources contributing over 30 percent, especially during winter. Air quality management should extend beyond urban areas to address pollution sources in both rural and urban settings. Shifting the air pollution management mindset away from highly localized areas  towards broader airsheds is needed because addressing pollution sources across multiple sectors can help to deliver air quality gains that are more widespread, equitable, and sustainable over the long term. 

Continued efforts to document the evolving nature of air pollution emissions and exposures in India are needed, and by leveraging scientific knowledge, including the quantification of the related health effects, India can work towards cleaner air and a healthier future for all of its people.

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Air pollution in India: Status and Challenges

It is ironic that we humans pollute the very air that we breathe in but our activities for progress and development that we desire and work for everyday has made air pollution an inevitable hazard. In a country like India, where both population and economic development increased rapidly in past seven decades, air pollution has reached a stage where many cities in India are among the most polluted cities in the world. In a recent World Air Quality 2018 report released by IQAir Group and Greenpeace (AirVisual, 2019), it was reported that fifteen of the top 20 most polluted cities in the world are located in India.

Figure 1: Top 20 polluted cities in the world Source: The Hindu, March 05, 2019 (Koshy, 2019)

By definition, air pollution is contamination of ambient air by chemical species in such concentrations and for such duration that is harmful to general health. Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) has established National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for some of the most common air pollutants which are mainly particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO), ground-level ozone, nitrogen dioxide (NOx), sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) and lead. These are known as “criteria” air pollutants (EPA, 2015). Further, the air pollutants can be primary or secondary depending upon their formation mechanism (CPCB, 2006). Primary pollutants such as CO, NOx and SO 2 are directly emitted from the source while secondary pollutants such as ozone and some aerosols are formed in the atmosphere.

Sources of Air pollution Emissions in India

A diverse range of pollution sources co-exists in urban environments. Conventional sources of air pollution include vehicular emissions, coal-based power plants, fossil fuel consumption in industries and some agricultural activities such as fertilizer application and farm fires. Air pollutants can be natural or may be the result of various anthropogenic activities. Examples include production of brick kilns that use raw wood, agricultural waste or poor quality coal used as a fuel, the roadside burning of organic and plastic waste, cooking that involves the burning of solid biomass or cow dung and the unintentional burning of municipal solid waste at landfills, and construction activities (Kumar et al, 2015) (Figure 3). The local emission inventories point to about 5300 and 7550 tons yr−1 of PM 10 and PM 2.5 release from waste burning in Delhi, respectively, while the corresponding emissions from construction are 3250 and 10,750 tons yr−1 (Guttikunda and Goel, 2013). Other such sources include diesel generators for temporary power generation in cities, traffic congestion, and unregulated small industries.

Figure 2: Average percent contributions of major sources to PM 10 pollution as per CPCB inventory (Source: Guttikunda et al, 2014)

Figure3: There are many unregulated and unaccounted sources of pollution such as landfill, brick kilns, loose soil and waste dumping, biomass burning for cooking using chulhas, dry uncovered surface along the roadside, and traffic congestion (Source: Kumar et al, 2015)

Particulate Matter : A National Threat

According to CPCB annual report 2015-16, out of the 46 million-plus population cities in India, 8 cities (18%) and 38 cities (86%) exceed the NAAQS with respect to NO 2 and PM 10 respectively in the residential/industrial/rural/commercial areas. Hence, in India, fine particulate matter (PM 10 , PM 2.5 ) have emerged as pollutants of major concern.

In a recent survey study (Bernanrd & Kazmin, 2018), The Financial Times collated NASA satellite data of fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) and mapped it against population density data from the European Commission to develop a global overview of the number of people affected by this type of dangerous pollution. It was revealed in their study that although historically China has grabbed most headlines for poor air quality, between 1998 and 2016, India has acquired far worse state of pollution than its larger neighbour ever was. At least 140 million people in India are breathing air 10 times or more over the WHO safe limit. WHO prescribes a standard of 10 μgm -3 however, more than 60% of India’s districts have annual concentrations of more than 40 μgm -3 (Figure 4).

Figure 4: PM 2.5 levels have increased in major parts of the country Source: Urbanemissions.info (Guttikunda, 2018)

Health Effects of Air Pollution

Strong links have long been established between exposure to air pollution and cardiovascular diseases, such as strokes and heart disease; cancers; chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases; respiratory diseases, including acute respiratory infections (especially in vulnerable groups like children and elderly); poor birth outcomes, etc. These entail adverse health, economic and developmental consequences (WHO, 2018).

In a study that appeared in The Lancet (Cohen et al, 2017), India had a contribution of 50 % in global estimates of mortality and disability-adjusted life-years attributable to ambient particulate matter pollution for the year 2015. 1 in 8 deaths in India is attributable to air pollution. A study by researchers of the Energy Policy Institute at the University of Chicago (EPIC) concluded that people in India would live 4.3 years longer if the country met the WHO guidelines (EPIC, 2018). 

Impacts of development on meteorology and air pollution

Urbanisation: Massive growth in urbanisation has been found to coincide with the growth in air pollution in many studies. Other than increase in pollution-emitting sources such as vehicles and industries, urbanisation also influences meteorology which in turn affects air quality as urban areas are often associated with altered meteorologies such as higher temperatures and lower wind speeds.

For instance, there is a considerable growth of urban and built-up area during the recent decades over National Capital Region (NCR) of India (17-fold increase in the urban extent). Results indicate a warming of 1.5–2 °C in the surface temperature and 4–5 °C in land surface temperature (LST) during the evening and nighttime due to the changes of land use land cover (LULC) to urban areas during the past five decades

Figure 5 : (Top Panel) Urban expansion as indicated by red colour for Delhi and its satellite. The colour yellow and green are for mixed croplands and irrigated croplands, respectively. (Bottom Panel) Ambient temp increase with the increase in urbanisation over Delhi-NCR every decade Source: Sati and Mohan, 2018

In a city, areas with high urban density are often marked with higher temperatures in comparison to the surrounding areas, a phenomenon known as urban heat island. Urban heat island effect has now been studied in many Indian cities including Delhi where temperatures at highly dense areas were observed to be higher by about 8-10°C in comparison to green areas within the city (Mohan et al 2012, 2013).

Technologies for Air Pollution Monitoring

  • The central nodal monitoring agency, CPCB, has two types of monitoring network. Under manual monitoring network, the air is sampled and then sent to lab for analysis. Under continuous ambient air quality monitoring (CAAQM) real-time data is generated by the instruments which are also displayed online for the public in general. As of 2018, there are 134 locations in the country with manual stations (CPCB, 2018) while 157 locations with CAAQ monitoring (CPCB, 2019). Some of the conventional instruments for air pollution monitoring are Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) instruments, gas chromatographs, and mass spectrometers (Prasad et al, 2011).
  • Nowadays, there are several categories of low cost sensors available for air pollution mitigation (European Commission, 2016). Electrochemical sensors are based on a chemical reaction between gases in the air and the electrode in a liquid inside a sensor. They are used to measure NO 2 , SO 2 , O 3 , NO and CO.
  • Pollutants like NO 2 , O 3 , CO are also measured by metal oxide sensor (resistive sensor, semiconductor) in which gases in the air react on the sensor surface and modify its resistance.
  • VOCs are measured by photo ionization detectors which ionise volatile organic compounds and measures the resulting electrical current.
  • Optical particle counters detect particulate pollution by measuring the light scattered by particles. Optical sensors detect gases like carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide by measuring the absorption of infrared light.

Numerical Modeling for Air Quality Management

Air quality modeling is not only useful for forecasting but also for air quality management. However, for that, prior evaluation is necessary to have confidence in the application of the model. Model performance should be analysed for different simulation design combinations (Mohan and Sati, 2016), sensitivity to different physical parametrisation (Mohan and Bhati, 2011; Gunwani and Mohan, 2017) and different chemical mechanisms for simulation of air pollutants like particulate matter and ozone (Mohan and Gupta 2018, Gupta and Mohan, 2015).

Having an established modeling framework helps in the assessing source contribution of different air pollutants. It also helps in investigating contribution of long-range transport of pollution.

Recent studies based on model simulations show the influence of geographical domain on PM 10 concentrations in Delhi and revealed that the contributions from long range transport towards National Capital Territory of Delhi can be as high as 26% to 97% during summer and 13% to 68% during winter conditions especially during high pollution episodes. It was inferred that the high levels of PM 10 concentration is not only due to local pollution but is also highly influenced by remote sources (Gupta and Mohan, 2013). Air pollution forecast models also provide a framework for the evaluation of different mitigation options for pollution abatement.

Initiatives by the Government of India

In India, the government is looking at innovative solutions for tackling air pollution (WHO, 2016)

  • The Swachh Bharat Abhiyan encourages citizens to adopt cleanliness in all spheres of life and is particularly relevant and timely.
  • The ‘Smart Cities’ initiative assures urban planning, building energy efficient housing and a good network of public transport, all of which are environment-friendly. Citizens’ participation is in-built, thus ensuring sustainability.
  • Promoting more equitable access to clean fuels by removing blanket subsidy on cooking gas to high-income group and including more households from a low-income group in the LPG distribution list are appreciable steps to address household air pollution.
  • The government has also constituted a multisectoral Steering Committee to address air pollution, both household and ambient; WHO India is a member of this forum.
  • Smoke-free legislation to reduce exposure to second-hand smoke is already in place in India viz. Cigarette and other Tobacco Products Act, 2003. India is also a signatory to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, 2004.
  • Technologies and strategies in Practice (Gurjar et al, 2016)

Industrial emissions are regulated under the Environment Protection Act, 1986 which involves installation of pollution control equipment to meet the emission guidelines. CPCB has identified 24 critically polluted areas and action plans have been formulated to improve the air quality of these areas. For coal power plants located more than 1000 km from the pit head, ash content of the coal used has to be below 34%.

Environmental clearance from Ministry of Environment and Forest (MoEF) has been made mandatory for establishment of development projects (29 categories) which involves conducting Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) study, public hearing and submitting the environmental statement.

Moreover, other mitigation measures such as reduction in the sulfur contents of the coal, relocation of industries (i.e. displacement of industries from inner parts of city to outer areas), use of clean fuel [e.g. use of less ash and sulfur content coal, liquid petroleum gas (LPG)] and application of air pollution control devices have been taken into account.

For reducing dust emissions from stone crushers, use of enclosed structures and water spraying system have been adopted. The industrial segment mostly employs electrostatic precipitator filter type air purifiers, which removes fine particles such as dust and smoke, 

from a flowing gas using the force of an induced electrostatic charge, thereby minimally impeding the flow of gases through the unit.

Other technologies in practice are flue gas desulphurisation, bag filters, wet collectors, multi-cyclones, carbon sequestration, industrial fans, gas conditioning systems, catalytic reduction, and fabric filters.

Various measures have been taken by government to reduce vehicular emissions such as introduction of cleaner fuels (e.g. unleaded gasoline, ultra-low sulfur diesel, CNG, LPG), improved engine technologies, introduction of Bharat Norms (equivalent to Euro norms), alternate public transport (Delhi metro rail) to trim down the growing energy demand and emissions. A series of stricter norms for vehicular emission reduction (Bharat Stage I-IV) has been adopted by the Ministry of Road Transport and Highways since 2000.Leaded gasoline was phased out from the entire country from the early 1990s till 2000, and Benzene concentration in gasoline was regulated to 3% in all India. Moreover, moving towards hybrid and electric transport vehicles in a planned manner is a major step.

Challenges towards air pollution management

Poor information exchange on best practice in urban air quality management and the lack of harmonized air pollution policies in the region has contributed to the absence of regional co-operation in addressing urban air quality. The country has areas of high population densities and in turn, higher emissions and an approach of developing strategies for control of air pollution with identification of ‘regional airshed approach’(e.g., Indo-Gangetic Plane) in the country shall be adopted.

There is a clear need for a well coordinated, sponsored initiative to address the fundamental problem of urban air pollution and provide the basis for future regional co-operation leveraging on existing technical expertise, finances and seeking requisite International cooperation.

Cost-effective solutions need also to be developed through advanced research and analysis and integrated into the policy framework in various sectors like transport, health and even the industrial policy. 

As pollution and urban meteorology are interlinked, a framework for mitigation of urbanization-altered temperatures will go hand in hand with mitigation of pollution as well.

Figure 6: Heat Island mitigation measures reduce energy demand which in turn helps in mitigating air pollution (Source: HISAT Policy Report, 2018)

Research needed to address key issues

  • A comprehensive understanding of both conventional and unaccounted sources and their emission characteristics is currently lacking. Representative emission inventories detailing the contribution from city- or industry-specific sources are needed. A holistic overview of emissions would also allow the efficient targeting of key individual sources, which if controlled, would lead to maximised benefits (Kumar et al, 2015).
  • An extensive understanding of local versus peripheral, and peripheral versus regional, sources of emissions and their contribution towards local pollutant concentrations is essential. Development of a modelling framework to assess these aspects is required for air quality forecasting as well as analysis. Numerical modelling can aid in understanding the interplay of possible sources and could assist in evaluating the effect of any policy, infrastructure or technological interventions on cluster-wise emissions and ambient air pollution concentrations.
  • Mostly we are dependent on health studies of western countries for assessing health impacts of pollutants. However, there are a lot of uncertainties with these kinds of dose-response relationships which depend on the population sample. Hence work needs to be done in our country to strengthen cohort studies to find the impacts on the local population.
  • Research also needs to be focussed on the incorporation of satellite data to enhance in-situ monitoring network as well as supplement data inputs for modelling.
  • Development of a single platform to share research and policy recommendations from different agencies involved in developing air pollution technologies and tackling strategies. Government agencies such as CPCB, CSIR, NEERI, SPCBs, MoES institutions and academic institutions such as IITs, IISER Mohali, involved either at policy or research level for air pollution management.
  • The Centre for Atmospheric Sciences at Indian Institute of Technology Delhi establishment in 1979, is a centre of excellence promoting interdisciplinary research in air pollution, climate variability, urban climate, air-sea interaction, numerical modelling of atmosphere and ocean and monsoon studies to understand various physical and social consequences. In addition, IIT Delhi now has a Centre of Excellance for Research in Clean Air.
  • Private organisations and NGOs such as CSE, Greenpeace also undertake various initiatives for research, survey and information dissemination. A common platform to share the work of all these agencies will facilitate coordination required for formulating air pollution management programs. India Science Technology and Innovation portal (ISTI) is a step in this direction.


  • Chemical transport models (CTMs) shall be used as an appropriate tool for policy guidance.
  • A data portal shall be made available in open access format with past and current data of all the sources across the country with strict implementation of Quality audit and quality control (QA/QC).
  • The data available with the monitoring stations of industries and other academic organisations shall be made a part of this national data portal after facilitating similar QA/QC in order to enhance this national network.
  • A standard QA/QC program needs to be evolved for PM10 and PM2.5 for newer sensor-based techniques.
  • Exposure assessment shall be integral to policy making for recommending control strategies. Studies based on the local Indian population are required.
  • City and industrial planning shall involve urban and environmental planners. Smart cities have been planned in India and sustainable development strategies shall require including mitigation strategies.
  • In conclusion, it is important to look beyond monitoring, emission inventories, or source apportionment. Even the best science and technology will not succeed in reducing emissions and improving air quality if it is not considered in a broader framework of economic development of the country, raising awareness of public health risks, and technological progress which is compatible with the nation's cultural, geographical and social context.
  • “Polluter Pays” has long been a policy of air pollution control worldwide. Thus, the major responsibility of the implementation of newer technologies for pollution reduction often comes up as high investment packages for concerned industrial units. The sole responsibility of implementing switching over from older technologies to newer ones for pollution reduction by the concerned industrial units are found to be less viable and delay implementation of easily practicable pollution reduction strategies under the regulatory framework. Technical and financial support with a viable model of sharing the burden of costs including public and private funding shall be worked out with strict timelines for ease of implementing the latest technologies in the wider interest of the general public.
  • Unregulated emission sources such as waste and biomass burning, landfill sites, construction dust, dust from unpaved areas form a major contribution to deteriorating air quality and hence shall be given very high priority for abatement where the technologies are available involving wider participation both from industries and public.
  • AirVisual. (2019) . World most polluted cities in 2018 - pm2. 5 ranking | airvisual. (n.d.). Retrieved June 2, 2019, from https://www.airvisual.com/world-most-polluted-cities
  • Bernard, S. &Kazmin, A. Dirty air: how India became the most polluted country on earth. (n.d.). Financial Times, December 11, 2018. Retrieved May 26, 2019, from https://ig.ft.com/india-pollution
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  • EPIC (2018). Indians could live up to three years more if there’s a 25% reduction in air pollution | Energy Policy Institute at University of Chicago. (n.d.). Retrieved May 25, 2019, from https://epic.uchicago.edu/news-events/news/indians-could-live-three-year...
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  • Gupta, M., & Mohan, M. (2013). Assessment of contribution to PM10 concentrations from long range transport of pollutants using WRF/Chem over a subtropical urban airshed. Atmospheric Pollution Research, 4(4), 405-410. doi: https://doi.org/10.5094/APR.2013.046
  • Gupta, M., & Mohan, M. (2015). Validation of WRF/Chem model and sensitivity of chemical mechanisms to ozone simulation over megacity Delhi. Atmospheric Environment, 122, 220–229. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2015.09.039
  • Gurjar, B. R., Ravindra, K., &Nagpure, A. S. (2016). Air pollution trends over Indian megacities and their local-to-global implications. Atmospheric Environment, 142, 475–495. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2016.06.030
  • Guttikunda, S. (2018, May 11). Daily dose of air pollution: breaking down WHO 2018 AAP database for Indian cities. Retrieved May 26, 2019, from Daily Dose of Air Pollution website: http://urbanemissions.blogspot.com/2018/05/breaking-down-who-2018-aap-da...
  • Guttikunda, S. K., & Goel, R. (2013). Health impacts of particulate pollution in a megacity—Delhi, India. Environmental Development, 6, 8–20. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envdev.2012.12.002
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  • Koshy, J. (2019, March 5). Fifteen of the 20 most polluted cities in the world are in India. The Hindu. Retrieved from https://www.thehindu.com/sci-tech/energy-and-environment/fifteen-of-the-...
  • Kumar, P., Khare, M., Harrison, R.M., Bloss, W.J., Lewis, A.C., Coe, H., &Morawska, L. (2015). New directions: Air pollution challenges for developing megacities like Delhi.
  • Mohan, M., & Bhati, S. (2011). Analysis of wrf model performance over subtropical region of delhi, india. Advances in Meteorology, 2011, 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1155/2011/621235
  • Mohan, M., & Gupta, M. (2018). Sensitivity of PBL parameterizations on PM10 and ozone simulation using chemical transport model WRF-Chem over a sub-tropical urban airshed in India. Atmospheric Environment, 185, 53–63. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2018.04.054
  • Mohan, M., & Sati, A. P. (2016). WRF model performance analysis for a suite of simulation design. Atmospheric Research, 169, 280–291. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosres.2015.10.013
  • Mohan, M., Kikegawa, Y., Gurjar, B. R., Bhati, S., Kandya, A., & Ogawa, K. (2012). Urban heat island assessment for a tropical urban airshed in india. 2012. https://doi.org/10.4236/acs.2012.22014
  • Mohan, M. (2018). HISAT Policy Report. Odisha State Pollution Control Board
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  • Sati, A. P., & Mohan, M. (2018). The impact of urbanization during half a century on surface meteorology based on WRF model simulations over National Capital Region, India. Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 134(1), 309–323. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00704-017-2275-6
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Prof. Manju Mohan Professor and Head, Centre for Atmospheric Sciences, India Institute of Technology, Hauz Khas, New Delhi-110016 

Disclaimer:  This work has been submitted by the author. Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this article are those of the author only and do not necessarily reflect the views of organization.

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Essay on Air Pollution in India – Check out some examples of Short and Long Essays here!

Essay on Air Pollution in India: An imbalance in the quality of the air that results in negative impacts is referred to as air pollution. “Our massively accelerated exploitation of the atmosphere has become a health danger and a threat to life, harming both plants and animals in areas polluted with deadly gases, dust, and smoke,” claims Maxwell. Many contaminants of all kinds are regularly added to the atmosphere and are cleaned up by nature. Yet, when pollution levels surpass the capacity of the atmosphere to clean itself, contaminants build up and pose major risks to the environment, other living things, and even humans.

Table of Contents

100-Words Essay on Air Pollution in India

Due to the massive degree of industry in the globe today, air pollution is one of the most important issues, particularly in large cities. Smog, particles, solid materials, and other air pollutants are being released in high concentrations, settling over the city and contributing to air pollution and health risks. People produce a lot of unclean garbage every day, especially in large cities, which greatly pollutes the air everywhere.

The discharge of gaseous pollutants from industrial activities, burning of rubbish, burning of motor vehicle fuel, etc. all contribute to air pollution. Pollutants that are found in nature, such as dust, pollen, soil particles, natural gases, etc., can also cause air pollution.

200-Words Essay on Air Pollution in India


One of today’s top environmental concerns is air pollution. There are numerous factors that frequently increase this air pollution. Automobiles, transportation methods, industrialization, expanding cities, etc. are the leading causes of air pollution. The release of various toxic gases or dangerous components from such sources brings on the contamination of the entire atmosphere. Air pollution, which has a negative impact on the environment, also has a significant effect on the ozone layer. The primary contributor to pollution is the ever-increasing demands of the human population. Every day human activities pump harmful chemicals into the atmosphere, making it more polluted than ever and accelerating climate change.

Toxic gases, particulates, paint, and batteries containing lead are released throughout the industrialization process. Cigarettes emit carbon monoxide, while transportation methods release CO2 and other noxious compounds into the atmosphere. The ozone layer is being destroyed and the world is being exposed to dangerous solar rays as a result of all the contaminants in touch with the atmosphere. We need to drastically alter our everyday routines if we want to lower the level of air pollution. To lessen the consequences of air pollution, we should not cut down trees, take the bus or train, refrain from using spray cans, and engage in a variety of other activities.

300-Words Essay on Air Pollution in India

Air pollution occurs when the clean air becomes contaminated by particles, hazardous gases, smoke, motor vehicles, mills, industries, etc. We need to consider what would happen if the entire atmospheric air were contaminated because we all know that clean air is the most essential component of a healthy life. First, the entire human fraternity regrets the issue of air pollution. Poisonous fertilizers, insecticides, and pesticides used by unsuspecting farmers to improve crop productivity in the agricultural sector are some of the major causes of air pollution. Air pollution is being brought on by dangerous gases like ammonia that fertilizers release into the atmosphere.

The main contributors to air pollution are the burning of combustibles used in factories, including coal, oil, and other fossil fuels. Air pollution is also caused by a variety of smoke emissions from vehicles, including cars, buses, motorcycles, trucks, jeeps, trains, and airplanes. A growing number of industries are responsible for the environmental emission of hazardous industrial smoke and harmful gases from factories and mills (such as carbon monoxide, organic compounds, hydrocarbons, chemicals, etc.). Certain human indoor activities, such as the unintentional use of cleaning supplies, laundry detergents, paints, etc., release a variety of harmful compounds into the atmosphere.

The negative impacts of air pollution on living things’ health are exacerbated by the pollution’s constant escalation. Because of rising atmospheric temperatures brought on by an increase in greenhouse gas concentrations, air pollution is contributing to the phenomenon of global warming. These greenhouse gases induce the greenhouse effect once more, driving up sea levels, melting glaciers, changing weather patterns, and altering climate, among other things. Many fatal ailments, including cancer, heart attacks, asthma, bronchitis, kidney problems, etc., are being brought on by rising air pollution. Several significant plant and animal species have been wiped off the face of the world. Acid rain and ozone layer thinning are being brought on by the environment’s rising amount of dangerous substances.

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Long Essay on Air Pollution in India

Air pollution is a major environmental problem that affects India’s population and economy. It is estimated that about 1.2 million deaths in India every year are caused by air pollution. India’s air pollution is mainly caused by industrial emissions, traffic congestion, open burning, and poor quality of fuels used in households. In this essay, we will discuss the causes and effects of air pollution in India and the measures that can be taken to control it.

The causes of air pollution in India are many, and they differ depending on the region. In urban areas, air pollution is mainly caused by vehicular emissions, industrial emissions, and construction activities. The use of fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas in power plants, industries, and households is another major source of air pollution in India. In rural areas, the open burning of agricultural waste, forests, and grasslands is a significant contributor to air pollution.

Air pollution has many harmful effects on human health, the environment, and the economy. Exposure to high levels of air pollution can cause respiratory problems such as asthma, bronchitis, and lung cancer. It can also cause heart disease, stroke, and other cardiovascular problems. Children, the elderly, and people with pre-existing medical conditions are particularly vulnerable to the harmful effects of air pollution.

Air pollution also has a significant impact on the environment. It can harm plant and animal life and damage ecosystems. Acid rain, which is caused by air pollution, can damage forests, crops, and water bodies. Air pollution also contributes to climate change by increasing the levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.

In addition to the health and environmental impacts, air pollution also has economic consequences. It can reduce productivity, increase healthcare costs, and damage infrastructure. It can also deter foreign investment and tourism, which can have a negative impact on the economy.

To control air pollution in India, various measures have been taken at the national, state, and local levels. The government has implemented various policies and regulations to reduce emissions from industries, power plants, and vehicles. The introduction of cleaner fuels such as compressed natural gas (CNG) in public transport has helped to reduce vehicular emissions. The government has also launched various initiatives to promote renewable energy, such as solar and wind power, to reduce the reliance on fossil fuels.

At the local level, measures such as the promotion of cycling and walking, the creation of green spaces, and the regulation of construction activities can help to reduce air pollution. The public can also play a role in reducing air pollution by reducing their use of personal vehicles, using public transport, and adopting sustainable practices in their households.

In conclusion, air pollution is a significant environmental problem that affects India’s population and economy. It is caused by a variety of factors, including industrial emissions, traffic congestion, open burning, and poor quality of fuels used in households. Air pollution has many harmful effects on human health, the environment, and the economy. To control air pollution, various measures can be taken at the national, state, and local levels. The public also has a role to play in reducing air pollution by adopting sustainable practices in their households and reducing their use of personal vehicles.

FAQs on Essay on Air Pollution in India

The main causes of air pollution in India are vehicular emissions, industrial emissions, burning of fossil fuels, construction activities, and agricultural practices.

Air pollution can cause a range of health problems in India, including respiratory diseases, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and reduced lung function. It can also lead to premature deaths.

The government of India has taken several measures to control air pollution, including the implementation of the National Clean Air Program, the promotion of clean energy, the promotion of public transportation, and the introduction of stricter emission norms for industries and vehicles.

Air pollution can have a significant impact on the environment in India, including damage to crops and forests, acid rain, and the depletion of the ozone layer.

Individuals can take several steps to reduce air pollution in India, including reducing the use of private vehicles, using public transportation, using cleaner fuels, reducing the use of plastic, and planting more trees.

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Essay on Problem of Pollution

Pollution is a grave problem that poses a significant threat to our environment, health, and the future of our planet. It occurs when harmful substances enter the air, water, or soil, causing damage to ecosystems and endangering all forms of life. In this essay, we will delve into the critical issue of pollution, examining its causes and effects and the urgent need for action to combat it.

Types of Pollution

There are several types of pollution, each with its own set of causes and consequences. Air pollution, for example, results from the release of harmful gases and particles into the atmosphere, often from vehicles and industrial activities. Water pollution occurs when pollutants contaminate rivers, lakes, and oceans, harming aquatic life and making water unsafe for human consumption. Soil pollution, on the other hand, affects the quality of the soil, making it less fertile and endangering our food supply.

Causes of Pollution

The causes of pollution are diverse, but many can be traced back to human activities. The burning of fossil fuels for energy production and transportation is a major contributor to air pollution, releasing harmful gases like carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide. Irresponsible waste disposal and industrial discharges contaminate our water bodies, leading to water pollution. Additionally, the use of pesticides and chemicals in agriculture can result in soil pollution.

Effects on Health

Pollution has dire consequences for human health. Breathing in polluted air can lead to respiratory problems like asthma and bronchitis. Water pollution can cause waterborne diseases, affecting millions of people worldwide. Moreover, soil pollution can lead to contaminated crops, posing health risks when consumed. The health effects of pollution are particularly harmful to vulnerable populations, including children and the elderly.

Environmental Impact

The impact of pollution on the environment is extensive and devastating. Air pollution, for instance, contributes to global warming and climate change, leading to more extreme weather events. Water pollution harms aquatic ecosystems, leading to the decline of fish populations and the destruction of coral reefs. Soil pollution reduces soil fertility, affecting agricultural productivity and biodiversity.

Wildlife and Ecosystems

Pollution does not discriminate—it affects both humans and wildlife. Many animal species suffer due to habitat destruction caused by pollution. Additionally, toxic substances in water bodies can lead to the death of aquatic animals, disrupting food chains and ecosystems. Pollution also poses a threat to endangered species, pushing them closer to extinction.

Urgent Need for Action

The problem of pollution is urgent and requires immediate action. Governments, industries, and individuals must work together to reduce pollution levels and mitigate their effects. Transitioning to clean energy sources, implementing stricter environmental regulations, and promoting sustainable practices are crucial steps in combating pollution.

Education and Awareness

Education plays a vital role in addressing the problem of pollution. By raising awareness about the causes and consequences of pollution, we can empower individuals to make eco-friendly choices in their daily lives. Schools, communities, and organizations can organize campaigns and initiatives to educate people about pollution prevention and sustainable living.

Individual Responsibility

While governments and industries have a significant role to play, individual responsibility is also paramount. Simple actions like reducing energy consumption, recycling, and properly disposing of waste can make a difference. Each person can contribute to the reduction of pollution by making mindful choices that minimize their environmental footprint.

Conclusion of Essay on Problem of Pollution

In conclusion, the problem of pollution is a pressing issue that affects our health, the environment, and the well-being of future generations. We must acknowledge the causes and consequences of pollution and take immediate action to combat it. Through collective efforts, education, and individual responsibility, we can reduce pollution levels, preserve our planet’s natural beauty, and ensure a healthier, cleaner, and more sustainable future for all. The time to act is now, and together, we can make a difference in the fight against pollution.

Also Check: List of 500+ Topics for Writing Essay

Analysis: Does India Want to Solve Its Pollution Problem?

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Does India Want to Solve Its Pollution Problem?

The country has the most polluted cities in the world—but so far is doing very little in response..

  • Environment
  • Anchal Vohra

In November, just when India seemed to have barely managed to control the outbreak of a deadly wave of the coronavirus, the country’s top court advised the government to mull yet another lockdown—this time to save people from falling sick to poisonous air.

The sky over Delhi for weeks has been enveloped in a cloud of toxic smog. In the absence of any wind to disperse the pollution, the air continues to fill with smoke produced within the city and beyond its borders in nearby farming states that regularly burn straw (a practice known as stubble burning). As winter arrived, wind speed slowed and pollutants accumulated in the air, trapping the city in a toxic bubble. The acrid air itches the throat and makes the chest feel heavy as soon as it is inhaled. 

Air pollution is a longstanding problem in Delhi. According to one study, residents of the city lose nine years of their lives to bad air. But this year the situation has become unbearable, with the Air Quality Index (AQI) jumping to as high as 462 (under 50 is considered safe). And the problem is neither restricted to Delhi nor winters. India is the third most polluted country in the world and home to 22 of the 30 most polluted cities according to the 2020 World Air Quality Report , released by Swiss organization IQ Air. 

Even as India’s pollution problem is reaching a catastrophic scale, the Indian government is still pursuing the transition to clean energy at only a snail’s pace. The government likes to argue that any just transition to clean energy would involve the have-nots of the world receiving financial and technological help from those who can afford it (who also happen to be historical polluters whose development needs raised global temperatures in the first place). But none of that is a sufficient excuse for India failing to get its own house in order. There is much the Indian government could do right now, if its various levels of federalized government were willing to work together rather than point fingers at one another. 

Bhargav Krishna, a fellow at Centre for Policy Research, an Indian think tank, said a year-round approach, rather than claims of surprise every time pollution season arrives, is needed to fix “a broken system of regulation.” “Tackling air pollution means year-round action across transport, industries, power, dust, and other sources, and not just stubble burning, which is a seasonal issue,” Krishna told Foreign Policy . “The airshed from Punjab all the way to Bihar is interconnected, and action therefore needs to be coordinated and meaningful across the whole region, not just focused on Delhi.” 

For the last three years, every November and December Indian television channels have summoned the representatives of different political parties governing the national capital region and the central government and questioned them on rising pollution. But the debates are little more than shouting matches that reveal a glaring lack of cooperation on how to tackle the problem in a cohesive way. 

Delhi is governed by the Aam Aadmi Party (AAP), which claims it has done all it can: shuttered its two coal power plants, banned the use of diesel, temporarily halted construction, installed smog towers, set up teams to monitor the burning of garbage, and offered a bio-decomposer to farming states to get rid of the stubble in an environmentally friendly way rather than set it on fire. But environmentalists say a lot more is necessary and not every step has been fully implemented. “More public transport is needed, and less private,” said Ravi Agarwal, a Delhi-based environmental activist. “Construction needs to be strictly controlled at sites. Garbage burning stopped fully.” 

The Delhi government, however, blames the Indian National Congress party in Punjab of turning a blind eye to the problem. Farming is the main occupation in the agricultural state, and farmers are the largest chunk of voters. Any party that forces farmers to stop burning stubble risks losing their support in the elections. Delhi also blames its neighboring states of Haryana and Uttar Pradesh, governed by the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), for neither shutting down all their coal power plants nor opting for decarbonization technologies. 

In turn, the BJP says the AAP is inefficient. It adds that the central government has done its bit to help Delhi by subsidizing Happy Seeders—vehicles that plant seeds directly into stubble without the need for tilling, hence eliminating the burning of crop residues. But farmers say they are required to pay for the Happy Seeders upfront and can only receive the subsidies later, making the planters a financially unattractive option. Stopping five of the 11 coal-fired power plants in Delhi and neighboring states has also been an unpopular decision, as both the Congress-ruled Punjab and BJP-ruled Haryana faced severe electricity outages as a result.

In a country with severe issues such as poverty, unemployment, and a glaring lack of basic infrastructure, pollution is simply not an electoral issue. But unless it becomes one, the political class will drag its feet to come up with a coherent plan and be reluctant to cooperate.

Jitendra Kumar regularly drives his taxi between Delhi, Haryana, and Uttar Pradesh. On one such ride with Foreign Policy from Delhi to Meerut—a city in BJP-ruled western Uttar Pradesh, Kumar pointed to buildings made invisible by smog. He complained about lack of visibility and air that he said is hard to breathe. Yet he refused to turn off the car at a traffic light where the Delhi government had deployed volunteers to hold placards that read: “Red light on, Car off: Do your bit to reduce pollution.” Lack of awareness and reticence to change attitudes is a big part of the problem. 

But perhaps a bigger problem is that religious divisions, not pollution, are the leading theme in Indian politics. “India is split over Hindu-Muslim,” Kumar said. “That is our politics. No one votes on the basis of who will reduce pollution.

“We are staunch voters of the BJP and oppose Muslims. Pollution, what can we do about pollution?” As Kumar drove along the Barapullah highway that leads to the newly built Meerut-Delhi expressway, he praised the BJP for constructing many new highways and reducing his commuting time. Better infrastructure will reduce pollution, too, but Kumar and most Indians are still preoccupied with development first. Seventy percent of the country’s infrastructure still needs to be built.

Navroz Dubash works as a professor at the Centre for Policy Research, researching and writing on climate change, energy, and air pollution. He told Foreign Policy  that India’s emissions are growing and indeed must grow because Indians are starting from a low base of energy use per person. “We have to pivot to meeting these needs with low carbon energy, but this pivot will take some time, and in the meantime Indians cannot be deprived of energy,” Dubash said. “Since emissions have to grow, the key issue is to slow down the increase; we are not at the stage where we are talking of a decrease. To do so, we need to develop sector by sector low carbon plans that also address development needs and aggressively implement these, making clear what international support is required to do so.” 

At the U.N. Climate Change Conference in Glasgow, Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi promised India would achieve net zero—the carbon neutrality target—by 2070. That target year is 20 years later than nations that have already developed their infrastructure, and yet it is deemed highly ambitious.  Eighty-five percent of air pollution  in India is generated from coal, biomass, and garbage, and over  80 percent of India’s energy requirements  are fulfilled by dirty fuels. Experts believe the country’s use of coal and crude oil will  peak by 2040 and 2050 , respectively.

Modi has asked for $1 trillion from the international community to support India’s attempt to meet its net zero target by 2070. But according to a  study  by the Indian think tank Council on Energy, Environment, and Water, India needs $10 trillion to meet its 2070 goal. It needs a tenth of that, $1 trillion, from the international community to decarbonize. Arunabha Ghosh, the council’s CEO, said that “ developed countries must ramp up hard targets for climate finance over the coming years, ” while Indian financial regulators must enable “an ecosystem for financing India’s transition to a green economy.” He added that private capital from both domestic and international institutions should form the bulk of investment. 

Agarwal, the environmental activist, added that India needs many new technologies to combat pollution. For example, he said, technologies for retrofitting coal fired plants, technologies (such as coal washing) for carbon absorption and decarbonization since India has high ash content coal, and technologies for renewables and infrastructure for e-vehicles are all needed.

The international community must release at least a portion of promised funds and proactively share technology. But Indians too need to start to call out their political class and make pollution their top election issue. Otherwise, they will condemn themselves and future generations to gaping at the sky fruitlessly in search of a patch of blue or even a single cloud. 

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Pollution in India - statistics & facts

India’s air pollution crisis, water and land pollution, key insights.

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Most polluted countries based on PM2.5 concentration globally 2023

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Essay on Pollution In English For Students

Essay on Pollution for Students: Explore Essay on pollution in varying lengths, including 100, 150, 200, 600, and 800 words.

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November 19, 2023

Essay on Pollution

Table of Contents

Essay on Pollution: Pollution is a big problem that happens when harmful things get into the air, water, and land around us. It can be from factories, cars, or even how we throw away our trash. Pollution is not good because it can make people and animals sick and can even change the weather. It’s not just a problem in one place – it’s everywhere, and it affects the whole world. In this essay, we’re going to talk about the different kinds of pollution, where it comes from, and why we all need to work together to make things better for our planet.

Short Essay on Pollution

Below, we present concise and comprehensive essays on pollution in English to enhance your understanding. Upon reviewing these essays, you will gain insights into the definition of pollution, its primary causes, methods for prevention, and more. These resources can prove valuable for your academic assignments, such as essay writing, speech delivery, or paragraph composition in school or college.

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Essay on Pollution in 100 Words

Pollution happens when harmful stuff gets into nature and makes things bad. There are different kinds of pollution like dirty air, dirty water, dirty soil, too much noise, and too much light. The sources of pollution are diverse, ranging from industrial activities to household waste. Pollution has severe consequences on ecosystems, human health, and the overall well-being of our planet. Addressing pollution is a collective responsibility that requires global awareness and sustainable practices. Governments play a crucial role in enforcing regulations, promoting renewable energy sources, and raising awareness about the importance of environmental conservation.

Essay on Pollution in 150 Words

Pollution is a pressing environmental issue affecting our planet. It occurs when harmful substances contaminate the air, water, or soil. The primary sources of pollution include industrial activities, vehicle emissions, improper waste disposal, and deforestation. Air pollution, caused by the release of pollutants into the atmosphere, leads to respiratory problems and climate change. Water pollution, resulting from the discharge of chemicals and waste into water bodies, poses a threat to aquatic life and human health.

Soil pollution occurs when pollutants, such as pesticides and industrial waste, degrade the quality of soil, impacting plant growth and food safety. Noise pollution, caused by excessive noise from various sources, can lead to stress and hearing loss. Light pollution disrupts natural ecosystems and affects wildlife behavior. To address pollution, individuals must adopt sustainable practices, industries must implement cleaner technologies, and governments must enforce stringent environmental regulations.

Essay on Pollution in 200 Words

Pollution is a global challenge that poses a threat to the health of our planet and its inhabitants. It manifests in various forms, including air, water, soil, noise, and light pollution. The consequences of pollution are far-reaching, affecting ecosystems, biodiversity, and human well-being. Industrial activities, urbanization, and improper waste management contribute significantly to pollution.

Air pollution, caused by the release of pollutants into the atmosphere, leads to respiratory diseases, climate change, and environmental degradation. Water pollution results from the discharge of chemicals, sewage, and industrial waste into rivers, lakes, and oceans, harming aquatic life and contaminating drinking water sources. Soil pollution occurs when pollutants like pesticides and heavy metals degrade the quality of soil, affecting plant growth and food safety.

Noise pollution, generated by traffic, industrial machinery, and other human activities, can have adverse effects on human health, causing stress, sleep disturbances, and hearing loss. Light pollution, caused by excessive artificial light in urban areas, disrupts natural ecosystems and interferes with the behavior of nocturnal animals.

Addressing pollution requires collective efforts at individual, community, and governmental levels. Individuals can contribute by adopting eco-friendly practices, reducing waste, and using sustainable modes of transportation. Industries must invest in cleaner technologies and adhere to strict environmental standards. 

Long Essay on Pollution 

Pollution is a complex and multifaceted environmental issue that poses a significant threat to the sustainability of our planet. It is the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment, resulting in adverse changes that affect ecosystems, biodiversity, and human health. Pollution can take various forms, including air pollution, water pollution, soil pollution, noise pollution, and light pollution, each with its unique set of challenges and consequences.

Sources of Pollution

The sources of pollution are diverse and often interconnected. Industrial activities, urbanization, transportation, agriculture, and improper waste management contribute significantly to the release of pollutants into the environment. Industrial processes emit a variety of pollutants, including greenhouse gases, particulate matter, and toxic chemicals, which can have detrimental effects on air quality and contribute to climate change.

Vehicle emissions, stemming from the burning of fossil fuels, release pollutants such as carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and particulate matter into the atmosphere, contributing to air pollution and respiratory diseases. Improper disposal of waste, both solid and liquid, contaminates water bodies and soil, posing threats to aquatic life, plant health, and food safety.

Agricultural practices, including the use of pesticides and fertilizers, contribute to soil and water pollution, affecting both the environment and human health. Deforestation and urbanization disrupt natural ecosystems, leading to habitat loss and the displacement of wildlife. Noise pollution, resulting from human activities such as traffic, construction, and industrial processes, can have adverse effects on human health, causing stress, sleep disturbances, and hearing loss.

Consequences of Pollution

The consequences of pollution are severe and far-reaching. Air pollution is a major contributor to respiratory diseases, including asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Long-term exposure to air pollutants such as particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide has been linked to cardiovascular diseases and adverse pregnancy outcomes.

Water pollution poses threats to aquatic life and human health. Contaminated water sources can lead to the spread of waterborne diseases, affecting millions of people globally. Soil pollution affects plant growth and food safety, as pollutants like pesticides and heavy metals accumulate in the soil and enter the food chain.

Noise pollution can have physiological and psychological effects, causing stress, sleep disturbances, and an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. Light pollution disrupts natural ecosystems and interferes with the behavior of nocturnal animals, affecting their reproductive patterns and migration.

Global Impact

Pollution is not confined to local or regional boundaries; it has a global impact. Greenhouse gas emissions, primarily from the burning of fossil fuels, contribute to global warming and climate change. The rise in global temperatures leads to melting ice caps, rising sea levels, and extreme weather events, posing threats to unsafe ecosystems and communities.

The pollution of oceans with plastic waste has become a global crisis, with millions of tons of plastic entering the oceans annually. This not only harms marine life but also affects human health, as microplastics enter the food chain through seafood consumption.

Loss of biodiversity is another consequence of pollution, as ecosystems are disrupted and species face habitat destruction and pollution-induced stress. The decline of pollinators, such as bees, due to exposure to pesticides, has implications for agriculture and food security.

Addressing Pollution

Addressing pollution requires a comprehensive and collaborative approach at individual, community, and governmental levels. Individuals can contribute by adopting sustainable practices in their daily lives, such as reducing energy consumption, using eco-friendly products, and practicing responsible waste disposal.

Communities can organize clean-up initiatives, promote recycling programs, and raise awareness about the importance of environmental conservation. Educational institutions play a crucial role in fostering environmental awareness and sustainability practices among students.

Governments must enact and enforce stringent environmental regulations to curb pollution. Incentives for industries to adopt cleaner technologies, invest in renewable energy sources, and implement sustainable waste management practices are essential. International cooperation is crucial to address global environmental challenges, with countries working together to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, combat plastic pollution, and protect biodiversity.

Essay on Pollution in 800 Words

Pollution, the presence of unwanted substances known as pollutants in the environment, poses an immediate and severe threat to the delicate balance of our ecosystems. The recognition of the urgent need to address pollution is essential if we are to preserve the Earth and its biodiversity. This essay explores the various facets of pollution, its types, and the impact it has on major Indian cities such as Delhi, Noida, Ghaziabad, Lucknow, and Varanasi.

What is Pollution?

Pollution occurs when external compounds, primarily generated by human activities, enter the environment as unwanted entities known as pollutants. These pollutants cause significant harm to the environment, affecting water bodies, air, flora, and fauna. The consequences of pollution extend globally, contributing to phenomena like the greenhouse gas effect, global warming, and acid rain.

Effects of Pollution on Major Indian Cities

Imagine bustling cities in India, like Delhi or Varanasi, filled with life and energy. However, there’s a problem casting a shadow over this vibrancy – pollution. In this exploration, we’re going to look at how pollution affects the air, water, and soil in cities such as Delhi, Noida, Ghaziabad, Lucknow, and Varanasi. The goal is to understand the challenges these cities face and why it’s so important for everyone to work together to tackle pollution and ensure a healthier future.

Pollution Level in Delhi

Delhi, the National Capital Territory, faces a dire situation in terms of air quality index (AQI). According to the World Health Organization, Delhi ranks lowest among 1650 major cities worldwide. The air quality, especially during the winter months from October to December, rapidly deteriorates, reaching hazardous levels.

The AQI for Delhi remains moderate (101-200) from January to September but spikes during winter, often surpassing 500. Particulate Matter (PM2.5 and PM10) levels soar well beyond safe limits, primarily due to factors such as vehicular emissions, industrial activities, and the traditional practice of burning paddy crop roots in neighboring states.

Pollution Level in Noida

Noida, bordering Delhi in western Uttar Pradesh, faces similar challenges with poor air quality. Intensive construction activities, heavy vehicular pollution, and cold winter air contribute to the formation of a thick smog, impacting the Air Quality Index. The PM levels in Noida compete with Delhi, often reaching hazardous levels during the winter months.

Pollution Level in Ghaziabad

Ghaziabad frequently tops the list of North Indian cities with the worst AQI and pollution levels. Industrial pollution and waste burning are major contributors to Ghaziabad’s poor air quality. Located on the outskirts of the city, industries emit dense smoke, exacerbating pollution. The PM10 levels in Ghaziabad often surpass permissible limits, reaching alarming levels, especially during festivals like Diwali.

Pollution Level in Lucknow

Lucknow, the capital of Uttar Pradesh, experiences fluctuating AQI levels, ranging from moderate to poor. While not as severe as Delhi NCR, the air quality in Lucknow is still alarming, demanding concrete action. The quantity of suspended Particulate Matter has increased significantly in residential areas, posing health risks. The city’s air contains fine PM2.5 particles, reaching hazardous concentrations.

Pollution Level in Varanasi

Varanasi, the ancient pilgrimage city and the parliamentary constituency of Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi, faces environmental challenges due to ongoing construction activities. Varanasi’s AQI is ranked third on the World Health Organization’s list of the fifteen most polluted cities globally. The ongoing construction work contributes to a decline in air quality, with AQI reaching up to 300, falling in the “Poor” category. Particulate Matter, especially PM2.5, poses health risks to the city’s residents.

The impacts of pollution are profound, impacting ecosystems, biodiversity, and the well-being of humans. Prolonged exposure to air pollutants is associated with cardiovascular diseases, while contaminated water sources contribute to the spread of waterborne diseases. Soil pollution poses risks to food safety, and noise pollution leads to stress and hearing loss. Additionally, light pollution disrupts wildlife behavior.

Importantly, pollution transcends local boundaries; its consequences are felt globally. Greenhouse gas emissions contribute significantly to global warming, causing adverse effects on climate patterns. The accumulation of plastic waste in oceans not only harms marine life but also infiltrates the food chain, posing threats to human health. Furthermore, pollution-induced stress and habitat destruction contribute to the loss of biodiversity, impacting ecosystems on a global scale.

Stringent environmental regulations need to be implemented and enforced by governments to combat pollution effectively. Offering incentives to industries for adopting cleaner technologies, investing in renewable energy sources, and practicing sustainable waste management is vital. International cooperation is essential to tackle global environmental challenges, with countries collaborating to decrease greenhouse gas emissions, combat plastic pollution, and safeguard biodiversity.

Pollution remains a pressing issue affecting major Indian cities, with severe implications for the environment and public health. The need for immediate and concerted efforts to address pollution is evident, as evidenced by the deteriorating air quality in cities like Delhi, Noida, Ghaziabad, Lucknow, and Varanasi. It is imperative that governments, industries, and individuals collaborate to adopt sustainable practices, enforce regulations, and invest in technologies that mitigate the environmental impact. Only through collective action can we hope to mitigate the menace of pollution and ensure a healthier and sustainable future for our planet.

Pollution is a critical environmental issue that demands urgent attention and concerted efforts at local, national, and global levels. The consequences of pollution are profound, affecting ecosystems, biodiversity, and human health. It is imperative that individuals, communities, industries, and governments work together to adopt sustainable practices, enforce regulations, and invest in technologies that minimize the environmental impact.

The battle against pollution requires a shift in mindset, where environmental sustainability becomes a priority in decision-making processes. By addressing pollution, we not only protect the health of our planet but also ensure a better quality of life for current and future generations. It is a collective responsibility to preserve the beauty and diversity of our natural environment and create a sustainable and harmonious coexistence between human activities and the ecosystems that support life on Earth.

Essay on Pollution FAQs

Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment, leading to adverse changes. It can take various forms, including air, water, soil, noise, and light pollution.

Primary sources of pollution include industrial activities, vehicle emissions, improper waste disposal, deforestation, and agricultural practices that involve the use of pesticides and fertilizers.

Pollution has severe consequences on ecosystems, biodiversity, and human health. It can lead to respiratory diseases, waterborne illnesses, soil degradation, habitat loss, and disruptions in wildlife behavior.

Air pollution can cause respiratory diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Long-term exposure to air pollutants is linked to cardiovascular diseases and adverse pregnancy outcomes.

Water pollution occurs when chemicals and waste are discharged into water bodies. It poses a threat to aquatic life by contaminating their habitats and disrupting ecosystems. It can also affect human health through the consumption of contaminated water.

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India’s Water Crisis – How to Solve it?

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From Current Affairs Notes for UPSC » Editorials & In-depths » This topic

Water is the most valuable natural resource as it is essential for human survival and life on earth. However, the availability of freshwater for human consumption is highly under stress because of a variety of factors. This crisis of water scarcity is most visible in India as well as in other developing countries.

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This topic of “India’s Water Crisis – How to Solve it?” is important from the perspective of the UPSC IAS Examination , which falls under General Studies Portion.

What is water scarcity?

  • Water scarcity is the lack of freshwater resources to satisfy water demand.
  • It is manifested by partial or no satisfaction of expressed demand, economic competition for water quantity or quality, disputes between users, irreversible groundwater depletion, and negative effects on the environment.
  • It affects every continent and was categorised in 2019 by the World Economic Forum as one of the largest global risks with respect to its potential impact over the next decade.
  • One-third of the global population (2 billion people) live under situations of severe water scarcity at least one month of the year.
  • Half a billion people in the world affected by severe water scarcity all year round.
  • Half of the world’s largest cities have been facing water scarcity.

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How is the water scarcity measured?

  • The absolute minimum water requirement for domestic usage is 50 litres per person per day, though 100-200 litres is often recommended.
  • Considering the needs of agriculture, industry and energy sectors, the recommended minimum annual per capita requirement is about 1700 cubic meters .
  • If a country like India has only about 1700 cu. meters water per person per year, it will experience only occasional or local water distress .
  • If the availability falls below this threshold level, the country will start to experience periodic or regular water stress .
  • If the water availability declines below 1000 cu. meters, the country will suffer from chronic water scarcity . Lack of water will then start to severely affect human health and well-being as well as economic development.
  • If the annual per capita supply declines below 500 cu. meters, the country will reach the stage of absolute scarcity .

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What is the status of water availability in India?

  • India receives 4000 bcm (billion cubic metres) rainfall each year. Out of this, 1869 bcm remains after evaporation = The actual availability is only 1137 bcm.
  • Even in that 1137 bcm of water, there is a lot of temporal as well as regional variations in the availability.
  • For instance, on the one side, there are water surplus states such as Uttar Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh and on the other side, there are water scarce states such as Maharashtra (Vidarbha, Beed), Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Rajasthan and parts of Gujarat.
  • Moreover, some states that are known to be water abundant such as Punjab, Haryana have their own issues.

What is the magnitude of the water crisis in India?

  • Currently, the annual availability of water is 1123 bcm in India and the demand is around 750 bcm. However, by 2050 the annual demand for water will be 1180 bcm which will exceed the water availability = wide ramifications for the country.
  • 70% of India’s water is contaminated.
  • 75% of households do not have drinking water on its premises.
  • 84% of rural households do not have access to piped water.
  • 54% of the country’s groundwater is declining rapidly than it is being replenished.
  • India’s water table is declining in most regions. Also, there is a presence of toxic elements like fluoride, arsenic, mercury, even uranium in our groundwater.
  • Water levels in India’s major reservoirs have fallen to 21% of the average of the last decade.
  • Hundreds of small and seasonal rivers are perishing permanently.
  • Almost all the major perennial rivers remain stagnant.
  • Cauvery and its tributaries haven’t met the ocean for decades; the upstream dams choke its flows downstream, affecting people in Tamil Nadu.
  • Krishna river runs dry in her delta region for most of the year.
  • According to NITI Aayog’s water quality index, India ranks 120 th among 122 countries.

pollution problem of india essay

What is the recent water crisis in India?

  • Maharashtra is facing a water crisis of unprecedented proportions. After years of drought, the river currents have ebbed, water in dams and reservoirs have depleted and over-exploitation of groundwater has raised concerns regarding the long-term availability of water.
  • Meanwhile, media reports claim IT firms in Chennai are asking employees to work from home. The reason is that they don’t have enough water to sustain their operations. It hasn’t rained for almost 200 days in the city and it may not get adequate rain to get over the water crisis for the next 3 months.
  • In North India, the people of arid Thar Desert of Rajasthan are spending Rs. 2500 for getting 2500 litres of water which they share with their cattle.
  • With Punjab facing the threat of desertification and the state struggling to break away from the wheat-paddy cycle, farmers in the state have been adopting a decade-old scheme to utilise underground pipeline system for irrigation.
  • In light of this crisis, Central government on its part has created a Jal Shakti Ministry under a full-fledged cabinet minister to resolve the water crisis but a lot more needs to be done.

pollution problem of india essay

What are the reasons for this crisis?

Monsoon dependence:.

There is a huge dependence on monsoon rains to replenish most of India’s important water sources such as underground aquifers, lakes, rivers, and reservoirs . But monsoon is vulnerable to factors such as climate change, El-Nino , etc.

Uneven distribution of water and Rainfall pattern :

Certain regions have surplus amounts of water for their need while others face perennial droughts for most of the year. For instance, Drought is a recurrent phenomenon in Andhra Pradesh where no district is entirely free of droughts. Rajasthan is one of the most drought-prone areas of India.

Increasing demand :

Population growth, industrialization, rapid urbanisation, rising needs of irrigation and increase in domestic water usage have accelerated the demand for water. Since urbanization increases in India at a rapid pace = water demand will increase rapidly as city dwellers consume more water than rural people.

Urbanisation & Water scarcity:

  • Currently, about 285 million or 33% of India’s total population resides in urban areas. By 2050 this figure will reach 50%.
  • Rapid urbanisation is adding to the water scarcity issue in the country.
  • Presence of buildings, tar, and cement roads = even if a city like Mumbai gets good rains, the rainwater is not retained in the area as the water is not allowed to percolate underground.
  • Therefore, water required for cities is largely drawn from neighbouring villages and far-off rivers and lakes = threatening the availability in those areas.
  • Large cities also generate large quantities of urban sewage which pollutes the freshwater sources and ocean waters. However, only about 20% of urban wastewater is currently treated globally. In India, the figure is even lower.

Overexploitation :

  • In developing countries like India, groundwater fulfills nearly 80% of irrigation requirement = resulted in a fast depletion of groundwater sources.
  • Free power and inefficient utilisation of water by farmers has added to the issue of groundwater depletion.
  • The groundwater and sand extraction from most river beds and basins has turned unsustainable.
  • Tanks and ponds are encroached upon.
  • Dug-wells and borewells are carelessly built to slide deeper and deeper to suck water from greater depths.

Shift to cash-crops:

Water is being diverted from food crops to cash crops that consume an enormous quantity of water.

Inefficient cultivation practices:

  • In India, around 70% of the population is still dependent on agriculture for its livelihood.
  • Since the adoption of Green Revolution in the 1960s, nearly 50% of the food production comes from irrigated land.
  • But inefficient cultivation practices have led to the flooding of fertile land which in turn has caused salinization, siltation of reservoirs, etc = causing groundwater reserves of major agricultural states to be depleted at an alarming rate.

Water Pollution :

  • Release of industrial and domestic waste, including urban sewage, into rivers, lakes, and estuaries has polluted freshwater sources at an alarming rate in India = those fresh water sources are not fit for drinking or other activities.
  • Eutrophication of surface water and coastal zones is expected to increase almost everywhere leads to nitrogen pollution .

What are the impacts of the water crisis?

Economic growth: A Niti Aayog report predicted that water demand will be twice the present supply by 2030 and India could lose up to 6% of its GDP during that time.

Power supply: Water shortages are hurting India’s capacity to generate electricity because 40% of thermal power plants are located in areas where water scarcity is high.

Agricultural crisis: Indian agriculture is heavily dependent on monsoon (not dependable) + Ineffective agricultural practices in irrigated areas = Water stress in agriculture = Poor Cultivation = Farmer suicides .

Drinking water scarcity: Not only farmers are affected by the water crisis, urban dwellers in cities and towns across India are also facing a never seen before drinking water scarcity.

Conflicts over water : In India, there are conflicts between Karnataka and Tamil Nadu over sharing of Cauvery waters, between Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh over sharing of Narmada waters, between Andhra Pradesh and Telangana over sharing of Krishna waters, etc.

What are the measures taken by the government?

Across the country, states are taking the lead:.

  • In Rajasthan, there is a scheme named ‘Mukhya Mantri Jal Swavlamban Abhiyan’. One of its objectives is to facilitate effective implementation of water conservation and water harvesting related activities in rural areas.
  • Maharashtra has launched a project called ‘Jalyukt-Shivar’, which seeks to make 5000 villages free of water scarcity every year.
  • accelerating the development of minor irrigation infrastructure,
  • strengthening community-based irrigation management and
  • adopting a comprehensive programme for restoration of tanks.

Jal Shakti Abhiyan:

  • It is a collaborative initiative of various Union Ministries and State Governments, being coordinated by the Department of Drinking Water and Sanitation (DDWS).
  • Focus Area: is water-stressed districts (256) and blocks (1592).
  • Team: Central government officers, headed by joint secretaries and additional secretaries, are assigned to these 256 districts and district administration will also select 2 members to join the team. This team of officers from the central government and district administration will visit and work on water-stressed districts and blocks to ensure water conservation initiatives.
  • The campaign is centered on 5 aspects
  • Water conservation and rainwater harvesting
  • Renovation of traditional and other water bodies/tanks
  • Reuse of water and recharging of structures like bore well
  • Watershed development
  • Intensive afforestation
  • Significance: With this initiative, the government seeks to provide drinking water to all households on a priority and in a sustainable way. It is also expected to bring a positive mindset in people for water conservation. The campaign will assist people to work for rainwater harvesting, maintenance, and upkeep of ponds and village tanks and conservation of water.

Jal Shakti Mantralaya

  • The government has created a new Ministry named ‘Jal Shakti’after merging Ministry of Water Resources, River Development & Ganga Rejuvenation with the Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation.
  • Providing clean drinking water,
  • International and inter-states water disputes,
  • Namami Gange project aimed at cleaning Ganga and its tributaries, and sub-tributaries.
  • The ministry will launch the government’s ambitious plan (‘Nal se Jal’ scheme under jal jivan plan) to provide piped drinking water supply to every household in India by 2024.
  • This Move seeks to consolidate the administration and bringing water-related issues such as conservation, development, management, and abatement of pollution under a single ministry.
  • National River Conservation Directorate (NRCD) is responsible for implementing the centrally sponsored national river conservation plan for all rivers across the country except river Ganga and its tributaries (as issues regarding Ganga and its tributaries are taken up by National Mission for Clean Ganga).

Jal Jeevan Mission *

pollution problem of india essay

Atal Bhujal Yojana *

  •  It is a world bank funded central scheme that aims to improve groundwater management at the national level… Read More .

Can a new water ministry tackle the worst water crisis in Indian history?

  • Experts are of the opinion that an exclusive ministry can only bring about a cosmetic but not a real change.
  • Water is a state subject = Unless states make specific requests the centre cannot intervene.

What are the solutions to the water crisis in India?

Good water management practices :

  • India receives adequate annual rainfall through the south-west monsoon. However, most regions of the country are still water deficient mainly because of inefficient water management practices.
  • Rainwater harvesting should be encouraged on a large scale, especially, in cities where the surface runoff of rainwater is very high.
  • Roof-top rainwater harvesting can also be utilised to recharge groundwater by digging percolation pits around the house and filling it with gravel.
  • Indian cities need to learn from Cape Town of South Africa which when faced with the water crisis in 2018 had announced “ Day Zero “. During that day, water-taps in the city turned off = people had to use communal water-taps to conserve water. Restrictions on water use per person were also fixed.
  • Since water is a state subject in India state governments should take active measures and create awareness for the minimal use of water.

Interlinking of rivers :

  • Interlinking of rivers is a topic that has been discussed and debated for several years as a possible permanent solution to the water crisis in the country.
  • The 3 primary advantages mentioned in favour of the scheme are (1) droughts will never occur (2) there will be no more floods in the major rivers and (3) an additional 30,000 MW of hydropower will be generated.

Coordination in aquifer usage: There is an urgent need for coordination among users for aquifers. There should be laws and contracts for sharing of aquifers. Groundwater aquifer mapping has started only recently in India which is a welcome step.

River basin authority: There should be a River Basin Authority for sharing information among states since most of the rivers in India pass through different states.

Coordinated efforts among states for management of groundwater at a localized level.

Community-level management: At the village level, there can be decentralized management of water at the community level.

Charging money for efficient use of water (like electricity). For example- Water ATMs at Marathwada provide water @25 paisa per litre a day.

Good Cultivation practices:

  • Changing the cropping pattern, crop diversification and encouraging water use efficiency in agriculture by moving towards food crops from cash crops.
  • Innovative farming practices like precision farming , zero budget natural farming , etc. could be employed for efficient water utilisation.

Incentive-based water conservation in rural parts of the water-stressed regions is another solution.

  • For example, if a particular level of groundwater level is maintained, higher MSP can be provided to the farmers of that region.
  • MSP can also be provided based on crop’s water usage = Crops that consume a high amount of water will get less MSP.

Way forward

India is not a water deficit country, but due to severe neglect and lack of monitoring of water resource development projects, many regions in the country face water stress from time to time. Therefore balancing water demand with available supply is the need of the hour for future economic growth and development as well as for the sustenance of human life.

New National Water Policy (NWP)

In November 2019, the Ministry of Jal Shakti had set up a committee to draft the new National Water Policy (NWP). This was the first time that the government asked a committee of independent experts to draft the policy.

Highlights of NWP

1) demand-side: diversification of public procurement operations.

  • Irrigation utilizes 80-90% of India’s water , most of which is used by rice, wheat, and sugarcane.
  • Therefore, crop diversification is the single most crucial step in addressing India’s water crisis.
  • The policy recommends diversifying public procurement operations to include Nutri-cereals, pulses, and oilseeds.
  • This would incentivize farmers to diversify their cropping patterns, resulting in huge savings of water.

2) Reduce-Recycle-Reuse

  • Reduce-Recycle-Reuse has been suggested as the basic mantra of integrated urban water supply and wastewater management, with the treatment of sewage and eco-restoration of urban river stretches, as far as possible via decentralised wastewater management.
  • All non-potable use like flushing, fire protection, vehicle washing should mandatorily shift to treated wastewater.

3) Supply-side measure: Using technology to use stored water in dams

  • Within supply-side options, the NWP points to trillions of litres stored in big dams, that are still not reaching farmers.
  • NWP recommends how the irrigated areas could be considerably expanded at very low cost by using pressurised closed conveyance pipelines, in addition to Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA)  systems and pressurised micro-irrigation.

4) Supply of water through “nature-based solutions”

  • The NWP places major importance on the supply of water via “nature-based solutions” like the rejuvenation of catchment areas, to be incentivised through compensation for ecosystem services.
  • Specially curated “blue-green infrastructure” like rain gardens and bio-swales, restored rivers with wet meadows, wetlands constructed for bio-remediation, urban parks, permeable pavements, green roofs etc are suggested for urban areas.

5) Sustainable and equitable management of groundwater

  • Information on  aquifer boundaries , water storage capacities and flows provided in a user-friendly manner to stakeholders, assigned as custodians of their aquifers, would allow them to create protocols for effective management of groundwater.

6) Rights of Rivers

  • The NWP accords river protection and revitalisation prior and primary importance.
  • Steps to restore river flows include: Re-vegetation of catchments, regulation of groundwater extraction, river-bed pumping and mining of sand and boulders.
  • The NWP outlines a process to draft a  Rights of Rivers Act,  including their right to flow, to meander and to meet the sea.

7) Emphasis on water quality

  • The new NWP considers water quality as the most serious un-addressed issue in India today.
  • It proposes that every water ministry, at the Centre and states,  include a water quality department.
  • The policy advocates adoption of state-of-the-art, low-cost, low-energy, eco-sensitive  technologies for sewage treatment.
  • Widespread use of  reverse osmosis has led to huge water wastage  and adverse impact on water quality.
  • The policy wants  RO units to be discouraged  if the total dissolved solids count in water is less than 500mg/L.
  • It suggests a  task force on emerging water contaminants  to better understand and tackle the threats they are likely to pose.

8) Reforming governance of water

  • The policy makes radical proposals for improving the governance of water, which suffers from three kinds of issues: That between irrigation and drinking water, surface and groundwater, as also water and wastewater.
  • Government departments, working in silos, have generally dealt with just one side of these binaries.
  • Dealing with drinking water and irrigation in silos has meant that aquifers providing assured sources of drinking water dry up because the same aquifers are used for irrigation, which consumes much more water.
  • And when  water and wastewater are separated in planning,  the result is a fall in water quality.

9) Creation of National Water Commission

  • The NWP also suggests the creation of a unified multi-disciplinary, multi-stakeholder National Water Commission (NWC), which would become an exemplar for states to follow.
  • Governments should build enduring  partnerships with primary stakeholders of water , who must become an integral part of the NWC and its counterparts in the states.

How Gujarat transformed from Water-deficit state to surplus state?

  • The Gujarat government created the state-level Bhaskaracharya Institute for Space Applications and Geoinformatics (BISAG) to aid in the supply of services and solutions for the deployment of map-based GeoSpatial Information Systems.
  • Micro-level check dams.
  • Macro-level projects particularly in the Saurashtra, Kutch, and North Gujarat areas.
  • Gujarat launched the Kutch branch canal from the Narmada Main canal, which helps provide water to the most distant parts.
  • Sujalam Sufalam Yojana: to irrigate the areas of North Gujarat.
  • The SAUNI Yojana (Saurashtra Narmada Avtaran Irrigation Yojana), which means literally “reincarnation of the Narmada River in the region,” was thus introduced.
  • Administrative and Governance reforms.


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Excellent essay indeed!


Great explanation.


worth a praise! well done :)

Garlapati Ravi Kumar

Wish you could mention the references for all the statistics and facts.


Please add features to include this article in PDF.


Where are effects🙄


Haven’t you seen the impacts heading in this article?


Great explanation and essay. This is exactly what I have been searching for.

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  • Biology Article

Essay on Pollution

An essay on pollution is an essential concept for students as it reveals the consequences of human activities on the environment. Read on to explore how to write an intriguing and engaging essay on pollution.

Essay on Pollution – Important Guidelines

Please consider adopting the following suggestions when writing an essay on pollution. Moreover, these suggestions will be helpful for most other essays as well.

  • Begin with an introductory paragraph, preferably highlighting the history or insight of the topic.
  • Try to avoid jargon unless the topic demands so.
  • Use bulleted points to present content wherever possible
  • Incorporate factual data, such as dates, names and places wherever possible.
  • Avoid writing a large monotonous block of text. Always break up the content into easily digestible chunks
  • Try to conclude the essay with a closing paragraph.

Essay on Pollution – Sample 1

Pollution had existed long before humans evolved. For instance, volcanic eruptions commonly pumped massive amounts of sulphur dioxide into the atmosphere, causing acid rain. The greenhouse gas, ozone, forms from natural, photochemical reactions in the atmosphere. 

However, significant levels of pollution occurred only after the Industrial Revolution, when untreated exhausts and toxic waste products were released into the environment. Air pollution was rampant, with thick, toxic smog covering most towns and cities. Water pollution affected many water bodies. Toxic substances leached into the soil, hampering the soil quality.

Today, there have been many measures to curb the effects of pollution, but its repercussions can still be observed. For instance, the land and sea ice near the poles have been decreasing at an alarming rate. This has led to the debate regarding climatic factors and their impact on our environment. There was a time when lead used to be added to motor fuel. This substance, combined with the world’s increasing demand for motor vehicles, caused a spike in air pollution. What made this air pollution more dangerous is the fact that the air had high levels of lead.

Lead is toxic and can cause a vast array of health problems. The most common illnesses are neurological in nature. Lead can also travel through the placenta, between a mother and her unborn child. Moreover, young children and infants are even more sensitive to lead. They can develop learning deficits, behavioural problems and also a low IQ.

Furthermore, some studies have arrived at a “lead-crime postulate”, where children who were exposed to high levels of lead were more likely to indulge in criminal activities. This correlation was made as to the crime rates during the 1980s, and early 1990s were rather high. Lead can also cause neurological effects on vertebrates and impair the reproductive capabilities of plants. More ominously, lead can be absorbed into the tissues of such organisms, and they can pass it on to us when we consume them.

Technological progress also brings newer forms of pollution. Radioactive pollution is one of the rarer types of pollution. This type of pollution occurs naturally as well – elements such as uranium and thorium are present in rocks and soil. Carbon-14 is a radioactive isotope of carbon naturally present in all living organisms. It is created by cosmic rays. However, these natural sources of radiation are of little concern. Only anthropogenic sources of radioactivity are considered lethal sources of pollution. For instance, the Chernobyl nuclear disaster is the most publicised nuclear disaster ever to occur. The total death count was documented to be at 16,000. However, unofficial reports indicated that the death toll was much higher. Most deaths occurred due to acute radiation poisoning and many other deaths were caused due to radioactivity-induced cancer. Though it has been more than a few decades, radioactivity still persists around the site of the nuclear reactor. Efforts to contain the radioactivity included building the Shelter Structure, more popularly known as the “sarcophagus”. It was built in December 1986 and enclosed the reactor, preventing radiation from leaking through the building. 

Though the levels of pollution have dropped down since the industrial revolution, we still see many repercussions to this day. Following are some extreme cases of pollution caused by anthropological activities.

The Great Smog of London was a severe case of air pollution that occurred in 1952. The event caused massive disruption by severely affecting visibility. It also caused a variety of respiratory illnesses in 1,00,000 individuals and the death of over 4,000 as a direct result of the smog. 

In India, pollution is even more rampant. Delhi has recorded one of the worst cases of air pollution, with the air rated as “hazardous” in November 2017.

Explore more essays on pollution or other related topics on  BYJU’S

Further Reading: Water Pollution

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Problem of Pollution Essay

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Pollution is a global threat whose effects are currently being faced by all humankind as well as wildlife. The threat to wildlife is due to the pollution caused by humans. Here are a few sample essays on the “Problem of Pollution”.

  • 100-Word Essay on the Problem of Pollution

The rise of pollution is a direct result of human greed only. The use of harmful pesticides and fertilisers to increase plant yield in the short term leads to barren and toxic land in the longer run. Huge industries dump their waste in rivers and oceans instead of recycling them to save the cost. People are reluctant to use public transport and thus millions of private vehicles are responsible for the huge amount of rise in air pollution as well as noise pollution. It is high time that we start taking action against the problem of pollution before it makes our whole earth unsafe to live in and a threat to mankind itself.

200-Word Essay on the Problem of Pollution

500-word essay on the problem of pollution, types of pollution.

Problem of Pollution Essay

Pollution is defined as the introduction of contamination, either a substance (solid, liquid, or gas) or any form of energy (heat, sound, or radioactivity) that causes an adverse change in the environment. The major kinds of pollution are air pollution, water pollution, land pollution, noise pollution, and light pollution. Pollution of all kinds has a negative and disastrous result on the environment, and human & animal life forms.

Harmful effects of Pollution

The issue of pollution has disturbed the smooth and continuous flow of nature, and now its adverse effects are causing catastrophe for us. Global warming and climate change are two direct results of air pollution that are responsible for floods, increases in Earth’s temperature, melting of glaciers, and even forest fires. The exploitation of natural resources by humans such as coal and petroleum and then the excessive use of them in producing electricity and vehicles are also contributing to it.

The government and institutions from all over the world should come together to fight against this problem of pollution. People should be made aware on an individual level of the basic rules of the 3Rs – Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle. This huge problem of pollution can only be tackled with the combined efforts of the government as well as individuals.

Pollution is a global threat, so our approach should be global too. If we all act together as global citizens, we have a huge chance of winning this battle against pollution. The problem of pollution needs a serious and well-planned step-by-step approach from the topmost global level to the individual.

Pollution has been broadly divided into five major categories. They are -

Air Pollution | The release of chemicals into the atmosphere, from the huge factories to the refrigerators installed in our homes, is defined as air pollution.

Common gaseous pollutants include carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, CFCs, and nitrogen oxides. The major causes of air pollution are burning fossil fuels, mining, and the release of harmful greenhouse gases into the atmosphere by industries and factories.

The effects of air pollution are quite disastrous and a threat to our survival -

Global warming

Increase in skin diseases, respiratory diseases, and even cancer.

Water Pollution | When toxic pollutants and chemicals are released into the water bodies such as lakes, rivers, and seas, it is called water pollution. It can be natural too, such as eutrophication, but the major culprits of water pollution are human activities only. Activities such as oil spills, dumping of inorganic waste, and disposal of effluents such as dye, and paint in water bodies are major causes of water pollution.

Land Pollution | Any undesirable change in natural, physical, or biological components in the land, especially the soil, is termed land pollution. The use of pesticides, plastics, and radioactive material is the leading cause of land pollution.

Land Pollution leads to a decrease in fertility in the soil and microbial population. It destroys soil and the flora and fauna depend on the soil.

Noise Pollution | Unwanted sound released in the atmosphere may create adverse effects and can cause damage to the environment, resulting in noise pollution. It can be caused by a variety of indoor and outdoor sources of high intensity such as loudspeakers, aerodromes, old vehicles, etc. Noise Pollution can lead to profound deafness, anxiety, tension, and heart problems.

Light Pollution | It is the presence of unwanted and excessive artificial light during the day or night. An estimated 80 percent of Earth’s population is affected by light pollution. Light pollution can result in sleep deprivation, headaches, and stress.

In India, The Environment (Protection) Act was passed in 1986 to provide a framework for the central government to execute a nationwide program for combating environmental pollution.

My Experience

I live in New Delhi. This city is considered as one of the most polluted cities in the world. The problem of air pollution is directly faced by me and millions of other residents. I was diagnosed with asthma and breathing problems a few years ago. Since then, air purifiers have been a must for living in my city. It saddens me to see how humanity is moving towards its own death by polluting nature.

To completely bring pollution on the back foot, apart from all the government and global programs, individual participation and awareness are most required. We, as human beings, should play our role against the problem of pollution by making small changes in our lives such as not using plastic bags, recycling bottles, turning off electrical appliances when not in use, etc.

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Bio Medical Engineer

The field of biomedical engineering opens up a universe of expert chances. An Individual in the biomedical engineering career path work in the field of engineering as well as medicine, in order to find out solutions to common problems of the two fields. The biomedical engineering job opportunities are to collaborate with doctors and researchers to develop medical systems, equipment, or devices that can solve clinical problems. Here we will be discussing jobs after biomedical engineering, how to get a job in biomedical engineering, biomedical engineering scope, and salary. 

Data Administrator

Database professionals use software to store and organise data such as financial information, and customer shipping records. Individuals who opt for a career as data administrators ensure that data is available for users and secured from unauthorised sales. DB administrators may work in various types of industries. It may involve computer systems design, service firms, insurance companies, banks and hospitals.

Ethical Hacker

A career as ethical hacker involves various challenges and provides lucrative opportunities in the digital era where every giant business and startup owns its cyberspace on the world wide web. Individuals in the ethical hacker career path try to find the vulnerabilities in the cyber system to get its authority. If he or she succeeds in it then he or she gets its illegal authority. Individuals in the ethical hacker career path then steal information or delete the file that could affect the business, functioning, or services of the organization.

Data Analyst

The invention of the database has given fresh breath to the people involved in the data analytics career path. Analysis refers to splitting up a whole into its individual components for individual analysis. Data analysis is a method through which raw data are processed and transformed into information that would be beneficial for user strategic thinking.

Data are collected and examined to respond to questions, evaluate hypotheses or contradict theories. It is a tool for analyzing, transforming, modeling, and arranging data with useful knowledge, to assist in decision-making and methods, encompassing various strategies, and is used in different fields of business, research, and social science.

Geothermal Engineer

Individuals who opt for a career as geothermal engineers are the professionals involved in the processing of geothermal energy. The responsibilities of geothermal engineers may vary depending on the workplace location. Those who work in fields design facilities to process and distribute geothermal energy. They oversee the functioning of machinery used in the field.

Remote Sensing Technician

Individuals who opt for a career as a remote sensing technician possess unique personalities. Remote sensing analysts seem to be rational human beings, they are strong, independent, persistent, sincere, realistic and resourceful. Some of them are analytical as well, which means they are intelligent, introspective and inquisitive. 

Remote sensing scientists use remote sensing technology to support scientists in fields such as community planning, flight planning or the management of natural resources. Analysing data collected from aircraft, satellites or ground-based platforms using statistical analysis software, image analysis software or Geographic Information Systems (GIS) is a significant part of their work. Do you want to learn how to become remote sensing technician? There's no need to be concerned; we've devised a simple remote sensing technician career path for you. Scroll through the pages and read.

Geotechnical engineer

The role of geotechnical engineer starts with reviewing the projects needed to define the required material properties. The work responsibilities are followed by a site investigation of rock, soil, fault distribution and bedrock properties on and below an area of interest. The investigation is aimed to improve the ground engineering design and determine their engineering properties that include how they will interact with, on or in a proposed construction. 

The role of geotechnical engineer in mining includes designing and determining the type of foundations, earthworks, and or pavement subgrades required for the intended man-made structures to be made. Geotechnical engineering jobs are involved in earthen and concrete dam construction projects, working under a range of normal and extreme loading conditions. 


How fascinating it is to represent the whole world on just a piece of paper or a sphere. With the help of maps, we are able to represent the real world on a much smaller scale. Individuals who opt for a career as a cartographer are those who make maps. But, cartography is not just limited to maps, it is about a mixture of art , science , and technology. As a cartographer, not only you will create maps but use various geodetic surveys and remote sensing systems to measure, analyse, and create different maps for political, cultural or educational purposes.

Budget Analyst

Budget analysis, in a nutshell, entails thoroughly analyzing the details of a financial budget. The budget analysis aims to better understand and manage revenue. Budget analysts assist in the achievement of financial targets, the preservation of profitability, and the pursuit of long-term growth for a business. Budget analysts generally have a bachelor's degree in accounting, finance, economics, or a closely related field. Knowledge of Financial Management is of prime importance in this career.

Product Manager

A Product Manager is a professional responsible for product planning and marketing. He or she manages the product throughout the Product Life Cycle, gathering and prioritising the product. A product manager job description includes defining the product vision and working closely with team members of other departments to deliver winning products.  


An underwriter is a person who assesses and evaluates the risk of insurance in his or her field like mortgage, loan, health policy, investment, and so on and so forth. The underwriter career path does involve risks as analysing the risks means finding out if there is a way for the insurance underwriter jobs to recover the money from its clients. If the risk turns out to be too much for the company then in the future it is an underwriter who will be held accountable for it. Therefore, one must carry out his or her job with a lot of attention and diligence.

Finance Executive

Operations manager.

Individuals in the operations manager jobs are responsible for ensuring the efficiency of each department to acquire its optimal goal. They plan the use of resources and distribution of materials. The operations manager's job description includes managing budgets, negotiating contracts, and performing administrative tasks.

Bank Probationary Officer (PO)

Investment director.

An investment director is a person who helps corporations and individuals manage their finances. They can help them develop a strategy to achieve their goals, including paying off debts and investing in the future. In addition, he or she can help individuals make informed decisions.

Welding Engineer

Welding Engineer Job Description: A Welding Engineer work involves managing welding projects and supervising welding teams. He or she is responsible for reviewing welding procedures, processes and documentation. A career as Welding Engineer involves conducting failure analyses and causes on welding issues. 

Transportation Planner

A career as Transportation Planner requires technical application of science and technology in engineering, particularly the concepts, equipment and technologies involved in the production of products and services. In fields like land use, infrastructure review, ecological standards and street design, he or she considers issues of health, environment and performance. A Transportation Planner assigns resources for implementing and designing programmes. He or she is responsible for assessing needs, preparing plans and forecasts and compliance with regulations.

An expert in plumbing is aware of building regulations and safety standards and works to make sure these standards are upheld. Testing pipes for leakage using air pressure and other gauges, and also the ability to construct new pipe systems by cutting, fitting, measuring and threading pipes are some of the other more involved aspects of plumbing. Individuals in the plumber career path are self-employed or work for a small business employing less than ten people, though some might find working for larger entities or the government more desirable.

Construction Manager

Individuals who opt for a career as construction managers have a senior-level management role offered in construction firms. Responsibilities in the construction management career path are assigning tasks to workers, inspecting their work, and coordinating with other professionals including architects, subcontractors, and building services engineers.

Urban Planner

Urban Planning careers revolve around the idea of developing a plan to use the land optimally, without affecting the environment. Urban planning jobs are offered to those candidates who are skilled in making the right use of land to distribute the growing population, to create various communities. 

Urban planning careers come with the opportunity to make changes to the existing cities and towns. They identify various community needs and make short and long-term plans accordingly.

Highway Engineer

Highway Engineer Job Description:  A Highway Engineer is a civil engineer who specialises in planning and building thousands of miles of roads that support connectivity and allow transportation across the country. He or she ensures that traffic management schemes are effectively planned concerning economic sustainability and successful implementation.

Environmental Engineer

Individuals who opt for a career as an environmental engineer are construction professionals who utilise the skills and knowledge of biology, soil science, chemistry and the concept of engineering to design and develop projects that serve as solutions to various environmental problems. 

Naval Architect

A Naval Architect is a professional who designs, produces and repairs safe and sea-worthy surfaces or underwater structures. A Naval Architect stays involved in creating and designing ships, ferries, submarines and yachts with implementation of various principles such as gravity, ideal hull form, buoyancy and stability. 

Orthotist and Prosthetist

Orthotists and Prosthetists are professionals who provide aid to patients with disabilities. They fix them to artificial limbs (prosthetics) and help them to regain stability. There are times when people lose their limbs in an accident. In some other occasions, they are born without a limb or orthopaedic impairment. Orthotists and prosthetists play a crucial role in their lives with fixing them to assistive devices and provide mobility.

Veterinary Doctor


A career in pathology in India is filled with several responsibilities as it is a medical branch and affects human lives. The demand for pathologists has been increasing over the past few years as people are getting more aware of different diseases. Not only that, but an increase in population and lifestyle changes have also contributed to the increase in a pathologist’s demand. The pathology careers provide an extremely huge number of opportunities and if you want to be a part of the medical field you can consider being a pathologist. If you want to know more about a career in pathology in India then continue reading this article.

Speech Therapist


Gynaecology can be defined as the study of the female body. The job outlook for gynaecology is excellent since there is evergreen demand for one because of their responsibility of dealing with not only women’s health but also fertility and pregnancy issues. Although most women prefer to have a women obstetrician gynaecologist as their doctor, men also explore a career as a gynaecologist and there are ample amounts of male doctors in the field who are gynaecologists and aid women during delivery and childbirth. 

An oncologist is a specialised doctor responsible for providing medical care to patients diagnosed with cancer. He or she uses several therapies to control the cancer and its effect on the human body such as chemotherapy, immunotherapy, radiation therapy and biopsy. An oncologist designs a treatment plan based on a pathology report after diagnosing the type of cancer and where it is spreading inside the body.


The audiologist career involves audiology professionals who are responsible to treat hearing loss and proactively preventing the relevant damage. Individuals who opt for a career as an audiologist use various testing strategies with the aim to determine if someone has a normal sensitivity to sounds or not. After the identification of hearing loss, a hearing doctor is required to determine which sections of the hearing are affected, to what extent they are affected, and where the wound causing the hearing loss is found. As soon as the hearing loss is identified, the patients are provided with recommendations for interventions and rehabilitation such as hearing aids, cochlear implants, and appropriate medical referrals. While audiology is a branch of science that studies and researches hearing, balance, and related disorders.

Hospital Administrator

The hospital Administrator is in charge of organising and supervising the daily operations of medical services and facilities. This organising includes managing of organisation’s staff and its members in service, budgets, service reports, departmental reporting and taking reminders of patient care and services.

For an individual who opts for a career as an actor, the primary responsibility is to completely speak to the character he or she is playing and to persuade the crowd that the character is genuine by connecting with them and bringing them into the story. This applies to significant roles and littler parts, as all roles join to make an effective creation. Here in this article, we will discuss how to become an actor in India, actor exams, actor salary in India, and actor jobs. 

Individuals who opt for a career as acrobats create and direct original routines for themselves, in addition to developing interpretations of existing routines. The work of circus acrobats can be seen in a variety of performance settings, including circus, reality shows, sports events like the Olympics, movies and commercials. Individuals who opt for a career as acrobats must be prepared to face rejections and intermittent periods of work. The creativity of acrobats may extend to other aspects of the performance. For example, acrobats in the circus may work with gym trainers, celebrities or collaborate with other professionals to enhance such performance elements as costume and or maybe at the teaching end of the career.

Video Game Designer

Career as a video game designer is filled with excitement as well as responsibilities. A video game designer is someone who is involved in the process of creating a game from day one. He or she is responsible for fulfilling duties like designing the character of the game, the several levels involved, plot, art and similar other elements. Individuals who opt for a career as a video game designer may also write the codes for the game using different programming languages.

Depending on the video game designer job description and experience they may also have to lead a team and do the early testing of the game in order to suggest changes and find loopholes.

Radio Jockey

Radio Jockey is an exciting, promising career and a great challenge for music lovers. If you are really interested in a career as radio jockey, then it is very important for an RJ to have an automatic, fun, and friendly personality. If you want to get a job done in this field, a strong command of the language and a good voice are always good things. Apart from this, in order to be a good radio jockey, you will also listen to good radio jockeys so that you can understand their style and later make your own by practicing.

A career as radio jockey has a lot to offer to deserving candidates. If you want to know more about a career as radio jockey, and how to become a radio jockey then continue reading the article.


The word “choreography" actually comes from Greek words that mean “dance writing." Individuals who opt for a career as a choreographer create and direct original dances, in addition to developing interpretations of existing dances. A Choreographer dances and utilises his or her creativity in other aspects of dance performance. For example, he or she may work with the music director to select music or collaborate with other famous choreographers to enhance such performance elements as lighting, costume and set design.


Multimedia specialist.

A multimedia specialist is a media professional who creates, audio, videos, graphic image files, computer animations for multimedia applications. He or she is responsible for planning, producing, and maintaining websites and applications. 

Social Media Manager

A career as social media manager involves implementing the company’s or brand’s marketing plan across all social media channels. Social media managers help in building or improving a brand’s or a company’s website traffic, build brand awareness, create and implement marketing and brand strategy. Social media managers are key to important social communication as well.

Copy Writer

In a career as a copywriter, one has to consult with the client and understand the brief well. A career as a copywriter has a lot to offer to deserving candidates. Several new mediums of advertising are opening therefore making it a lucrative career choice. Students can pursue various copywriter courses such as Journalism , Advertising , Marketing Management . Here, we have discussed how to become a freelance copywriter, copywriter career path, how to become a copywriter in India, and copywriting career outlook. 

Careers in journalism are filled with excitement as well as responsibilities. One cannot afford to miss out on the details. As it is the small details that provide insights into a story. Depending on those insights a journalist goes about writing a news article. A journalism career can be stressful at times but if you are someone who is passionate about it then it is the right choice for you. If you want to know more about the media field and journalist career then continue reading this article.

For publishing books, newspapers, magazines and digital material, editorial and commercial strategies are set by publishers. Individuals in publishing career paths make choices about the markets their businesses will reach and the type of content that their audience will be served. Individuals in book publisher careers collaborate with editorial staff, designers, authors, and freelance contributors who develop and manage the creation of content.

In a career as a vlogger, one generally works for himself or herself. However, once an individual has gained viewership there are several brands and companies that approach them for paid collaboration. It is one of those fields where an individual can earn well while following his or her passion. 

Ever since internet costs got reduced the viewership for these types of content has increased on a large scale. Therefore, a career as a vlogger has a lot to offer. If you want to know more about the Vlogger eligibility, roles and responsibilities then continue reading the article. 

Individuals in the editor career path is an unsung hero of the news industry who polishes the language of the news stories provided by stringers, reporters, copywriters and content writers and also news agencies. Individuals who opt for a career as an editor make it more persuasive, concise and clear for readers. In this article, we will discuss the details of the editor's career path such as how to become an editor in India, editor salary in India and editor skills and qualities.

Linguistic meaning is related to language or Linguistics which is the study of languages. A career as a linguistic meaning, a profession that is based on the scientific study of language, and it's a very broad field with many specialities. Famous linguists work in academia, researching and teaching different areas of language, such as phonetics (sounds), syntax (word order) and semantics (meaning). 

Other researchers focus on specialities like computational linguistics, which seeks to better match human and computer language capacities, or applied linguistics, which is concerned with improving language education. Still, others work as language experts for the government, advertising companies, dictionary publishers and various other private enterprises. Some might work from home as freelance linguists. Philologist, phonologist, and dialectician are some of Linguist synonym. Linguists can study French , German , Italian . 

Public Relation Executive

Travel journalist.

The career of a travel journalist is full of passion, excitement and responsibility. Journalism as a career could be challenging at times, but if you're someone who has been genuinely enthusiastic about all this, then it is the best decision for you. Travel journalism jobs are all about insightful, artfully written, informative narratives designed to cover the travel industry. Travel Journalist is someone who explores, gathers and presents information as a news article.

Quality Controller

A quality controller plays a crucial role in an organisation. He or she is responsible for performing quality checks on manufactured products. He or she identifies the defects in a product and rejects the product. 

A quality controller records detailed information about products with defects and sends it to the supervisor or plant manager to take necessary actions to improve the production process.

Production Manager


A QA Lead is in charge of the QA Team. The role of QA Lead comes with the responsibility of assessing services and products in order to determine that he or she meets the quality standards. He or she develops, implements and manages test plans. 

Metallurgical Engineer

A metallurgical engineer is a professional who studies and produces materials that bring power to our world. He or she extracts metals from ores and rocks and transforms them into alloys, high-purity metals and other materials used in developing infrastructure, transportation and healthcare equipment. 

Azure Administrator

An Azure Administrator is a professional responsible for implementing, monitoring, and maintaining Azure Solutions. He or she manages cloud infrastructure service instances and various cloud servers as well as sets up public and private cloud systems. 

AWS Solution Architect

An AWS Solution Architect is someone who specializes in developing and implementing cloud computing systems. He or she has a good understanding of the various aspects of cloud computing and can confidently deploy and manage their systems. He or she troubleshoots the issues and evaluates the risk from the third party. 

Computer Programmer

Careers in computer programming primarily refer to the systematic act of writing code and moreover include wider computer science areas. The word 'programmer' or 'coder' has entered into practice with the growing number of newly self-taught tech enthusiasts. Computer programming careers involve the use of designs created by software developers and engineers and transforming them into commands that can be implemented by computers. These commands result in regular usage of social media sites, word-processing applications and browsers.

ITSM Manager

Information security manager.

Individuals in the information security manager career path involves in overseeing and controlling all aspects of computer security. The IT security manager job description includes planning and carrying out security measures to protect the business data and information from corruption, theft, unauthorised access, and deliberate attack 

Business Intelligence Developer

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Pollution is the introduction of harmful materials into the environment. These harmful materials are called pollutants.

Biology, Ecology, Health, Earth Science, Geography

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Pollution is the introduction of harmful materials into the environment . These harmful materials are called pollutants . Pollutants can be natural, such as volcanic ash . They can also be created by human activity, such as trash or runoff produced by factories. Pollutants damage the quality of air, water, and land. Many things that are useful to people produce pollution. Cars spew pollutants from their exhaust pipes. Burning coal to create electricity pollutes the air. Industries and homes generate garbage and sewage that can pollute the land and water. Pesticides —chemical poisons used to kill weeds and insects— seep into waterways and harm wildlife . All living things—from one-celled microbes to blue whales—depend on Earth ’s supply of air and water. When these resources are polluted, all forms of life are threatened. Pollution is a global problem. Although urban areas are usually more polluted than the countryside, pollution can spread to remote places where no people live. For example, pesticides and other chemicals have been found in the Antarctic ice sheet . In the middle of the northern Pacific Ocean, a huge collection of microscopic plastic particles forms what is known as the Great Pacific Garbage Patch . Air and water currents carry pollution. Ocean currents and migrating fish carry marine pollutants far and wide. Winds can pick up radioactive material accidentally released from a nuclear reactor and scatter it around the world. Smoke from a factory in one country drifts into another country. In the past, visitors to Big Bend National Park in the U.S. state of Texas could see 290 kilometers (180 miles) across the vast landscape . Now, coal-burning power plants in Texas and the neighboring state of Chihuahua, Mexico have spewed so much pollution into the air that visitors to Big Bend can sometimes see only 50 kilometers (30 miles). The three major types of pollution are air pollution , water pollution , and land pollution . Air Pollution Sometimes, air pollution is visible . A person can see dark smoke pour from the exhaust pipes of large trucks or factories, for example. More often, however, air pollution is invisible . Polluted air can be dangerous, even if the pollutants are invisible. It can make people’s eyes burn and make them have difficulty breathing. It can also increase the risk of lung cancer . Sometimes, air pollution kills quickly. In 1984, an accident at a pesticide plant in Bhopal, India, released a deadly gas into the air. At least 8,000 people died within days. Hundreds of thou sands more were permanently injured. Natural disasters can also cause air pollution to increase quickly. When volcanoes erupt , they eject volcanic ash and gases into the atmosphere . Volcanic ash can discolor the sky for months. After the eruption of the Indonesian volcano of Krakatoa in 1883, ash darkened the sky around the world. The dimmer sky caused fewer crops to be harvested as far away as Europe and North America. For years, meteorologists tracked what was known as the “equatorial smoke stream .” In fact, this smoke stream was a jet stream , a wind high in Earth’s atmosphere that Krakatoa’s air pollution made visible. Volcanic gases , such as sulfur dioxide , can kill nearby residents and make the soil infertile for years. Mount Vesuvius, a volcano in Italy, famously erupted in 79, killing hundreds of residents of the nearby towns of Pompeii and Herculaneum. Most victims of Vesuvius were not killed by lava or landslides caused by the eruption. They were choked, or asphyxiated , by deadly volcanic gases. In 1986, a toxic cloud developed over Lake Nyos, Cameroon. Lake Nyos sits in the crater of a volcano. Though the volcano did not erupt, it did eject volcanic gases into the lake. The heated gases passed through the water of the lake and collected as a cloud that descended the slopes of the volcano and into nearby valleys . As the toxic cloud moved across the landscape, it killed birds and other organisms in their natural habitat . This air pollution also killed thousands of cattle and as many as 1,700 people. Most air pollution is not natural, however. It comes from burning fossil fuels —coal, oil , and natural gas . When gasoline is burned to power cars and trucks, it produces carbon monoxide , a colorless, odorless gas. The gas is harmful in high concentrations , or amounts. City traffic produces highly concentrated carbon monoxide. Cars and factories produce other common pollutants, including nitrogen oxide , sulfur dioxide, and hydrocarbons . These chemicals react with sunlight to produce smog , a thick fog or haze of air pollution. The smog is so thick in Linfen, China, that people can seldom see the sun. Smog can be brown or grayish blue, depending on which pollutants are in it. Smog makes breathing difficult, especially for children and older adults. Some cities that suffer from extreme smog issue air pollution warnings. The government of Hong Kong, for example, will warn people not to go outside or engage in strenuous physical activity (such as running or swimming) when smog is very thick.

When air pollutants such as nitrogen oxide and sulfur dioxide mix with moisture, they change into acids . They then fall back to earth as acid rain . Wind often carries acid rain far from the pollution source. Pollutants produced by factories and power plants in Spain can fall as acid rain in Norway. Acid rain can kill all the trees in a forest . It can also devastate lakes, streams, and other waterways. When lakes become acidic, fish can’t survive . In Sweden, acid rain created thousands of “ dead lakes ,” where fish no longer live. Acid rain also wears away marble and other kinds of stone . It has erased the words on gravestones and damaged many historic buildings and monuments . The Taj Mahal , in Agra, India, was once gleaming white. Years of exposure to acid rain has left it pale. Governments have tried to prevent acid rain by limiting the amount of pollutants released into the air. In Europe and North America, they have had some success, but acid rain remains a major problem in the developing world , especially Asia. Greenhouse gases are another source of air pollution. Greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide and methane occur naturally in the atmosphere. In fact, they are necessary for life on Earth. They absorb sunlight reflected from Earth, preventing it from escaping into space. By trapping heat in the atmosphere, they keep Earth warm enough for people to live. This is called the greenhouse effect . But human activities such as burning fossil fuels and destroying forests have increased the amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. This has increased the greenhouse effect, and average temperatures across the globe are rising. The decade that began in the year 2000 was the warmest on record. This increase in worldwide average temperatures, caused in part by human activity, is called global warming . Global warming is causing ice sheets and glaciers to melt. The melting ice is causing sea levels to rise at a rate of two millimeters (0.09 inches) per year. The rising seas will eventually flood low-lying coastal regions . Entire nations, such as the islands of Maldives, are threatened by this climate change . Global warming also contributes to the phenomenon of ocean acidification . Ocean acidification is the process of ocean waters absorbing more carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Fewer organisms can survive in warmer, less salty waters. The ocean food web is threatened as plants and animals such as coral fail to adapt to more acidic oceans. Scientists have predicted that global warming will cause an increase in severe storms . It will also cause more droughts in some regions and more flooding in others. The change in average temperatures is already shrinking some habitats, the regions where plants and animals naturally live. Polar bears hunt seals from sea ice in the Arctic. The melting ice is forcing polar bears to travel farther to find food , and their numbers are shrinking. People and governments can respond quickly and effectively to reduce air pollution. Chemicals called chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are a dangerous form of air pollution that governments worked to reduce in the 1980s and 1990s. CFCs are found in gases that cool refrigerators, in foam products, and in aerosol cans . CFCs damage the ozone layer , a region in Earth’s upper atmosphere. The ozone layer protects Earth by absorbing much of the sun’s harmful ultraviolet radiation . When people are exposed to more ultraviolet radiation, they are more likely to develop skin cancer, eye diseases, and other illnesses. In the 1980s, scientists noticed that the ozone layer over Antarctica was thinning. This is often called the “ ozone hole .” No one lives permanently in Antarctica. But Australia, the home of more than 22 million people, lies at the edge of the hole. In the 1990s, the Australian government began an effort to warn people of the dangers of too much sun. Many countries, including the United States, now severely limit the production of CFCs. Water Pollution Some polluted water looks muddy, smells bad, and has garbage floating in it. Some polluted water looks clean, but is filled with harmful chemicals you can’t see or smell. Polluted water is unsafe for drinking and swimming. Some people who drink polluted water are exposed to hazardous chemicals that may make them sick years later. Others consume bacteria and other tiny aquatic organisms that cause disease. The United Nations estimates that 4,000 children die every day from drinking dirty water. Sometimes, polluted water harms people indirectly. They get sick because the fish that live in polluted water are unsafe to eat. They have too many pollutants in their flesh. There are some natural sources of water pollution. Oil and natural gas, for example, can leak into oceans and lakes from natural underground sources. These sites are called petroleum seeps . The world’s largest petroleum seep is the Coal Oil Point Seep, off the coast of the U.S. state of California. The Coal Oil Point Seep releases so much oil that tar balls wash up on nearby beaches . Tar balls are small, sticky pieces of pollution that eventually decompose in the ocean.

Human activity also contributes to water pollution. Chemicals and oils from factories are sometimes dumped or seep into waterways. These chemicals are called runoff. Chemicals in runoff can create a toxic environment for aquatic life. Runoff can also help create a fertile environment for cyanobacteria , also called blue-green algae . Cyanobacteria reproduce rapidly, creating a harmful algal bloom (HAB) . Harmful algal blooms prevent organisms such as plants and fish from living in the ocean. They are associated with “ dead zones ” in the world’s lakes and rivers, places where little life exists below surface water. Mining and drilling can also contribute to water pollution. Acid mine drainage (AMD) is a major contributor to pollution of rivers and streams near coal mines . Acid helps miners remove coal from the surrounding rocks . The acid is washed into streams and rivers, where it reacts with rocks and sand. It releases chemical sulfur from the rocks and sand, creating a river rich in sulfuric acid . Sulfuric acid is toxic to plants, fish, and other aquatic organisms. Sulfuric acid is also toxic to people, making rivers polluted by AMD dangerous sources of water for drinking and hygiene . Oil spills are another source of water pollution. In April 2010, the Deepwater Horizon oil rig exploded in the Gulf of Mexico, causing oil to gush from the ocean floor. In the following months, hundreds of millions of gallons of oil spewed into the gulf waters. The spill produced large plumes of oil under the sea and an oil slick on the surface as large as 24,000 square kilometers (9,100 square miles). The oil slick coated wetlands in the U.S. states of Louisiana and Mississippi, killing marsh plants and aquatic organisms such as crabs and fish. Birds, such as pelicans , became coated in oil and were unable to fly or access food. More than two million animals died as a result of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Buried chemical waste can also pollute water supplies. For many years, people disposed of chemical wastes carelessly, not realizing its dangers. In the 1970s, people living in the Love Canal area in Niagara Falls, New York, suffered from extremely high rates of cancer and birth defects . It was discovered that a chemical waste dump had poisoned the area’s water. In 1978, 800 families living in Love Canal had to a bandon their homes. If not disposed of properly, radioactive waste from nuclear power plants can escape into the environment. Radioactive waste can harm living things and pollute the water. Sewage that has not been properly treated is a common source of water pollution. Many cities around the world have poor sewage systems and sewage treatment plants. Delhi, the capital of India, is home to more than 21 million people. More than half the sewage and other waste produced in the city are dumped into the Yamuna River. This pollution makes the river dangerous to use as a source of water for drinking or hygiene. It also reduces the river’s fishery , resulting in less food for the local community. A major source of water pollution is fertilizer used in agriculture . Fertilizer is material added to soil to make plants grow larger and faster. Fertilizers usually contain large amounts of the elements nitrogen and phosphorus , which help plants grow. Rainwater washes fertilizer into streams and lakes. There, the nitrogen and phosphorus cause cyanobacteria to form harmful algal blooms. Rain washes other pollutants into streams and lakes. It picks up animal waste from cattle ranches. Cars drip oil onto the street, and rain carries it into storm drains , which lead to waterways such as rivers and seas. Rain sometimes washes chemical pesticides off of plants and into streams. Pesticides can also seep into groundwater , the water beneath the surface of the Earth. Heat can pollute water. Power plants, for example, produce a huge amount of heat. Power plants are often located on rivers so they can use the water as a coolant . Cool water circulates through the plant, absorbing heat. The heated water is then returned to the river. Aquatic creatures are sensitive to changes in temperature. Some fish, for example, can only live in cold water. Warmer river temperatures prevent fish eggs from hatching. Warmer river water also contributes to harmful algal blooms. Another type of water pollution is simple garbage. The Citarum River in Indonesia, for example, has so much garbage floating in it that you cannot see the water. Floating trash makes the river difficult to fish in. Aquatic animals such as fish and turtles mistake trash, such as plastic bags, for food. Plastic bags and twine can kill many ocean creatures. Chemical pollutants in trash can also pollute the water, making it toxic for fish and people who use the river as a source of drinking water. The fish that are caught in a polluted river often have high levels of chemical toxins in their flesh. People absorb these toxins as they eat the fish. Garbage also fouls the ocean. Many plastic bottles and other pieces of trash are thrown overboard from boats. The wind blows trash out to sea. Ocean currents carry plastics and other floating trash to certain places on the globe, where it cannot escape. The largest of these areas, called the Great Pacific Garbage Patch, is in a remote part of the Pacific Ocean. According to some estimates, this garbage patch is the size of Texas. The trash is a threat to fish and seabirds, which mistake the plastic for food. Many of the plastics are covered with chemical pollutants. Land Pollution Many of the same pollutants that foul the water also harm the land. Mining sometimes leaves the soil contaminated with dangerous chemicals. Pesticides and fertilizers from agricultural fields are blown by the wind. They can harm plants, animals, and sometimes people. Some fruits and vegetables absorb the pesticides that help them grow. When people consume the fruits and vegetables, the pesticides enter their bodies. Some pesticides can cause cancer and other diseases. A pesticide called DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) was once commonly used to kill insects, especially mosquitoes. In many parts of the world, mosquitoes carry a disease called malaria , which kills a million people every year. Swiss chemist Paul Hermann Muller was awarded the Nobel Prize for his understanding of how DDT can control insects and other pests. DDT is responsible for reducing malaria in places such as Taiwan and Sri Lanka. In 1962, American biologist Rachel Carson wrote a book called Silent Spring , which discussed the dangers of DDT. She argued that it could contribute to cancer in humans. She also explained how it was destroying bird eggs, which caused the number of bald eagles, brown pelicans, and ospreys to drop. In 1972, the United States banned the use of DDT. Many other countries also banned it. But DDT didn’t disappear entirely. Today, many governments support the use of DDT because it remains the most effective way to combat malaria. Trash is another form of land pollution. Around the world, paper, cans, glass jars, plastic products, and junked cars and appliances mar the landscape. Litter makes it difficult for plants and other producers in the food web to create nutrients . Animals can die if they mistakenly eat plastic. Garbage often contains dangerous pollutants such as oils, chemicals, and ink. These pollutants can leech into the soil and harm plants, animals, and people. Inefficient garbage collection systems contribute to land pollution. Often, the garbage is picked up and brought to a dump, or landfill . Garbage is buried in landfills. Sometimes, communities produce so much garbage that their landfills are filling up. They are running out of places to dump their trash. A massive landfill near Quezon City, Philippines, was the site of a land pollution tragedy in 2000. Hundreds of people lived on the slopes of the Quezon City landfill. These people made their living from recycling and selling items found in the landfill. However, the landfill was not secure. Heavy rains caused a trash landslide, killing 218 people. Sometimes, landfills are not completely sealed off from the land around them. Pollutants from the landfill leak into the earth in which they are buried. Plants that grow in the earth may be contaminated, and the herbivores that eat the plants also become contaminated. So do the predators that consume the herbivores. This process, where a chemical builds up in each level of the food web, is called bioaccumulation . Pollutants leaked from landfills also leak into local groundwater supplies. There, the aquatic food web (from microscopic algae to fish to predators such as sharks or eagles) can suffer from bioaccumulation of toxic chemicals. Some communities do not have adequate garbage collection systems, and trash lines the side of roads. In other places, garbage washes up on beaches. Kamilo Beach, in the U.S. state of Hawai'i, is littered with plastic bags and bottles carried in by the tide . The trash is dangerous to ocean life and reduces economic activity in the area. Tourism is Hawai'i’s largest industry . Polluted beaches discourage tourists from investing in the area’s hotels, restaurants, and recreational activities. Some cities incinerate , or burn, their garbage. Incinerating trash gets rid of it, but it can release dangerous heavy metals and chemicals into the air. So while trash incinerators can help with the problem of land pollution, they sometimes add to the problem of air pollution. Reducing Pollution Around the world, people and governments are making efforts to combat pollution. Recycling, for instance, is becoming more common. In recycling, trash is processed so its useful materials can be used again. Glass, aluminum cans, and many types of plastic can be melted and reused . Paper can be broken down and turned into new paper. Recycling reduces the amount of garbage that ends up in landfills, incinerators, and waterways. Austria and Switzerland have the highest recycling rates. These nations recycle between 50 and 60 percent of their garbage. The United States recycles about 30 percent of its garbage. Governments can combat pollution by passing laws that limit the amount and types of chemicals factories and agribusinesses are allowed to use. The smoke from coal-burning power plants can be filtered. People and businesses that illegally dump pollutants into the land, water, and air can be fined for millions of dollars. Some government programs, such as the Superfund program in the United States, can force polluters to clean up the sites they polluted. International agreements can also reduce pollution. The Kyoto Protocol , a United Nations agreement to limit the emission of greenhouse gases, has been signed by 191 countries. The United States, the world’s second-largest producer of greenhouse gases, did not sign the agreement. Other countries, such as China, the world’s largest producer of greenhouse gases, have not met their goals. Still, many gains have been made. In 1969, the Cuyahoga River, in the U.S. state of Ohio, was so clogged with oil and trash that it caught on fire. The fire helped spur the Clean Water Act of 1972. This law limited what pollutants could be released into water and set standards for how clean water should be. Today, the Cuyahoga River is much cleaner. Fish have returned to regions of the river where they once could not survive. But even as some rivers are becoming cleaner, others are becoming more polluted. As countries around the world become wealthier, some forms of pollution increase. Countries with growing economies usually need more power plants, which produce more pollutants. Reducing pollution requires environmental, political, and economic leadership. Developed nations must work to reduce and recycle their materials, while developing nations must work to strengthen their economies without destroying the environment. Developed and developing countries must work together toward the common goal of protecting the environment for future use.

How Long Does It Last? Different materials decompose at different rates. How long does it take for these common types of trash to break down?

  • Paper: 2-4 weeks
  • Orange peel: 6 months
  • Milk carton: 5 years
  • Plastic bag: 15 years
  • Tin can: 100 years
  • Plastic bottle: 450 years
  • Glass bottle: 500 years
  • Styrofoam: Never

Indoor Air Pollution The air inside your house can be polluted. Air and carpet cleaners, insect sprays, and cigarettes are all sources of indoor air pollution.

Light Pollution Light pollution is the excess amount of light in the night sky. Light pollution, also called photopollution, is almost always found in urban areas. Light pollution can disrupt ecosystems by confusing the distinction between night and day. Nocturnal animals, those that are active at night, may venture out during the day, while diurnal animals, which are active during daylight hours, may remain active well into the night. Feeding and sleep patterns may be confused. Light pollution also indicates an excess use of energy. The dark-sky movement is a campaign by people to reduce light pollution. This would reduce energy use, allow ecosystems to function more normally, and allow scientists and stargazers to observe the atmosphere.

Noise Pollution Noise pollution is the constant presence of loud, disruptive noises in an area. Usually, noise pollution is caused by construction or nearby transportation facilities, such as airports. Noise pollution is unpleasant, and can be dangerous. Some songbirds, such as robins, are unable to communicate or find food in the presence of heavy noise pollution. The sound waves produced by some noise pollutants can disrupt the sonar used by marine animals to communicate or locate food.

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March 6, 2024

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  • Pollution Essay in English for Students


Essay on Pollution for Students

Being aware of pollution is quite mandatory for all the students these days. In order to become a responsible citizen of the world for future generations, every child should know how human activities are leaving an impact on the environment and nature. This topic is quite crucial. And, school children should learn how to write an interesting essay on ‘Pollution’ effortlessly. Take a glance below. 

A Few Things to Keep in Mind:

Never ever hurry to write the essay.

Think properly and jot down your thoughts before proceeding.

Divide your write-up into a few segments such as - introduction, main body - you can make a few points as per the topic and a conclusion.

Try writing short paragraphs. Short and crisp sentences are also a great way to avoid silly mistakes.

Adding factual data wherever required is important such as year, date etc.|

Essay on Pollution


Pollution has become a very common yet serious issue in today’s world. It has been there in different forms since a long time even before human evolution such as volcanic eruptions, wildfire which lead to various photochemical reactions in the atmosphere. The current concern is that it is rising day by day due to various resources of pollutants. And, one of the main pollutants are humans and man-made machines. It is right to say that pollution is damaging the mother earth severely and we, humans, should play our part to prevent it from happening.

What is Pollution?

Pollution sepsis is the presence of contaminants in the natural environment that causes harm and damage and therefore leads to adverse changes.

Kinds of Pollution

There are mainly three kinds of pollution - 1) Air Pollution, 2) Water Pollution, and 3) Soil Pollution. 

Air Pollution

Air Pollution occurs due to the presence of harmful gases and substances in the air. It is due to vehicle emission, dust and dirt, poisonous gasses from the factories etc. To reduce air pollution, we should use carpooling or public transport rather than using our private mode of transportation whose harmful gas emission only adds to the problem, we should also actively avoid burning trash or other materials etc.

Water Pollution

Water Pollution happens when toxic substances get mixed in various water bodies such as lakes, oceans, rivers etc. Here toxic substances refer to the Chemical fertilizer, Industrial waste, Sewage and wastewater, Mining activities, Marine dumping etc.

Soil Pollution

Soil pollution depicts the contamination of soil due to the presence of toxic substances due to Excessive use of fertilisers and pesticides, deforestation, industrial waste etc . To maintain the soil’s fertility, the government must limit the usage of fertilizers and plant more trees.

There are a few other pollutants causing pollution apart from the aforementioned ones, such as Radioactive pollution. This is one of the rarer types of pollution. It occurs due to the presence of radioactive substances such as the presence of nuclear waste in air, solids, liquids or any other place.

Effects of Pollution on Human Health

Pollution is increasingly having a major effect on the health of human lives. People are gettin g affected by different types of deadly diseases due to the various pollution in air, water and soil. Here are the different diseases humans face due to different pollution.

Due to Air Pollution

Air is an essential part of human life. Humans cannot live without breathing air. But, air pollution causes major damage to human lives. Here are some of the major diseases caused due to air pollution.

Lung cancer

Major coronary heart disease

Respiratory problems

Due to Water Pollution

Water is another source of life. Any living being cannot survive without drinking water. But the continuous degradation and pollution of major water bodies are also causing deadly diseases to humans and animals. It is also affecting marine life. Since water is consumed all the time, it’s pollution is causing a lot of deadly diseases. Some of the major diseases caused by water pollution are as follows:

Hepatitis A


Due to Soil Pollution

Soil is an important part of our lives. The land on which we are walking or travelling is made with soil. Due to all the chemicals mixed with the soil and degradation due to the same, it is inevitable that many harmful chemicals come in contact with our body and cause many skin diseases or in forms of food crops that are planted on such polluted soil. Direct contact can cause a lot of problems for us humans. Some of the major diseases caused due to soil pollution are as follows:

Different types of cancer

Damage of the nervous system due to contact with lead present in the soil.

liver and kidney failure

What are the Different Methods to Reduce Pollution?

The degrading quality of all the important elements like air, water and soil is affecting the lives of many children, adults as well as animals. We need to keep our environment safe and use effective methods to reduce pollution. 

Methods to reduce Air Pollution

Some of the effective methods to reduce air pollution are as follows:

Regulation of air through chimneys: The industries should disintegrate the harmful gas from the air prior to its release from the chimneys. They should check and avoid using harmful gases, which are the major causes of air pollution.

Use of public transport or cycle: If you are travelling to distant places, it is recommended to take public transport. Or if you are going to any shops or buying any garment, it is always better to use your cycle. Public transport can take you to different places along with other people; this will help reduce air pollution. If you can cycle, it will reduce air pollution and another added benefit is that it will keep your health in check.

Reduction of fires and smokes: In the dry season, many people burn plastic, papers, dry leaves, which creates a big fire and smoke that creates a harmful layer of fog suspended in the atmosphere. It is better if you stop burning plastic to reduce smoke.

Methods to Reduce Water Pollution

Some of the effective methods to reduce water pollution are as follows:

Avoid disposing of plastic and waste materials: To keep the water free from any pollution, the first thing is to avoid disposing of any sort of plastics or food waste water material in water. The waste materials get dissolved in the water and harm the aquatic life along with those who drink the water. 

Reduce use of chemicals: you should avoid purchasing harmful chemical products that can get mixed with the water and pollute it. The biggest examples are pesticides and insecticides, which causes a major effect on marine life.

Reduce use of detergents: Detergents have many strong chemicals which can cause the leather to water and wash your clothes. If these detergents get mixed with water, they can pollute the soil.

Methods to Reduce Soil Pollution 

Some of the methods to reduce soil pollution are as follows:

Avoid disposing of harmful chemicals: The industries should avoid disposing of harmful chemicals in the soil. It can change the structure and components of the soil making it an unusable surface of land for vegetation. 

Eat food in biodegradable containers: As you dispose of the food containers in dustbins, it is good to use biodegradable food containers despite using plastic containers, which are harmful to the soil.

Plant more trees: The structure of the soil can be improved by planting more trees. Trees help to hold the soil together and improve the soil quality. Hence we should plant more trees.

How to Reduce Pollution Gradually?

Upon learning about the harmful effects of pollution, it is everyone’s responsibility to take some steps towards prevention. We should be aware of all the possible preventive measures to help reduce every kind of pollution such as to curb air pollution, we should avoid bursting crackers during any festival or using public transport or carpool to reduce air pollution or cutting down the usage of loud loudspeaker, and public honking would help in noise pollution. We should always be aware of this situation and take measures accordingly. It’s us who should be cautious in the beginning and make everyone else surrounding us conscious as well. We should take eco-friendly steps like planting more trees, reducing the usage of plastic, using more sustainable products in the household etc. while talking about the pollution of the entire world, you should always remember that every small step will lead to a bigger impact one day.

In a nutshell, every kind of pollution leaves a huge negative impact on our environment, human lives, animals etc. We, as responsible citizens, must take steps towards a better tomorrow. We must join hands to take various initiatives and fight against this problem. A lot of innocent lives are put in danger due to pollution every day. If we don’t do anything from now on or take a stand to make the earth pollution-free, then the doomsday will be upon us very soon.


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One Thing Most Countries Have in Common: Unsafe Air

New research found that fewer than 10 percent of countries and territories met World Health Organization guidelines for particulate matter pollution last year.

A man covered his mouth and nose as he walks on a road with people in the background obscured by smoke and dust.

By Delger Erdenesanaa

Only 10 countries and territories out of 134 achieved the World Health Organization’s standards for a pervasive form of air pollution last year, according to air quality data compiled by IQAir , a Swiss company.

The pollution studied is called fine particulate matter, or PM2.5, because it refers to solid particles less than 2.5 micrometers in size: small enough to enter the bloodstream. PM2.5 is the deadliest form of air pollution, leading to millions of premature deaths each year .

“Air pollution and climate change both have the same culprit, which is fossil fuels,” said Glory Dolphin Hammes, the CEO of IQAir’s North American division.

The World Health Organization sets a guideline that people shouldn’t breathe more than 5 micrograms of fine particulate matter per cubic meter of air, on average, throughout a year. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency recently proposed tightening its standard from 12 to 9 micrograms per cubic meter.

The few oases of clean air that meet World Health Organization guidelines are mostly islands, as well as Australia and the northern European countries of Finland and Estonia. Of the non-achievers, where the vast majority of the human population lives, the countries with the worst air quality were mostly in Asia and Africa.

Where some of the dirtiest air is found

The four most polluted countries in IQAir’s ranking for 2023 — Bangladesh, Pakistan, India and Tajikistan — are in South and Central Asia.

Air quality sensors in almost a third of the region’s cities reported concentrations of fine particulate matter that were more than 10 times the WHO guideline. This was a proportion “vastly exceeding any other region,” the report’s authors wrote.

The researchers pointed to vehicle traffic, coal and industrial emissions, particularly from brick kilns, as major sources of the region’s pollution. Farmers seasonally burning their crop waste contribute to the problem, as do households burning wood and dung for heat and cooking.

China reversed recent gains

One notable change in 2023 was a 6.3 percent increase in China’s air pollution compared with 2022, after at least five years of improvement. Beijing experienced a 14 percent increase in PM2.5 pollution last year.

The national government announced a “war against pollution” in 2014 and had been making progress ever since. But the sharpest decline in China’s PM2.5 pollution happened in 2020, when the coronavirus pandemic forced much of the country’s economic activity to slow or shut down. Ms. Dolphin Hammes attributed last year’s uptick to a reopening economy.

And challenges remain: Eleven cities in China reported air pollution levels last year that exceeded the WHO guidelines by 10 times or more. The worst was Hotan, Xinjiang.

Significant gaps in the data

IQAir researchers analyze data from more than 30,000 air quality monitoring stations and sensors across 134 countries, territories and disputed regions. Some of these monitoring stations are run by government agencies, while others are overseen by nonprofit organizations, schools, private companies and citizen scientists.

There are large gaps in ground-level air quality monitoring in Africa and the Middle East, including in regions where satellite data show some of the highest levels of air pollution on Earth.

As IQAir works to add data from more cities and countries in future years, “the worst might be yet to come in terms of what we’re measuring,” Ms. Dolphin Hammes said.

Wildfire smoke: a growing problem

Although North America is one of the cleaner regions in the world, in 2023 wildfires burned 4 percent of Canada’s forests, an area about half the size of Germany, and significantly impaired air quality.

Usually, North America’s list of most polluted cities is dominated by the United States. But last year, the top 13 spots all went to Canadian cities, many of them in Alberta.

In the United States, cities in the Upper Midwest and the Mid-Atlantic states also got significant amounts of PM2.5 pollution from wildfire smoke that drifted across the border.

Risks of short-term exposure

It’s not just chronic exposure to air pollution that harms people’s health.

For vulnerable people like the very young and old, or those with underlying illnesses, breathing in large amounts of fine particulate pollution for just a few hours or days can sometimes be deadly. About 1 million premature deaths per year can be attributed to short-term PM2.5 exposure, according to a recent global study published in The Lancet Planetary Health.

The problem is worst in East and South Asia, as well as in West Africa.

Without accounting for short-term exposures, “we might be underestimating the mortality burden from air pollution,” said Yuming Guo, a professor at Monash University in Melbourne, Australia, and one of the study’s authors.

U.S. disparities widen

Within individual countries, air pollution and its health effects aren’t evenly distributed.

Air quality in the United States has generally been improving since the Clean Air Act of the 1970s. Last decade, premature deaths from PM2.5 exposure declined to about 49,400 in 2019, down from about 69,000 in 2010.

But progress has happened faster in some communities than in others. Racial and ethnic disparities in air pollution deaths have grown in recent years, according to a national study published this month .

The census tracts in the United States with the fewest white residents have about 32 percent higher rates of PM2.5-related deaths, compared with those with the most white residents. This disparity in deaths per capita has increased by 16 percent between 2010 and 2019.

The study examined race and ethnicity separately, and found the disparity between the census tracts with the most and least Hispanic residents grew even more, by 40 percent.

In IQAir’s rankings, the United States is doing much better than most other countries. But studies that dig deeper show air quality is still an issue, said Gaige Kerr, a research scientist at George Washington University and the lead author of the disparities paper published in the journal Environmental Health Perspectives. “There’s still a lot of work to do,” he said.

Dr. Kerr’s research showed that mortality rates were highest on the Gulf Coast and in the Ohio River Valley, in areas dominated by petrochemical and manufacturing industries. He also noted that researchers have seen a slight uptick in rates of PM2.5-related deaths starting around 2016, particularly in the Western states, likely because of increasing wildfires.

Delger Erdenesanaa is a reporter covering climate and the environment and a member of the 2023-24 Times Fellowship class, a program for journalists early in their careers. More about Delger Erdenesanaa

Learn More About Climate Change

Have questions about climate change? Our F.A.Q. will tackle your climate questions, big and small .

Ocean Conservation Namibia is disentangling a record number of seals, while broadcasting the perils of marine debris in a largely feel-good way. Here’s how .

To decarbonize the electrical grid, companies are finding creative ways to store energy during periods of low demand in carbon dioxide storage balloons .

MethaneSAT, a washing-machine-sized satellite , is designed to detect emissions of methane, an invisible yet potent gas that is dangerously heating the world.  Here is how it works .

New satellite-based research reveals how land along the East Coast is slumping into the ocean, compounding the danger from global sea level rise . A major culprit: overpumping of groundwater.

Did you know the ♻ symbol doesn’t mean something is actually recyclable ? Read on about how we got here, and what can be done.

Delhi: India's capital most polluted in the world, report says

Nine of the 10 most polluted cities in the world were in India, according to IQAir's report, with Lahore in neighbouring Pakistan in fifth place.

By Dylan Donnelly, news reporter

Thursday 21 March 2024 09:58, UK

Smog over New Delhi, Delhi, India in 2016. Pic: AP

Delhi has been named 2023's the most polluted capital city in the world, as India - and the whole of South Asia - continues to grapple with smog and toxic air.

A report into the most polluted cities around the world by IQAir, a Swiss-based air-quality monitoring group, found nine of the top 10 were in India .

Delhi was ranked as the third most polluted city overall and the most polluted capital, with an annual average concentration of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) at 102.1 micrograms per cubic metre (μg/m³).

The World Health Organization (WHO) says countries should aim for an average PM2.5 concentration of 5μg/m³.

Akshardham temple covered in smog. New Delhi, Delhi, India in 2023. Pic: AP

It says exposure to particle pollution is linked to asthma, cancer, lung disease, strokes and other diseases. It also notes that PM2.5 can more easily coat the lungs and even enter the bloodstream.

Delhi deals with poor air quality throughout the year but winter is usually when it is at its worst. Schools and colleges were closed for several days late last year over toxic air.

In November, New Delhi brought in restrictions on the number of cars on the road to curb air pollution. But smog engulfed cities in India, Pakistan and Bangladesh days later, with businesses and schools forced to close in some areas.

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India New Delhi car ban schools shut air pollution smog

'Like an epidemic out here'

Reporting from Delhi, Sky News' Neville Lazarus said on Thursday it was "like an epidemic out here" and noted activists had claimed pollution was the fifth largest cause of death in India.

He said a report from the British Medical Journal found that per capita, India had 2.18 million deaths attributable to air pollution per year.

A policewoman wears a mask to protect herself from air pollution. Pic: Reuters

"The numbers are just massive. Almost 30,000 deaths in a year - 80 people in Delhi die [each day] because of air pollution," he said.

"So it is very concerning, and it has a detrimental effect on the economy: Almost 4% of GDP is spent on health care directly related with air pollution for families. One illness pushes them into poverty.

"But what is concerning in this report is that we've seen air pollution coming from Tier Two cities, the smaller cities, a nondescript city like Begusarai in the northern state."

Read more from Sky News: Scotland's 2030 emissions target unreachable, experts say 'Red alert to the world' after 2023 climate 'misery' Homes being swallowed as rate of coastal erosion accelerates

IQAir's report held that Begusarai, in the Indian state of Bihar, was the most polluted city in the world with an average annual PM2.5 concentration of 118.9 μg/m³.

Lahore in neighbouring Pakistan ranked fifth at an average 99.5μg/m³.

Bangladesh most polluted country

The report also found that Bangladesh is the world's most polluted country, with an annual PM2.5 concentration of 79.9μg/m³.

Pakistan ranks second at 73.7μg/m³, India is third at 54.4μg/m³ and Tajikistan is placed fourth at 49μg/m³, making the South Asia region the most polluted in the world, according to the report.

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pollution problem of india essay

IQAir held that only seven countries met the WHO's annual PM2.5 guideline - Australia, New Zealand, Estonia, Iceland, Grenada, Mauritius and Finland.

The report data was gathered from more than 30,000 air quality monitoring stations positioned in 134 countries, regions and territories.

Related Topics

Plastic Pollution Essay for Students and Children

500+ words essay on plastic pollution.

Plastic is everywhere nowadays. People are using it endlessly just for their comfort. However, no one realizes how it is harming our planet. We need to become aware of the consequences so that we can stop plastic pollution . Kids should be taught from their childhood to avoid using plastic. Similarly, adults must check each other on the same. In addition, the government must take stringent measures to stop plastic pollution before it gets too late.

Uprise of Plastic Pollution

Plastic has become one of the most used substances. It is seen everywhere these days, from supermarkets to common households. Why is that? Why is the use of plastic on the rise instead of diminishing? The main reason is that plastic is very cheap. It costs lesser than other alternatives like paper and cloth. This is why it is so common.

pollution problem of india essay

Secondly, it is very easy to use. Plastic can be used for almost anything either liquid or solid. Moreover, it comes in different forms which we can easily mold.

Furthermore, we see that plastic is a non-biodegradable material. It does not leave the face of the Earth . We cannot dissolve plastic in land or water, it remains forever. Thus, more and more use of plastic means more plastic which won’t get dissolved. Thus, the uprise of plastic pollution is happening at a very rapid rate.

Get the huge list of more than 500 Essay Topics and Ideas

Impact of Plastic Pollution

Plastic Pollution is affecting the whole earth, including mankind, wildlife, and aquatic life. It is spreading like a disease which has no cure. We all must realize the harmful impact it has on our lives so as to avert it as soon as possible.

Plastic pollutes our water. Each year, tonnes of plastic are dumped into the ocean. As plastic does not dissolve, it remains in the water thereby hampering its purity. This means we won’t be left with clean water in the coming years.

Furthermore, plastic pollutes our land as well. When humans dump Plastic waste into landfills, the soil gets damaged. It ruins the fertility of the soil. In addition to this, various disease-carrying insects collect in that area, causing deadly illnesses.

Should Plastic Be Banned? Read the Essay here

Most importantly, plastic pollution harms the Marine life . The plastic litter in the water is mistaken for food by the aquatic animals. They eat it and die eventually. For instance, a dolphin died due to a plastic ring stuck in its mouth. It couldn’t open its mouth due to that and died of starvation. Thus, we see how innocent animals are dying because of plastic pollution.

In short, we see how plastic pollution is ruining everyone’s life on earth. We must take major steps to prevent it. We must use alternatives like cloth bags and paper bags instead of plastic bags. If we are purchasing plastic, we must reuse it. We must avoid drinking bottled water which contributes largely to plastic pollution. The government must put a plastic ban on the use of plastic. All this can prevent plastic pollution to a large extent.

FAQs on Plastic Pollution Essay

Q.1 Why is plastic pollution on the rise?

A.1 Plastic Pollution is on the rise because nowadays people are using plastic endlessly. It is very economical and easily available. Moreover, plastic does not dissolve in the land or water, it stays for more than hundred years contributing to uprise of plastic pollution.

Q.2 How is plastic pollution impacting the earth?

A.2 Plastic pollution is impacting the earth in various ways. Firstly, it is polluting our water. This causes a shortage of clean water and thus we cannot have enough supply for all. Moreover, it is also ruining our soils and lands. The soil fertility is depleting and disease-carrying insects are collecting in landfills of plastic.

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  1. SOLUTION: write Essay on pollution

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    Kinds of Pollution. There are mainly three kinds of pollution - 1) Air Pollution, 2) Water Pollution, and 3) Soil Pollution. Air Pollution occurs due to the presence of harmful gases and substances in the air. It is due to vehicle emission, dust and dirt, poisonous gasses from the factories etc.

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