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Every child has the right to quality education and learning.

A young girl with a backpack runs to school with a smile, eagerly dragging her guardian behind.

There are an estimated 240 million children with disabilities worldwide. Like all children, children with disabilities have ambitions and dreams for their futures. Like all children, they need quality education to develop their skills and realize their full potential.

Yet, children with disabilities are often overlooked in policymaking, limiting their access to education and their ability to participate in social, economic and political life. Worldwide, these children are among the most likely to be out of school. They face persistent barriers to education stemming from discrimination, stigma and the routine failure of decision makers to incorporate disability in school services.

Disability is one of the most serious barriers to education across the globe.

Robbed of their right to learn, children with disabilities are often denied the chance to take part in their communities, the workforce and the decisions that most affect them.

A young boy wearing an assistive device listens to a speaker at an awareness-raising session.

Getting all children in school and learning

Inclusive education is the most effective way to give all children a fair chance to go to school, learn and develop the skills they need to thrive.

Inclusive education means all children in the same classrooms, in the same schools. It means real learning opportunities for groups who have traditionally been excluded – not only children with disabilities, but speakers of minority languages too.

Inclusive systems value the unique contributions students of all backgrounds bring to the classroom and allow diverse groups to grow side by side, to the benefit of all.

Inclusive education allows students of all backgrounds to learn and grow side by side, to the benefit of all.

But progress comes slowly. Inclusive systems require changes at all levels of society.

At the school level, teachers must be trained, buildings must be refurbished and students must receive accessible learning materials. At the community level, stigma and discrimination must be tackled and individuals need to be educated on the benefit of inclusive education. At the national level, Governments must align laws and policies with the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities , and regularly collect and analyse data to ensure children are reached with effective services.

UNICEF’s work to promote inclusive education

To close the education gap for children with disabilities, UNICEF supports government efforts to foster and monitor inclusive education systems. Our work focuses on four key areas:

  • Advocacy : UNICEF promotes inclusive education in discussions, high-level events and other forms of outreach geared towards policymakers and the general public.
  • Awareness-raising : UNICEF shines a spotlight on the needs of children with disabilities by conducting research and hosting roundtables, workshops and other events for government partners.
  • Capacity-building : UNICEF builds the capacity of education systems in partner countries by training teachers, administrators and communities, and providing technical assistance to Governments.
  • Implementation support : UNICEF assists with monitoring and evaluation in partner countries to close the implementation gap between policy and practice.

More from UNICEF

Atila attends class at the inclusive school he attends in Serbia.

The boy who changed his community in Serbia

How one boy overcame stigma and demonstrated the power of inclusive education.

A smiling boy in school.

I want to change how society sees people with disabilities

"When I came to school, I was determined to show everybody I could make it."

22-year-old Aminath Zara Hilmy stands on an artificial beach in Malé as one of the 25 participants in the mock COP negotiation session at UNICEF Maldives

Children call for access to quality climate education

On Earth Day, UNICEF urges governments to empower every child with learning opportunities to be a champion for the planet

أطفال نازحون يشاركون في جلسة تعليمية رقمية في مخيم السلام للنازحين في ولاية كسلا بالسودان.

An entire generation of children in Sudan faces a catastrophe as the war enters its second year

Fixing the Broken Promise of Education for All

This report draws on national studies to examine why millions of children continue to be denied the fundamental right to primary education.

Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities

The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities adopts a broad categorization of persons with disabilities and reaffirms that all persons with all types of disabilities must enjoy all human rights and fundamental freedoms.

Inclusive Education: Including Children with Disabilities in Quality Learning

This document provides guidance on what Governments can do to create inclusive education systems.

Towards Inclusive Education: The Impact of Disability on School Attendance in Developing Countries

Using cross-nationally comparable and nationally representative data from 18 surveys in 15 countries, this paper investigates how disability affects school attendance.

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In an inclusive approach to education, all children can learn together, in the same classroom. In schools, disability is one of the main causes of exclusion. In addition, there are other obstacles to inclusive education, relating to social, material, and behavioural issues. Discover all of IIEP-UNESCO’s actions, activities, and resources to strengthen the capacity of countries to plan for inclusive education, which takes everyone’s needs into account.

While millions of children across the world do not have the opportunity to learn, people with sensory, physical, or learning disabilities are two and a half times more likely than their peers to never go to school. Making inclusive education a reality means reaching out to all learners, by eliminating all forms of discrimination. This challenge lies at the heart of the fourth United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goal (SDG4) and the Education 2030 Agenda. Nevertheless, inclusive education is a complex process. It depends not only on supportive policies but more broadly on the cultural transformation of educational systems.

Since 2018, IIEP-UNESCO has been working to strengthen States’ strategies for inclusive educational planning and management, through actions to raise awareness and promote political dialogue on these issues, as well as training and research.

Raising awareness of issues in disability-inclusive planning

More than one out of every seven people in the world has a disability , according to the World Health Organization. Among the tens of millions of children affected, many do not have the opportunity to go to school, especially in low-income countries. Faced with a lack of data and knowledge on the identity and individual needs of these children, many countries do not know how to ensure their inclusion in their national education system. Persistent stigmatization, the often inadequate adaptation of schools, and the lack of training of teachers and materials to encourage inclusive education make access to school and learning even more difficult.


IIEP-UNICEF report: On the road to inclusion

While the transition towards inclusion has begun in several countries, so-called ‘segregated’ educational systems continue to prevail globally, according to UNESCO’s Global Education Monitoring Report 2020 .

For the education of pupils with disabilities, national policies provide for a separate system in 25% of countries, an integrated system in 10 per cent of countries and an inclusive system in only 17% of countries. The remaining States apply a mixed system of segregated and integrated teaching.

Our round tables on inclusive education To help governments develop educational planning that is able to address the needs of all learners, IIEP organized two technical round tables , with the support and collaboration of the United Nations Children’s Fund ( UNICEF ). Representatives of 16 national ministries of education and disability organizations met to discuss the difficulties and progress in planning for fairer and more inclusive educational systems, particularly for children with disabilities.

  • Round table ‘ Inclusion and disability in sectoral planning in education in Asia and Anglophone Africa ’, in Paris in 2018. Watch daily highlights .
  • Round table ‘ Inclusion and disability in sectoral planning in education in Francophone Africa ’, in Paris in 2019

The conclusions and learning from these round tables led to a report, accessible online.

Read our report

Listen to Radio France Internationale’s report during the second round table

“Inclusive education can improve children’s success at school, strengthen their social and emotional development, encourage acceptance of others... and therefore also contribute to more inclusive societies. To take up this challenge, governments should engage in a process of holistic and systemic reflection, based on rigorous planning.”  Jennifer Pye, IIEP inclusive education specialist

Inclusive education: Our training courses

The conceptual framework for disability-inclusive education, developed by IIEP and UNICEF, contributed to and helped structure an online course focused on the Foundations for disability-inclusive education planning.

This nine-week course, intended for officials in ministries of education working on issues of fairness and inclusion, has been delivered three times since 2020, with each session adapted to a regional context (Southern and East Africa; Asia; Southeast Asia and the Pacific). Overall, IIEP has trained more than 400 ministry of education officials worldwide. Read a participant’s testimony

The impact of this online course on the professional practices of participants is the subject of an evaluation , based on the outcome harvesting method and the Kirkpatrick model.

Find out about IIEP’s training courses

Inclusive education and technology: Our research

Information and communication technology plays a major role in filling the learning gap between pupils with disabilities and those without. Open and distance teaching has long been considered a useful tool to provide access to courses and educational materials that might be out of reach of some pupils. With the pandemic, these distance learning systems have suddenly become essential to maintain an educational link with as many pupils as possible. Yet these tools are still too rarely inclusive or accessible.  IIEP conducts case studies on emerging practices in inclusive digital learning, in collaboration with the UNESCO Institute for Information Technologies in Education ( IITE-UNESCO ). In parallel, rapid assessments are conducted, in different national contexts, to measure the impact of COVID-19 on access to distance learning for pupils with disabilities. This work targets four countries:

  • Colombia (case study in English , in Spanish ),
  • Bangladesh ( case study ),
  • The Republic of Mauritius ( case study | rapid assessment ),
  • Rwanda ( rapid assessment ).

Webinars and reports:

  • Webinar "Technology-enabled inclusive education: Emerging practices from COVID-19 for learners with disabilities" from Bangladesh, Mauritius, Rwanda (15 June 2021)

Webinar report

  • Webinar "COVID 19, educación basada en la tecnología: Prácticas emergentes en el aprendizaje digital inclusivo para estudiantes con discapacidad" (in Spanish with Colombian sign language interpretation) (29 July 2021)

Webinar info note (in Spanish)

Webinar report (available soon)

This project follows directly from UNESCO’s action on disability inclusion through open and distance teaching, particularly during the pandemic. More broadly, it is part of a global programme of the United Nations Partnership On the Rights of Persons with Disabilities ( UNPRPD ).

Gender-sensitive and crisis-sensitive educational planning

Whether in terms of schools or learning, there are many obstacles to inclusive and fair education. These obstacles often mount up. Beyond the central question of disability, other forms of exclusion are therefore also taken into account in IIEP’s research, training, and technical support activities. 

  • IIEP strives to integrate gender equality at the heart of strategies and practices in the education sector. In particular, the Institute is responsible for the technical leadership of the Gender at the Center (GCI) initiative, through its office in Dakar. Launched in 2019 during the G7 summit, GCI aims to reduce gender inequalities in the education systems of eight sub-Saharan African countries.
  • Similarly, as many countries face conflicts, epidemics, or natural disasters that are likely to exclude children from education, a crisis-sensitive planning approach is integrated into technical support services.
  • In Eswatini, inclusive education turns a page
  • Inclusive education: Overcoming barriers to technology
  • Learning together: Inclusive education for refugees in Kenya
  • All children in school together: the quest for disability-inclusive education
  • Ghana: making inclusive education a reality
  • Technical roundtable on inclusive education
  • Technical Round Table: inclusive education for children with disabilities
  • Technical Round Table: Inclusion of children with disabilities in education sector planning in French-speaking Africa
  • National policies for inclusive education - Planipolis
  • Blog post: ‘A school for all: what does it look like and where do we stand?’
  • Data Dive Webinar: ‘Making schools inclusive for children with disabilities’
  • Blog post: ‘Inclusive education starts with planning.’
  • Read our opinion piece published by Devex: The urgent need to plan for disability-inclusive education
  • Issue brief, ‘Disability inclusive education and learning’ – Learning Portal

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Inclusive education stories from the field

Leonard Cheshire has a longstanding relationship with UNESCO, providing disability specific technical expertise and advice as a formal partner.

As we work together to continue our global efforts towards the Sustainable Development Goals, these stories demonstrate the importance of inclusive education programmes in creating opportunities for persons with disabilities. From the implementation of assistive technology devices, to supporting families and communities in understanding and appreciating disability, to providing educational and vocational opportunities for girls with disabilities, each story shows the value of disability inclusive projects in creating a more equal world for all.

Alice’s quest for education despite life challenges and the COVID-19 pandemic

project on inclusive education

Alice Atieno Ouma is 18 years old and lives with her husband and child in Wakesi village, Muhoroni Sub-County, Kisumu County, Kenya. Alice is currently a beneficiary of the Education for Life project, where she’s been attending numeracy, literacy and life skills classes since she joined in February 2020. She has an intellectual disability and has shown herself to be an active and dedicated learner in class.

Alice attended lower primary school but dropped out due to family challenges and the lack of a supportive school environment. She was sent to Nairobi, Kenya where she did menial work for a few years. She later left and went back home and eventually got married. Alice heard about the Education for Life project through a community event organised by the project. She went to the catch-up centre where she completed project assessments and was later admitted into the programme.

“When they called that I had been chosen to be one of the 30 girls in our catch up centre I was very excited for the opportunity! I have been attending classes before we closed due to the COVID-19 pandemic,” Alice explained.

Alice enjoys going to the centre and has made lots of friends. Spending three hours, three days of the week in the centre has really helped her. “What I like most about being here is that my fellow girls are very kind to me and the teacher always says when we are at the centre we are a big family,” Alice said.

Alice’s life has changed a lot because of the project. First, her literacy levels have improved. She also does well in mathematics, her favourite subject. Through the life skills and mentorship sessions that she attends, her self-confidence has also improved. She vividly remembers a session where they were chatting about reproductive health and the mentor took them practically through using a sanitary towel step by step.

“It was a very fun session. We all laughed and learned a lot because who thought putting on a sanitary towel could be talked about openly!”

Life has improved for both Alice and her family, and her husband has been encouraging her throughout her studies. Her husband has also learned a lot about how to support her and understand her better through a workshop organised by the project for households of girls with disabilities. They were taught how to appreciate and support those living with disabilities.

However, the COVID-19 pandemic has caused economic uncertainty in the community. It has been a difficult time for Alice and her family. Her husband works at a sugar cane farm as a casual labourer and his income has not been consistent. To mitigate this, and have additional income in the family, she has been washing clothes for her neighbours during her free time when she is not at the centre. 

When the centre was closed after the COVID-19 pandemic first hit Kenya, the project adapted by providing the Educator Facilitators and Mentors with airtime to reach out to the girls every week. They provided psychosocial support and offered some learning by providing small assignments on phones to keep the girls active. Additionally, Alice was provided with workbooks (Mathematics, English, and Kiswahili) to aid her to study at home. She was also provided with a dignity kit (sanitary towels, soap, underwear, etc). These items were very useful and relieved her of the stress of having to source them for herself.

With learning now resuming at the catch up centre, Alice is optimistic about her future. She hopes one day to own her beauty salon. She is sure that with the support of the project’s role models and career guidance sessions she will choose the right transition pathway to help her achieve her goals.

With all the efforts that the project has made, Alice shared that there is more that can be done to support girls with disabilities. This includes continuous sensitization of the community to be more supportive of girls like her, improvement of the teaching and learning materials in the centres and encouragement and additional training for the teachers that support them.

“This is the best project to have ever come in my community,” Alice said. “It has been helpful to girls like me. I am very grateful and I hope other girls like me will benefit from this great initiative.”

Emmanuel’s Story – Finding his future

project on inclusive education

Emmanuel is a 14 year old boy from Kizimba Village, Agwingiri Parish, Agwingiri Sub County in Amolatar district in Uganda. He is the ninth born in a family of ten. Both he and two of his sisters have hearing and speech impairments.

When Emmanuel was ten years old his father died. His mother couldn’t afford to keep him in a school for disabled children and believed he wouldn’t cope in a mainstream school.

So, Emmanuel went to live with a friend of his brother’s in Kampala. The friend became Emmanuel’s guardian and provided funding for him to go to school again. However, during the third year of his education in Kampala, his guardian passed away and Emmanuel had to go back to Kizimba village to live with his mother.

Back in the village, his mother was still unable to pay for him to attend school. She said: “Emmanuel has been very lonely at home with no friends since most children in the community attend school.”

For a while, Emmanuel had no choice but to stay at home and help out with domestic chores. But Emmanuel’s chance to go back to school came when the team from Leonard Cheshire’s Inclusive Education project in Amolatar District in Northern Uganda came to his local area. Their aim was to teach the community about disability and reduce the stigma around it, as well as identify children that could be supported by the project.

project on inclusive education

Emmanuel registered with the project, and soon after was enrolled at Omara Ebek Memorial primary school in Amolatar district. The project also provided support with his school fees and materials. Emmanuel now has teachers who can speak in sign language, so he feels welcome and comfortable to learn. His teachers have described him as a bright boy, one of the best in class!

Not only is Emmanuel making great progress with his education, but he’s also been making lots of friends. He loves playing football with them. His mother says: “Emmanuel is now a happy boy with many friends and is very confident.”

Through the work of the project, Emmanuel’s community now believe that children with disabilities have a future through inclusive education. Emmanuel says he’d also like to become a teacher himself one day so that he can help other children like him.

Small changes, big impacts – the importance of inclusive learning environments

project on inclusive education

Esther Banda is a primary school teacher at one of schools participating in Leonard Cheshire’s Inclusive Education project in the Eastern Province of Zambia. She took part in inclusive teacher training in May 2019.

Around the time that the inclusive education project was introduced at their school in January 2019, Esther had started teaching Efita, a 10-year-old learner with epilepsy and other developmental impairments. It was Esther’s first time teaching a student with a disability, and it was the first time that Efita had attended mainstream school. At first Esther did not know how to include Efita in the classroom activities. She was sure that Efita would not benefit from her class. Efita, who had never been to school before, showed signs of being afraid and disinterested in school and was constantly isolated from others.

However, after the teacher training, Esther is now better equipped to deliver lessons in an inclusive manner. She is now confident that Efita will be learning well with others. She has started implementing some of the inclusive approaches that she learned, including arranging the classroom into groups so that children learn from each other. She’s also been using different chalk colours to write on the board to help accommodate other learners with visual impairments. Her method of delivering lessons is no longer her original lecture style but is now more learner focused. She allows for more discussion and uses learning aids such as diagrams as a way of simplifying content.

The changes in teaching approach have helped improve Efita’s performance in class. He now mingles with his classmates and has made many friends. At the moment he enjoys basic tracing activities and playing a role in classroom exercises. He also enjoys being clapped by other children when he answers questions correctly in class. As a result, his confidence and interest in school have increased a lot.

project on inclusive education

These milestones made with Efita have convinced Esther that inclusive education works. She says: “I now know that children with impairments are like other children, they have the right to education and have the ability to learn like other children”.

Over the next 3 years, Leonard Cheshire expects to enrol 750 children with disabilities in five districts in the Eastern Province of Zambia. In the first year, 421 children have been enrolled.

Using technology to create positive learning environments

project on inclusive education

Pauline Okach is a teacher at Nyasare Primary School in Migori County Kenya. She is one of 75 teachers who have been taking part in a training programme for the Orbit Reader 20, an assistive technology device that helps people with visual impairments read in braille, as well as take braille notes. The programme is part of Leonard Cheshire’s innovation initiative to expand the use of innovative low-cost assistive technology to learners with disabilities living in rural and under resourced areas.

The portable devices are light weight and operate in two main modes. The stand-alone mode has the capabilities of reading, writing and file management for books that have been translated into electronic braille. The remote mode allows the reader to be connected to a computer with a screen reader, with a removable memory card and Bluetooth connectivity. The devices allow children to read and write in braille, with notes that can then be converted back to electronic print for the teacher to read and grade accordingly.

project on inclusive education

As part of Leonard Cheshire’s Girls’ Education Challenge Transition project, a number of training modules have been developed so that teachers can help their students get the most out of the technology. While the Covid-19 pandemic affected schools around the world, teachers were still able to take part in the Orbit Reader 20 training, ensuring they were ready to support students on their return to school. The training was conducted by Leonard Cheshire staff in partnership with eKitabu, who developed the online training tutorials. The tutorials were then shared via Whatsapp, where the teachers were able to interact with and support each other.

To ensure progress was being made, individual follow up calls were made to the teachers following each tutorial, with ongoing support being provided by the instructors. An end-of-training assessment was also carried out to identify any knowledge gaps and ensure the teachers had access to further support if they needed it.

Pauline works in an integrated mainstream school which accommodates students with and without disabilities. A number of her students have visual impairments, including ten-year-old Marydith. Pauline already had good knowledge of the importance of inclusive education, taking part in training a few years ago in order to learn how best to support students with a range of disabilities and needs. Originally, she said her attitude towards disability was negative, but it is much more positive now she has had access to training. Following the recent Orbit Reader training, Pauline has been supporting Marydith to use the technology in class. With the use of the devices, Marydith has been using the Orbit Reader to learn the letters of the alphabet in braille. She can also use it to type and delete notes, helping her engage in class.

There have been a number of other adjustments made at the school to ensure Marydith is fully included. This includes clear, level pathways to help her move more freely around the school and highlighted doorways and steps with yellow or white paint making them more obvious to assist her. There is also an adapted timetable that ensures Marydith gets the learning support she needs, with extra time during lessons to help her use the Orbit Reader. In addition, she is a member of the school’s child to child club, where she gets to interact with her peers and demonstrate the value of inclusion.

Pauline believes that these universal design measures, as well as the introduction of assistive technology, has helped improve inclusion in the school and changed the attitudes of other students. Before, there was a lot of stigma around disability and other students felt nervous to be around children with visual impairments. Now, they have much more awareness and appreciation for disability. They accommodate Marydith and help her move around the school between classes. This has created a positive atmosphere at the school, reducing bullying and creating a productive learning environment for the students. The Orbit Readers have also greatly improved Marydith’s learning progress. She can now read and write without straining her eyes, allowing her to succeed in class and stay on the same level as her classmates.  

Without assistive devices like the Orbit Readers, children with severe visual impairments would not have the same opportunities for education and may even feel discouraged to attend school. Pauline hopes that more teachers can get access to training on the technology so that even more students can benefit from these and other devices.

The power of data in advocacy

project on inclusive education

Youth advocate Ian Banda tells us how data can help him make changes in Zambia.

There is so much power in data. Data – like personal stories and facts and figures – is so important in getting a strong message across. In fact, it was central to my role as lead citizen reporter on Leonard Cheshire’s 2030 and Counting project.

The community citizen reporters and I went out and gathered community insights with our phones. We would then submit the content to a central reporting hub. The aim was to find data and stories about the barriers, challenges and opportunities for youth with disabilities in Zambia. Specifically, in relation to health, education and employment. This data is so important in tracking progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). And making sure disabled people are included in this progress too! Because there is no single SDG that covers just disability, but the 17 SDGs can only be achieved if people with disabilities have their rights fulfilled.

I found Rebecca’s story on education during a data collection trip in the local community. I was touched by how much Rebecca valued education. She knew it could improve her life. She has really big dreams for our country and access to education is an important part of that. I feel personal stories are important for advocacy. They show the impact on a personal, individual level. And they show what is transpiring on the ground with regards to disability inclusion. Stories also help provide a clear picture when providing evidence-based advocacy. This is essential if you want to bring about change at a higher level.

After 2030 and Counting I set up Youth in Action for Disability Inclusion of Zambia (YADIZ). We are a youth-led disability inclusion organisation. We promote the inclusion of youth with disabilities in all aspects of life. I know the information available on Leonard Cheshire’s Disability Data Portal will really help us with our work.

The portal gives us access to evidence for our advocacy work. Valuable data on the portal from census' shows that Zambian policies and practices have gaps when it comes to disability. These figures can go a long way in highlighting concerns and irregularities in the way the government implements policy. Especially in areas like education and employment. These gaps need to be filled in order for disability inclusion to be a reality in Zambia. No one should be left behind and we are the best placed to bring that message to governments.

As the portal continues to expand we will also be able to see how we compare with other countries and assess gaps in other areas. From work in the community we know there are issues when it comes to inaccessible sexual reproductive health for people with disabilities. As well as negative attitudes displayed by health personnel. There’s also a lack of information in accessible formats. And despite Zambia having some progressive policies, there is no implementation, monitoring and evaluation framework to really track progress. That was also a recurring issue many people with disabilities experienced across the world. The simple lack of accessible information about Covid-19 put us at a disadvantage. Access to better quality data, like the portal, can help us highlight these issues.

When it comes to advocacy, it’s essential everyone has access to research. That way we can improve public knowledge and awareness of the rights of people with disabilities. Data and stories are two sides of the same coin. By combining the two, we can influence laws and policies so that they are inclusive.

  • Find out more about Ian’s fight for equality in Zambia

Universal design at Mcini Primary School

Leonard Cheshire and Cheshire Homes Society in Zambia have been working together to make vital school adaptations at Mcini Primary School in Zambia. Now the school is much more accessible for children with disabilities.

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School Inclusion in Lebanon pp 47–65 Cite as

Historical and Theoretical Approaches to Inclusive Education

  • Anies Al-Hroub 3 &
  • Nidal Jouni 3  
  • First Online: 16 November 2023

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This chapter provides an overview of the historical and theoretical underpinnings of student inclusion in education. It investigates how the notion of inclusion has evolved and its relationship with social justice and equity in education. Additionally, the chapter examines how inclusion is a transformational approach that meets the diverse expectations and needs of all learners and compares different inclusive models across countries. Furthermore, the chapter explores the theoretical foundations of inclusion based on an understanding of the ecological context and sociocultural dimensions of children’s learning. It highlights the link between students’ learning and the application of sociocultural instructional approaches that promote student social interaction and engagement with the learning environment.

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Inclusive Education: What, Why, and How: A handbook for program implementers

Inclusive education is one dimension of a rights-based quality education which emphasizes equity in access and participation, and responds positively to the individual learning needs and competencies of all children. Inclusive education is child-centered and places the responsibility of adaptation on the education system rather than the individual child.

This handbook has been developed specifically for Save the Children program staff, implementing partners, and practitioners supporting education programs in any context – development, emergency, or protracted crisis. Although not all education projects have the word “inclusive” in the title or goals, every education project can and should be made more inclusive, and we encourage this resource to be used by all education staff, not only those working on targeted inclusive education projects.

A document review conducted by the Inclusive Education Working Group (IEWG) in 2013 found that despite a large number of resources available on inclusion, most have not led to universal understanding and uptake of inclusive education. Many inclusive education manuals are very long, and are not easily accessible to busy project managers. The majority of documents also targeted a wide audience, and in doing so, limited their utility to any specific group. The IEWG recognizes that inclusive education begins with the work being done by education staff in the field, and have therefore designed this handbook specifically with them in mind. Guidance has also been structured along the project cycle, so that it may be useful to programs regardless of their current stage of implementation.

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Disability inclusive education and learning

Inscribed in the Universal Declaration on Human Rights (1948) , education is a basic right. A range of declarations and conventions highlight the importance of education for people with disabilities: the Salamanca Statement on education and special needs in 1994, as well as article 24 of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) adopted in 2006. The importance of education for all is also included in the Convention against Discrimination in Education 1960. In 2015, the Incheon Declaration recalled the importance of inclusive education for all. Targets 4.5 and 4.a call for access to education and the construction of adapted facilities for children with disabilities (Education 2030, 2016).


There are few data on school enrolment figures for children with disabilities. However, we do know that there are between 93 and 150 million children living with a disability and, according to the Learning Generation report, in low- and middle-income countries as many as 33 million children with disabilities are out of school (Grant Lewis, 2019). Moreover, children with disabilities are less likely to complete primary, secondary and further education compared to children without disabilities.

In all countries of the world, people with disabilities have lower literacy rates than people without disabilities (Singal, 2015; UIS, 2018; United Nations, 2018). There is also a difference based on the nature of the disability i.e. illiteracy is higher in children with visual impairments, multiple or mental disorders compared to children with motor disabilities (Singal, 2015).

When they do attend school, children with disabilities score lower in mathematics and reading tests, as shown in the PASEC learning assessments (World Bank, 2019; Wodon et al, 2018). Girls with disabilities are penalized even further due to their gender (UIS, 2018). Generally, disability tends to compound social inequalities (e.g. poverty or place of residence). That said, in Pakistan, the learning gap between children with disabilities and children without disabilities enrolled in school was lower than the gap between these two out-of-school groups (Rose et al., 2018: 9). Moreover, studies in the United States of America have shown that students with disabilities achieve better academic outcomes and social integration when studying in a mainstream environment than students studying in segregated or specialized classes (Alquraini and Gut, 2012).


Inclusive education means including students with disabilities in a mainstream school environment. In many countries today, children with disabilities attend ordinary schools but follow a specific curriculum. Moving toward a more inclusive model (i.e. students with disabilities follow an inclusive curriculum along with able-bodied students) is a long-term process.

As countries move toward more inclusive education, special schools and their staff can play a key role by acting as specialized experts and helping mainstream schools achieve greater inclusion (UNESCO, 2017). The Global Partnership for Education (GPE) studied the inclusion of students with disabilities in education sector plans in 51 countries. Seventeen of them are considering a two-pronged approach: to integrate disability in education and to invest in actions and services aimed specifically at meeting the needs of children with disabilities (GPE, 2018).

Many obstacles prevent children and young people with disabilities from attending a mainstream school.

  • Identifying pupils with disabilities . Prejudices and social attitudes lead to under-declaring the number of children with disabilities (GPE, 2018). Certain families, fearing stigmatisation, do not send their children to school (Singal, 2015; EDT and UNICEF, 2016). Due to the hidden nature of certain learning difficulties, the total population of these children is largely unknown (World Bank, 2019). Identifying these children at school is rare (Wodon et al, 2018). Recognizing disabilities may be limited to observable disabilities and not necessarily those that affect the child's ability to learn (EDT and UNICEF, 2016). Obsolete and inadequate data complicate effective educational planning and hinder decision-making and resource allocation (GPE, 2018). In addition, countries use different measurements, methods and definitions to classify disabilities thus affecting their ability to compare data (GPE, 2018; Price, 2018).
  • Lack of trained teachers. In many countries, teachers do not have the confidence or the necessary skills to deliver inclusive education (Singal, 2015; Wodon et al, 2018). Inclusive education is only a small component of the training received by teachers and is not always assessed (EDT and UNICEF, 2016).
  • Poorly adapted school facilities and learning materials. Poorly adapted infrastructures and a lack of accessible learning materials are significant obstacles. This is particularly true in rural areas where increased levels of poverty, poor services, and recurrent infrastructure failings exacerbate these existing problems for children with disabilities (SADPD, 2012). School curricula that solely rely on passive learning methods, such as drilling, dictation, and copying from the blackboard, further limit access to quality education for children with disabilities (Humanity & Inclusion, 2015).
  • Lack of resources. Whether it concerns building adapted schools, reducing class sizes or teacher training, financial and human resources are required (Grimes, Stevens and Kumar, 2015). Funds earmarked for special needs are often insufficient. Where funding is available, it is primarily intended for schools and special units, rather than being used for the needs of students enrolled in mainstream schools and removing existing barriers (Mariga, McConkey and Myezwa, 2014).
  • Assessing learning. There are few data on the learning outcomes of students with disabilities. Examinations and tests rarely make accommodations for these students putting them at a disadvantage. Most international performance tests exclude students with disabilities, which, in turn, reinforces low expectations (Schuelka, 2013 cited in Price, 2018; World Bank, 2019).


  • Defining a policy for inclusive education. Inclusive education requires a systemic examination of education systems and school cultures. Promoting social justice and inclusive education requires drawing up, implementing and assessing plans and policies that favour inclusive education for all. Every country needs to formulate its own set of solutions that reach down to the level of individual schools (Grant Lewis, 2019).
  • Facilitating access to learning. The first step to including children with disabilities in mainstream schools is the provision of adapted school facilities e.g. ramps, toilets, special equipment, and apparatus, as well as making appropriate teaching and learning materials available (SADPD, 2012; Malik et al., 2018). To encourage the enrolment of girls with disabilities, special measures could comprise grants or allowances (GPE, 2018).
  • Strengthening partnerships. Inclusive education requires creating partnerships with local stakeholders i.e. parents, schools, communities, countries, ministries, and development partners (Grant Lewis, 2019). Partnerships which capitalize on local knowledge and resources have proven to be effective (SADPD, 2012; EDT and UNICEF, 2016; GPE, 2018). One recommendation is to give particular support to parents to raise their awareness of the importance of inclusive education and to integrate them into the educational community, for example by participating in school activities (GPE, 2018).
  • Ensuring adequate teacher training. The ability of teachers to provide quality education to students with disabilities depends on their training and qualifications (European Agency for Special Needs and Inclusive Education, 2015). However, teachers often struggle due to already overcrowded classes. Offering upstream pre-service training for future teachers, investing in in-service teacher training comprising practical stages and a mentoring system are approaches that have proved their effectiveness (Ackers, 2018). However, it is important to train specialized teachers as it is not possible to train all mainstream teachers to be sufficiently fluent in Braille, national sign language, and augmentative and alternative communication modes (EDT and UNICEF, 2016). The Global Partnership for Education has also highlighted the importance of training teachers to identify disabilities (GPE, 2018).
  • Statistics to reinforce human support. Although data are rare, there are tools which can be used to monitor the participation and learning of students with disabilities. Data from household surveys are used to monitor school attendance and success rates for children, as well as to examine factors linked to non-attendance; Education Management Information Systems (EMIS) collect administrative data about school attendance, student behaviour, and progress. However, qualitative data are also needed to shed light on the ‘how’ and ‘why’ of the lives of students, teachers, and parents (Mont, 2018). Equally important is the collection of data on the school environment, such as the physical accessibility of schools, information on policies and legislation, teaching materials, teacher training and the availability of support specialists in schools (Grant Lewis, 2018).
  • Assessing students. The Salamanca Statement advocates formative assessment to identify difficulties and help students overcome them (Salamanca Statement, 1994). Sæbønes et al. (2015) recommend classroom assessments for individual learning. They recommend that regional and national examinations and international learning assessments systematically include all students and provide reasonable accommodations for learners with disabilities. A study conducted in Kenya shows that it is possible to carry out large-scale learning assessments of deaf and blind children. However, in order to design these adapted tools, human, material and financial resources are necessary (Piper et al., 2019). For an overview of the issue of learning assessments and students with disabilities see World Bank, 2019.
  • Investing in technology. According to UNESCO “ICTs can be a valuable tool for learners with disabilities who are vulnerable to the digital divide and exclusion from educational opportunities” (UNESCO, 2014: 10). To reduce barriers, their model policy recommends the use of inclusive ICTs, commercially available products that are, as far as possible, accessible to all, as well as assistive technology to enable access when this is not possible using products available on the market. (UNESCO, 2014: 11).
  • Cost. It is important to find ways to meet the needs of the most marginalized without additional funding (UNESCO, 2017). Approaches, such as analysing data from household surveys, suggest that the returns on investing in education for children with disabilities are high and similar to those for people without disabilities. Therefore, investing in the education of children with disabilities is both smart and profitable (Wodon et al., 2018). UNESCO recommends setting up or strengthening financial monitoring systems, as well as creating partnerships between governments and donors (UNESCO, 2017). Finally, the comparison between the cost of specialized institutions and inclusive institutions reveals that the inclusive system is more efficient (Open Society Foundations, n.d.; Inclusion International. n.d.).
  • Proposing inclusive pedagogy. The type of disability (autism spectrum disorders, learning disabilities, language, hearing, etc.) influences the learning method. Inclusive pedagogy requires a shift in the educational culture within teaching and support practices i.e. moving away from ‘one-size-fits-all’ education towards a tailored approach to increase the capacity of the system to meet the diverse needs of learners without the need to categorize or label them (European Agency for Special Needs and Inclusive Education, 2017). We move away from the idea of inclusion as a specialized response to certain learners, to allow them to access or participate in what is offered to most students (Florian, 2015). Inclusive pedagogy implies having resources and services that can be used by all students without the need for adaptation or specialized planning (UNESCO, 2017: 19).

Plans and policies

  • Fiji: Policy on special and inclusive education (2016)
  •  Kenya: Sector policy for learners and trainees with disabilities (2018)
  • South Africa: Policy on screening, identification, assessment, and support (2014)
  • Fiji. Ministry of Education; Australian Agency for International Development. 2017. Fiji Education Management Information System (FEMIS): Disability disaggregation package. Guidelines and forms.
  •  Bulat, J.; Macon, W.; Ticha, R.; Abery, B. 2017. School and classroom disabilities inclusion guide for low- and middle-income countries. Research Triangle Park, NC: RTI Press.
  •  Ethiopia. Ministry of Education. 2015. Guideline for establishing and managing inclusive education resource/support centers (RCs). Addis Ababa: Federal Ministry of Education.
  • Hayes, A. M.; Bulat, J. 2017. Disabilities inclusive education systems and policies guide for low- and middle-income countries . Research Triangle Park, NC: RTI Press.
  • UNESCO. 2017. A Guide for ensuring inclusion and equity in education. Paris: UNESCO.

Ackers, J. 2018. “Teacher education and inclusive education”. The IIEP Letter 34 (2)

Alquraini, T.; Gut, D. 2012. Critical components of successful inclusion of students with severe disabilities: International Journal of Special Education 27 (1): 42 59.

Convention against discrimination in education.

Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities.

Education 2030: Incheon Declaration and Framework for Action for the implementation of Sustainable Development Goal 4: To ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning . 2016.

Education Development Trust; UNICEF. 2016. Eastern and Southern Africa regional study on the fulfilment of the right to education of children with disabilities. Reading: EDT.

European Agency for Special Needs and Inclusive Education. 2015. Empowering teachers to promote inclusive education: A case study of approaches to training and support for inclusive teacher practice. Odense: European Agency for Special Needs and Inclusive Education.

European Agency for Special Needs and Inclusive Education. 2017. Inclusive education for learners with disabilities. Study for the Peti committee. Brussels: European Union.

Florian, L. 2015. Inclusive Pedagogy: A transformative approach to individual differences but can it help reduce educational inequalities? Scottish Educational Review 47 (1): 5 14.

Grant Lewis, S. 2019. ' Opinion: The urgent need to plan for disability-inclusive education'. Devex. 6 February 2019.

Grimes, P.; Stevens, M.; Kumar, K. 2015. 'An examination of the evolution of policies and strategies to improve access to education for children with disabilities with a focus on inclusive education approaches, the success and challenges'. Background paper prepared for the Education for All Global Monitoring Report 2015, Education for All 2000-2015: Achievements and challenges.

Humanity & Inclusion. 2015. Education for all? This is still not a reality for most children with disabilities.

Inclusion International. n.d. FAQs - Inclusion International .

Male, C.; Wodon, Q. 2018. Disability gaps in educational attainment and literacy. The price of exclusion: disability and education. Washington, DC: World Bank; GPE.

Mariga, L.; McConkey, R.; Myezwa, H. 2014. Inclusive education in low-income countries: A resource for teacher educators, parent trainers and community development workers . Cape Town: Atlas Alliance and Disability Innovations Africa.

Mont, D. 2018. Collecting data for inclusive education . IIEP Learning Portal (blog).

Open Society Foundations. n. d. ' The power of letting children learn together'.

Global Partnership for Education (GPE). 2018. Disability and inclusive education - a stocktake of education sector plans and GPE-funded grants. Washington, DC: GPE.

Piper, B.; Bulat, J.; Kwayumba, D.; Oketch, J.; Gangla, L. 2019. Measuring literacy outcomes for the blind and for the deaf: Nationally representative results from Kenya. International Journal of Educational Development 69 (September)

Price, R. 2018. Inclusive and special education approaches in developing countries. K4D Helpdesk Report.

Rose, P.; Singal, N.; Bari, F.; Malik, R.; Kamran, S. 2018. Identifying disability in household surveys: evidence on education access and learning for children with disabilities in Pakistan. Policy Paper, 18/1. Cambridge: REAL Centre. University of Cambridge.

Sæbønes, A.-M.; Berman Bieler, R.; Baboo, N.; Banham, L.; Singal, N.; Howgego, C.; Vuyiswa McClain-Nhlapo, C.; Riis-Hansen, T. C.; Dansie, G. A. ' Towards a disability inclusive education '. Background paper for the Oslo Summit on Education for Development, 6-7 July 2015.

Salamanca Statement and the Framework for Action on Special Needs Education. 1994.

Secretariat of the African Decade of Persons with Disabilities. 2012. Study on education for children with disabilities in Southern Africa. Pretoria: SADPD.

Singal, N. 2015. Education of children with disabilities in India and Pakistan: an analysis of developments since 2000. Background paper prepared for the Education for All Global Monitoring Report 2015, Education for All 2000-2015: Achievements and challenges.

UIS. 2018. Education and disability: analysis of data from 49 countries. Information Paper 49. Montreal: UIS.

UNESCO. 2014. Model policy for inclusive ICTs in education for persons with disabilities. Paris: UNESCO.

UNESCO. 2017. A Guide for ensuring inclusion and equity in education . Paris: UNESCO.

United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Affairs. 2018. ' Realization of the Sustainable Development Goals by, for and with persons with disabilities'. UN Flagship Report on Disability and Development 2018. Advanced unedited version. New York: United Nations.

Universal Declaration on Human Rights . 1948

Wodon, Q.; Male, C.; Montenegro, C.; Nayihouba, A. 2018. The challenge of inclusive education in Sub-Saharan Africa. Washington, DC: World Bank.

World Bank. 2019. Every learner matters: Unpacking the learning crisis for children with disabilities . Washington, DC: World Bank.

Related information

  • Global education monitoring report, 2020: Inclusion and education: all means all
  • IIEP, planning for inclusive education
  • UNESCO: Inclusion in education
  • Inclusive education

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2023 GEM Report: How can technology support inclusive education?

Image of Nadège, a student in a classroom in Burkina Faso, using an Evo10 Daisy recorder/player to record lessons and later transcribe them to braille. She wants to become a journalist.

  • Inclusive Education

On the launch of UNESCO’s 2023 Global Education Monitoring report, Nafisa Baboo, Light for the World’s expert on Inclusive Education, examines opportunities and challenges for learners with disabilities.   

Harnessing technologies to make learning materials accessible can ensure students with disabilities are included in education — but targeted funding is essential to advance existing progress. 

The 2023 GEM Report on technology and education , released July 26, explores the role of technology in the classroom and widening divisions as it rapidly evolves. 

With the theme A tool on whose terms? the report analyses challenges to technology use, including access, equity and inclusion. It recognises the importance of using technology to level the playing field but also the risk of widening the gap between those with existing access to technology and those without. 

When technology providers and publishers comply with global accessibility standards, more opportunities for accessible technologies will be created. Nearly nine out of 10 (87%) adults said that accessible technology devices were replacing traditional assistive tools most or all the time, the report found. 

However, challenges for learners with disabilities remain. These include insufficient availability of, and access to, educational technology and a lack of specialised teacher training. The stigma of using assistive technologies, which makes disabilities more visible, was also highlighted. 

Nafisa Baboo, Light for the World’s expert on Inclusive Education, was among the GEM Report’s Group of Friends, advisors who provided feedback and recommendations during the report drafting. 

“Technology is an enabler and can promote access and improved learning outcomes for people with disabilities. But we must be wary of the potentially dehumanising effects of technology. It can never replace the connection that supports learning and wellbeing that comes from children being together or the mentorship of a teacher,” says Nafisa. 

“I know from personal experience how technology can be a game changer for people with disabilities.  

“Unfortunately, many children around the world still do not have the opportunity to read. Accessible technology opens a host of possibilities and the chance for children to gain knowledge and understand a world beyond their own. 

Open-use, accessible technology can support learners with disabilities, but cannot replace the human connection that influences education and learning. Digital technologies must support and enhance teacher-led education to nurture a more inclusive educational experience.” 

Image of a teacher with a Light for the World jacket and students with visual impairments in a classroom in Burkina Faso. Hundreds of students with visual impairments in Burkina Faso have been provided with assistive technology devices under a project run by Light for the World, UN-ABPAM, Daisy Consortium and Benetech.

The GEM Report stressed educational technology needs to be widely available, to ensure it not only benefits already privileged learners.  

“We must prioritise technology to support the continuation of learning in humanitarian crises and inclusion of students with disabilities,” says Nafisa.  

“That includes ensuring resources like websites, documents and textbooks comply with global accessibility standards and that technology is designed to reflect the diverse needs, experiences and socio-cultural contexts of learners. 

“To ensure no one is left behind, we need targeted funding for expert organisations to promote and test accessible technology. And to develop evidence on what does and doesn’t work in different settings to promote an inclusive and equitable education system for all.” 

This year marks the 10 th anniversary of the Marrakesh Treaty, seeking to end a “book famine” for people unable to access standard print materials. The Treaty allows for copyright laws to be relaxed, enabling people who are blind, visually impaired or with a print disability to access more books and print materials in accessible formats. 


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In sub-Saharan Africa, fewer than 1% of books are in accessible format. In Burkina Faso, most students with visual impairments lack access to textbooks, with learning materials manually produced by volunteers. 

Inspired by the opportunities offered by the Treaty, Light for the World has been working to improve access to learning materials for Burkinabé students. 

Working alongside partners the National Union of Burkinabe Associations for the Promotion of the Blind and Visually Impaired ( UN-ABPAM ), DAISY Consortium and Benetech , Light for the World facilitated the digitialisation of more than 300 books in French and Moore. 

The project saw hundreds of students receive laptops, tablets, Orbit readers and Evo E10 Daisy recorder/players . The readers and recorder/players allow students with visual impairments to access the same textbooks as their peers in real-time. A current pilot study has provided students with disabilities with smartphones and Bluetooth keyboards.  

Image of Nadège, a student in a classroom in Burkina Faso, using an Evo10 Daisy recorder/player to record lessons and later transcribe them to braille. She wants to become a journalist.

The next phase of the project, part of Light for the World’s One Class For All initiative, will create free access to Bookshare for Burkinabé students. Bookshare is the largest online library for people with print disabilities, with over 1.1 million titles that can be read using specialised or standard devices, such as computers, tablets and smartphones. 

Light for the World is hoping to pilot a future study, with partners, focused on an ICT Competency Framework for teachers. The project, which would address curriculum assessment, pedagogy and teacher professional learning, would be the first of its kind in Burkina Faso. 

“For effective investment in assistive technologies, we need to strengthen the capacity and understanding of governments to procure technologies that are universally accessible and will leave no learner behind,” says Nafisa. 

Every child has the right to inclusive, quality education. Yet 258 million children do not go to school and tens of millions of children with disabilities are being left behind. 

To find out more about Light for the World’s work promoting Inclusive Education, visit:

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Inclusive education in europe: learning from erasmus+.

Discover a selection of Erasmus+ good practices promoting inclusive education in Europe.

There are thousands of Erasmus+ projects fostering inclusion in education throughout Europe and beyond.

The study report ‘Data collection and analysis of Erasmus+ projects: Focus on inclusion in education’ reviews the outcomes of such Erasmus+ projects, implemented between 2014 and 2020.

The study’s aims were to

  • identify and showcase successful approaches to promote inclusion in education
  • support the development of European policy in this field
  • explore how transnational cooperation among teachers, youth workers and other actors can add value

Starting from an inventory of 120 Erasmus+ ‘good practices’, 15 were selected for further examination as case studies. The report summarises the main findings of these 15 case studies.

The projects covered in the report

  • demonstrate how unconventional spaces and the combination of formal, non-formal and informal learning can create engaging and stimulating learning environments
  • provide a wide range of inspiring learning and teaching methods strengthening students’ motivation
  • showcase the importance of well-being and a sense of belonging at school
  • demonstrate how a positive, non-judgmental learning environment contributes to students’ academic achievement and can trigger changes in school culture
  • underline the importance of teachers’ competences to master an inclusive and inspiring learning process
  • emphasise the importance of involving families and the wider community to support inclusive schools  

Another key message is that inclusion benefits everyone, irrespective of their socio-demographics.


More attention should be paid to individual needs and local specificities, rather than target groups to achieve inclusion in education.

The study calls for more support for schools to carry out transnational Erasmus+ projects. Such projects, bringing together expertise and perspectives from across Europe and beyond, are a source of innovative thinking, needed to address the challenge of inclusion in education.

The research contributes to the ongoing European Union (EU) policy initiative Pathways to School Success.

Another recent report, ‘ Data collection and analysis of Erasmus+ projects: Focus on education for environmental sustainability ',  highlighted successful approaches promoting ‘green education’ in a selection of case studies.

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Inclusive Education



Children with disabilities are often the most marginalized and excluded from educational opportunities, limiting their opportunities to build independent lives free from poverty. Fifteen percent of the world’s population is estimated to have a disability. The exclusion of children with disabilities is severe globally and especially in low-income countries and regions. The problem is not limited to attending school. Children with disabilities face barriers to learning even when they are in school: Too often, schools lack teachers with the adequate training and materials to provide disability-inclusive education, and classroom facilities and learning resources often don’t accommodate specific needs. We need policies that address the barriers faced by students with disabilities and proactively work to ensure that all children can receive a quality education.


The World Bank is committed to developing policies that meet the needs of people with disabilities, as expanding equitable opportunities is at the core of building inclusive societies. The World Bank recognizes that more work is needed to ensure inclusive education. All children deserve the opportunity to be in school and learn so they acquire the skills and knowledge to thrive—regardless of their diverse educational needs. We work with governments and civil society in a wide range of areas, providing diverse financial instruments, as well as analytical work to inform institutional development, inclusive education sector planning, targeted educational programs, and multi-sectoral collaboration to support the process of disability-inclusive development.


  • Commit to inclusive education The World Bank’s aim is that all its education programs and projects will be disability inclusive by 2025. Among other things, this means making schools inclusive by removing physical barriers to access, training teachers to adapt their teaching strategies to support all and increasing the supply of accessible learning materials. We also want to ensure that disability is reflected in national statistics systems, poverty, and growth strategies. To deliver on this commitment, we are partnering with other development players. The Disability-Inclusive Education in Africa Program Trust Fund, which is funded through USAID, and the Inclusive Education Initiative, launched with the support of the British and Norwegian governments, are examples of initiatives that provide coordinated technical expertise and resources to countries to support them in making their education systems disability inclusive, so that no one is left behind.
  • Develop better data and knowledge to support inclusive education Quality data on participation and outcomes for children with disabilities is lacking. In addition, there are barriers on the supply and demand side of education that limit access and learning. There is limited evidence about effective interventions that can be implemented at scale, especially around pedagogical practices and technology-assisted learning. We are working to generate data and document innovative approaches.
  • Support disability-inclusive teaching It is critical to build educator and other school staff competencies to support learning for all students through inclusive pedagogies and learning environments. The World Bank engages with countries to ensure that professional development and training incorporate strategies so that children with disabilities can participate and learn in schools. We are working to explore innovative and inclusive pedagogies, including effective uses of assistive technologies.

Governments must act to to ensure equity and inclusion in education so that children with disabilities can attend school and have the necessary materials and assistance to learn and achieve.


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  • Overview: Inclusive Education
  • Inclusive Education Resource Guide
  • Inclusive Education Initiative
  • World Bank Group Commitments on Disability-Inclusive Development
  • World Bank Group Disability Inclusion and Accountability Framework
  • Environmental Framework
  • Good Practice Note: Non-Discrimination and Disability
  • Good Practice Note: Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity
  • World Report on Disability

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Inclusive Education: What It Means, Proven Strategies, and a Case Study

Considering the potential of inclusive education at your school? Perhaps you are currently working in an inclusive classroom and looking for effective strategies. Lean into this deep-dive article on inclusive education to gather a solid understanding of what it means, what the research shows, and proven strategies that bring out the benefits for everyone.

What is inclusive education? What does it mean?

Infographic: Inclusive education definition, classroom strategies, and example. Research shows the benefits of inclusive education. Parents enjoy the broadening view that inclusive education introduces. Teachers with training enjoy inclusive education. Inclusive education strategies: Use a variety of instruction formats; ensure access to academic curricular content; apply universal design for learning.

Inclusive education is when all students, regardless of any challenges they may have, are placed in age-appropriate general education classes that are in their own neighborhood schools to receive high-quality instruction, interventions, and supports that enable them to meet success in the core curriculum (Bui, Quirk, Almazan, & Valenti, 2010; Alquraini & Gut, 2012).

The school and classroom operate on the premise that students with disabilities are as fundamentally competent as students without disabilities. Therefore, all students can be full participants in their classrooms and in the local school community. Much of the movement is related to legislation that students receive their education in the least restrictive environment (LRE). This means they are with their peers without disabilities to the maximum degree possible, with general education the placement of first choice for all students (Alquraini & Gut, 2012).

Successful inclusive education happens primarily through accepting, understanding, and attending to student differences and diversity, which can include physical, cognitive, academic, social, and emotional. This is not to say that students never need to spend time out of regular education classes, because sometimes they do for a very particular purpose — for instance, for speech or occupational therapy. But the goal is this should be the exception.

The driving principle is to make all students feel welcomed, appropriately challenged, and supported in their efforts. It’s also critically important that the adults are supported, too. This includes the regular education teacher and the special education teacher , as well as all other staff and faculty who are key stakeholders — and that also includes parents.

The research basis for inclusive education

Inclusive education and inclusive classrooms are gaining steam because there is so much research-based evidence around the benefits. Take a look.

Benefits for students

Simply put, both students with and without disabilities learn more . Many studies over the past three decades have found that students with disabilities have higher achievement and improved skills through inclusive education, and their peers without challenges benefit, too (Bui, et al., 2010; Dupuis, Barclay, Holms, Platt, Shaha, & Lewis, 2006; Newman, 2006; Alquraini & Gut, 2012).

For students with disabilities ( SWD ), this includes academic gains in literacy (reading and writing), math, and social studies — both in grades and on standardized tests — better communication skills, and improved social skills and more friendships. More time in the general classroom for SWD is also associated with fewer absences and referrals for disruptive behavior. This could be related to findings about attitude — they have a higher self-concept, they like school and their teachers more, and are more motivated around working and learning.

Their peers without disabilities also show more positive attitudes in these same areas when in inclusive classrooms. They make greater academic gains in reading and math. Research shows the presence of SWD gives non-SWD new kinds of learning opportunities. One of these is when they serve as peer-coaches. By learning how to help another student, their own performance improves. Another is that as teachers take into greater consideration their diverse SWD learners, they provide instruction in a wider range of learning modalities (visual, auditory, and kinesthetic), which benefits their regular ed students as well.

Researchers often explore concerns and potential pitfalls that might make instruction less effective in inclusion classrooms (Bui et al., 2010; Dupois et al., 2006). But findings show this is not the case. Neither instructional time nor how much time students are engaged differs between inclusive and non-inclusive classrooms. In fact, in many instances, regular ed students report little to no awareness that there even are students with disabilities in their classes. When they are aware, they demonstrate more acceptance and tolerance for SWD when they all experience an inclusive education together.

Parent’s feelings and attitudes

Parents, of course, have a big part to play. A comprehensive review of the literature (de Boer, Pijl, & Minnaert, 2010) found that on average, parents are somewhat uncertain if inclusion is a good option for their SWD . On the upside, the more experience with inclusive education they had, the more positive parents of SWD were about it. Additionally, parents of regular ed students held a decidedly positive attitude toward inclusive education.

Now that we’ve seen the research highlights on outcomes, let’s take a look at strategies to put inclusive education in practice.

Inclusive classroom strategies

There is a definite need for teachers to be supported in implementing an inclusive classroom. A rigorous literature review of studies found most teachers had either neutral or negative attitudes about inclusive education (de Boer, Pijl, & Minnaert, 2011). It turns out that much of this is because they do not feel they are very knowledgeable, competent, or confident about how to educate SWD .

However, similar to parents, teachers with more experience — and, in the case of teachers, more training with inclusive education — were significantly more positive about it. Evidence supports that to be effective, teachers need an understanding of best practices in teaching and of adapted instruction for SWD ; but positive attitudes toward inclusion are also among the most important for creating an inclusive classroom that works (Savage & Erten, 2015).

Of course, a modest blog article like this is only going to give the highlights of what have been found to be effective inclusive strategies. For there to be true long-term success necessitates formal training. To give you an idea though, here are strategies recommended by several research studies and applied experience (Morningstar, Shogren, Lee, & Born, 2015; Alquraini, & Gut, 2012).

Use a variety of instructional formats

Start with whole-group instruction and transition to flexible groupings which could be small groups, stations/centers, and paired learning. With regard to the whole group, using technology such as interactive whiteboards is related to high student engagement. Regarding flexible groupings: for younger students, these are often teacher-led but for older students, they can be student-led with teacher monitoring. Peer-supported learning can be very effective and engaging and take the form of pair-work, cooperative grouping, peer tutoring, and student-led demonstrations.

Ensure access to academic curricular content

All students need the opportunity to have learning experiences in line with the same learning goals. This will necessitate thinking about what supports individual SWDs need, but overall strategies are making sure all students hear instructions, that they do indeed start activities, that all students participate in large group instruction, and that students transition in and out of the classroom at the same time. For this latter point, not only will it keep students on track with the lessons, their non-SWD peers do not see them leaving or entering in the middle of lessons, which can really highlight their differences.

Apply universal design for learning

These are methods that are varied and that support many learners’ needs. They include multiple ways of representing content to students and for students to represent learning back, such as modeling, images, objectives and manipulatives, graphic organizers, oral and written responses, and technology. These can also be adapted as modifications for SWDs where they have large print, use headphones, are allowed to have a peer write their dictated response, draw a picture instead, use calculators, or just have extra time. Think too about the power of project-based and inquiry learning where students individually or collectively investigate an experience.

Now let’s put it all together by looking at how a regular education teacher addresses the challenge and succeeds in using inclusive education in her classroom.

A case study of inclusive practices in schools and classes

Mrs. Brown has been teaching for several years now and is both excited and a little nervous about her school’s decision to implement inclusive education. Over the years she has had several special education students in her class but they either got pulled out for time with specialists or just joined for activities like art, music, P.E., lunch, and sometimes for selected academics.

She has always found this method a bit disjointed and has wanted to be much more involved in educating these students and finding ways they can take part more fully in her classroom. She knows she needs guidance in designing and implementing her inclusive classroom, but she’s ready for the challenge and looking forward to seeing the many benefits she’s been reading and hearing about for the children, their families, their peers, herself, and the school as a whole.

During the month before school starts, Mrs. Brown meets with the special education teacher, Mr. Lopez — and other teachers and staff who work with her students — to coordinate the instructional plan that is based on the IEPs (Individual Educational Plan) of the three students with disabilities who will be in her class the upcoming year.

About two weeks before school starts, she invites each of the three children and their families to come into the classroom for individual tours and get-to-know-you sessions with both herself and the special education teacher. She makes sure to provide information about back-to-school night and extends a personal invitation to them to attend so they can meet the other families and children. She feels very good about how this is coming together and how excited and happy the children and their families are feeling. One student really summed it up when he told her, “You and I are going to have a great year!”

The school district and the principal have sent out communications to all the parents about the move to inclusion education at Mrs. Brown’s school. Now she wants to make sure she really communicates effectively with the parents, especially as some of the parents of both SWD and regular ed students have expressed hesitation that having their child in an inclusive classroom would work.

She talks to the administration and other teachers and, with their okay, sends out a joint communication after about two months into the school year with some questions provided by the book Creating Inclusive Classrooms (Salend, 2001 referenced in Salend & Garrick-Duhaney, 2001) such as, “How has being in an inclusion classroom affected your child academically, socially, and behaviorally? Please describe any benefits or negative consequences you have observed in your child. What factors led to these changes?” and “How has your child’s placement in an inclusion classroom affected you? Please describe any benefits or any negative consequences for you.” and “What additional information would you like to have about inclusion and your child’s class?” She plans to look for trends and prepare a communication that she will share with parents. She also plans to send out a questionnaire with different questions every couple of months throughout the school year.

Since she found out about the move to an inclusive education approach at her school, Mrs. Brown has been working closely with the special education teacher, Mr. Lopez, and reading a great deal about the benefits and the challenges. Determined to be successful, she is especially focused on effective inclusive classroom strategies.

Her hard work is paying off. Her mid-year and end-of-year results are very positive. The SWDs are meeting their IEP goals. Her regular ed students are excelling. A spirit of collaboration and positive energy pervades her classroom and she feels this in the whole school as they practice inclusive education. The children are happy and proud of their accomplishments. The principal regularly compliments her. The parents are positive, relaxed, and supportive.

Mrs. Brown knows she has more to learn and do, but her confidence and satisfaction are high. She is especially delighted that she has been selected to be a part of her district’s team to train other regular education teachers about inclusive education and classrooms.

The future is very bright indeed for this approach. The evidence is mounting that inclusive education and classrooms are able to not only meet the requirements of LRE for students with disabilities, but to benefit regular education students as well. We see that with exposure both parents and teachers become more positive. Training and support allow regular education teachers to implement inclusive education with ease and success. All around it’s a win-win!

Lilla Dale McManis, MEd, PhD has a BS in child development, an MEd in special education, and a PhD in educational psychology. She was a K-12 public school special education teacher for many years and has worked at universities, state agencies, and in industry teaching prospective teachers, conducting research and evaluation with at-risk populations, and designing educational technology. Currently, she is President of Parent in the Know where she works with families in need and also does business consulting.

You may also like to read

  • Inclusive Education for Special Needs Students
  • Teaching Strategies in Early Childhood Education and Pre-K
  • Mainstreaming Special Education in the Classroom
  • Five Reasons to Study Early Childhood Education
  • Effective Teaching Strategies for Special Education
  • 6 Strategies for Teaching Special Education Classes

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One in every 10 children in India is born with or acquires a physical, neurological, or sensory disability. That is over 8 million children, and only 45% of them have access to schools. Furthermore, only 120,781 registered special educators are available in India. If students with disabilities are more isolated or rejected from mainstream education, the question arises as to how the teachers and stakeholders can facilitate and support the child. Inclusive education is a key policy objective for children with special needs. Addressing the gap, Project Inclusion, an initiative of the Sri Aurobindo Society, was designed to empower teachers and special educators in India to identify and create an inclusive learning environment for students with learning difficulties.

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Festus Fajemilo Foundation

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Inclusive education is a process of making education more accessible to all children of school age, irrespective of their socio-economic status, disabilities, race, ethnic or cultural background and gender. Inclusive education is also the process of increasing the participation of students in, and reducing their exclusion from, the curricula, cultures and communities of local schools.

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Festus Fajemilo Foundation interest in inclusive education stemmed form the annual “we ring the bell” (WRTB)awareness/advocacy campaign which seeks to enlist the support of school children and other stakeholders to advocate for the inclusion of children with disabilities in school system. WRTB campaign is done in conjunction with Liliane Foundation Netherlands and other partner organizations in Nigeria. WRTB concept recognizes the fact that 9 out of 10 children with a disability are not welcome to school. This is even though countries have mutually agreed “that it should be possible for all children to go to school no matter what. So, this includes children with a disability. But, precisely, this vulnerable group is commonly left behind at home. And if we don’t act, will also be left behind in life. WRTB therefore is to sound the “alarm bell” to say ALL


In line with our strategic objective to support development and strengthening of relevant legal and policy frameworks which respond to the rights and well-being of persons with SBH and other forms of disabilities, FFF engaged in strategic partnership in 2019 with the Ministry of education, Lagos state and Lagos state universal basic education board to support the state government in strengthening the state’s inclusive education policy through an innovative “Cooperative Teaching” approach.

Between June and July 2020, an assessment of the implementation of the Lagos State Inclusive Education Policy and the mapping of the 44 public inclusive primary and secondary schools by FFF which was funded by Liliane Foundation, Netherlands, indicated that one of the reasons for the high population of out-of-school CWDs in Lagos State is the significantly insufficient number of special teachers and other trained personnel required to support the implementation of inclusive education. This study also revealed that regular teachers in the 44 public inclusive schools lack relevant capacity to collaborate with special teachers in the inclusive education process and there are no documented standard operating procedures to facilitate such collaboration which has made the delivery of inclusive education very difficult and less impactful as the few available special teachers are virtually overstretched and unproductive. To access the full report, click the link Final – Report on School Assessment and Mapping .pdf

Unfortunately, none of the 5 tertiary education institutions in Lagos state provides any teacher training programmes in special/inclusive education. In addition, there are very few teacher training tertiary education institutions in Nigeria which provide course programmes in special education. This makes it very difficult to find qualified special education practitioners to meet the huge demand for special teachers and other required specialists to serve the growing population of children with disabilities in Lagos State.

In response to the persistent shortage of human resources to implement the inclusive education program in Lagos State, FFF, in partnership with the Daughters of Charity and the Lagos State Chapter of the Joint National Association of Persons with Disabilities (JONAPWD) had developed a 4-year intervention project in November 2019. The aim of the project was to develop a Cooperative Teaching Manual for the 44 inclusive schools with a view to facilitating innovative methods of collaboration between special and regular teachers in the delivery of inclusive education. This initiative was intended to make better use of the available human resources in order to increase enrolment of CWDs and improve their learning outcomes.

Project Goal:

The goal of this project is to achieve significant reduction in the population of out-of-school CWDs in Lagos State through improvement in the delivery of public inclusive education in the 44 public inclusive schools by 2023.


The key objectives of this intervention include—

  • To strengthen the capacity of special and regular teachers for the delivery of cooperative teaching and other inclusive practices in the 44 inclusive schools.
  • To facilitate the development of a Cooperative Teaching Manual to guide cooperative teaching in the 44 inclusive schools.
  • To facilitate the enrolment of out of school children with disabilities in the inclusive schools.
  • To facilitate more inclusion of disabled people’s organizations in the monitoring of CWDs enrolment, learning outcomes and inclusive practices in the 44 public inclusive schools.
  • To facilitate strategic advocacy for government’s support and funding for the provision of special/inclusive education course programs in the 5 tertiary education institutions in Lagos State with a view to increasing number of special teachers and other relevant professionals in the 44 inclusive schools.

Expected Outcomes:

  • There is reasonable reduction in the drop-out rate of children with disabilities in the inclusive schools.
  • Standard operating procedures are in place across all the inclusive schools in Lagos State.
  • 680 or more children with disabilities enrol in the public inclusive schools on annual basis
  • Project will contribute significantly to the attainment of UNCRPD article 24 and Goal 4 of the SDG.

Target Beneficiaries:

The project will be directly beneficial to the following —2 million PWDS which make up the 12 DPOs, 50 special teachers, 100 regular teachers, 60 school Supervisors, 660 members of the School Based Management Committees (SBMC) in the 44 inclusive schools, and 10 education-focused CSOs. The project will indirectly benefit— 10,000 CWDs currently enrolled in the 44 public inclusive schools and other private schools in Lagos State, the estimated 200,000 out-of-school CWDs in Lagos State, all the special and regular teachers who are currently employed by the Lagos State government, as well as State and non-State actors/stakeholders in education sector of 6 states in Southwest of Nigeria.

FFF is open to more partnership and collaborations in the journey to actualize the above goal.

More From Forbes

Inclusion drives innovation: the power of diverse perspectives.

Forbes Human Resources Council

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Karen Greenbaum is President and CEO of the global Association of Executive Search and Leadership Consultants (AESC).

Innovation thrives when diverse perspectives come together. When decision-makers bring the same perspectives, information, thought processes and ideologies to the table, they look at situations through a narrow lens. This limits the chance for novel ideas to emerge and diminishes a team’s ability to turn challenges into opportunities.

It's the infusion of diverse cultural backgrounds, education and unique life experiences that brings about fresh ideas. Only then can teams look at a situation—whether it's creating a new product or service, entering a new market or pitching a new client—through a new, broader lens. And it's a lens that encapsulates varied lived experiences and sparks creativity and problem-solving.

Inclusive Innovation In Action

Over the last decade, research has proven that inclusion is the catalyst for innovation. In 2020, the World Economic Forum reported that when companies foster inclusive cultures, they can see up to higher rates of innovation by around 20% and a near-equivalent increase in revenue. Many organizations have illuminated this positive effect through action. Here are three examples of products and services that arose from innovation.

• OXO Good Grips: This line of accessible kitchen tools was created through the collaboration of OXO founder Sam Farber and his wife, Betsey, who suffered from arthritis. The couple wanted to make everyday life easier for people of all abilities. Having Betsey's perspective and lived experience using kitchen tools led to the line's innovative design and opened the door to new markets.

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• Women’s Health Access Matters (WHAM): Founded by Carolee Lee in 2018, WHAM works to address the lack of research on the economic costs, benefits and social impacts of attention to sex- and gender-related health. With a commitment to funding women’s health research, this organization helps show that greater investment could generate billions of dollars for the economy and save many lives.

• IKEA's ThisAble Campaign: In 2019, Swedish retail company IKEA developed 13 open-source 3D-printed furniture add-ons to solve accessibility issues. This democratized the company's popular home furniture, allowing it to tap into new markets.

These are just a few examples. As you look around, you’ll find that nearly every invention was designed by someone or a team of individuals with a new perspective.

How To Create A Truly Inclusive Environment

For my organization’s latest research on diversity, equity and inclusion, we conducted interviews with 52 leaders committed to creating long-lasting inclusion. Here are some of the most effective ways they identified to build an environment that harnesses inclusion for the benefit of the business.

• Representation In Leadership Matters: It's vital that professionals with diverse backgrounds see themselves represented in an organization's high-level roles. Ensure your recruitment processes are inclusive to reduce bias. For example, you can actively put together diverse hiring committees and interview panels.

• Accountability Motivates: Identify internal and external accountability measures, and incentivize employees to prioritize and attain DEI goals.

• Engagement Must Come From All Directions: Everyone, whether they're in executive or junior roles, needs to be involved in DEI efforts. Harness the power of a multifaceted approach to engage your entire workforce.

• The Proof Is In The Policies: Ensure your organization has strong, accessible antidiscrimination policies that are strongly enforced.

• Metrics Are A Must-Have: Set benchmarks and track key DEI metrics, such as employee engagement or applicant demographics. This can help ensure your organization is directing its efforts toward the strategies that prove most impactful.

• There Are No Easy Solutions: Understand the barriers your organization will face as it attempts to build an inclusive environment. Be prepared to address them through clear and inclusive processes, programs, training and policies.

When you embed DEI in how your company operates and create accountability, you can drive improvements inside and beyond your walls.

Creating A Competitive Advantage And Unlocking Potential

The journey toward innovation begins with recognizing the importance of diverse lived experiences and actively creating spaces where everyone feels they belong and have a voice. By fostering environments where diverse perspectives are both represented and valued, organizations can unlock a wealth of creative potential.

Innovation creates a competitive advantage that can lead to financial growth, new markets, enhanced performance and overall success. You must strive to access the power of diversity and inclusivity to unleash your organization's full potential.

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Karen Greenbaum

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  1. Inclusive Education Lay Advocacy Project

    project on inclusive education

  2. A Tale of Two Schools: Inclusive Culture Created With Purpose

    project on inclusive education

  3. Inclusive Education Project

    project on inclusive education

  4. Inclusive Education

    project on inclusive education

  5. The Inclusive Class : How to Make Accessible and Inclusive Education

    project on inclusive education

  6. “What an inclusive, equitable, quality education means to us”. IDA

    project on inclusive education


  1. How to make your classroom feel more inclusive

  2. Activities with Our Partners

  3. What Is Inclusive Education and How Can I Implement Its Principles?

  4. Inclusive Education video

  5. Economics project Inclusive Growth strategies +2 project file #projectfile #art #youtube

  6. Youth Inclusion project


  1. Inclusive education

    Inclusive education is the most effective way to give all children a fair chance to go to school, learn and develop the skills they need to thrive. Inclusive education means all children in the same classrooms, in the same schools. It means real learning opportunities for groups who have traditionally been excluded - not only children with ...

  2. Q&A: How inclusion in education has evolved

    Since the Salamanca Statement, efforts for inclusive education have continued. The Sustainable Development Goals adopted in 2015 and specifically Goal 4 recognizes the urgent need to provide equitable and inclusive quality education for all learners from the early years through compulsory schooling, technical and vocational education and training, higher education and lifelong learning.

  3. Inclusion in education

    Inclusive education works to identify all barriers to education and remove them and covers everything from curricula to pedagogy and teaching. UNESCO's work in this area is firstly guided by the UNESCO Convention against Discrimination in Education (1960) as well as Sustainable Development Goal 4 and the Education 2030 Framework for Action ...

  4. Inclusion and education

    A project mapping European countries' financing of inclusive education found that only 5 in 18 had relevant information. There is no ideal funding mechanism, since countries vary in history, understanding of inclusive education and levels of decentralization. ... In inclusive education, all teachers should be prepared to teach all students.

  5. Inclusive education: what does IIEP do

    In an inclusive approach to education, all children can learn together, in the same classroom. In schools, disability is one of the main causes of exclusion. In addition, there are other obstacles to inclusive education, relating to social, material, and behavioural issues. Discover all of IIEP-UNESCO's actions, activities, and resources to ...

  6. Inclusive Education Initiative: Transforming Education for Children

    The Inclusive Education Initiative (IEI) is a multi-donor trust fund overseen by the World Bank. Launched in 2019 with support from the Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation (Norad) and the U.K. government's Department for International Development (DFID), the initiative invests in catalytic technical expertise and knowledge resources that support countries in making education ...

  7. Promoting Inclusive Practices in Education: Bridging Gaps and Fostering

    Inclusive education is not just a goal; it is a commitment to making sure that every student, regardless of their unique needs, can learn, grow, and thrive in a diverse classroom. However, as we explore the world of inclusive practices, it becomes evident that there are challenges to overcome, but also innovative solutions to celebrate. ...

  8. Inclusive education stories from the field

    Around the time that the inclusive education project was introduced at their school in January 2019, Esther had started teaching Efita, a 10-year-old learner with epilepsy and other developmental impairments. It was Esther's first time teaching a student with a disability, and it was the first time that Efita had attended mainstream school. ...

  9. Historical and Theoretical Approaches to Inclusive Education

    The evolution of the concept of inclusion has shifted from a focus on the need, advocacy, and investment for inclusive schools to the recognition, acceptance, and promotion of inclusivity in all schools regardless of context and students' profiles (Opertti et al., 2014). 4.1.2 Inclusion as a Derivative of Social Justice and Equity in Education. The achievement of an inclusive society, where ...

  10. Building Capacity for Inclusive Teaching: Policies and Practices to

    In line with the OECD Strength through Diversity: Education for Inclusive Societies project, this paper conceptualises diversity and inclusion in education through a multi-dimensional and intersectional approach. It focuses on various dimensions of induced diversity in student (and teacher) populations, in particular migration; ethnic groups, ...

  11. Indicators of inclusion in education: a framework for analysis

    of inclusion and challenges in their design and implementation. This draft paper is part of Phase II o f the OECD Strength through Diversity Project: Education for Inclusive Societies and is meant for comments at the upcoming 9th Policy Forum on 17 March 2022 . Countries are invited to provide comments by 1 April 2022.

  12. Inclusive Education Project Nonprofit

    The Inclusive Education Project ("IEP") is a 501(c)3 non-profit organization that connects families in California and New Mexico with pro bono legal aid. We seek to spread awareness of parent rights and resources through workshops, seminars, fundraising events and the IEP Podcast.

  13. Inclusive Education: What, Why, and How: A handbook for program ...

    A document review conducted by the Inclusive Education Working Group (IEWG) in 2013 found that despite a large number of resources available on inclusion, most have not led to universal understanding and uptake of inclusive education. Many inclusive education manuals are very long, and are not easily accessible to busy project managers.

  14. Disability inclusive education and learning

    Generally, disability tends to compound social inequalities (e.g. poverty or place of residence). That said, in Pakistan, the learning gap between children with disabilities and children without disabilities enrolled in school was lower than the gap between these two out-of-school groups (Rose et al., 2018: 9).

  15. 2023 GEM Report: How can technology support inclusive education?

    On the launch of UNESCO's 2023 Global Education Monitoring report, Nafisa Baboo, Light for the World's expert on Inclusive Education, examines opportunities and challenges for learners with disabilities. Harnessing technologies to make learning materials accessible can ensure students with disabilities are included in education — but ...

  16. Full article: Implementation of Inclusive Education: A Systematic

    In Ghana, 'inclusive project' schools had focused on community awareness, teachers, facilities and materials in interest of providing access, retention and participation for students with disabilities in general education settings (Agbenyega, Citation 2007). This included teacher training but the study found that a comparison of teacher ...

  17. Inclusive education in Europe: Learning from Erasmus+

    There are thousands of Erasmus+ projects fostering inclusion in education throughout Europe and beyond. The study report 'Data collection and analysis of Erasmus+ projects: Focus on inclusion in education' reviews the outcomes of such Erasmus+ projects, implemented between 2014 and 2020. Objectives. The study's aims were to

  18. Inclusive Education

    Commit to inclusive education The World Bank's aim is that all its education programs and projects will be disability inclusive by 2025. Among other things, this means making schools inclusive by removing physical barriers to access, training teachers to adapt their teaching strategies to support all and increasing the supply of accessible ...

  19. Inclusive Education: Definition, Examples, and Classroom Strategies

    The research basis for inclusive education. Inclusive education and inclusive classrooms are gaining steam because there is so much research-based evidence around the benefits. Take a look. Benefits for students. Simply put, both students with and without disabilities learn more. Many studies over the past three decades have found that students ...

  20. Research about inclusive education in 2020

    Elaborated theory. Whereas, research about, for example, the attitudes to and effectiveness of inclusive education has been largely concerned with relationships between variables, there is a lot of research into inclusive education that has been grounded in very elaborated theories (cf. e.g. Allan Citation 2008).Skrtic (Citation 1991, Citation 1995) is an example of an early theorist who has ...

  21. Home

    Inclusive education is a key policy objective for children with special needs. Addressing the gap, Project Inclusion, an initiative of the Sri Aurobindo Society, was designed to empower teachers and special educators in India to identify and create an inclusive learning environment for students with learning difficulties. 2.5K.

  22. The Inclusive Education Project Podcast

    Click here to support the Inclusive Education Project Podcast with a $5 per month donation through Patreon! Tune in each week as Amanda and Vickie share insight on topics ranging from education reform to advocating for equal rights for all students, and participating in modern activism. This show will also offer user-friendly resources to help ...

  23. SMILE: designing a participatory project to promote inclusive education

    This resulted in a project design that is in accordance with the country's education context, policy environment and institutional and stakeholder strengths to support inclusive education. The SMILE project is part of the Inclusive Futures Programme, a Sightsavers-led initiative funded by UK aid in which 16 organisations work together to ...

  24. Inclusive Education Project

    The goal of this project is to achieve significant reduction in the population of out-of-school CWDs in Lagos State through improvement in the delivery of public inclusive education in the 44 public inclusive schools by 2023. Objectives: The key objectives of this intervention include—. To strengthen the capacity of special and regular ...

  25. The Inclusive STEM Teaching Project

    The Inclusive STEM Teaching Project. 0 min read. April 18, 2024. By 2025, digitalization is poised to inject $150 billion into Indonesia's economy and create 3.7 million jobs. However, the nation confronts a significant digital divide, anticipating a shortfall of nine million skilled professionals in digital skills by 2030. Bridging this gap ...

  26. Inclusion Drives Innovation: The Power Of Diverse Perspectives

    Inclusive Innovation In Action. Over the last decade, research has proven that inclusion is the catalyst for innovation. In 2020, the World Economic Forum reported that when companies foster ...