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Chapter 6: Marketing Research

6.1 Steps in the Marketing Research Process

Learning Objectives

  • Describe the basic steps in the marketing research process and the purpose of each step.

The basic steps used to conduct marketing research are shown in figure 6.1 . Next, we discuss each step.

marketing research chapter 6

Step 1: Define the Problem (or Opportunity)

There’s a saying in marketing research that a problem half defined is a problem half solved. Defining the “problem” of the research sounds simple, doesn’t it? Suppose your “product” is tutoring other students in a subject you enjoy. You have been tutoring for a while, and people have begun to realize you’re very good at it. Then, suddenly, your business declines. Or it explodes, and you can’t cope with the number of students you’re being asked to help. If the business has exploded, should you try to expand your services? Perhaps you should subcontract with some other smart students. You would send them students to be tutored, and they would give you a cut of their pay for each student you referred to them.

Both of these scenarios would be a problem for you, wouldn’t they? They are problems insofar as they cause you headaches. But are they really the problem? Or are they the symptoms of something bigger? For example, maybe your business has dropped off because your school is experiencing decreased enrollment so there are fewer total students on campus who need your services. Conversely, if you’re swamped with people who want you to tutor them, perhaps your school has increased enrollment so there are a greater number of students who need your services. Alternately, perhaps you posted your services on social media and that led to the influx of students wanting you to tutor them.

Businesses are in the same boat. They take a look at symptoms and try to narrow down the potential causes. If you approach a marketing research company with either scenario—either too much or too little business—the firm will seek more information from you such as the following:

  • In what semester(s) did your tutoring revenues fall (or rise)?
  • In what subject areas did your tutoring revenues fall (or rise)?
  • In what sales channels did revenues fall (or rise): Were there fewer (or more) referrals from professors or other students? Did the social media post result in fewer (or more) referrals this month than in the past months?
  • Among what demographic groups did your revenues fall (or rise)— people with certain majors, or first-year, second-, third-, or fourth-year students, local or international students?

The key is to look at all potential causes so as to narrow the parameters of the study to the information you actually need to make a good decision about how to fix your business if revenues have dropped or whether or not to expand it if your revenues have exploded.

The next task for the researcher is to put the research objective into writing. The research objective is the goal(s) the research is supposed to accomplish. The marketing research objective for your tutoring business might read as follows:

To survey university professors who teach 100- and 200-level math courses to determine why the number of students referred for tutoring dropped in the second semester.

This is admittedly a simple example designed to help you understand the basic concept. If you take a marketing research course, you will learn that research objectives get a lot more complicated than this. The following is an example:

“To gather information from a sample representative of the U.S. population among those who are ‘very likely’ to purchase an automobile within the next 6 months, which assesses preferences (measured on a 1–5 scale ranging from ‘very likely to buy’ to ‘not likely at all to buy’) for the model diesel at three different price levels. Such data would serve as input into a forecasting model that would forecast unit sales, by geographic regions of the country, for each combination of the model’s different prices and fuel configurations.” (Burns & Bush, 2010) [1]

Now do you understand why defining the problem is complicated and half the battle? Many a marketing research effort has been doomed from the start because the problem was improperly defined. Coke’s ill-fated decision to change the formula of Coca-Cola in 1985 is a case in point: Pepsi had been creeping up on Coke in terms of market share over the years as well as running a successful promotional campaign called the “Pepsi Challenge,” in which consumers were encouraged to do a blind taste test to see if they agreed that Pepsi was better. Coke spent four years researching “the problem.” Indeed, people seemed to like the taste of Pepsi better in blind taste tests. Thus, the formula for Coke was changed. But the outcry among the public was so great that the new formula didn’t last long—a matter of months—before the old formula was reinstated. Some marketing experts believe Coke incorrectly defined the problem as “How can we beat Pepsi in taste tests?” instead of “How can we gain market share against Pepsi?” (Burns & Bush, 2010) [2]

Video 6.1 documents the Coca-Cola Company’s ill-fated launch of New Coke in 1985.

Video 6.1. New Coke Is It! 1985. Source: The 1985 launch of New Coke on Christian Budtz .

Video 6.2 shows how Pepsi tried to capitalize on the mistake.

Video 6.2. 1985 Pepsi Commercial “They Changed My Coke”. Source: 1985 Pepsi commercial: They changed my Coke on eyeh8cbs .

Step 2: Design the Research

The next step in the marketing research process is to do a research design. The research design outlines what data you are going to gather and from whom, how and when you will collect the data, and how you will analyze them once they’ve been obtained. Let’s look at the data you’re going to gather first.

There are two basic types of data you can gather. The first is primary data. Primary data is information you collect yourself, using hands-on tools such as interviews or surveys, specifically for the research project you’re conducting. Secondary data are data that have already been collected by someone else, or data you have already collected for another purpose. Collecting primary data is more time-consuming, work-intensive, and expensive than collecting secondary data. Consequently, you should always try to collect secondary data first to solve your research problem, if you can. A great deal of research on a wide variety of topics already exists. If this research contains the answer to your question, there is no need for you to replicate it. Why reinvent the wheel?

Sources of Secondary Data

Your company’s internal records are a source of secondary data. So are any data you collect as part of your regular marketing intelligence-gathering efforts. You can also purchase syndicated research. Syndicated research is primary data that marketing research firms collect on a regular basis and sell to other companies. J.D. Power & Associates is a provider of syndicated research. The company conducts independent, unbiased surveys of customer satisfaction, product quality, and buyer behaviour for various industries. The company is best known for its research in the automobile sector. One of the best-known sellers of syndicated research is the Nielsen Company, which produces the Nielsen ratings. The Nielsen ratings measure the size of television, radio, and newspaper audiences in various markets. You have probably read or heard about TV shows that get the highest (Nielsen) ratings (Arbitron does the same thing for radio ratings). Nielsen, along with its main competitor, Information Resources, Inc. (IRI), also sells businesses scanner-based research . Scanner-based research is information collected by scanners at checkout stands in stores. Each week, Nielsen and IRI collect information on the millions of purchases made at stores. The companies then compile the information and sell it to firms in various industries that subscribe to their services. The Nielsen Company has also recently teamed up with Facebook to collect marketing research information. Via Facebook, users will see surveys in some of the spaces in which they used to see online ads (Rappeport & Gelles, 2009). [3]

By contrast, MarketResearch.com is an example of a marketing research aggregator. A marketing research aggregator is a marketing research company that doesn’t conduct its own research and sell it; instead, it buys research reports from other marketing research companies and then sells the reports in their entirety or in pieces to other firms. Check out MarketResearch.com’s website ( figure 6.2 ). As you will see, there are a huge number of studies in every category imaginable that you can buy for relatively small amounts of money.

marketing research chapter 6

Your school library is a good place to gather free secondary data. It has searchable databases as well as handbooks, dictionaries, and books, some of which you can access online. Government agencies also collect and report information on demographics, economic and employment data, health information, and balance-of-trade statistics, among a lot of other information. Statistics Canada collects census data every ten years to gather information about who lives where. Basic demographic information about sex, age, race, and types of housing in which people live in each province, metropolitan area, and rural area is gathered so that population shifts can be tracked for various purposes.

The World Bank and the United Nations are two international organizations that collect a great deal of information. Their websites contain many free research studies and data related to global markets. Table 6.1 shows some examples of primary versus secondary data sources.

Gauging the Quality of Secondary Data

When you are gathering secondary information, it’s always good to be a little skeptical. Sometimes, studies are commissioned to produce the result a client wants to hear—or wants the public to hear. For example, throughout the twentieth century, numerous studies found that smoking was good for people’s health. The problem was the studies were commissioned by the tobacco industry. Web research can also pose certain hazards. There are many biased sites that try to fool people into thinking they are providing good data. Often, the data are favourable to the products they are trying to sell. Beware of product reviews as well. Unscrupulous sellers sometimes get online and create bogus ratings for products. See below for questions you can ask to help gauge the credibility of secondary information.

Gauging the Credibility of Secondary Data: Questions to Ask

  • Who gathered this information?
  • For what purpose?
  • What does the person or organization that gathered the information have to gain by doing so?
  • Was the information gathered and reported in a systematic manner?
  • Is the source of the information accepted as an authority by other experts in the field?
  • Does the article provide objective evidence to support the position presented?

Types of Research Designs

Now let’s look at the most common type of research design: exploratory.

An exploratory research design is useful when you are initially investigating a problem but you haven’t defined it well enough to do an in-depth study of it. Perhaps via your regular market intelligence, you have spotted what appears to be a new opportunity in the marketplace. You would then do exploratory research to investigate it further. Exploratory research is less structured than other types of research, and secondary data are often utilized.

One form of exploratory research is qualitative research. Qualitative research is any form of research that includes gathering data that are not quantitative, and it often involves exploring questions such as why as much as what or how much . Different forms, such as in-depth interviews and focus group interviews, are common in marketing research.

Interviews —engaging in detailed, one-on-one, question-and-answer sessions with potential buyers—is an exploratory research technique. However, unlike surveys, the people being interviewed aren’t asked a series of standard questions. Instead, the interviewer is armed with some general topics and asks questions that are open ended, meaning that they allow the interviewee to elaborate. “How did you feel about the product after you purchased it?” is an example of a question that might be asked. An interview also allows a researcher to ask logical follow-up questions such as “Can you tell me what you mean when you say you felt uncomfortable using the service?” or “Can you give me some examples?” to help dig further and shed additional light on the research problem. Interviews can be conducted in person or over the phone. The interviewer either takes notes or records the interview.

Focus groups and case studies are often utilized for exploratory research as well. A focus group is a group of potential buyers who are brought together to discuss a marketing research topic with one another. A moderator is used to focus the discussion, the sessions are recorded, and the main points of consensus are later summarized by the market researcher. Textbook publishers often gather groups of professors at educational conferences to participate in focus groups. However, focus groups can also be conducted on the telephone or online using meeting software like Zoom. The basic steps of conducting a focus group are outlined below.

The Basic Steps of Conducting a Focus Group

  • Establish the objectives of the focus group. What is its purpose?
  • Identify the people who will participate in the focus group. What makes them qualified to participate? How many of them will you need and what they will be paid?
  • Obtain contact information for the participants and send out invitations (e-mails are usually most efficient).
  • Develop a list of questions.
  • Choose a facilitator.
  • Choose a location in which to hold the focus group and the method by which it will be recorded.
  • Conduct the focus group. If the focus group is not conducted electronically, include name tags for the participants, pens and notepads, any materials the participants need to see, and refreshments. Record participants’ responses.
  • Summarize the notes from the focus group and write a report for management.

A case study looks at how another company solved the problem that’s being researched. Sometimes, multiple cases, or companies, are used in a study. Case studies nonetheless have a mixed reputation. Some researchers believe it’s hard to generalize, or apply, the results of a case study to other companies. Nonetheless, collecting information about companies that encountered the same problems your firm is facing can give you a certain amount of insight about what direction you should take. In fact, one way to begin a research project is to carefully study a successful product or service.

Two other types of qualitative data used for exploratory research are ethnographies and projective techniques. In ethnography , researchers interview, observe, and often videotape people while they work, live, shop, and play. The Walt Disney Company has recently begun using ethnographers to uncover the likes and dislikes of boys aged six to fourteen, a financially attractive market segment for Disney, but one in which the company has been losing market share. The ethnographers visit the homes of boys, observe the things they have in their rooms to get a sense of their hobbies, and accompany them and their mothers when they shop to see where they go, what the boys are interested in, and what they ultimately buy (Barnes, 2009). [4]

Projective techniques are used to reveal information research respondents might not reveal by being asked directly. Asking a person to complete sentences such as the following is one technique:

People who buy Gucci handbags __________. (Will he or she reply with “are cool,” “are affluent,” or “are pretentious,” for example?)

KFC’s grilled chicken is ______.

Or the person might be asked to finish a story that presents a certain scenario. Word associations are also used to discern people’s underlying attitudes toward goods and services. When using a word-association technique, a market researcher asks a person to say or write the first word that comes to his or her mind in response to another word. If the initial word is “fast food,” what word does the person associate it with or respond with? Is it “McDonald’s”? If many people reply that way, and you’re conducting research for Burger King, that could indicate Burger King has a problem. However, if the research is being conducted for Wendy’s, which recently began running an advertising campaign with the message that Wendy’s offerings are “better than fast food,” it could indicate that the campaign is working.

In some cases, your research might end with exploratory research. Perhaps you have discovered your organization lacks the resources needed to produce the product. In other cases, you might decide you need more in-depth, quantitative research such as descriptive research or causal research, which are discussed next. Most marketing research professionals suggest using both types of research, if it’s feasible. On the one hand, the qualitative type of research used in exploratory research is often considered too “lightweight.” On the other hand, relying solely on quantitative information often results in market research that lacks ideas.

Watch video 6.3 to see a funny spoof on the usefulness—or lack of usefulness—of focus groups.

Video 6.3. The Stone Wheel: What One Focus Group Said. Source: stone and stone wheel on smack1313 .

Step 3: Design the Data-Collection Forms

If the behaviour of buyers is being formally observed and a number of different researchers are conducting observations, the data obviously need to be recorded on a standardized data-collection form that’s either paper or electronic; otherwise, the data collected will not be comparable. The items on the form could include a shopper’s sex; his or her approximate age; whether the person seemed hurried, moderately hurried, or unhurried; and whether or not he or she read the label on products, used coupons, and so forth.

The same is true when it comes to surveying people with questionnaires. Surveying people is one of the most commonly used techniques to collect quantitative data. Surveys are popular because they can be easily administered to large numbers of people fairly quickly. However, to produce the best results, the questionnaire for the survey needs to be carefully designed.

Questionnaire Design

Most questionnaires follow a similar format: They begin with an introduction describing what the study is for, followed by instructions for completing the questionnaire and, if necessary, returning it to the market researcher. The first few questions that appear on the questionnaire are usually basic, warm-up questions their respondent can readily answer, such as the respondent’s age, level of education, place of residence, and so forth. The warm-up questions are then followed by a logical progression of more detailed, in-depth questions that get to the heart of the question being researched. Lastly, the questionnaire wraps up with a statement that thanks the respondent for participating in the survey and providing information and explains when and how they will be paid for participating.

How the questions themselves are worded is extremely important. It’s human nature for respondents to want to provide the “correct” answers to the person administering the survey so as to seem agreeable. Therefore, there is always a hazard that people will try to tell you what you want to hear on a survey. Consequently, care needs to be taken that the survey questions are written in an unbiased, neutral way. In other words, they shouldn’t lead a person taking the questionnaire to answer a question one way or another by virtue of the way you have worded it. The following is an example of a leading question.

Do you agree that teachers should be paid more ?

The questions also need to be clear and unambiguous. Consider the following question:

Which brand of toothpaste do you use ?

The question sounds clear enough, but is it really? What if the respondent recently switched brands? What if she uses Crest at home, but while away from home or travelling she uses Colgate’s Wisp portable toothpaste-and-brush product? How will the respondent answer the question? Rewording the question as follows so it’s more specific will help make the question clearer:

Which brand of toothpaste have you used at home in the past six months? If you have used more than one brand, please list each of them (“Questionnaire Design,” n.d.). [5]

Sensitive questions have to be asked carefully. For example, asking a respondent, “Do you consider yourself a light, moderate, or heavy drinker?” can be tricky. Few people want to admit to being heavy drinkers. You can “soften” the question by including a range of answers, as the following example shows:

How many alcoholic beverages do you consume in a week ?

  • __0–5 alcoholic beverages
  • __5–10 alcoholic beverages
  • __10–15 alcoholic beverages

Many people don’t like to answer questions about their income levels. Asking them to specify income ranges rather than divulge their actual incomes can help.

Other research question “don’ts” include using jargon and acronyms that could confuse people. “How often do you Snap?” is an example. Also, don’t confuse people by asking two questions in the same question, something researchers refer to as a double-barrelled question . “Do you think parents should spend more time with their children and/or their teachers?” is an example of a double-barrelled question.

Open-ended questions , or questions that ask respondents to elaborate, can be included. However, they are harder to tabulate than closed-ended questions , or questions that limit a respondent’s answers. Multiple-choice, true/false and yes/no questions are examples of closed-ended questions.

Testing the Questionnaire

If the questions are bad, the information gathered will also be bad. One way to avoid this is to test the questionnaire before sending it out to find out if there are any problems with it. Is there enough space for people to elaborate on open-ended questions? Is the font readable? To test the questionnaire, marketing research professionals first administer it to a number of respondents face to face. This gives the respondents the chance to ask the researcher about questions or instructions that are unclear or don’t make sense to them. The researcher then administers the questionnaire to a small subset of respondents in the actual way the survey is going to be disseminated, whether it’s delivered via phone, in person, by mail, or online.

Getting people to participate and complete questionnaires can be difficult. If the questionnaire is too long or hard to read, many people won’t complete it. So, by all means, eliminate any questions that aren’t necessary. Of course, including some sort of monetary incentive for completing the survey can increase the number of completed questionnaires a market researcher will receive.

Step 4: Specify the Sample

Once you have created your questionnaire or other marketing study, how do you figure out who should participate in it? Obviously, you can’t survey or observe all potential buyers in the marketplace; instead, you must choose a sample. A sample is a subset of potential buyers that are representative of your entire target market or population being studied. Sometimes market researchers refer to the population as the universe to reflect the fact that it includes the entire target market, whether it consists of a million people, a hundred thousand, a few hundred, or a dozen. “All single people over the age of eighteen who purchased an air fryer in Canada during 2020” is an example of a population that has been defined.

Obviously, the population has to be defined correctly. Otherwise, you will be studying the wrong group of people. Not defining the population correctly can result in flawed research or a sampling error. A sampling error is any type of marketing research mistake that occurs because a sample was utilized. One criticism of Internet surveys is that the people who take these surveys don’t really represent the overall population. On average, Internet survey takers tend to be more educated and tech savvy. Consequently, if they solely constitute your population, even if you screen them for certain criteria, the data you collect could end up being skewed.

There are two main categories of samples in terms of how they are drawn: probability samples and nonprobability samples. A probability sample is one in which each would-be participant has a known and equal chance of being selected. The chance is known because the total number of people in the sampling frame is known. For example, if every other person from the sampling frame were chosen, each person would have a 50 percent chance of being selected.

A nonprobability sample is any type of sample that’s not drawn in a systematic way, so the chances of each would-be participant being selected can’t be known. A convenience sample is one type of nonprobability sample. It is a sample a researcher draws because it’s readily available and convenient to do so. Surveying people on the street as they pass by is an example of a convenience sample. The question is, are these people representative of the target market?

Lastly, the size of the sample has an effect on sampling error. Larger samples generally produce more accurate results. The larger your sample is, the more data you will have, which will give you a more complete picture of what you’re studying. However, the more people surveyed or studied, the more costly the research becomes.

Statistics can be used to determine a sample’s optimal size. If you take a marketing research or statistics class, you will learn more about how to determine the optimal size.

Of course, if you hire a marketing research company, much of this work will be taken care of for you. Many marketing research companies maintain panels of prescreened people they draw upon for samples. In addition, the marketing research firm will be responsible for collecting the data or contracting with a company that specializes in data collection. Data collection is discussed next.

Step 5: Collect the Data

As we have explained, primary marketing research data can be gathered in a number of ways. Surveys, taking physical measurements, and observing people are just three of the ways we discussed. If you’re observing customers as part of gathering the data, keep in mind that if shoppers are aware of the fact, it can have an effect on their behaviour. For example, if a customer shopping for feminine hygiene products in a supermarket aisle realizes she is being watched, she could become embarrassed and leave the aisle, which would adversely affect your data. To get around problems such as these, some companies set up cameras or two-way mirrors to observe customers. Organizations also hire mystery shoppers to work around the problem. A mystery shopper is someone who is paid to shop at a firm’s establishment or one of its competitors to observe the level of service, cleanliness of the facility, and so forth and report his or her findings to the firm.

Watch the YouTube video 6.4 to get an idea of how mystery shopping works.

Video 6.4. Make Extra Money as a Mystery Shopper by KSSAyisha .

Survey data can be collected in many different ways and combinations of ways. The following are the basic methods used:

  • Face-to-face (can be computer aided)
  • Telephone (can be computer aided or completely automated)
  • Mail and hand delivery
  • E-mail and the Web

A face-to-face survey is, of course, administered by a person. The surveys are conducted in public places such as in shopping malls, on the street, or in people’s homes if they have agreed to it. In years past, it was common for researchers to knock on people’s doors to gather survey data. However, randomly collected door-to-door interviews are less common today, partly because people are afraid of crime and are reluctant to give information to strangers (McDaniel & Gates, 1998). [6]

Nonetheless, knocking on doors is still a legitimate way questionnaire data are collected. When Statistics Canada collects data on the nation’s population, it hand delivers questionnaires to rural households that do not have street-name and house-number addresses. And workers personally survey the homeless to collect information about their numbers. Face-to-face surveys are also commonly used in some countries to collect information from people who cannot read or lack phones and computers.

An advantage of face-to-face surveys is that they allow researchers to ask lengthier, more complex questions because the people being surveyed can see and read the questionnaires. The same is true when a computer is utilized. For example, the researcher might ask the respondent to look at a list of ten retail stores and rank the stores from best to worst. The same question wouldn’t work so well over the telephone because the person couldn’t see the list. The question would have to be rewritten. Another drawback with telephone surveys is that even though federal and state “do not call” laws generally don’t prohibit companies from gathering survey information over the phone, people often screen such calls using answering machines and caller ID.

Probably the biggest drawback of both surveys conducted face-to-face and administered over the phone by a person is that they are labour intensive and therefore costly. Mailing out questionnaires is costly, too, and the response rates can be rather low. Think about why that might be so: if you receive a questionnaire in the mail, it is easy to throw it in the trash; it’s harder to tell a market researcher who approaches you on the street that you don’t want to be interviewed.

By contrast, gathering survey data collected by a computer, either over the telephone or on the Internet, can be cost-effective and in some cases free. SurveyMonkey and Qualtrics are two websites that will allow you to create online questionnaires, e-mail them to up to one hundred people for free, and view the responses in real time as they come in. For larger surveys, you have to pay a subscription price of a few hundred dollars. But that still can be extremely cost-effective. See how easy it is to put together a survey in SurveyMonkey .

Like a face-to-face survey, an Internet survey can enable you to show buyers different visuals such as ads, pictures, and videos of products and their packaging. Web surveys are also fast, which is a major plus. While face-to-face and mailed surveys often take weeks to collect, you can conduct a web survey in a matter of days or even hours. And, of course, because the information is electronically gathered it can be automatically tabulated. You can also potentially reach a broader geographic group than you could if you had to personally interview people.

Another plus for web and computer surveys (and electronic phone surveys) is that there is less room for human error because the surveys are administered electronically. For instance, there’s no risk that the interviewer will ask a question wrong or use a tone of voice that could mislead the respondents. Respondents are also likely to feel more comfortable inputting the information into a computer if a question is sensitive than they would divulging the information to another person face to face or over the phone. Given all of these advantages, it’s not surprising that the Internet is quickly becoming the top way to collect primary data. However, like mail surveys, surveys sent to people over the Internet are easy to ignore.

Lastly, before the data collection process begins, the surveyors and observers need to be trained to look for the same things, ask questions the same way, and so forth. If they are using rankings or rating scales, they need to agree as to what constitutes a high ranking or a low ranking. The goal of training is to avoid a wide disparity between how different observers and interviewers record the data.

For example, if an observation form asks the observers to describe whether a shopper’s behaviour is hurried, moderately hurried, or unhurried, they should be given an idea of what defines each rating. Does it depend on how much time the person spends in the store or in the individual aisles? Is how fast they walk taken into account? In other words, the criteria and ratings need to be spelled out.

Step 6: Analyze the Data

Step 6 involves analyzing the data to ensure they’re as accurate as possible. If the research is collected by hand using a pen and pencil, it’s entered into a computer. Or respondents might have already entered the information directly into a computer. For example, when Toyota goes to an event such as a car show, the automaker’s marketing personnel ask would-be buyers to complete questionnaires directly on computers. Companies are also beginning to experiment with software that can be used to collect data using mobile phones.

The information generated by the programs can be used to draw conclusions, such as what all customers might like or not like about an offering based on what the sample group liked or did not like. The information can also be used to spot differences among groups of people. For example, the research might show that people in one area of the country like the product better than people in another area. Trends to predict what might happen in the future can also be spotted.

If there are any open-ended questions respondents have elaborated upon—for example, “Explain why you like the current brand you use better than any other brand”—the answers to each are pasted together, one on top of another, so researchers can compare and summarize the information. As we have explained, qualitative information such as this can give you a fuller picture of the results of the research.

Part of analyzing the data is to see if they seem sound. Does the way in which the research was conducted seem sound? Was the sample size large enough? Are the conclusions reached from it reasonable?

Step 7: Write the Research Report and Present Its Findings

If you end up becoming a marketing professional and conducting a research study after you graduate, hopefully you will do a great job putting the study together. You will have defined the problem correctly, chosen the right sample, collected the data accurately, analyzed them, and your findings will be sound. At that point, you will be required to write the research report and perhaps present it to an audience of decision makers. You will do so via a written report and, in some cases, a slide or PowerPoint presentation based on your written report.

The six basic elements of a research report are as follows.

  • Title Page . The title page explains what the report is about, when it was conducted and by whom, and who requested it.
  • Table of Contents . The table of contents outlines the major parts of the report as well as any graphs and charts and their page numbers.
  • Executive Summary . The executive summary summarizes all the details in the report in a quick way. Many people who receive the report—both executives and nonexecutives—won’t have time to read the entire report. Instead, they will rely on the executive summary to quickly get an idea of the study’s results and what to do about those results.
  • Methodology and Limitations . The methodology section of the report explains the technical details of how the research was designed and conducted. The section explains, for example, how the data were collected and by whom, the size of the sample, how it was chosen, and whom or what it consisted of (e.g., the number of women versus men or children versus adults). It also includes information about the statistical techniques used to analyze the data. Every study has errors—sampling errors, interviewer errors, and so forth. The methodology section should explain these details so decision makers can consider their overall impact. The margin of error is the overall tendency of the study to be off kilter—that is, how far it could have gone wrong in either direction. Remember how newscasters present the presidential polls before an election? They always say, “This candidate is ahead 48 to 44 percent, plus or minus 2 percent.” That “plus or minus” is the margin of error. The larger the margin of error is, the less likely the results of the study are accurate. The margin of error needs to be included in the methodology section.
  • Findings . The findings section is a longer, fleshed-out version of the executive summary that goes into more detail about the statistics uncovered by the research that bolster the study’s findings. If you have related research or secondary data on hand that back up the findings, they can be included to help show the study did what it was designed to do.
  • Recommendations . The recommendations section should outline the course of action you think should be taken based on the findings of the research and the purpose of the project. For example, if you conducted a global market research study to identify new locations for stores, make a recommendation for the locations (Mersdorf, 2009). [7]

As we have said, these are the basic sections of a marketing research report. However, additional sections can be added as needed. For example, you might need to add a section on the competition and each firm’s market share. If you’re trying to decide on different supply chain options, you will need to include a section on that topic.

As you write the research report, keep your audience in mind. Don’t use technical jargon decision makers and other people reading the report won’t understand. If technical terms must be used, explain them. Also, proofread the document to identify any grammatical errors and typos and ask a couple of other people to proofread it to catch any mistakes you might have missed. If your research report is riddled with errors, its credibility will be undermined, even if the findings and recommendations you make are extremely accurate.

Many research reports are presented via PowerPoint. If you’re asked to create a slideshow presentation from the report, don’t try to include every detail in the report on the slides. The information will be too long and tedious for people attending the presentation to read through. And if they do go to the trouble of reading all the information, they probably won’t be listening to the speaker who is making the presentation.

Instead of including all the information from the study in the slides, boil each section of the report down to key points and add some “talking points” only the presenter will see. After or during the presentation, you can give the attendees the longer, paper version of the report so they can read the details at a convenient time.

Key Takeaways

  • Step 1 in the marketing research process is to define the problem. Businesses look at what they believe are symptoms and drill down to the potential causes so as to precisely define the problem. The next task for the researcher is to put into writing the research objective, or goal, the research is supposed to accomplish.
  • Step 2 in the process is to design the research. The research design is the “plan of attack.” It outlines what data you are going to gather, from whom, how, and when, and how you’re going to analyze it once it has been obtained.
  • Step 3 is to design the data-collection forms, which need to be standardized so the information gathered on each is comparable. Surveys are a popular way to gather data because they can be quickly and easily administered to large numbers of people. However, to produce the best results, survey questionnaires need to be carefully designed and pretested before they are used.
  • Step 4 is drawing the sample, or a subset of potential buyers who are representative of your entire target market. If the sample is not correctly selected, the research will be flawed.
  • Step 5 is to actually collect the data, whether they’re collected by a person face to face, over the phone, or with the help of computers or the Internet. The data-collection process is often different in foreign countries.
  • Step 6 is to analyze the data collected for any obvious errors, tabulate the data, and then draw conclusions from them based on the results. The last step in the process,
  • Step 7 is writing the research report and presenting the findings to decision makers.

Review and Reflect

  • Explain why it’s important to carefully define the problem or opportunity a marketing research study is designed to investigate.
  • Describe the different types of problems that can occur when marketing research professionals develop questions for surveys.
  • What sections should be included in a marketing research report? What is each section designed to do?

Media Attributions

  • Steps in the Marketing Research Process © University of Minnesota Libraries Publishing is licensed under a CC BY-NC-SA (Attribution NonCommercial ShareAlike) license
  • Burns, A., & Bush, R. (2010). Marketing research (6th ed.). Prentice Hall. ↵
  • Rappeport, A., & Gelles, D. (2009, September 23). Facebook to form alliance with Nielsen. Financial Times, 16 . ↵
  • Barnes, B. (2009, April 15). Disney expert uses science to draw boy viewers . New York Times . Accessed December 14, 2009. ↵
  • Questionnaire design . (n.d.). QuickMBA. Accessed December 14, 2009. ↵
  • McDaniel, C. D., & Gates, R. H. (1998). Marketing research essentials (2nd ed.). South-Western College Publishing. ↵
  • Mersdorf, S. (2009, August 24). How to organize your next survey report . Cvent. Accessed July 31, 2023). ↵

the goal(s) the research is supposed to accomplish

what data you are going to gather and from whom, how and when you will collect the data, and how you will analyze them once they’ve been obtained

information you collect yourself, using hands-on tools such as interviews or surveys, specifically for the research project you’re conducting

data that have already been collected by someone else, or data you have already collected for another purpose

primary data that marketing research firms collect on a regular basis and sell to other companies

information collected by scanners at checkout stands in stores

a marketing research company that buys research reports from other marketing research companies and then sells the reports in their entirety or in pieces to other firms

when you are initially investigating a problem but you haven’t defined it well enough to do an in-depth study of it

any form of research that includes gathering data that are not quantitative, and it often involves exploring questions such as why as much as what or how much

engaging in detailed, one-on-one, question-and-answer sessions with potential buyers

a group of potential buyers who are brought together to discuss a marketing research topic with one another

analyzes how another company solved the problem that’s being researched

researchers interview, observe, and often videotape people while they work, live, shop, and play

used to reveal information research respondents might not reveal by being asked directly

asking two questions in the same question

questions that ask respondents to elaborate

questions that limit a respondent’s answers

a subset of potential buyers that are representative of your entire target market

from which you derive your target market

any type of marketing research mistake that occurs because a sample was utilized

each would-be participant has a known and equal chance of being selected

any type of sample that’s not drawn in a systematic way

a sample a researcher draws because it’s readily available and convenient to do so

someone who is paid to shop at a firm’s establishment or one of its competitors to observe the level of service, cleanliness of the facility, and so forth and report his or her findings to the firm

the overall tendency of the study to be off kilter

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Chapter 6: Marketing Information and Research

Learning Objectives

  • Understand the value of marketing information and research
  • Explain the role of marketing information in helping firms understand and reach consumers
  • Describe the key types of marketing information including internal data, competitive intelligence and marketing research
  • Outline a standard process for using marketing research to address an organization’s strategic questions
  • Recognize alternative methods for conducting marketing research, including primary and secondary research methods
  • Identify major sources of available market data
  • Explain how Customer Relationship Management (CRM) systems can help organizations manage and gain customer insights from marketing information
  • Use marketing information to inform the marketing strategy

Introduction to Marketing - MKTG 3433 Copyright © 2022 by WCOB Marketing Faculty is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , except where otherwise noted.

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6.4: Marketing Research

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Learning Objectives

  • Understand and be able to explain what marketing research is all about.
  • Explain why a small business should conduct marketing research and why many small businesses do not do it.
  • Define and give examples of the two types of marketing research.
  • Understand the marketing research process.
  • Understand the costs of marketing research.

Not everyone can be like Steve Jobs of Apple. Jobs was famous for saying that he did not pay too much attention to customer research, particularly with respect to what customers say they want. Instead, he was very “adept at seeing under the surface of what customers want now; they just don’t realize it until they see it. This ability is best expressed by the German word ‘zeitgeist’—the emerging spirit of the age or mood of the moment. It probably best translates as market readiness or customer readiness. People like Jobs can see what the market is ready for before the market knows itself.”Shaun Smith, “Why Steve Jobs Doesn’t Listen to Customers,” Customer Think , February 8, 2010, accessed December 1, 2011, www.customerthink.com/blog/why_steve_jobs_doesnt_listen_to_customers . Most small businesses will not find themselves in this enviable position. However, this does not mean that all small businesses take a methodical approach to studying the marketplace and their prospective as well as current consumers. Marketing research among small businesses ranges along a continuum from no research at all to the hiring of a professional research firm. Along the way, there will be both formal and informal approaches, the differences again being attributable to the size, industry, and nature of the business along with the personal predispositions of the small-business owners or managers. Nonetheless, it is important for small-business owners and managers to understand what marketing research is all about and how it can be helpful to their businesses. It is also important to understand that marketing research must take the cultures of different communities into consideration because the target market might not be the same—even in relatively close localities.

What Is Marketing Research?

Marketing research is about gathering the information that is needed to make decisions about a business. As an important precursor to the development of a marketing strategy, marketing research “involves the systematic design, collection, recording, analysis, interpretation, and reporting of information pertinent to a particular marketing decision facing a company.”Dana-Nicoleta Lascu and Kenneth E. Clow, Essentials of Marketing (Mason, Ohio: Atomic Dog Publishing, 2007), 191. Marketing research is not a perfect science because much of it deals with people and their constantly changing feelings and behaviors—which are all influenced by countless subjective factors. What this means is that facts and opinions must be gathered in an orderly and objective way to find out what people want to buy, not just what the business wants to sell them.“Market Research Basics,” SmallBusiness.com , October 26, 2009, accessed December 1, 2011, smallbusiness.com/wiki/Market_research_basics . It also means that information relevant to the market, the competition, and the marketing environment should be gathered and analyzed in an orderly and objective way.

The simple truth is that a small business cannot sell products or services—at least not for long—if customers do not want to buy them. Consider the following true scenario:Susan Ward, “Do-It-Yourself Market Research—Part 1: You Need Market Research,” About.com , accessed December 1, 2011, sbinfocanada.about.com/cs/marketing/a/marketresearch.htm . A local small business that specialized in underground sprinkling systems and hot tubs for years decided to start selling go-carts. Not long after they introduced them, they had a fleet of go-carts lined up outside their business with a huge “Must go; prices slashed” banner over them. This was not a surprise to anyone else. Go-carts had nothing to do with their usual products, so why would their regular customers be interested in them? Also, a quick look at the demographics of the area would have revealed that the majority of the consumers in the retirement town were elderly. There would likely be little interest in go-carts. It is clear that the business owner would have benefitted from some marketing research.

Marketing research for small business offers many benefits. For example, companies can find hidden niches, design customer experiences, build customer loyalty, identify new business opportunities, design promotional materials, select channels of distribution, find out which customers are profitable and which are not, determine what areas of the company’s website are generating the most revenue, and identify market trends that are likely to have the greatest impact on the business. Answers can be found for the important questions that all small businesses face, such as the following:Jesse Hopps, “Market Research Best Practices,” EvanCarmichael.com , accessed December 1, 2011, www.evancarmichael.com/Marketing/5604/Market-Research -Best-Practices.html ; adapted from Joy Levin, “How Marketing Research Can Benefit a Small Business,” Small Business Trends , January 26, 2006, accessed December 1, 2011, smallbiztrends.com/2006/01/how-marketing-research-can-benefit-a-small -business.html .

  • How are market trends impacting my business?
  • How does our target market make buying decisions?
  • What is our market share and how can we increase it?
  • How does customer satisfaction with our products or services measure up to that of the competition?
  • How will our existing customers respond to a new product or service?

In many ways, small businesses have a marketing research advantage over large businesses. The small business is close to its customers and is able to learn much more quickly about their buying habits, what they like, and what they do not like. However, even though “small business owners have a sense [of] their customers’ needs from years of experience…this informal information may not be timely or relevant to the current market.”“Market Research Basics,” SmallBusiness.com , October 26, 2009, accessed December 1, 2011, smallbusiness.com/wiki/Market_research_basics .

It therefore behooves a small business to think seriously in terms of a marketing research effort—even a very small one—that is more focused and structured. This will increase the chances that the results will be timely and will enable the small-business owner or manager “to reduce business risks, spot current and upcoming problems in the current market, identify sales opportunities, and develop plans of actions.”“Market Research Basics,” SmallBusiness.com , October 26, 2009, accessed December 1, 2011, smallbusiness.com/wiki/Market_research_basics . The specific nature and extent of any marketing research effort will, however, be a function of the product, the size and nature of the business, the industry, and the small-business owner or manager. There is no approach that is right for all situations and all small businesses.

Types of Marketing Research

Small businesses can conduct primary or secondary marketing research or a combination of the two. Primary marketing research involves the collection of data for a specific purpose or project. Philip Kotler and Kevin Lane Keller, Marketing Management (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2009), 91. For example, asking existing customers why they purchase from the business and how they heard about it would be considered primary research. Another example would be conducting a study of specific competitors with respect to products and services offered and their price levels. These would be simple marketing research projects for a small business, either business-to-consumer (B2C) or business-to-business (B2B), and would not require the services of a professional research company. Such companies would be able to provide more sophisticated marketing research, but the cost might be too high for the many small businesses that are operating on a shoestring budget.

Data gathering techniques in primary marketing research can include observation, surveys, interviews, questionnaires, and focus groups . A focus group is six to ten people carefully selected by a researcher and brought together to discuss various aspects of interest at length. Philip Kotler and Kevin Lane Keller, Marketing Management (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson, Prentice Hall, 2009), 93. Focus groups are not likely to be chosen by small businesses because they are costly. However, the other techniques would be well within the means of most small businesses—and each can be conducted online (except for observation), by mail, in person, or by telephone. SurveyMonkey is a popular and very inexpensive online survey provider. Its available plans run from free to less than $20 per month for unlimited questions and unlimited responses. They also provide excellent tutorials. SurveyMonkey, used by many large companies, would be an excellent choice for any small business.

Secondary marketing research is based on information that has already been gathered and published. Some of the information may be free—as in the case of the US Census, public library databases and collections, certain websites, company information, and some trade associations to which the company belongs—or it can be bought. Purchased sources of information (not an exhaustive list) include newspapers,Patricia Faulhaber, “Today’s Headlines Provide Market Research,” Marketing and PR @ Suite101 , May 14, 2009, accessed December 1, 2011, patricia-faulhaber.suite101.com/todays-healines-provide-market-research-a117653 . magazines, trade association reports, and proprietary research reports (i.e., reports from organizations that conduct original research and then sell it). eMarketer is a company that provides excellent marketing articles for free but also sells its more comprehensive reports. The reports are excellent, providing analysis and in-depth data that cannot be found elsewhere, but they are pricey.

If a small business was looking to introduce a new product to an entirely different market, secondary research could be conducted to find out where customer prospects live and whether the potential market is big enough to make the investment in the new product worthwhile.Joy Levin, “How Marketing Research Can Benefit a Small Business,” Small Business Trends , January 26, 2006, accessed December 1, 2011, smallbiztrends.com/2006/01/how-marketing-research-can-benefit-a-small-business.html . Secondary research would also be appropriate when looking for things such as economic trends, online consumer purchasing habits, and competitor identification.

Source: Adapted from Marcella Kelly and Jim McGowen, BUSN (Mason, OH: South-Western, 2008), 147.

The Marketing Research Process

Most small-business owners do marketing research every day—without being aware of it. They analyze returned items, ask former customers why they switched to another company, and look at a competitor’s prices. Formal marketing research simply makes this familiar process orderly by providing the appropriate framework.“Market Research Basics,” SmallBusiness.com , October 26, 2009, accessed December 1, 2011, smallbusiness.com/wiki/Market_research_basics . Effective marketing research follows the following six steps: Adapted from Philip Kotler and Kevin Lane Keller, Marketing Management (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2009), 91–103.

  • Define the problem and the research objectives. Care must be taken not to define the problem too broadly or too narrowly—and not to identify a symptom as the problem. The research objectives should flow from the problem definition.
  • Develop the research plan. This is a plan for gathering the needed information, part of which will include cost. Also to be determined is the following: whether primary research, secondary research, or some combination of the two will be used. The specific techniques will be identified, and a timetable will be established.
  • Collect the information. This phase is typically the most expensive and the most error prone.
  • Analyze the information. Analysis involves extracting meaning from the raw data. It can involve simple tabulations or very sophisticated statistical techniques. The objective is to convert the raw data into actionable information.
  • Present the findings. The findings are presented to the decision maker(s). In many small businesses, the owner or the manager may conduct the research, so the findings are presented in a format that will make sense for the owner and other members of the decision-making team.
  • Make the decision. The owner or manager must consider the information and decide how to act on it. One possible result is that the information gathered is not sufficient for making a decision. The problem may be a flawed marketing research process or problems obtaining access to appropriate data. The question becomes whether the situation is important enough to warrant additional research.

What Does It Cost?

A popular approach with small-business owners is to allocate a small percentage of gross sales for the most recent year for marketing research. This usually amounts to about 2 percent for an existing business. It has been suggested, however, that as much as 10 percent of gross sales should be allocated to marketing research if the business is planning to launch a new product.“Market Research Basics,” SmallBusiness.com , October 26, 2009, accessed December 1, 2011, smallbusiness.com/wiki/Market_research_basics .

There are several things that small businesses can do to keep the costs down. They can do the research on their own; work with local colleges and universities to engage business students in research projects; conduct online surveys using companies such as SurveyMonkey and Zoomerang ; and create an online community with forums, blogs, and chat sessions that reveal customers’ experiences with a company’s product or the perception of a company’s brand.John Tozzi, “Market Research on the Cheap,” Bloomberg BusinessWeek , January 9, 2008, accessed December 1, 2011, www.BusinessWeek.com/smallbiz/content/jan2008/sb2008019_352779.htm . The latter two options, of course, presume the existence of an e-commerce operation. Even given the inexpensive options that are available, however, hiring a professional research firm can be worth the price. The specific marketing research choice(s) made will depend, as always, on the size and the nature of the business, the industry, and the individual B2C or B2B small-business owner or manager.

When Should Marketing Research Be Done?

There is no precise answer to this question. As a general rule, marketing research should be done when important marketing decisions must be made. It should be done at times when customers may be easily accessible (e.g., a gift shop may want to conduct research before the holiday season when customers are more likely to be thinking about buying gifts for friends and loved ones), when you are thinking about adding a new product or service to the business, or when a competitor seems to be taking away market share. The trick, though, “is not to wait very long, because your competitors can start getting the answers before you do.”Joy Levin, “How Marketing Research Can Benefit a Small Business,” Small Business Trends , January 26, 2006, accessed December 1, 2011, smallbiztrends.com/2006/01/how-marketing-research-can-benefit-a-small-business.html .

Common Marketing Research Mistakes

Before deciding on a marketing research path, it is important for a small-business owner or manager to be aware of the following common pitfalls that small businesses encounter:Darrell Zahorsky, “6 Common Market Research Mistakes of Small Business,” About.com , accessed December 1, 2011, sbinformation.about.com/od/marketresearch/a/marketresearch.htm ; Lesley Spencer Pyle, “How to Do Market Research—The Basics,” Entrepreneur , September 23, 2010, accessed December 1, 2011, www.entrepreneur.com/article/217345 .

  • Thinking the research will cost too much. Small businesses definitely face a challenge to afford the costs of marketing research. However, marketing research costs range from free to several thousands of dollars.
  • Using only secondary research. The published work of others is a great place to start, but it is often outdated and provides only broad knowledge. More specific knowledge can be obtained from purchasing proprietary reports, but this can be pricey, and the focus may not be quite right. Primary research should also be considered.
  • Using only web resources. Data available on the Internet are available to everyone who can find it. It may not be fully accurate, and its accuracy may be difficult to evaluate. Deeper searches can be conducted at the local library, college campus, or small business center.
  • Surveying only the people you know. This will not get you the most useful, accurate, and objective information. You must talk to actual customers to find out about their needs, wants, and expectations.
  • Hitting a wall. Any research project has its ups and downs. It is easy to lose motivation and shorten the project. Persistence must be maintained because it will all come together in the end. It is important to talk to actual or potential customers early.

KEY TAKEAWAYS

  • Many small businesses do not conduct any marketing research.
  • Marketing research is about gathering the information that is needed to make decisions about the business.
  • Marketing research is important because businesses cannot sell products or services that people do not want to buy.
  • Small businesses can conduct primary or secondary research or a combination of the two. They can also buy proprietary reports that have been prepared by other companies.
  • It is common for small businesses to allocate 2 percent of their gross sales to marketing research. Several things can be done to keep marketing research costs down.
  • Marketing research should be done when key decisions must be made.
  • Small-business owners should be aware of several common marketing research pitfalls that small businesses encounter.
  • A small-business owner has an idea for a new product that may be a big hit with current customers and bring in new customers as well. The owner has not done much marketing research in the past, but with the lagging economy, the owner wants to be sure that the right steps are being taken. What would you advise the owner concerning the importance of marketing research and how to proceed? Be specific.

FRANK’S BARBEQUE: A MARKETING QUESTION

One night after the restaurant had closed, Frank Rainsford sat down with his son, Robert. Frank had finished reading his son’s business plan for a third time. Robert sensed that his father had some sort of reservations. “What’s the matter, Dad? Didn’t you like the plan?” Frank paused and said, “Bobby, from a technical standpoint I think you have done a very, very credible job, but you are right. I do have some concerns.” Disappointed, Robert asked his father to lay out his concerns.

Frank told him that opening another restaurant was a huge and expensive undertaking. He knew that Robert understood the financial risks, but he was not sure that his son understood the problems associated with getting people to come to a new restaurant. Frank was straightforward and told his son, “I have been at this for thirty-plus years. It took me years to build up my client base. I really know my customers and what they like. Up until this year the only marketing I did was flyers and a few ads in the local paper and the church bulletin. How are we going to understand our customers at the new location? We are going to have to fill it up quickly if we are to pay the bills. I know I’ve had some good success with selling the sauces during the last few years, but remember that I’m selling them from Harry’s grocery store. His customers already know me and my product. Your plans for ramping up sauce sales are great, but again, how are we going to get people to know who we are and interested enough to by a six dollar bottle of barbecue sauce?” Frank went on to tell his son that he knew that Robert was extremely knowledgeable about marketing and the use of the Internet. He reminded Robert that he had given him a greatly enlarged marketing budget in 2010.

If you were Robert, how would you go about alleviating your father’s concerns? (You may want to consult Chapter 16 "Appendix: A Sample Business Plan" and review Robert’s business plan for a new restaurant.) Answer the question from a marketing perspective.

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  • Authors: Dr. Maria Gomez Albrecht, Dr. Mark Green, Linda Hoffman
  • Publisher/website: OpenStax
  • Book title: Principles of Marketing
  • Publication date: Jan 25, 2023
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  1. marketing research chapter 6 Flashcards

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  7. Chapter 6: Marketing Information and Research

    Chapter 6: Marketing Information and Research. Learning Objectives. Understand the value of marketing information and research. Explain the role of marketing information in helping firms understand and reach consumers. Describe the key types of marketing information including internal data, competitive intelligence and marketing research.

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    6.12: Closing Company Case 6.13: References This page titled Chapter 6: Marketing Research and Market Intelligence is shared under a CC BY 4.0 license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by OpenStax via source content that was edited to the style and standards of the LibreTexts platform; a detailed edit history is available upon request.

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    Learning Outcomes. By the end of this section, you will be able to: 1 Define marketing research.; 2 Explain how marketing information provides an understanding of the customer and the marketplace.; 3 Explain the role of big data and the marketing information system.; What Is Marketing Research? Oftentimes people think of marketing as the process of communicating with a target market—sharing ...

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    Figure 6.3 The Marketing Research Plan (CC BY 4.0; Rice University & OpenStax) The first step, defining the problem, is often a realization that more information is needed in order to make a data-driven decision. Problem definition is the realization that there is an issue that needs to be addressed.

  12. Marketing Research Chapter 6 Flashcards

    Marketing Research Chapter 6. Get a hint. a table (or figure) with no entries used to show how the results of the analysis will be presented. Click the card to flip 👆. dummy table. Click the card to flip 👆. 1 / 26.

  13. Answer Key Chapter 6

    1. d. Marketing research is the process of collecting information from a variety of sources in order to make a good managerial decision. 2. b. A marketing information system is a collection of data that an organization uses to make marketing decisions. 3. b. Individuals uploading personal data into social media is part of the volume, velocity ...

  14. Chapter 6

    VI. Chapter 6. Chapter 6: Market Segmenting, Targeting, and Positioning. 6.1 Targeted Marketing versus Mass Marketing. 6.2 How Markets Are Segmented. 6.3 Selecting Target Markets and Target-Market Strategies. 6.4 Positioning and Repositioning Offerings. VII.

  15. Marketing Research, Chapter 6 Flashcards

    Study with Quizlet and memorize flashcards containing terms like _____ remain the most popular qualitative marketing research technique, an in-depth discussion of them is included., Quantitative research AKA "_____", For our purposes, quantitative research is defined as and more. ... Marketing Research, Chapter 6. Flashcards; Learn; Test;

  16. Chapter 6 Solutions

    The following are the advantages and disadvantages of the online survey: Advantages of the online survey are: 1. It is cheaper than other surveys. 2. The results are ready itself for the statistical analysis. 3. It is easy to reach respondents who are hard to reach in terms of geographic area.

  17. 6.5: Chapter Summary

    Finally, ethical decision-making in research is essential as some very detailed information about consumers is collected. This page titled 6.5: Chapter Summary is shared under a CC BY 4.0 license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by OpenStax via source content that was edited to the style and standards of the LibreTexts platform; a ...

  18. 6.3 Steps in a Successful Marketing Research Plan

    1 Identify and describe the steps in a marketing research plan. 2 Discuss the different types of data research. 3 Explain how data is analyzed. 4 Discuss the importance of effective research reports. Define the Problem. There are seven steps to a successful marketing research project (see Figure 6.3). Each step will be explained as we ...

  19. 6.4: Marketing Research

    Effective marketing research follows the following six steps: Adapted from Philip Kotler and Kevin Lane Keller, Marketing Management (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2009), 91-103. Define the problem and the research objectives. Care must be taken not to define the problem too broadly or too narrowly—and not to identify a ...

  20. Ch. 6 Key Terms

    1.1 Marketing and the Marketing Process; 1.2 The Marketing Mix and the 4Ps of Marketing; 1.3 Factors Comprising and Affecting the Marketing Environment; 1.4 Evolution of the Marketing Concept; 1.5 Determining Consumer Needs and Wants; 1.6 Customer Relationship Management (CRM) 1.7 Ethical Marketing; Chapter Summary; Key Terms