Essay on Corruption, Its Causes, and Effects

Causes of corruption: essay introduction, causes of corruption, effects of corruption, conclusion: what are the causes and effects of corruption.


Transparency International defines corruption as an act that abuses the entrusted power for private gain. This means that it violates the rights of individuals that have bestowed power, authority, and legitimacy. Corruption varies in degree and nature depending on the level of its occurrence, people involved, and circumstances that motivate individuals to be corrupt. Modernization has transformed corruption, and people adopt new and complicated ways of concealing their fraudulent activities. This paper presents the causes and effects of corruption in the public and private sector.

Politics is an effective way of ensuring power and resources are shared equally among all individuals from different backgrounds within a specified jurisdiction. However, people have used political activities and offices to advance their gains and neglect the need to be accountable and responsible to the public. The emergence of political elites has created room for corruption to flourish in public and private offices because people no longer respect the need to develop national programs that will benefit citizens. They have diverted the resources of the public to achieve their gains without considering the impacts of their actions on other citizens. Politics has allowed corrupt officers to win elections and take powerful positions in government. Therefore, citizens continue to suffer because their interests are not addressed by those they expected would alleviate their problems.

Also, the existence of artificial scarcity of resources has pushed people to look for cheap ways of getting what they need. For instance, the scarcity of employment and investment opportunities has led to stiff competition for the limited available resources. Therefore, people use unorthodox ways to persuade those in charge of approving projects to allow them to continue with their investment projects. People with malevolent intentions continue to destroy the economy of their nations as they create false impressions of the scarcity of resources. The existence of unhealthy competitions among businesses forces some of them to use unethical ways to persuade their clients to buy their products. Government officials in charge of quality standards are usually bribed to cover the activities of such investors, and this promotes corruption in businesses. This violates the rights of citizens to access quality products and services.

Thirdly, the ethical qualities of people in authority have decreased, and their value system deteriorated due to lack of strong moral teachings and responsibilities. People no longer have respect for the old ideals of moral and honest service delivery procedures, and society has become a haven for individuals that disregard human dignity. It is necessary to explain that modernity has clouded the need to respect the positions and individuals placed to serve others. People have little respect for morals that guide service delivery and ensure others benefit from their services. Therefore, corruption has been fuelled by poor moral values and lack of respect for human life.

The present generation is full of corrupt activities because people fail to condemn them. There are no strong civil societies to rebuke and oppose corrupt leaders, and this promotes the flourishing of this behavior in generations. The American public forum is dominated by debates on gay marriages, foreign policies, and inflated health bills, but nobody seems to pay attention to the escalating cases of corruption in the public and private sectors. The younger generations do not see the need to fight corruption because their predecessors support and cultivate it through modern systems and activities.

Lastly, widespread poverty and illiteracy have contributed to endemic corruption in modern societies. There are efforts to educate people, especially the rural folks, to ensure they know their rights and freedoms to reduce corruption in their societies. However, these efforts seem to bear no fruits because poverty drives them to seek cheap and quick ways of accessing their needs. Also, poverty makes people desperate, and thus, they do anything that will ensure they have food on their tables. Therefore, corruption flourishes in most societies because people do not know their rights and those that do have limited resources to access them.

Corruption violates the rights and freedoms of individuals to get basic services from public and private offices. This means that this practice compromises the quality of services offered by employees in the public and private sectors and puts the lives of citizens at risk. Corrupt officials do not offer equal services to clients because they treat some with more interests than others. This violates the provisions of equality and the rights for justice in various issues. This makes public institutions and offices to become illegitimate because of misusing their democratic power for private gains.

Also, corruption hinders the effective development of political systems in a country. This vice promotes patronage that is serious threats to democratic processes. Most corrupt nations experience civil disobedience and political instability that hamper development projects. The introduction of multi-party democratic systems is usually hampered by the corruption that compromises the legitimacy of political parties and individuals. Civil disobedience and lack of trust in political institutions propel individuals to protest and demand the removal of their leaders from power.

Moreover, this vice stalls development projects and subjects citizens to abject poverty because of a lack of transparency and accountability in public offices. Corruption enables few individuals that have money to have their way and get what they want while those that do not have been forced to look for other alternatives. Poverty and unemployment are common occurrences in societies that condone corruption, and they cannot develop because of poor management systems. The need to offer quality services like improving infrastructure, medical facilities, schools, and social amenities is compromised by the lack of transparent processes of awarding tenders and distributing resources in a society.

Lastly, this vice discourages unity and cooperation in society because some individuals think they are more important than others. Unequal distribution of national resources and restricted access to public services lead to frustration and apathy among citizens, and this weakens the fabric that binds members of the society. This leads to social inequality and the emergence of class differences that violate the dignity and rights of individuals. Uncontrolled corruption widens the gap between the rich and poor, and this results in a weak civil society.

Corruption is caused by man-made factors like capitalism, lack of transparency and accountability, nepotism, tribalism, poverty, weak social and political structures, and poverty. This vice lowers the pace of national development, weakens societies, and increases poverty. Therefore, people should work hard to ensure they fight corruption by educating their members on the importance of transparent practices. Also, government systems should be programmed to detect and eliminate this vice, and those found promoting it should face harsh penalties.

Johnston, M., Syndromes of Corruption: Wealth, Power, and Democracy. Cambridge:Cambridge University Press, 2009.

Turvey, B., Forensic Fraud: Evaluating Law Enforcement and Forensic Science Cultures in the Context of Examiner Misconduct . Massachussetts: Academic Press, 2013.

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IvyPanda. (2023, October 29). Essay on Corruption, Its Causes, and Effects.

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IvyPanda . "Essay on Corruption, Its Causes, and Effects." October 29, 2023.

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Corruption is a Global Problem for Development. To Fight It, We All Have a Role to Play

Oped published in French in La Tribune Afrique, June 13, 2023.

Oped by Ousmane Diagana, World Bank Vice President for Western and Central Africa and Mouhamadou Diagne, World Bank Vice President for Integrity.

Every day, we hear about the onslaught of crises facing the world—from climate change to conflict, inflation and debt, and the ongoing recovery from a years-long pandemic. Add to them the prospect of slow economic growth , and our efforts to overcome these challenges seem rife with obstacles. For developing countries, many with limited and already stretched resources, the confluence of crises will be especially difficult to navigate.

But if we are to achieve success over the challenges of our time, there is one scourge we cannot fail to confront: corruption.

The unfortunate truth is that corruption persists in all countries. It manifests in many ways—from petty bribes and kickbacks to grand theft of public resources. With advances in technology, corruption has increasingly become a transnational challenge without respect for borders, as money can now move more easily in and out of countries to hide illicit gains.

Corruption is also a fundamental problem for development.

Corruption harms the poor and vulnerable the most, increasing costs and reducing access to basic services, such as health, education, social programs, and even justice. It exacerbates inequality and reduces private sector investment to the detriment of markets, job opportunities, and economies. Corruption can also undermine a country’s response to emergencies, leading to unnecessary suffering and, at worst, death. Over time, corruption can undermine the trust and confidence that citizens have for their leaders and institutions, creating social friction and in some contexts increasing the risk of fragility, conflict, and violence.

To prevent these negative impacts, we must confront corruption with determined and deliberate action. For the World Bank Group, fighting corruption in development has been a long-standing commitment in our operational work. This commitment is reflected in our support for countries in building transparent, inclusive, and accountable institutions , but also through initiatives that go beyond developing countries to also include financial centers, take on the politics of corruption more openly than before, and harness new technologies to understand, address, and prevent corruption.  

Indeed, across western and central Africa in particular, it is one of the World Bank Group’s strategic priorities to emphasize issues of good governance, accountability, and transparency among our partner countries, with the aim of reducing corruption. We recognize that transparency in public affairs and the accountability of high-level officials are fundamental to the trust of citizens in their government and the effective delivery of public services. Working to rebuild and bolster trust between citizens and the state is critical today, especially in countries affected by fragility, conflict and violence that make up half of the countries in this region alone.

Across Africa, World Bank Group support is helping countries face these challenges. Recent investments in the Republic of Congo , Ghana , and Morocco , for example, will support institutional governance reforms to improve the performance and transparency of service delivery. In Kenya, our support will further fiscal management reforms for greater transparency in public procurement , thereby reducing opportunities for corruption. Strengthening citizen-state engagement is key: In Burkina Faso, for example, a World Bank-funded project helped the national government improve citizen engagement and public sector accountability through the development of a digital tool to monitor the performance of municipal service delivery. 

The World Bank Group’s commitment to fighting corruption is also reflected in robust mechanisms across the institution that enhance the integrity of our operations. Our independent Integrity Vice Presidency (INT) works to detect, deter, and prevent fraud and corruption involving World Bank Group funds. Over two decades of INT’s work, the World Bank has sanctioned more than 1,100 firms and individuals, often imposing debarments that make them ineligible to participate in the projects and operations we finance. In addition, we have enforced more than 640 cross-debarments from other multilateral development banks, standing with our MDB partners to help keep corruption out of development projects everywhere. Nevertheless, we must remain vigilant to the risks of fraud and corruption that remain.

The World Bank Group also leverages its position as global convener to support anticorruption actors at all levels and from around the world. That is why we are pleased to have organized the next edition of the World Bank Group’s International Corruption Hunters Alliance (ICHA) to take place in Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire, on June 14-16, 2023.

The ICHA forum is an opportunity for front-line practitioners committed to fighting corruption as well as policy makers and representatives from the private sector and civil society, to come together to share knowledge, experience, and insights for confronting corruption. For the first time since its inception in 2010, we are hosting the ICHA forum in an African country. This reflects the reality that the negative impacts of corruption can be more devastating for developing countries, who face unique challenges and have fewer resources to overcome them. Yet, it also acknowledges that there is a wealth of anticorruption strengths, skills, and expertise from these countries that we must draw upon.

Together, we can affirm that through our collective action, we can advance the fight against corruption even in an era of crises.  

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How to Stop Corruption Essay: Guide & Topics [+4 Samples]

Corruption is an abuse of power that was entrusted to a person or group of people for personal gain. It can appear in various settings and affect different social classes, leading to unemployment and other economic issues. This is why writing an essay on corruption can become a challenge.

Our specialists will write a custom essay specially for you!

One “how to stop corruption” essay will require plenty of time and effort, as the topic is too broad. That’s why our experts have prepared this guide. It can help you with research and make the overall writing process easier. Besides, you will find free essays on corruption with outlines.

  • ✍️ How to Write an Essay
  • 💰 Essay Examples
  • 🤑 How to Stop Corruption Essay
  • 💲 Topics for Essay

✍️ How to Write an Essay on Corruption

Before writing on the issue, you have to understand a few things. First , corruption can take different forms, such as:

  • Bribery – receiving money or other valuable items in exchange for using power or influence in an illegal way.
  • Graft – using power or authority for personal goals.
  • Extortion – threats or violence for the person’s advantage.
  • Kickback – paying commission to a bribe-taker for some service.
  • Cronyism – assigning unqualified friends or relatives to job positions.
  • Embezzlement – stealing the government’s money.

Second , you should carefully think about the effects of corruption on the country. It seriously undermines democracy and the good name of political institutions. Its economic, political, and social impact is hard to estimate.

Let’s focus on writing about corruption. What are the features of your future paper? What elements should you include in your writing?

Just in 1 hour! We will write you a plagiarism-free paper in hardly more than 1 hour

Below, we will show you the general essay on corruption sample and explain each part’s importance:

You already chose the paper topic. What’s next? Create an outline for your future writing. You’re better to compose a plan for your paper so that it won’t suffer from logic errors and discrepancies. Besides, you may be required to add your outline to your paper and compose a corruption essay with headings.

At this step, you sketch out the skeleton:

  • what to write in the introduction;
  • what points to discuss in the body section;
  • what to put into the conclusion.

Take the notes during your research to use them later. They will help you to put your arguments in a logical order and show what points you can use in the essay.

For a long-form essay, we suggest you divide it into parts. Title each one and use headings to facilitate the reading process.

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🔴 Introduction

The next step is to develop a corruption essay’s introduction. Here, you should give your readers a preview of what’s coming and state your position.

  • Start with a catchy hook.
  • Give a brief description of the problem context.
  • Provide a thesis statement.

You can always update and change it when finishing the paper.

🔴 Body Paragraphs

In the body section, you will provide the central points and supporting evidence. When discussing the effects of this problem in your corruption essay, do not forget to include statistics and other significant data.

Every paragraph should include a topic sentence, explanation, and supporting evidence. To make them fit together, use analysis and critical thinking.

Get an originally-written paper according to your instructions!

Use interesting facts and compelling arguments to earn your audience’s attention. It may drift while reading an essay about corruption, so don’t let it happen.

🔴 Quotations

Quotes are the essential elements of any paper. They support your claims and add credibility to your writing. Such items are exceptionally crucial for an essay on corruption as the issue can be controversial, so you may want to back up your arguments.

  • You may incorporate direct quotes in your text. In this case, remember to use quotation marks and mark the page number for yourself. Don’t exceed the 30 words limit. Add the information about the source in the reference list.
  • You may decide to use a whole paragraph from your source as supporting evidence. Then, quote indirectly—paraphrase, summarize, or synthesize the argument of interest. You still have to add relevant information to your reference list, though.

Check your professor’s guidelines regarding the preferred citation style.

🔴 Conclusion

In your corruption essay conclusion, you should restate the thesis and summarize your findings. You can also provide recommendations for future research on the topic. Keep it clear and short—it can be one paragraph long.

Don’t forget your references!

Include a list of all sources you used to write this paper. Read the citation guideline of your institution to do it correctly. By the way, some citation tools allow creating a reference list in pdf or Word formats.

💰 Corruption Essay Examples

If you strive to write a good how to stop a corruption essay, you should check a few relevant examples. They will show you the power of a proper outline and headings. Besides, you’ll see how to formulate your arguments and cite sources.

✔️ Essay on Corruption: 250 Words

If you were assigned a short paper of 250 words and have no idea where to start, you can check the example written by our academic experts. As you can see below, it is written in easy words. You can use simple English to explain to your readers the “black money” phenomenon.

Another point you should keep in mind when checking our short essay on corruption is that the structure remains the same. Despite the low word count, it has an introductory paragraph with a thesis statement, body section, and a conclusion.

Now, take a look at our corruption essay sample and inspire!

✔️ Essay on Corruption: 500 Words

Cause and effect essay is among the most common paper types for students. In case you’re composing this kind of paper, you should research the reasons for corruption. You can investigate factors that led to this phenomenon in a particular country.

Use the data from the official sources, for example, Transparency International . There is plenty of evidence for your thesis statement on corruption and points you will include in the body section. Also, you can use headlines to separate one cause from another. Doing so will help your readers to browse through the text easily.

Check our essay on corruption below to see how our experts utilize headlines.

🤑 How to Stop Corruption: Essay Prompts

Corruption is a complex issue that undermines the foundations of justice, fairness, and equality. If you want to address this problem, you can write a “How to Stop Corruption” essay using any of the following topic ideas.

The writing prompts below will provide valuable insights into this destructive phenomenon. Use them to analyze the root causes critically and propose effective solutions.

How to Prevent Corruption Essay Prompt

In this essay, you can discuss various strategies and measures to tackle corruption in society. Explore the impact of corruption on social, political, and economic systems and review possible solutions. Your paper can also highlight the importance of ethical leadership and transparent governance in curbing corruption.

Here are some more ideas to include:

  • The role of education and public awareness in preventing corruption. In this essay, you can explain the importance of teaching ethical values and raising awareness about the adverse effects of corruption. It would be great to illustrate your essay with examples of successful anti-corruption campaigns and programs.
  • How to implement strong anti-corruption laws and regulations. Your essay could discuss the steps governments should take in this regard, such as creating comprehensive legislation and independent anti-corruption agencies. Also, clarify how international cooperation can help combat corruption.
  • Ways of promoting transparency in government and business operations. Do you agree that open data policies, whistleblower protection laws, independent oversight agencies, and transparent financial reporting are effective methods of ensuring transparency? What other strategies can you propose? Answer the questions in your essay.

How to Stop Corruption as a Student Essay Prompt

An essay on how to stop corruption as a student can focus on the role of young people in preventing corruption in their communities and society at large. Describe what students can do to raise awareness, promote ethical behavior, and advocate for transparency and accountability. The essay can also explore how instilling values of integrity and honesty among young people can help combat corruption.

Here’s what else you can talk about:

  • How to encourage ethical behavior and integrity among students. Explain why it’s essential for teachers to be models of ethical behavior and create a culture of honesty and accountability in schools. Besides, discuss the role of parents and community members in reinforcing students’ moral values.
  • Importance of participating in anti-corruption initiatives and campaigns from a young age. Your paper could study how participation in anti-corruption initiatives fosters young people’s sense of civic responsibility. Can youth engagement promote transparency and accountability?
  • Ways of promoting accountability within educational institutions. What methods of fostering accountability are the most effective? Your essay might evaluate the efficacy of promoting direct communication, establishing a clear code of conduct, creating effective oversight mechanisms, holding all members of the educational process responsible for their actions, and other methods.

How to Stop Corruption in India Essay Prompt

In this essay, you can discuss the pervasive nature of corruption in various sectors of Indian society and its detrimental effects on the country’s development. Explore strategies and measures that can be implemented to address and prevent corruption, as well as the role of government, civil society, and citizens in combating this issue.

Your essay may also include the following:

  • Analysis of the causes and consequences of corruption in India. You may discuss the bureaucratic red tape, weak enforcement mechanisms, and other causes. How do they affect the country’s development?
  • Examination of the effectiveness of existing anti-corruption laws and measures. What are the existing anti-corruption laws and measures in India? Are they effective? What are their strengths and weaknesses?
  • Discussion of potential solutions and reforms to curb corruption. Propose practical solutions and reforms that can potentially stop corruption. Also, explain the importance of political will and international cooperation to implement reforms effectively.

Government Corruption Essay Prompt

A government corruption essay can discuss the prevalence of corruption within government institutions and its impact on the state’s functioning. You can explore various forms of corruption, such as bribery, embezzlement, and nepotism. Additionally, discuss their effects on public services, economic development, and social justice.

Here are some more ideas you can cover in your essay:

  • The causes and manifestations of government corruption. Analyze political patronage, weak accountability systems, and other factors that stimulate corruption. Additionally, include real-life examples that showcase the manifestations of government corruption in your essay.
  • The impact of corruption on public trust and governance. Corruption undermines people’s trust and increases social inequalities. In your paper, we suggest evaluating its long-term impact on countries’ development and social cohesion.
  • Strategies and reforms to combat government corruption. Here, you can present and examine the best strategies and reforms to fight corruption in government. Also, consider the role of international organizations and media in advocating for anti-corruption initiatives.

How to Stop Police Corruption Essay Prompt

In this essay, you can explore strategies and reforms to address corruption within law enforcement agencies. Start by investigating the root causes of police corruption and its impact on public safety and trust. Then, propose effective measures to combat it.

Here’s what else you can discuss in your essay:

  • The factors contributing to police corruption, such as lack of accountability and oversight. Your paper could research various factors that cause police corruption. Is it possible to mitigate their effect?
  • The consequences of police corruption for community relations and public safety. Police corruption has a disastrous effect on public safety and community trust. Your essay can use real-life examples to show how corruption practices in law enforcement undermine their legitimacy and fuel social unrest.
  • Potential solutions, such as improved training, transparency, and accountability measures. Can these measures solve the police corruption issue? What other strategies can be implemented to combat the problem? Consider these questions in your essay.

💲 40 Best Topics for Corruption Essay

Another key to a successful essay on corruption is choosing an intriguing topic. There are plenty of ideas to use in your paper. And here are some topic suggestions for your writing:

  • What is corruption? An essay should tell the readers about the essentials of this phenomenon. Elaborate on the factors that impact its growth or reduce.
  • How to fight corruption ? Your essay can provide ideas on how to reduce the effects of this problem. If you write an argumentative paper, state your arguments, and give supporting evidence. For example, you can research the countries with the lowest corruption index and how they fight with it.
  • I say “no” to corruption . This can be an excellent topic for your narrative essay. Describe a situation from your life when you’re faced with this type of wrongdoing.
  • Corruption in our country. An essay can be dedicated, for example, to corruption in India or Pakistan. Learn more about its causes and how different countries fight with it.
  • Graft and corruption. We already mentioned the definition of graft. Explore various examples of grafts, e.g., using the personal influence of politicians to pressure public service journalists . Provide your vision of the causes of corruption. The essay should include strong evidence.
  • Corruption in society. Investigate how the tolerance to “black money” crimes impact economics in developing countries .
  • How can we stop corruption ? In your essay, provide suggestions on how society can prevent this problem. What efficient ways can you propose?
  • The reasons that lead to the corruption of the police . Assess how bribery impacts the crime rate. You can use a case of Al Capone as supporting evidence.
  • Literature and corruption. Choose a literary masterpiece and analyze how the author addresses the theme of crime. You can check a sample paper on Pushkin’s “ The Queen of Spades ”
  • How does power affect politicians ? In your essay on corruption and its causes, provide your observations on ideas about why people who hold power allow the grafts.
  • Systemic corruption in China . China has one of the strictest laws on this issue. However, crime still exists. Research this topic and provide your observations on the reasons.
  • The success of Asian Tigers . Explore how the four countries reduced corruption crime rates. What is the secret of their success? What can we learn from them?
  • Lee Kuan Yew and his fight against corruption. Research how Singapore’s legislation influenced the elimination of this crime.
  • Corruption in education. Examine the types in higher education institutions. Why does corruption occur?
  • Gifts and bribes . You may choose to analyze the ethical side of gifts in business. Can it be a bribe? In what cases?
  • Cronyism and nepotism in business . Examine these forms of corruption as a part of Chinese culture.
  • Kickbacks and bribery. How do these two terms are related, and what are the ways to prevent them?
  • Corporate fraud. Examine the bribery, payoffs, and kickbacks as a phenomenon in the business world. Point out the similarities and differences.
  • Anti-bribery compliance in corporations. Explore how transnational companies fight with the misuse of funds by contractors from developing countries.
  • The ethical side of payoffs. How can payoffs harm someone’s reputation? Provide your point of view of why this type of corporate fraud is unethical.
  • The reasons for corruption of public officials .
  • Role of auditors in the fight against fraud and corruption.
  • The outcomes of corruption in public administration .
  • How to eliminate corruption in the field of criminal justice .
  • Is there a connection between corruption and drug abuse ?
  • The harm corruption does to the economic development of countries .
  • The role of anti-bribery laws in fighting financial crimes.
  • Populist party brawl against corruption and graft.
  • An example of incorrigible corruption in business: Enron scandal .
  • The effective ways to prevent corruption .
  • The catastrophic consequences of corruption in healthcare .
  • How regular auditing can prevent embezzlement and financial manipulation.
  • Correlation between poverty and corruption .
  • Unethical behavior and corruption in football business.
  • Corruption in oil business: British Petroleum case.
  • Are corruption and bribery socially acceptable in Central Asian states?
  • What measures should a company take to prevent bribery among its employees?
  • Ways to eliminate and prevent cases of police corruption .
  • Gift-giving traditions and corruption in the world’s culture.
  • Breaking business obligations : embezzlement and fraud.

These invaluable tips will help you to get through any kind of essay. You are welcome to use these ideas and writing tips whenever you need to write this type of academic paper. Share the guide with those who may need it for their essay on corruption.

This might be interesting for you:

  • Canadian Identity Essay: Essay Topics and Writing Guide
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🔗 References

  • Public Corruption: FBI, U.S. Department of Justice
  • Anti-Corruption and Transparency: Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
  • United Nations Convention against Corruption: United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime
  • Corruption Essay: Cram
  • How to Construct an Essay: Josh May
  • Essay Writing: University College Birmingham
  • Structuring the Essay: Research & Learning Online
  • Insights from U4 Anti-Corruption Resource Centre: Medium
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A Handful of Unlawful Behaviors, Led by Fraud and Bribery, Account for Nearly All Public Corruption Convictions Since 1985

A comprehensive analysis of nearly 57,000 corruption cases in federal courts spanning 30 years revealed that fraud and bribery dominated the types of conduct underlying criminal cases, accounting for 76% of the lead charges in cases resulting in convictions. Those two unlawful behavior types, combined with extortion and conspiracy, broadly informed the lead charges in virtually all examined corruption convictions in federal courts from 1985 to 2015.

That was a key finding of a case records study by a research team led by Jay S. Albanese of Virginia Commonwealth University. The purpose of the study, sponsored by the National Institute of Justice (NIJ), was to fill a literature gap with empirically based knowledge of prosecution practices, corruption-fighting statutes, and types of behavior underlying prosecutions. New insights on corrupt behavior could inform new policies to prevent some corrupt conduct and discover some corrupt acts earlier. [1] The findings may also help the justice system focus crime prevention and enforcement strategies on those behaviors most often associated with criminal prosecution, and distinguish among types of corruption more likely to occur at the federal, state, or local level, the researchers said. [2]

All of the corruption case records examined came from federal courts, accessed in court and prosecutor databases, and the researchers compared cases in three different tiers: federal-level, state-level, and local-level corruption.

Corruption Crime Types Vary Among Government Levels 

Fraud was the focus of corruption charges in 40.6% of all analyzed cases, with bribery accounting for the lead charge in 35.6% of cases. [3] But the prevalence of charged conduct categories varied somewhat depending on the level of government activity addressed in the prosecution. In federal-level corruption litigation, the first-charged conduct was fraud in 5,579 of 12,663 cases (44.1%) and bribery in 5,129 cases (41%). Similarly, in state-level cases, lead fraud charges outnumbered lead bribery charges, 1,112 cases (29.3%) to 1,070 (28%), out of a total of 3,792 state-level convictions. But in local-government corruption matters, lead bribery charges exceeded lead fraud charges, 2,421 cases (34%) to 2,051 (29%), out of 7,090 total convictions.

Extortion charges were a distant third among lead charges in federal- and local-level corruption cases in federal court, but extortion led all crime types charged in state-level matters. In those cases, extortion led fraud by 1,156 to 1,112 charge types (30% to 29%), with bribery trailing slightly at 1,070 (28%), out of the total of 3,792 state-level corruption charge types.  

Together, the four prevalent categories of corrupt behavior — fraud, bribery, and extortion, along with conspiracy — “form the operational meaning of corruption in practice,” the researchers concluded. [4]

Drilling down, the team identified eight discrete corrupt activities, covering all public corruption, through a closer analysis of about 2,400 cases from 2013 to 2015. Those eight activities are: [5]

  • Receipt of a bribe
  • Solicitation of a bribe
  • Contract fraud
  • Embezzlement
  • Official misconduct
  • Obstruction of justice
  • Violation of regulatory laws

The researchers noted a nexus between heightened corruption risk and public service at the state and, especially, local levels. They pointed out that public officials serving on government boards and councils, as well as in elected office and law enforcement positions, were often employed part time, undertrained, and undersupervised. The report on corrupt behavior types said that the “lack of professionalism” in the public officials’ roles and expectations “provided the space to exploit opportunities to enrich themselves.” [6]

Remedies for Corruption

The researchers propose several corruption remedies, including: [7]

  • Transparency in contract award processes and government spending practices.
  • Dual training of individuals on public duties to avoid having a single person authorizing and reviewing payments.
  • Introducing mandatory ethics training for government entities.
  • Better protections for whistleblowers.
  • A focus on fairness in prosecutions.
  • Mandatory ethics training for federal programs and state and local entities.

What Motivated Corruption?

A separate aspect of the research by Albanese and his colleagues was an empirical analysis of corruption defendants’ criminal motivation broken down into four categories: [8]

Positive — motivated by external factors, usually social or economic, that push the individual toward crime. An assumption underlying this explanation is that changing the influences on individuals will prevent crime.

Classical — an individual decision to maximize personal benefit through corrupt conduct; it can be deterred by increasing the threat of apprehension and punishment.

Structural — driven by systemic political and economic conditions; it can be deterred by legal and structural changes to election processes, balance of power, enforcement of laws, and due process. 

Ethical — guided by individual decisions to act ethically or wrongfully; it can be deterred by education and reinforcement of ethical decisions.

For the corruption motivation analysis, researchers interviewed 72 individuals who have direct experience, in different capacities, with a variety of public corruption matters, [9] The themes that were discussed informed the coding of the interviews, and qualitative analysis software completed the evaluation.

Of the four corruption cause categories, ethical explanations led, at 38% of total explanations gleaned from the interviews and analysis; 28% offered a structural explanation; 19% offered a classical explanation; and 15% offered a positivist explanation.

About This Article

The research described in this article was funded by NIJ grant 2015-IJ-CX-0007, awarded to Virginia Commonwealth University. This article is based on three reports: the grantee Final Summary Overview on the project, “ Developing Empirically-Driven Public Corruption Prevention Strategies ” (2018), Jay S. Albanese, principal investigator; and two published articles, also written by members of the research team:

  • Jay S. Albanese, Kristine Artello, and Linh Thi Nguyen, “ Distinguishing Corruption in Law and Practice: Empirically Separating Conviction Charges from Underlying Behaviors ,” Public Integrity 21 no. 1 (2019): 22-37.
  • Jay Albanese and Kristine Artello, “Focusing Anti-Corruption Efforts More Effectively: An Empirical Look at Offender Motivation—Positive, Classical, Structural and Ethical Approaches,” Advances in Applied Sociology 8 no. 6 (2018): 471-485.

[note 1] , [note 2] , [note 3] , [note 6] , [note 7] Jay S. Albanese, Kristine Artello, and Linh Thi Nguyen, “Distinguishing Corruption in Law and Practice: Empirically Separating Conviction Charges from Underlying Behaviors,” Public Integrity 21 no. 1 (2019): 25.  

[note 4] , [note 5] Jay Albanese, “Final Summary Overview: Developing Empirically-Driven Public Corruption Prevention Strategies,” Final Report to the National Institute of Justice, grant number 2015-IJ-CX-0007, 2018, 4.

[note 8] , [note 9] Jay Albanese and Kristine Artello, “Focusing Anti-Corruption Efforts More Effectively: An Empirical Look at Offender Motivation—Positive, Classical, Structural and Ethical Approaches,” Advances in Applied Sociology 8 no. 6 (2018): 471-485, at 478. 

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University Module Series: Anti-Corruption

Module 10: citizen participation in anti-corruption efforts.

essay about government corruption

  This module is a resource for lecturers  

Citizen participation is not a new concept, although it has gained traction in the past few decades. As stressed by the National Democratic Institute (a United States-based CSO), citizens have "the right to participate in decisions that affect public welfare" and such "participation is an instrumental driver of democratic and socio-economic change, and a fundamental way to empower citizens". Citizen participation has also been described as "a process which provides private individuals an opportunity to influence public decisions and has long been a component of the democratic decision-making process" (Cogan and Sharpe, 1986, p. 283). Citizen participation is classified as direct or indirect, with direct citizen participation being regarded as "the process by which members of a society share power with public officials in making substantive decisions related to the community" (Roberts, 2008, p. 5). There are even international treaties that highlight the importance of citizen participation, such as the Aarhus Convention on Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision-Making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters.

The discourse on citizen participation has traditionally focused on participation in democratic decision-making, and there are different ways in which citizen participation is operationalized in democratic processes. This can be through bottom-up measures, such as voting, grass-roots organization and participation, or through top-down mechanisms spurred by organizations such as the Open Government Partnership (discussed in Module 4 of the E4J University Module Series on Anti-Corruption). Innes and Booher (2004) have identified five grounds for upholding citizen participation in public decision-making: 1) to include public preferences in decision-making; 2) to improve decisions by incorporating citizens' local knowledge; 3) to promote fairness and justice, and hear marginalized voices; 4) to legitimize public decisions; and 5) to fulfil the requirements of the law.

Citizen participation in relation to anti-corruption efforts encompasses dynamics and approaches that may differ from citizen participation in other public processes, given that the State may not always provide citizens the same access to space and information in relation to fighting corruption. Corruption bypasses democratic mechanisms to the extent that Mark Warren (2004) has defined corruption as a violation of democratic inclusion. Corruption bypasses the laws and rules that were democratically established and excludes those who do not participate in corrupt exchanges (e.g. services that are meant to be public are allocated to those who bribe or on the basis of clientelism). For this reason, the role of citizens is better understood in terms of social accountability, where the citizens oppose corruption by keeping it in check, critically assessing the conduct and decisions of office holders, reporting corruption misdoings and crimes, and asking for appropriate countermeasures.

Concrete ways in which individual citizens may contribute to the fight against corruption include reporting on corruption to the authority or through the media, and supporting training programmes and sensitization campaigns that aim to create a culture of integrity and zero tolerance for corruption. Sometimes even refusing to participate in corrupt practices is an important act of resistance. It is worthwhile dedicating a few lines to the issue of reporting on corruption, as this is one important avenue through which individual citizens can participate in anti-corruption efforts. As technology has advanced, new methods of citizen reporting have become available. Most anti-corruption agencies now allow reports to be made online. In many countries, smartphone applications are enabling citizens to easily report incidents of corruption. In 2012, the World Bank released its own Integrity App . This app allows users to make confidential reports of fraud and corruption in World Bank projects. It also provides links to the outcomes of investigations. Another approach to reporting corruption outside official channels is through the use of crowdsourcing and social media. In India, for example, Swati and Ramesh Ramanathan created the online platform called " I Paid a Bribe " to expose everyday corruption by allowing people to post their stories anonymously (Strom, 2012). The website has not only served to document corruption, but also to increase awareness among the public. Another example is Digiwhist , a web portal and mobile app technology launched in Europe for the "systematic collection, structuring, analysis, and broad dissemination of information on public procurement and on mechanisms that increase accountability of public officials in all EU and some neighbouring countries". Using the transparency and public accountability of open access, Digiwhist focuses on assessing fiscal transparency, risk assessment and impact of good governance policies.  

In many countries around the world, there is a concrete risk of the normalization of corruption and the decline of public criticism of manifestations of corruption. In an ironic twist, corruption ends up being considered a necessary evil or even a shortcut to access some important goods. In such contexts, the critical attitude of citizens toward corruption is weakened or altogether lost. In other cases, high levels of corruption, citizen frustration with public sector corruption and poor governance (which often corresponds to high levels of corruption) may lead to citizen apathy, a lack of civic engagement and a lack of trust in the political and democratic process. Apathy and indifference are dangerous because where citizens fail to hold public officials accountable, corruption spreads even further, together with impunity for corrupt conduct (Olsson, 2014).

Citizen apathy or a lack of civic engagement may be addressed by empowering citizens and by introducing innovative approaches to citizen participation (McCormack and Doran, 2014). For example, the NGO Transparency International launched an anti-corruption tool called the Advocacy and Legal Advice Centre (ALAC) aimed at enhancing awareness of corruption and its negative consequences, and at facilitating the reporting of corruption. It started with three initial ALACs in Romania, North Macedonia, and Bosnia and Herzegovina, and later established more than 60 centres on all continents. These centres provide victims and witnesses of corruption with practical assistance to pursue complaints and address their grievances. Through providing this support, the centres make it possible for citizens to denounce corruption and participate in anti-corruption efforts.

It is crucial that in all countries, citizens are able to recognize corruption and are empowered to participate, so as to avoid the consequences of unabated corruption, such as deep inequalities (Uslaner, 2008), increased levels of private dishonesty (Gachter and Schulz, 2016), the demoralization of the public (Ariely and Uslaner, 2017), instability and even violent extremism (Chayes, 2015). For a further discussion of the adverse effects of corruption, see Module 1 of the E4J University Module Series on Anti-Corruption.

Where citizens and public officials pursue, use and exchange wealth and power in the absence of appropriate accountability mechanisms, it is common to witness the establishment of what Michael Johnston (2005) called the syndromes of corruption: influence markets, elite cartels, oligarchs and clans, and official moguls. For a further discussion of these syndromes, see Module 2 of the E4J University Module Series on Anti-Corruption.

One should be aware, however, of the possible instrumentalization of citizens' anti-corruption attitudes. Transparency International observers remarked, for example, that corruption is an important element of populist rhetoric. Populist leaders tend to use public outrage for corrupt behaviour to punish political adversaries. Populist movements present themselves as an anti-corruption force drawing on the idea that corrupt elites work against the interest of the people. In many cases, however, such movements are not accompanied by an actual anti-corruption strategy and even facilitate new forms of corruption (Transparency International, 2019). For a further discussion on this topic, see Module 1 of the E4J University Module Series on Anti-Corruption. 

Next:  The role, risks and challenges of CSOs fighting corruption  

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Essay on the political functions of corruption, additional details.

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Political Corruption and Solutions


The issue of corruption has been in existence since the conception of politics as a notion. However, even if the phenomenon cannot be erased completely from modern society, it is necessary to minimize it and create a system of values that deems it as unacceptable. By introducing the modern society to a system of values based on transparency and honesty, as well as integrate innovative technology for detecting the causes of corruption at the early stages of implementing change, one will handle the problem of corruption in politics.

Problem Description

Arguably, the issue of political fraudulence exists due to imperfections in the value system that society upholds. The specified assumption has led to attributing the problem of corruption mostly to the question of morality (Gong and Ren 461). However, the specified issue should be linked to other areas in order to be resolved productively. The phenomenon of corruption in politics affects the well-being of citizens since it creates an environment in which their rights are systematically abused, and where justice principles are nonexistent. Therefore, creating tools for reducing the levels of corruption and, if possible, eradicating it completely, is necessary.

Solution to Corruption

What makes the problem of corruption so enduring is its multifaceted nature. Resolving the corruption issue implies handling the concern on several levels, including political, economic, financial, social, and technological ones (Tunley et al. 23). Several components have to be integrated into the management of the corruption-related concerns to establish a new system of fair and unbiased politics.

Abolishment of Impunity

The absence of consequences makes it excessively easy for a large number of politicians to consider the actions that they would have dismissed if facing serious legal repercussions for them. Although the legal system that places emphasis on punishing criminals instead of focusing on their rehabilitation is rather flawed, the fear of persecution is likely to restrain politicians.

Increase in Salaries

Addressing financial issues is another method of managing the problem of corruption in politics. While people taking major positions are unlikely to be concerned with the specified concept, politicians of a smaller caliber may fear possible financial complications. Therefore, ensuring that officials are provided with decent salaries is another step toward managing corruption.

Financial Transparency

Promoting clarity and openness in the political environment is currently a critical component of the general framework that will allow fighting corruption. While removing impunity is a crucial measure that will create the platform for honesty in politics, it will not provide positive results when used alone. Thus, it is critical to use it in tandem with the policy of transparency across the political arena. The integration of the concept of clarity will help to avoid the cases of fraud and the endeavors at cheating against the established system (Hansen and Flyverbom 876). Thus, the principles of transparency should be seen as the key components of the strategy for fighting against corruption in politics.

The introduction of the principles of transparency will also help to prevent instances of organized criminals entering the political field. Due to corruption and significant influence in the economic and financial areas, organized criminals have the power to become the member of the state politics (Vadlamannati and Cooray 117). Therefore, it is crucial to introduce the strategies that will create impediments for organized criminals to become important players in the political field.

With the enhancement of transparency levels in the target community, business activities will also become publically available data, which will make it virtually impossible for people involved in organized crime to gain any political power. As soon as a person or an organization with at least a slightly stained reputation endeavors at becoming a player in the political domain, their efforts will be curbed (Vadlamannati and Cooray 118). Therefore, the notion of transparency as the foundational principle for political decision-making will assist in eradicating corruption in politics.

Improved Report System

Along with the shift in the values that political figures have to uphold, a change in the reporting framework will have to occur. The proposed solution is a part of the transparency program mentioned above. With the enhancement of the reporting framework, citizens will be aware of the activities in which political figures engage. Furthermore, the information regarding finances and especially public funding will become readily available to general audiences, thus making it impossible for politicians to cheat and conceal the truth. Introducing a complaint system that will allow discovering the instances of unethical behavior among politicians, will make it possible for the cases of bribery, fraud, and other cases of financial deception in politics to be revealed.

A newly established reporting system will also require protection for the people that provide the relevant information. At the same time, it will be necessary to ensure that the specified framework is protected against slander since the data supplied anonymously may contain information fabricated intentionally to affect certain political figures negatively. Thus, the proposed reporting system will have to combine an elaborate data verification framework and the enhanced security safeguarding the rights of the people that will provide information. Although there are reasons to integrate the suggested approach into the system for preventing corruption, relying on it as the essential tool for detecting instances of financial fraud would be wrong due to the high levels of subjectivity that it contains.

Fraudulence in politics and increased levels of corruption is a reason for a major concern since the described phenomenon affects the well-being of citizens, the quality of their lives, and the overall level of their security. In order to manage the problem of increased corruption in the political environment, one has to introduce a program combining increased transparency and an enhanced system of reporting the incidents of political corruption. The shift in the political values and principles along with a stringent system of supervision and control will help to minimize the instances of financial fraud and other types of corruption in politics.

However, it is also recommended to ensure that the reporting system that will comprise an important part of a new framework for managing political fraud should be based on a critical assessment of the submitted claims. Thus, one will avoid the cases in which slander may be used against political figures to benefit their opponents. The proposed solution to corruption should incorporate an improved system of values that will imply a people-oriented approach and reinforce the significance of ethical decision-making in the political context.

Thus, the process of supervision will be balanced with careful scrutiny of the facts submitted as evidence. With a detailed analysis of the available information, ethical standards geared toward meeting the needs of citizens, and a well-thought-out platform for decision-making, the current levels of corruption in politics will finally be curbed.

Works Cited

Gong, Ting, Shiru Wang, and Jianming Ren. “Corruption in the Eye of the Beholder: Survey Evidence from Mainland China and Hong Kong.” International Public Management Journal , vol. 18, no. 3, 2015, pp. 458-482.

Hansen, Hans Krause, and Mikkel Flyverbom. “The Politics of Transparency and the Calibration of Knowledge in the Digital Age.” Organization, vol. 22, no. 6, 2015, pp. 872-889.

Tunley, Martin, et al. “Preventing Occupational Corruption: Utilising Situational Crime Prevention Techniques and Theory to Enhance Organisational Resilience.” Security Journal , vol. 31, no. 1, 2018, pp. 21-52.

Vadlamannati, Krishna Chaitanya, and Arusha Cooray. “Transparency Pays? Evaluating the Effects of the Freedom of Information Laws on Perceived Government Corruption.” The Journal of Development Studies , vol. 53, no. 1, 2017, pp. 116-137.

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essay about government corruption

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The problem of corruption and corruption of power

Thinking beyond politics.

By Prof. Victor Andres Manhit

Transparency International (TI) has been fighting corruption for 27 years in over 100 countries. Here in the Philippines, I remember their prominent voices such as Randy David, Solita Monsod, Attorney Lilia de Lima, and Judge Dolores Español — all passionate advocates for transparency and accountability, issues that are still very relevant in our society.

Accordingly, TI defines corruption as “the abuse of power for private gain.” By this, corruption has deprived countless citizens around the globe of much-needed public services and benefits of development.

Under the Corruption Perception Index (CPI), corruption indicators pertain to “bribery; the diversion of public funds; the effective prosecution of corruption cases; adequate legal frameworks, access to information; and legal protections to whistleblowers, journalists and investigators.”

But what has corruption caused us?

In September 2018, the United Nations (UN), citing World Economic Forum (WEF) data, expressed that global corruption eats up 5% of the world’s gross domestic product; in November, the World Financial Review stated that Philippines had lost $10 BILLION annually due to illicit financial flows; in December, the UN and the WEF disclosed that $3.6 TRILLION had been lost due to bribes and stolen money; and in December 2019, the WEF published that “corruption, bribery, theft and tax evasion, and other illicit financial flows cost developing countries $1.26 TRILLION a year.”

In the Philippines, an estimated P1.4 TRILLION has been lost to corruption in the years 2017 (P670 BILLION) and 2018 (P752 BILLION), Deputy Ombudsman Cyril Ramos said, where around 20% of the annual government appropriation goes to corruption. Also, according to a study by Carandang and Balboa-Cahig (2020), “some of the more notable typologies and their accompanying corruption cases in the Philippine context are as follows: non-Compliance with the Government Procurement Reform, technical malversation, political dynasty, ghost project, income and asset misdeclaration, red tape, influencing a subordinate to defy order and protocol, bribery, connivance of government officials with drug lords.”

Further, the wide-ranging impact of corruption could result in a myriad of outcomes. In April 2020, the Global Infrastructure Anti-Corruption Center (GIACC) said that corruption may cause

“inadequate infrastructure, dangerous infrastructure, displacement of people, damage to the environment, reduced spending in infrastructure, reduced public expenditure, and reduced foreign investment.”

The said CPI indicators and data culled to substantiate them, and the gargantuan multi-level impact of corruption represent a formidable platform in instigating institutional reforms to achieve bureaucratic coherence and improve the development capacity of the state. With a multi-stakeholder roadmap against corruption, the plans and investments for economic recovery and development in the new normal will not be for naught. In turn, succeeding economic growths could be dispersed effectively.

Specifically, combating corruption in our country instantly augments the chance of helping the following: the 1.3 million people who have perceived themselves as poor in 2019 (self-rated poverty) and the families suffering from hunger (20.9%) during the pandemic, according to an SWS survey; the 16.7% of the population in poverty (Philippine Statistics Authority); and the additional 1.5 million Filipinos pushed into poverty by the pandemic (Philippine Institute for Development Studies).

But the problem of corruption could dangerously be translated into corruption of power. This happens if political opportunism becomes a trend. Rather than harmonize national unity in a pandemic-ravaged country, division and confusion among the population or a particular sector is instead espoused. In turn, false promises and hopes could frustrate the holistic approach being forged by a wide-range of social actors attuned to the long-standing battle against corruption.

More so, corruption of power could be exacerbated whenever the law is weaponized and used to benefit a new or selected few. Empirically, two examples could be cited. First if more than half of Filipinos agree that “It is dangerous to print or broadcast anything critical of the administration, even if it is the truth,” (SWS, July 3-6, 2020 survey), then what we have now is a terrified citizenry.

Second, the latest political charade in “handling” the country’s elite is not really about dismantling the oligarchy as pronounced. What’s happening is a mere changing of the old guards; the overt creation and empowerment of a new oligarchy, the “Dutertegarchs,” as William Pesek has pointedly raised.

To address corruption, political-institutional and economic reforms beg to be independently and holistically crafted and implemented.

Victor Andres “Dindo” C. Manhit is the President of Stratbase ADR Institute.



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  • Corruption Essay


Essay on Corruption

Corruption refers to any act performed by individuals or a group in lieu of some form of bribes. Corruption is considered to be a dishonest and criminal act. If proven, Corruption can lead to Legal Punishments. Oftentimes the act of Corruption comprises the rights and privileges of some. It is very hard to find a definition that takes into account all the characteristics and aspects of Corruption. However, as responsible citizens of the Nation, we all must be aware of the true meaning and manifestation of Corruption in its every form so that whenever we come across it we can raise our voice against it and fight for justice. 

Place and Process of Corruption

Corruption is very common in government or private offices. The most common acts of Corruption involve some form of Bribery. Bribery involves some use of improper favours and gifts exchanged for personal gains of some sort. Moreover, Corruption is often found to be intertwined with embezzlement. Corruption can take place in many ways and in any public and private office. It is observed that most people in a position of power or authority are more likely to be involved in corrupt acts.  

The actual reasons behind Corruption are believed to be greed and selfishness. Bribery can include a range of favours like money, gifts, company shares, sexual favours, entertainment, political benefits as well as personal gain. One or more of such favors can inspire people to indulge in Corruption and preferential treatment and also inspire them to overlook criminal activities. 

Embezzlement, on the other hand, is another form of Corruption. An embezzlement is an act of withholding or concealing information about personal assets for the purpose of illegal trading or threat. Embezzlement generally involves people who were entrusted with the assets in question in the first place. Apart from being an act of Corruption, embezzlement is also an act of financial fraud. 

Another important form of Corruption is the graft. It is a global form of Corruption. It is also one of the most noteworthy and widespread corrupt practices in existence. Grafting refers to illegally using a politician's authority to achieve personal gains or goals. An eminent Example of this would be politically influential people misdirecting public funds to meet their own selfish needs.

Another important form of Corruption is extortion. Extortion means obtaining property, money or services through illegal means. Extortion takes place by taking advantage of individuals through coercion, threats or influence. It is very similar to blackmail. One of the oldest forms of Corruption is nepotism and favoritism. Both of these practices involve people being favored for a position or task due to his or her filial or familial status or ties. 

Another form of favoritism includes influence peddling. In this case, one's influence on people in power is used to get work done. The last form of Corruption is an abuse of discretion, in this type the person is power uses his or her authority to bend legal proceedings.

How to End Corruption? 

Corruption not only hinders working in an organization but also affects the economy of a country and the efficiency of various services. To stop Corruption, the government must take stricter measures. Existing laws must be strictly implemented and if the need arises, new laws are introduced. Workplaces should be strictly monitored to prevent any unethical exchange of favors. Only an end to small forms of Corruption can result in a cumulative effect and bring a significant change in Society. 


FAQs on Corruption Essay

1. How to write an essay on Corruption?

To write an essay on Corruption, the writer needs to have an understanding and get some research done on the topic. After they know something about the topic, a broad topic line and the layout of the essay can be figured out based on the number of words required to write the essay. Students can then start writing by giving a quirky and compelling headline that captures the reader's attention. After giving the headline, come the major and most important paragraph of the essay, that is, the introduction of the essay. The introduction sets the feel of the essay and should be written keeping that in mind. 

Most people who will see the essay will go through the headline and the introduction paragraph and this will set the impression if the reader will read the complete essay or not. Students can then move on to writing three to four paragraphs or more in the body part where they can explain more about Corruption, why it happens and how to solve the problem of Corruption. This will be the main content part of the essay. Then the student can conclude the essay with a nice conclusion which the reader will take with them, it should include the gist of the whole article and its important points. This is how students can write an essay on Corruption. They can also refer to Vedantu's website where they can find essays on Corruption and other topics that they can use or refer to.

2. How to prepare to write an Exam?

Essays are a form of creative writing which is often tested in Exams for a good weightage of marks. Creative writing is a skill and like all skills, it can also be learned. To write long-form content like this, where minimum word limits are given, it's necessary to note the information, one knows about the topic and then divide the topic in optimum layout to cover the maximum and minimum word limit. 

Any essay should be divided into 3 parts- The Introduction, The Body, and The Conclusion. The introduction of any essay is very important as a good introduction can really impress a teacher. The body contains the main facts, data, and explanation of the introduction. Conclusion concludes an essay with a complete list of the topic. Good words and proper use of grammar will give a different shine to your essay and the complete English Exam. 

Essay writing can be difficult for some students, but students should remember that essay writing is an easy and high-scoring area in an English Exam or test. Students can learn more about Essay Writing at Vedantu's official website where they can browse from various Examples of essays written by our best English teachers to help the students to get full marks in content writing. This is how students can write an essay in an Exam and get full marks.

3. Why does Corruption exist in Society?

Corruption is the venom that can destroy any Society. Tackling Corruption is indirectly tackling people's mindset and handling their needs by keeping the system fair and equal for everyone. The last decades have shown a lot of growth in the overall condition of the country but the Corruption rates have also sky-rocketed. Corruption can also exist because greedy people have a good network and contacts that get the work done.  Corruption can give one temporary control over their time but they should remember that they'll eventually be caught one day.

4. How to write a good body in an essay?

Essays are long-form creative writing exercises that can be often difficult for many students. The most time-consuming and biggest element of an essay is the body which comprises all the facts, explanations, and examples of the essay.  After writing a perfect and compelling introduction, the writer has to start the main heart and soul of the essay; the body. 

The body can be started by explaining the introduction statements and explaining one's opinion on the topic. These explanations and opinions can be backed up by some evidence, facts, or theories. That's how one can write a good body element in an essay. To study more about essay writing, one can check Vedantu's official website where they can browse many Examples and sample written essays on several topics by the best English teachers. Students can master the skill of essay writing with some practice and guidance.

5. What makes a good conclusion in an essay?

Essays are divided into 3 parts where the conclusion comes last after an introduction and the body. Introduction and body are important but the conclusion will decide how much the reader will take back with the conclusion is the concluding paragraph or paragraphs which need an essay with the gist of the complete essay. Unlike the introductory paragraph, which outlines the general idea of the essay, the conclusion should precisely confirm why one's thesis is correct using the facts from your supportive body paragraphs. That's why a conclusion is an important part of an essay and should be written that way. To learn more about essay writing, one can check out Vedantu's official website where they can find the format, Examples, and tips to write a good essay and a good conclusion. They'll find essays written on numerous topics by the best English teachers at Vedantu.

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Government Corruption Essay Example

Government Corruption Essay Example

Corruption refers to a dishonest and a fraudulent way used by those individuals in positions of influence to acquire resources. These in most cases are public resources not belonging to them. In simple terms, it is the abuse of power and authority entrusted to an individual for private and personal gains. Its gravity depends on the amounts of resources that are lost and therefore can be petty or grand. This topic of corruption is essential because it is a social, political and economic problem that deprives the United States and other countries their resources that are meant to benefit the citizens at large.

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Individuals engage in different forms of corruption. These are also referred to as types of corruption. According to Ackerman & Palifka (2016), various types of corruption include bribery, exchange of favors, cronyism, judicial fraud, extortion, accounting fraud in places of work, public service fraud and embezzlement of public funds, kleptocracy, influence peddling and lastly conflicts of interests. The most common forms of corruption are bribery, nepotism, public service fraud, embezzlement of funds conducted by public officials and electoral fraud. Ackerman & Palifka (2016) gives various definitions of these various forms of corruption.

Bribery, according to them, is defined to as "the explicit exchange of money, gifts in kind, or favors for breaking or as payment of benefits that should legally be costless or be allocated on terms other than a willingness to pay." Extortion, therefore, is a form of bribery where an individual demands a bribe in returns of a favor. Nepotism, on the other hand, is defined as "the hiring of a member of a family or an individual with close ties, instead of an applicant who is more qualified but has no relation to the person recruiting. Nepotism is closely related to cronyism where an individual prefers members belonging to his or her racial or ethnic; religious or the political group in matters relating to the allocation of jobs, positions, and promotions.

Similarly, public service is used to refer to whichever action that undermines the lawful necessities of community service relief. It is not a must to pay bribes in this case. Embezzlement of funds closely relates to public service fraud. Nurses in hospitals can prescribe unnecessary tests for their patients to increase reimbursements from the government. This can also happen in schools. Public officials also take funds allocated for public activities for their gains.

In American history, there have been reported cases of money scandals. For example, Alexander Hamilton who happened to be the first Secretary of the Treasury was on many occasions accused of taking advantage of his political position to enrich those who were close to him. His family members and close associates were snarled in money scandals. The Watergate scandal is also a major political scandal in the history of the United States. According to DeLeon (2015), the scandal took place in 1970. Five men broke into the Democratic National Committee headquarters that is situated in Washington DC. The United States' president by then was Richard Nixon. The scandal came to be known when some misuse of political authority by close allies in Nixon's administration who in multiple occasions break-in, a situation which the government tried to cover up by not linking the white house to the scandal. This scandal led to the resignation of President Nixon.

The milk money scandal also occurred in 1974. John Connally, President Nixon's secretary, was accused of conspiracy to obstruct justice. It was believed that American Milk Producers Inc. gave Connally a bribe that was worth $10,000. The intent of this bribe was to convince Connally to increase the prices of milk. This intent was therefore implemented through raising the milk prices by 75%. Connally was fired from his position when this was learned.

Corruption has adverse effects on the economies and social wellbeing of citizens in every country. It has led to lack of proper justice. This is majorly connected to the corruption in the judiciary. Judges, lawyers, and prosecutors receive bribes to change situations. Culprits are usually left free while the innocent are jailed.

There is the challenge of lack of proper services regarding quality in the public service. Public officials demand bribes to deliver quality services to the citizens. These sectors where corruption is rampant are the education, health, security, among others. This has a great impact on the type of professionals that are produced as a result of candidates taking part in examination cheating. There have also been cases of the relief funds meant for aids are misappropriated by individuals for personal gains.

Similarly, there is a constant rise in the number of unemployed youths as a result of corruption in the public sector. Other effects of corruption in countries are increased poverty levels, pollution where industries bribe the government to dispose of wastes poorly, accidents among others.

In conclusion, corruption is a vice that every government needs to work on to improve the quality of service delivery to its citizens. Every government, therefore, needs to pay its public officials well to prevent cases of them engaging in corrupt practices. Similarly, there is need to enhance transparency in the manner public funds are spent. Those found culpable of engaging in corrupt practices can be arrested charged and tried in courts of law. This should act as an example to everyone. Ways of combating corruption are not limited to these. It is a vice that can be defeated if people join hands.

DeLeon, P. (2015). Thinking about political corruption. Routledge.Rose-Ackerman, S., & Palifka, B. J. (2016). Corruption and government: Causes, consequences, and reform. Cambridge university press.

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essay about government corruption

Andy Mulligan

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Childhood, Poverty, and Injustice Theme Icon

Andy Mulligan’s novel Trash argues that corruption is society’s most disgraceful form of stealing. Mulligan’s story revolves around theft: impoverished children have to steal to stay alive, bribes are necessary transactions in day-to-day life, and the plot revolves around the theft of millions of dollars from the wealthy Senator Zapanta ’s private vault. Despite the prevalence of theft throughout the story, Mulligan argues that theft that’s intended to help poor people stay alive isn’t theft at all, since such people are owed a basic level of subsistence by society. In contrast, Mulligan believes the true theft is committed by society’s corrupt elite, which he exemplifies through vice-president Zapanta’s actions. Senator Zapanta steals millions of dollars of personal wealth by siphoning off government funds intended for the poor through bogus business deals, forcing the city’s poor to live amid rotting waste in slums built on landfills and cemeteries. Zapanta also maintains his wealth by imprisoning or killing anybody who threatens his fortune, dooming several characters to untimely, often violent, deaths. The book thus portrays corruption as the most unforgivable transgression a person in power can commit because it robs others of their freedom—or even their lives.

Mulligan implies that theft by and for society’s poorest is not really theft at all, because the poor are owed a tolerable standard of life by their society. For instance, Rat (a young malnourished boy who sleeps among rats in a landfill called Behala) regularly lifts small amounts of money from the charity-run Mission School on site. Yet Mulligan portrays Rat’s thieving as justified because Rat merely dreams of affording train fare home where he can become a fisherman away from the “stink” of Behala, where no child should be condemned to live. Mulligan similarly describes José Angelico —a poor man who steals a fortune from Senator Zapanta—as “no thief” because José Angelico intends to distribute the fortune among the poor. Mulligan depicts José Angelico’s theft as an act of justice rather than theft, because Zapanta’s fortune came from government aid money, meaning it actually “belongs to the poor” and so it is merely being returned to them.

Mulligan contrasts the children’s and José Angelico’s arguably justified theft with Senator Zapanta’s corruption, through which Zapanta hoards government aid money, condemning countless people to hopeless poverty. A political prisoner named Gabriel Olondriz explains that the aid money Senator Zapanta “spirited away” was intended for “hospitals and schools,” but that “the city remained poor” while Zapanta grew absurdly wealthy.  José Angelico similarly accuses Senator Zapanta of stopping “a nation in its tracks” and preventing their country from “making progress” so that Zapanta could fill his personal vault with “dirty money from his crimes.” Mulligan exemplifies Zapanta’s crimes through an article in the “Star Extra” newspaper, which describes a court case questioning Zapanta’s attempt to recover debts from his bankrupt company by raising taxes on rice, which likely affected countless people who struggle to afford the rice on which society’s poorest subsist. When Raphael , Gardo , and Rat—three young scavengers who live on the landfill—discover the $6,000,000 that José Angelico stole from Zapanta, Raphael remarks that the money looks like “food and drink and changing my life.” Essentially, for the “ trash boys” who live in the landfill, this enormous sum represents freedom from a deplorable life of poverty. Since Zapanta’s vault was full of aid money, his unethical hoarding means that he is directly responsible for the suffering of those forced to live in slums, graveyards, and landfills.

Senator Zapanta’s attempts to protect his stolen wealth also result in the deaths of several characters, which demonstrates how government corruption has a direct effect on society’s most vulnerable populations—particularly those who speak out against an authority figure’s wrongdoings. Mulligan shows how people who attempt to bring corrupt politicians to justice are killed for their efforts, enabling corrupt figures like Zapanta to keep exploiting government resources for personal gain at the expense of the poor. Gabriel Olondriz, for example, is unjustly imprisoned after attempting to expose Senator Zapanta’s theft of government aid money and he eventually dies after spending countless years in the squalid Colva Prison. Zapanta’s corrupt efforts to keep his hands on the money he has stolen are also directly responsible for the deaths of several characters, such as José Angelico, who is killed by police during a violent interrogation when he is suspected of stealing Zapanta’s fortune. Additionally, two of Olondriz’s servants are killed when Olondriz’s house is burned to destroy evidence against Zapanta.

Thus, even though the poorest people in Mulligan’s fictional city steal a little to get by and José Angelico steals a fortune to return it to the city’s poor, their theft is nothing in comparison to Zapanta’s. Mulligan contrasts these examples of theft to demonstrate how corruption is actually the greatest form of theft in a society, as it either robs people of the hope for a better life or it ends their lives entirely.

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Trash PDF

Corruption, Power, and Theft Quotes in Trash

On the other hand, I did not want Raphael hiding and drawing attention that way, so that’s why I kept him right in the middle of it.

Childhood, Poverty, and Injustice Theme Icon

I was told once about runaways, and it made me sick. How if a new kid shows up with nowhere to go, and the police get him—they wait till night, break his legs and put him on the tracks.

essay about government corruption

His final act—the one that killed him—was to expose three senators who’d been siphoning off public taxes and stowing them off-shore. They all resigned and the prosecution rumbles on. Pascal Aguila was shot to pieces in a taxi, on his way to testify. Twenty-six bullets—the same caliber as a policeman’s gun —and his murderers were never found.

It sounds crazy, but there was some part of me sure I’d never found it, and some other part of me begging me not to give up—maybe for José Angelico, because we knew more about him now.

What matters is that forty years ago I came upon information that Senator Zapanta had spirited away thirty million dollars of international aid money […] But no schools or hospitals were ever built, and the city stayed poor.

I had so much evidence. Unfortunately for me, I was naïve. My office was raided. The same night there was a terrible fire at my house. I was away but both my maid and my driver were killed in it. And every scrap of evidence went up in smoke.

Once again, the trash boys were ahead of the trash police.

What was ten million dollars doing in your house, sir?

And that is when we saw the brightest light.

Beware, because this money belongs to the poor.

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A look at how corruption works in the Philippines

The Philippines is perceived to be one of the most corrupt countries in the world. Of 180 countries, the Philippines ranked 116 in terms of being least corrupt. This means that the country is almost on the top one-third of the most corrupt countries, based on the Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) published by Transparency International.

According to CPI, the Philippines scored a total of 33 points out of 100. Even as far back as 2012, it has fluctuated around the same CPI score, with the highest score being 38 points in 2014 and the lowest being 33 points in 2021 and 2022. To further contextualize how low it scored, the regional average CPI score for the Asia-Pacific region is 45, with zero as highly corrupt. And of the 31 countries and territories in the region, the Philippines placed 22nd (tied with Mongolia).

It must be noted, however, that CPI measures perceptions of corruption and is not necessarily the reality of the state of corruption. CPI reflects the views of experts or surveys of business people on a number of corrupt behavior in the public sector (such as bribery, diversion of public funds, nepotism in the civil service, use of public office for private gain, etc.). CPI also measures the available mechanisms to prevent corruption, such as enforcement mechanisms, effective prosecution of corrupt officials, red tape, laws on adequate financial disclosure and legal protection for whistleblowers.

These data are taken from other international organizations, such as the World Bank, World Economic Forum, private consulting companies and think tanks.

Of course, measuring actual corruption is quite difficult, especially as it involves under-the-table activities that are only discovered when they are prosecuted, like in the case of the ill-gotten wealth of the Marcoses, which was estimated to be up to $10 billion based on now-deleted Guinness World Records and cited as the “biggest robbery of a government.” Nevertheless, there still exists a correlation between corruption and corruption perceptions.

4 Syndromes

Corruption does not come in a single form as well. In a 2007 study, Michael Johnston, a political scientist and professor emeritus at Colgate University in the United States, studied four syndromes (categories) of corruption that were predominant in Asia, citing Japan, Korea, China and the Philippines as prime examples of each category.

The first category is Influence Market Corruption, wherein politicians peddle their influence to provide connections to other people, essentially serving as middlemen. The second category is Elite Cartel Corruption, wherein there exist networks of elites that may collude to protect their economic and political advantages. The third form of corruption is the Official Mogul Corruption, wherein economic moguls (or their clients) are usually the top political figures and face few constraints from the state or their competitors.

Finally, there is the form of corruption that the Philippines is familiar with. Oligarch-and-Clan Corruption is present in countries with major political and economic liberalization and weak institutions. Corruption of this kind has been characterized by Johnston as having “disorderly, sometimes violent scramble among contending oligarchs seeking to parlay personal resources into wealth and power.” Other than the Philippines, corruption in Bangladesh, India, Malaysia, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka falls under the same syndrome.

In the Philippines, Oligarch-and-Clan Corruption manifests itself in the political system. As Johnston noted, in this kind of corruption, there is difficulty in determining what is public and what is private (i.e., who is a politician and who is an entrepreneur). Oligarchs attempt to use their power for their private benefit or the benefit of their families. From the Aquinos, Binays, Dutertes, Roxases and, most notoriously, the Marcoses, the Philippines is no stranger to political families. In a 2017 chart by Todd Cabrera Lucero, he traced the lineage of Philippine presidents and noted them to be either related by affinity or consanguinity.

Corruption in the Philippines by oligarch families is not unheard of. In fact, the most notable case of corruption in the Philippines was committed by an oligarchic family—the Marcos family. The extent of the wealth stolen by former dictator Ferdinand Marcos Sr. and his wife has been well-documented. In fact, several Supreme Court cases clearly show the extent of the wealth that the Marcoses had stolen.

In an Oligarch-and-Clan system of corruption, oligarchs will also leverage whatever governmental authority they have to their advantage. Going back to the Marcos example, despite their convictions, the Marcoses have managed to weasel their way back into power, with Ferdinand Marcos Jr. becoming the 17th President despite his conviction for tax violation. Several politicians have also been convicted of graft and corruption (or have at least been hounded by allegations of corruption) and still remain in politics. As observed by Johnston in his article, though Ferdinand and Imelda Marcos are the popular images of corruption in the Philippines, he also noted other entrenched oligarchs throughout the country.

Finally, factions also tend to be “unstable and poorly disciplined.” The term “balimbing” is often thrown around in local politics but, more than that, the Philippines is also familiar with politically-motivated violence and disorder.

All these features are characteristics of Oligarch-and-Clan corruption, where these oligarchic families continue to hold power and politicians exploit their positions to enrich themselves or their families.

Corruption, no matter what kind, needs to be curbed. It results in loss of government money, which could have been used to boost the economy and help ordinary citizens, especially those from the lower income sectors.

According to the 2007 study, the Office of the Ombudsman had, in 1999, pegged losses arising from corruption at P100 million daily, whereas the World Bank estimates the losses at one-fifth of the national government budget. For relatively more updated figures, former Deputy Ombudsman Cyril Ramos claimed that the Philippines had lost a total of P1.4 trillion in 2017 and 2018. These estimates are in line with the World Bank estimates of one-fifth (or 20 percent) of the national budget.

So grave is the adverse effect of corruption that the international community recognized it as an international crime under the United Nations Convention Against Corruption where perpetual disqualification of convicted officials is recommended.

But the question stands: can corruption be eradicated in developing countries like the Philippines? Many Philippine presidents promised to end corruption in their political campaigning, but none has achieved it so far. If the government truly wants to end corruption, it must implement policies directed against corruption, such as lifting the bank secrecy law, prosecuting and punishing corrupt officials, increasing government transparency and more. INQ

This is part of the author’s presentation at DPI 543 Corruption: Finding It and Fixing It course at Harvard Kennedy School, where he is MPA/Mason fellow.

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This article reflects the personal opinion of the author and not the official stand of the Management Association of the Philippines or MAP. He is a member of MAP Tax Committee and MAP Ease of Doing Business Committee, co-chair of Paying Taxes on Ease of Doing Business Task Force and chief tax advisor of Asian Consulting Group. Feedback at [email protected] and [email protected] .

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Corruption Argumentative Essays Samples For Students

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Do you feel the need to check out some previously written Argumentative Essays on Corruption before you get down to writing an own piece? In this open-access database of Corruption Argumentative Essay examples, you are given a thrilling opportunity to examine meaningful topics, content structuring techniques, text flow, formatting styles, and other academically acclaimed writing practices. Applying them while composing your own Corruption Argumentative Essay will surely allow you to complete the piece faster.

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Compare and contrast the most important points to development that William Easterly, Jeffrey Sachs, and Susan George & Fabrizio Sabelli Give in their books


This paper analyzes the vital points to development in the books by William Easterly, Jeffrey Sachs, and Susan George & Fabrizio Sabelli. I will examine the three books one after the other, highlighting the similarities and differences. Importantly, the three books have diverse views about the developmental aid offered by the World Bank and the IMF. However, they all advocate for the establishment of stable, transparent and credible governance in the underdeveloped countries.

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Sample argumentative essay on are political parties beneficial or detrimental.

While the history of Political Parties very old phenomenon, but this concept got its mainstream position after American Independence. Globally, it is a known notion that monopoly is associated with corruption and exploitation (Diamond, 2001). If the rulers develop the feeling that no matter whatever they will do with their follower, if their official position is not in danger, they will exploit their official position. As political parties form the basis for a powerful democracy, it is beneficial for a country.

Political Parties and Freedom of Speech

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This paper will discuss the argument of why a country should be ruled by Monarchy. The first section of this paper will discuss how patriotism is better in case of a monarchy from the citizens. The second section of this paper will discuss the advantage of civilization in case of monarch rule. The third section of this paper will discuss the advantage of the qualification in case of monarchy. The final section of this paper will discuss the disadvantage of corruption that comes with monarch rule.

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Upton Sinclair’s novel “The Jungle” goes deeper than a simple expose of the meat packing industry, Sinclair’s real goal was to provide an in-depth expose of society itself. By analyzing the socialist messages within “The Jungle” the corruption of capitalism and fallacy of the “American Dream” reveal the seedy underbelly of society and the unsanitary / unsafe working conditions of the Industrial Revolution.

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Essay on Corruption in Public Life

Students are often asked to write an essay on Corruption in Public Life in their schools and colleges. And if you’re also looking for the same, we have created 100-word, 250-word, and 500-word essays on the topic.

Let’s take a look…

100 Words Essay on Corruption in Public Life

Understanding corruption in public life.

Corruption in public life refers to dishonest or fraudulent conduct by those in authority. It can take various forms, such as bribery, embezzlement, or misuse of power for personal gain.

Impacts on Society

Corruption negatively affects society by diverting funds meant for public services, like healthcare and education. This leads to inadequate resources for citizens in need.

Undermining Trust

When public officials engage in corrupt practices, it erodes trust in government institutions. Citizens become disillusioned and lose faith in their leaders.

Combatting Corruption

To tackle corruption, transparency, accountability, and strong anti-corruption measures are essential for promoting integrity in public life.

250 Words Essay on Corruption in Public Life

Corruption in public life refers to dishonest and unethical behavior by people in positions of power or authority. It is a serious issue that can harm society in various ways.

Types of Corruption

Corruption can manifest in many forms, such as bribery, nepotism, embezzlement, and favoritism. These actions undermine the trust people have in their government and institutions.

Impact on Society

Corruption has a detrimental impact on society. It can lead to the misallocation of resources, hindering economic growth and development. Public services may suffer, affecting the quality of education, healthcare, and infrastructure.

Consequences for Individuals

Corruption can also affect individuals directly. It can lead to unfair treatment, where those with money and connections gain advantages over others. This can create a sense of injustice and inequality.

Importance of Transparency

Transparency and accountability are essential in combating corruption. When public officials are transparent about their actions and decisions, it becomes easier to identify and address corrupt practices.

Role of Citizens

Citizens play a crucial role in fighting corruption. By staying informed, speaking out against corruption, and holding officials accountable, individuals can help create a more transparent and honest society.

In conclusion, corruption in public life is a significant challenge that requires collective effort to address. By promoting transparency, accountability, and ethical behavior, we can work towards a more just and fair society.

500 Words Essay on Corruption in Public Life

Corruption in public life refers to the misuse of power and position by individuals entrusted with public resources for personal gain. It is a serious problem that can have detrimental effects on society as a whole. When those in authority engage in corrupt practices, it undermines the trust of the people and hampers the progress and development of a nation.

Forms of Corruption

Corruption in public life can take various forms. It may involve bribery, where officials accept money or gifts in exchange for favors or services. Nepotism is another form of corruption, where individuals in power show favoritism towards their family members or friends. Embezzlement occurs when public funds are misappropriated for personal use, depriving the public of much-needed resources.

The impact of corruption in public life is far-reaching. It leads to a lack of transparency and accountability in government institutions, which can result in the misallocation of resources and poor service delivery. Corruption also perpetuates inequality and injustice, as those with power and wealth are able to manipulate the system to their advantage, while the most vulnerable in society suffer the consequences.

Undermining Trust and Confidence

When public officials engage in corrupt practices, it erodes the trust and confidence of the public in the government. Citizens rely on their leaders to act in the best interests of the country, and when this trust is broken, it can lead to widespread disillusionment and unrest. Corruption breeds a culture of dishonesty and deceit that can be difficult to eradicate.

Preventing Corruption

Preventing corruption in public life requires a concerted effort from both the government and the citizens. Implementing strong anti-corruption laws and mechanisms can help deter corrupt practices and hold offenders accountable. Transparency and oversight in government operations can also help prevent the misuse of public resources.

Citizens play a crucial role in combating corruption in public life. By holding their leaders accountable and demanding transparency and integrity, individuals can help create a culture of honesty and ethical behavior. Reporting instances of corruption and supporting anti-corruption initiatives are vital steps in ensuring that public officials act in the best interests of the people.

In conclusion, corruption in public life is a serious issue that undermines the foundations of a just and fair society. It is essential for governments to take proactive measures to prevent corruption and hold those responsible for corrupt practices accountable. By fostering a culture of honesty, transparency, and accountability, we can work towards a future where public resources are used for the benefit of all members of society.

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essay about government corruption

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UK sanctions corrupt politicians in Uganda who stole from vulnerable communities

The UK has imposed sanctions on Ugandan politicians charged with corruption

essay about government corruption

  • UK imposes sanctions on Ugandan politicians including the Speaker of Parliament following corruption charges for stealing from the poorest communities in Uganda. 
  • This is the first time the UK has used the Global Anti-Corruption Sanctions regime on individuals involved in corruption in Uganda.
  • New sanctions are part of the UK’s continued effort to crack down on serious corruption around the world.  

Deputy Foreign Secretary, Andrew Mitchell, has announced sanctions on high profile Ugandan politicians charged with corruption, and the Speaker of the Parliament of Uganda, today (30 April). 

It is the first time the UK government has used the Global Anti-Corruption Sanctions regime on individuals involved in corruption in Uganda.  

The three individuals, two of whom were previously ministers responsible for Uganda’s poorest region, Karamoja, and have been charged with corruption at Uganda’s Anti-Corruption Court, will be subject to travel bans and asset freezes. 

The two former ministers sanctioned – Mary Goretti Kitutu and Agnes Nandutu – stole thousands of iron sheets used for roofing and infrastructure from a Ugandan government-funded project aimed at housing some of the most vulnerable communities in the region, providing them to prominent politicians and their families instead.

The Speaker of the Parliament, Anita Annet Among, benefited from the proceeds.

Over 60% of people in Karamoja live in poverty and many suffer from the devastating impacts of drought and insecurity.

 Deputy Foreign Secretary, Andrew Mitchell, said:  

The actions of these individuals, in taking aid from those who need it most, and keeping the proceeds, is corruption at its worst and has no place in society. The Ugandan courts are rightly taking action to crack down on those politicians who seek to line their own pockets at their constituents’ expense.  Today the UK is sending a clear message to those who think benefiting at the expense of others is acceptable. Corruption has consequences and you will be held responsible.

 The three individuals sanctioned:  

  • Anita Annet Among, who has been the Speaker of the Parliament of Uganda since 2022.
  • Mary Goretti Kitutu, who was the Minister for Karamoja Affairs between 2021 and 2024.
  • Agnes Nandutu, who was the State Minister for Karamoja Affairs between 2021 and 2024.  

These measures follow previous UK sanctions under the Global Anti-Corruption sanctions regime , which has targeted individuals involved in serious corruption cases across the world, including Bulgaria, Lebanon, Moldova, Russia, South Africa, South Sudan, and Venezuela. 

Since its introduction in April 2021, the UK has introduced sanctions on 42 individuals and entities under this regime globally to combat corruption across the world. 

An asset freeze prevents any UK citizen, or any business in the UK, from dealing with any funds or economic resources which are owned, held or controlled by the designated person and which are held in the UK. It will also prevent funds or economic resources being provided to or for the benefit of the designated person or entity 

A travel ban means that the designated person is an excluded person under section 8B of the Immigration Act 1971, and must be refused leave to enter or to remain in the United Kingdom (any leave given to a person who is an excluded person is invalid). 

Under the UK’s Global Anti-Corruption sanctions regulations 2021, individuals and entities anywhere in the world can be sanctioned for their involvement in bribery or misappropriation of property involving a foreign public official.  

This could include those who facilitate, profit from or try to cover up serious corruption, as well as making efforts to prevent authorities from carrying out justice for these actions. 

UK Aid was not involved in the Ugandan Government project.

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essay about government corruption

To the Editor:

Re “ In an Age of Doxxing, Some Protesters Choose Anonymity ” (news article, May 3):

As a former activist with a proud résumé of progressive civil disobedience and protest from the 1970s through the 1990s, I sympathize with the energy and idealistic enthusiasm of the student protesters this year.

However, I find it inconceivable that so many have chosen to be masked. The anonymity of their anti-Israel expression seems to me far too close to the behavior of a mob. It is also anathema to the concept of a free exchange of ideas that the modern postsecondary educational experience is supposed to be all about.

If these students intend to accomplish anything while they are protesting, they need to put their real identities to the challenge and defend their ideas.

Or perhaps in being unmasked, these anonymous radicals will suddenly realize that what some of them are advocating, the elimination of the modern state of Israel, is entirely inconceivable.

Carl D. Birman Albany, N.Y.

This article addresses the issue of masking by pro-Palestine (and a few pro-Israel) demonstrators at college campuses, pointing out that students fear suspension, doxxing and other threats if their identities become known.

The article compares this generation of students to earlier generations of activists, of which I was a member, who “gained their moral force in part by putting their words on record and their futures in jeopardy for a larger cause.” Indeed we did, and we did it to protest the war in Vietnam and to support civil rights in the face of serious police violence.

Although some will draw parallels between Kent State and today’s actions on college campuses, the level of risk that students today face can’t begin to compare with that of students back then.

One very important difference between then and now is that the men of my generation risked being drafted. We were demonstrating not only for “moral force,” but also because an unjust war threatened to take our lives. The draft, not the doxxing, was an overwhelming concern.

Please, don’t compare the two eras. We didn’t wear masks; they do. We wanted to “stop the war!”; they are chanting “from the river to the sea,” which surely will require more fighting.

Linda Lögdberg Philadelphia

Akosua Barthwell Evans, a 1968 protester at Columbia, states: “Times have changed, but I have a lot of respect for the protesters who are using peaceful means to fight injustice and who have the courage to take personal risks to try to make a difference in the world” (“Witness: Portraits of the People Living the News,” Sunday Opinion, May 5).

There is no courage in hiding behind masks as many of the recent protesters have done. There is no bravery in demanding that there be no punishment for breaking the law or violating campus policies and causing many others to feel intimidated or uneasy, as so many of the recent protesters have asked for in their “demands.”

Civil disobedience means one is willing to accept the consequences for one’s actions and let the chips fall where they may.

Nathaniel Helfgot Teaneck, N.J.

essay about government corruption

12 Departing Lawmakers Tell Us What Congress Is Really Like

These are their exit interviews.

Re “ Quitting Congress: The Exit Interviews ” (Opinion, May 5):

Several departing members of Congress bemoaned their salaries not being tied to inflation and the cost of living. Perhaps the people they represent would be more likely to accept that grievance if Congress made the same concession on the minimum wage.

Jonathan L. Gleit Tarrytown, N.Y.

When asked about corruption in Congress, Representative Ken Buck addressed pervasive political spending and the “tsunami of money that comes in from special interest groups.” His revelation that members of Congress need to raise $250,000-plus for the party to secure coveted committee positions underscores the dire need for campaign finance reform in our political system.

This isn’t just a political challenge, but a constitutional one. Through decades of misguided precedent, the Supreme Court has effectively appointed itself as the legislative body for campaign finance reform. An amendment is the only path forward to address the toxic influence of money in politics.

Ratifying the For Our Freedom Amendment will empower states and Congress to set reasonable limits on political spending, ensuring that every American voice counts. Twenty-two states have called on Congress to propose the amendment, and voters list reducing the influence of money in politics as a top priority for 2024.

Candidates who care about addressing out-of-control spending should pledge support for the amendment and help us return to a government that focuses on addressing everyday issues, not on fund-raising for the next election cycle.

Jeffrey D. Clements Cambridge, Mass. The writer is C.E.O. of American Promise, which has proposed the amendment.

Re “ Fishing Zones Seen as Flaw in Plan to Protect Oceans ” (news article, May 1):

Our oceans have changed since my grandfather Jacques Cousteau explored and spotlighted underwater worlds, with marine ecosystems facing growing threats like climate change, plastics and destructive fishing.

Our oceans cover more than 70 percent of the planet and provide us with so many benefits — oxygen, food, livelihoods and recreation, to name just a few — yet only about 8 percent of them are under some type of protection.

How can our oceans truly be protected if they aren’t shielded from destructive activities? Bottom trawling indiscriminately bulldozes the seafloor, destroying habitats and killing marine life in its destructive path.

Global leaders have an opportunity to establish real, meaningful protections for our oceans with their efforts toward what is known as 30x30 , a commitment to safeguard 30 percent of the planet’s oceans by 2030. Such protections allow fish to grow, feed and breed to build more resilient oceans. But allowing destructive practices like bottom trawling in protected areas worldwide undermines this effort.

We know that our oceans thrive when they are well protected, and so do the people and communities that rely on them. Global leaders, including President Biden, must protect 30 percent of our oceans and then do more. Don’t limit protections to remote areas but expand them to cover geographically diverse waters.

By fully protecting our oceans, without exclusions or exceptions, we will restore our global waters and rebuild ocean abundance for generations.

Alexandra Cousteau Paris The writer is a senior adviser to the international advocacy group Oceana.

Re “ Trump Return? A Wary Capital Talks of Escape ” (Washington Memo, May 6):

It was disappointing to read your article reporting that many influential people in Washington talk of planning to leave the United States if Donald Trump is elected president.

Many of these people have ample resources, deep government experience and other political skills. So rather than ruminating about which country they would apply to for “asylum,” why aren’t they organizing, fighting back and actively doing all they can to re-elect Joe Biden?

Lloyd Trufelman Katonah, N.Y.

essay about government corruption

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KKB polls: MACC to study Nga's announcement of allocation to KKB

Tuesday, 07 May 2024

Related News

KKB polls: 97% turnout in early voting

KKB polls: 97% turnout in early voting

Kkb polls: takiyuddin's remarks imply breakdown of morale in perikatan, says fahmi, kkb polls: two early voting centres open at 8am.

PUTRAJAYA: The Malaysian Anti-Corruption Commission (MACC) is studying allegations against Housing and Local Government Minister Nga Kor Ming regarding his recent announcement of an allocation for infrastructure in Kuala Kubu Baru.

MACC chief Tan Sri Azam Baki said the commission will study whether such an action was related to bribery.

"The matter will be looked at by the MACC’s complaints centre and till now no investigation papers have been opened,” he said after the launch of the National Anti-Corruption Strategy (NACS) 2024-2028 at the Putrajaya International Convention Centre (PICC), here on Tueaday (May 7).

Nga said on April 18 that his ministry had allocated RM5.21mil for public infrastructure upgrading works. This includes 14 projects worth RM4.82mil in the Chinese New Village Project in Hulu Selangor, which is under the supervision of the local municipal council.

The Local Government Minister made the announcement during a visit to Kuala Kubu Baru, ahead of the official campaigning period for the by-election, which started on April 27. – Bernama

Related stories:

Tags / Keywords: Azam Baki , MACC , Nga Kor Ming , Allocation , Kuala Kubu Baru

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KKB Polls: Takiyuddin's remarks imply breakdown of morale in Perikatan, says Fahmi

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