Nursing Pharmacology Practice Questions & Test Bank for NCLEX (500+ Questions)
Welcome to your ultimate set of nursing pharmacology questions for the NCLEX ! In this nursing test bank , test your competence in nursing pharmacology with these 500+ practice NCLEX questions . This quiz aims to help nursing students review concepts of nursing pharmacology and provide a challenging alternative to Quizlet or ATI.
Nursing Pharmacology Questions and Test Banks
In this section are the practice problems and questions for nursing pharmacology. There are 530+ nursing pharmacology practice questions in this nursing test bank . Nursing topics include medication administration , dosage calculations, general concepts about nursing pharmacology, cardiovascular drugs, antibiotics and anti-infectives, neurological medications, psychiatric medications, drugs for the respiratory system , gastrointestinal system , and endocrine system.
All questions on this set are updated to give you the most challenging questions, along with insightful rationales to reinforce learning .
Before you start, here are some examination guidelines and reminders you must read:
- Practice Exams NEW! Engage with our Practice Exams to hone your skills in a supportive, low-pressure environment. These exams provide immediate feedback and explanations, helping you grasp core concepts, identify improvement areas, and build confidence in your knowledge and abilities.
- You’re given 2 minutes per item.
- For Challenge Exams, click on the “Start Quiz” button to start the quiz.
- Complete the quiz : Ensure that you answer the entire quiz. Only after you’ve answered every item will the score and rationales be shown.
- Learn from the rationales : After each quiz, click on the “View Questions” button to understand the explanation for each answer.
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Quizzes included in this guide are:
Recommended books and resources for your NCLEX success:
Saunders Comprehensive Review for the NCLEX-RN Saunders Comprehensive Review for the NCLEX-RN Examination is often referred to as the best nursing exam review book ever. More than 5,700 practice questions are available in the text. Detailed test-taking strategies are provided for each question, with hints for analyzing and uncovering the correct answer option.
Strategies for Student Success on the Next Generation NCLEX® (NGN) Test Items Next Generation NCLEX®-style practice questions of all types are illustrated through stand-alone case studies and unfolding case studies. NCSBN Clinical Judgment Measurement Model (NCJMM) is included throughout with case scenarios that integrate the six clinical judgment cognitive skills.
Saunders Q & A Review for the NCLEX-RN® Examination This edition contains over 6,000 practice questions with each question containing a test-taking strategy and justifications for correct and incorrect answers to enhance review. Questions are organized according to the most recent NCLEX-RN test blueprint Client Needs and Integrated Processes. Questions are written at higher cognitive levels (applying, analyzing, synthesizing, evaluating, and creating) than those on the test itself.
NCLEX-RN Prep Plus by Kaplan The NCLEX-RN Prep Plus from Kaplan employs expert critical thinking techniques and targeted sample questions. This edition identifies seven types of NGN questions and explains in detail how to approach and answer each type. In addition, it provides 10 critical thinking pathways for analyzing exam questions.
Illustrated Study Guide for the NCLEX-RN® Exam The 10th edition of the Illustrated Study Guide for the NCLEX-RN Exam, 10th Edition. This study guide gives you a robust, visual, less-intimidating way to remember key facts. 2,500 review questions are now included on the Evolve companion website. 25 additional illustrations and mnemonics make the book more appealing than ever.
NCLEX RN Examination Prep Flashcards (2023 Edition) NCLEX RN Exam Review FlashCards Study Guide with Practice Test Questions [Full-Color Cards] from Test Prep Books. These flashcards are ready for use, allowing you to begin studying immediately. Each flash card is color-coded for easy subject identification.
Nursing Pharmacology Review
Here are some study guides to help you review concepts about nursing pharmacology:
- Nursing Pharmacology – Study Guide for Nurses
Gastrointestinal System Drugs
- Histamine-2 Antagonists
- Proton Pump Inhibitors
Respiratory System Drugs
- Bronchodilators and Antiasthmatics
- Expectorants and Mucolytics
- Inhaled Steroids
- Lung Surfactants
Endocrine System Drugs
- Adrenocortical Agents
- Antidiabetic Agents
- Glucose-Elevating Agents
- Hypothalamic Agents
- Parathyroid Agents: Bisphosphonates, Calcitonins
- Pituitary Drugs
- Thyroid Agents
Autonomic Nervous System Drugs
- Adrenergic Agonists (Sympathomimetics)
- Adrenergic Antagonists (Sympatholytics)
- Anticholinergics (Parasympatholytics)
- Cholinergic Agonists (Parasympathomimetics)
Immune System Drugs
- Antiarthritic Drugs
- Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs
An investment in knowledge pays the best interest. Keep up the pace and continue learning with these practice quizzes:
- Nursing Test Bank: Free Practice Questions UPDATED ! Our most comprehenisve and updated nursing test bank that includes over 3,500 practice questions covering a wide range of nursing topics that are absolutely free!
- NCLEX Questions Nursing Test Bank and Review UPDATED! Over 1,000+ comprehensive NCLEX practice questions covering different nursing topics. We’ve made a significant effort to provide you with the most challenging questions along with insightful rationales for each question to reinforce learning.
24 thoughts on “Nursing Pharmacology Practice Questions & Test Bank for NCLEX (500+ Questions)”
Thank you Vera for your wonderful work. You are really helpful to the world. God bless you
Thanks very much. This’s very helpful
Thank you Vera. May god bless you for all.
God bless you Vera and all that made these possible and accessible. You are a great gift to humanity!
Bless you Joe, thanks for your kind words!
Thank you Matt! You are a blessing to us who are aspiring to be a RN.
This is very useful resources… Great job from everyone in the team, thank you…
I need a copy of this question in PDF form. Thanks
I need the full pdf of these questions
Which browser can l use to open above questions?
All modern browsers like Chrome, Safari, Firefox and Microsoft Edge.
Thank you so much for your wonderful work Matt! I am preparing for NCLEX-PN exam, I was wondering this pharmacology quiz is related to RN or is it general for NCLEX?? Thanks
This quiz has been helpful. Thank you very much
Thanks so much, Nurseslabs and staff. I passed the Prometric exam for Qatar!! Keep up the good work and share review questions for us, nurses. God bless and more power!
Congratulations Raymond! Good luck on your journey as a registered nurse! :) God bless!
Thank you so much. God bless you!
This site is amazing! Was searching for NCLEX study programs and came across this right before I was about to pay $200 for another program. Using this instead and saving so much money!
I think you have a TYPO in Respiratory Question 7 of 30 7. Question: Montelukast (Singulair) is prescribed to a client with asthma. During the medication therapy, which of the following laboratories should be monitored?
Your answer: Correct Answer: D. Alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) Montelukast (Singulair) is a leukotriene receptor and is used with caution in clients with impaired renal function. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) should be monitored while taking this medication.
ALT and AST are LIVER ENZYMES and singular should be used with caution with HEPATIC patients? Or am I mistaken? Why would you want to monitor liver enzymes for renal function? Wouldn’t you want to monitor creatinine and BUN instead for RENAL patients?
I think you need to change RENAL to HEPATIC but I could be wrong.
Thanks for having these questions though! Very helpful. 😊
Thanks too,it was also very helpful to me.😊 I would really appreciate if you send me more of these questions so I can answer them.
Is there a way to create an account to save your progress and scores?
Thank you this wonderful guide
This was very good it was helpful thanks
Thanks for this
Hello Ebogor, You’re welcome! Glad you found it helpful. If you need any more resources or have questions about pharmacology or anything else, don’t hesitate to ask. Here to help!
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1. Introduction to Pharmacology
Pharmacology: the study of interaction of drugs with living systems.
Sub-Disciplines of Pharmacology
- Drug-Receptor Interactions
- Dose-Response Relationships
- Signal Transduction
- A bsorption
- D istribution
- M etabolism
- Rate of Drug Metabolism
- Drug-Induced Toxicity
- Drug-Induced Allergies
Pharmacology and the Pharmacist
Key Questions you should be asking as a Pharmacist :
- Where is the molecular site of action ?
- What are the body function changes caused by a drug (pharmacodynamics)?
- What is the relationship between the Dose vs. Effect ?
- How does a drug produce its effect ?
- What is the fate of the drug once it enters the body (pharmacokinetics)?
- What is the interplay between genetic makeup and drug response ?
Example: Beta 1 Blocker: Metoprolol Succinate (oral)
Drug Action: selective binding to cardiac muscle beta 1 adrenergic receptors that respond to norepinephrine (at higher doses, also inhibits bronchial and vascular smooth muscle by acting on beta 2 adrenergic receptors) to inhibit the binding of norepinephrine.
Drug Effect: reduced inotropic effect (contractility) and chronotropic effect (heart rate)
Fate of the Drug (pharmacokinetics): 12% protein binding and distribution 5.6 L/kg: hepatic metabolism (CYP2D6 mainly): <5% renal excretion: t 1/2 3-7 hours
Principles of Pharmacology - Study Guide Copyright © by Edited by Dr. Esam El-Fakahany and Becky Merkey, MEd is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License , except where otherwise noted.
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Below, we have put together over 150 pharmacology questions to test your understanding of the must-know facts to know for your next exam.
Pharmacology quizzes are the best way not only to test your knowledge of drugs and medicines, but also to help plug gaps and to identify strengths from weaknesses – guiding your future study plans and goals. Let’s get started.
Select A Category
The following five quizzes review the fundamentals of pharmacology – and examine everything from indications and mechanisms of action, to side effects, drug interactions, and basic aspects of clinical pharmacology.
Here, we review some of the pharmacology specifics behind some of the most widely prescribed drug classes – including NSAIDs, beta-blockers, and aminoglycosides.
Mechanisms of Action
Mechanisms of action in pharmacology refer to how a drug works to exert its therapeutic effect. Here are three MCQ tests, each of which has 10 questions – covering a detailed range of must-know mechanisms of action.
Side effects are a must-know subject in clinical pharmacy. Here, we have put together three quizzes that cover a wide and diverse range of side effects from an even broader range of drugs and drug classes.
The following ten quizzes review the fundamentals of pharmacology – and examine everything from indications and mechanisms of action, to side effects, drug interactions, and basic aspects of clinical pharmacology.
Top tips when answering pharmacology mcqs.
Always re-read questions before answering.
Otherwise, you may miss important words such as “always” or “not” that can really transform the meaning of an MCQ.
Eliminate wrong answers.
Never jump in and answer immediately. Always review each answer and eliminate wrong answers before choosing the one you deem to be correct. This reduces the risk of error.
Guessing should always be a last resort and should only be done once you have eliminated as many incorrect (or likely to be incorrect) answers. More detailed answers are more likely to be correct than broader answers.
You probably know far more than you think you do, and with enough confidence, you can work answers out rather than sinking with worry and stress.
Have a plan.
There is nothing worse than having 10 minutes to go with 40 MCQs to answer. Time yourself and never spend more time than you need to on any one question. Come back to more difficult questions at the end.
Never leave the exam hall.
Too many pharmacy students leave the exam hall far too earlier because they have answered all questions. But you may have rushed and so there may be errors. Review, review, review – and maximize your result.
If, upon reading a question, an answer pops into your head and it happens to be an answer, you are probably correct. Try not to let other answers confuse you. If anything, try to think of correct answers first before reading the question answers.
Practice pharmacology quizzes.
The more practice you put in, the more gaps in your knowledge base you can plug. Study is effective, but practice is mastery. Always take the time to practice what you have learned.
Searching for more pharmacology quizzes?
Gain instant access to over 2,500 pharmacology quiz questions and answers by becoming a registered member of PharmaFactz.
There, we cover over 300 drug classes, thousands of side effects and drug interactions, and the best facts to know to master both clinical pharmacology and pharmacy.
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10 Nursing Pharmacology Practice Questions with Answers & Rationales
What are you struggling with in nursing school?
NURSING.com is the BEST place to learn nursing. With over 2,000+ clear, concise, and visual lessons, there is something for you!
The #1 Thing Stressing Out Nursing Students
The #1 thing nursing students say stresses them out . . . the hardest subject is “ Nursing Pharmacology ”. I hate that. Nursing students should stress about becoming amazing nurses, not about if they will be able to learn the meds they will be giving patients . . .
Welcome to my comprehensive guide on nursing pharmacology practice questions!
As a nursing student mastering pharmacology is essential for safe and effective patient care.
On that note, before we go any further, I want to invite you to grab a free copy of my book "140 Must Know Meds" (just pay to ship). Just click below 👇👇👇
In this blog post, I've curated a collection of practice questions that cover a wide range of pharmacological concepts and drug classes. Each question is accompanied by detailed answers and rationales to help you deepen your understanding and sharpen your medication management skills.
Whether you're preparing for the NCLEX exam or seeking to enhance your pharmacology knowledge, these practice questions will serve as a valuable resource.
Get ready to test your pharmacological expertise and gain insights into the reasoning behind each answer. Let's dive into the world of nursing pharmacology and strengthen our abilities to administer medications with confidence and precision.
**All of the pharmacology nursing practice questions come from the NURSING.com pharmacology course. View course HERE **
Common Medication Prefixes and Suffixes
Learning a “handful” of prefixes and suffixes will save you headaches, time, and pain when it comes to nursing pharmacology. We all know that -pril belongs to ACE inhibitors, but MOST drug classes have common prefixes and suffixes, and once you learn the most important ones you will be able to quickly identify a medication by class.
Pharmacology Nursing Practice Question 1:
Which of the following drugs is an example of an antitumor antibiotic that may be given to a client with cancer?
Pharmacology Nursing Practice Question Answer 1:
Pharmacology nursing practice question rationale 1:.
- This is an aminoglycoside and is not an anti-tumor antibiotic, but is a standard antibiotic that does not affect the spread of cancer cells in the body.
- This is a standard antibiotic that does not affect the spread of cancer cells in the body.
- Bleomycin is a medication known as an anti-tumor antibiotic given to clients with cancer as a form of treatment. It is a chemotherapy agent that differs from standard antibiotics in that it interferes with the DNA of the cancer cells, which stops the cancer from growing and spreading in the body. Bleomycin is given as an IM injection or intravenously, once or twice a week.
- This is a penicillin and is a standard antibiotic that does not affect the spread of cancer cells in the body.
Pharmacology Nursing Practice Question 2:
Which of the following medications is an example of a drug that a client might receive as a muscle relaxant during surgery?
Pharmacology Nursing Practice Question Answer 2:
Pharmacology nursing practice question rationale 2:.
- Suxamethonium is a depolarizing skeletal muscle relaxant medication. It is often given just before intubation to make it easier to place the endotracheal tube because the client's body is relaxed.
- Propofol is a sedative/hypnotic, not a muscle relaxant.
- Codeine is a medication used for pain, not a muscle relaxant.
Pharmacology Nursing Practice Question 3:
A nurse is caring for a client with allergies to penicillins, NSAIDs, and sulfa drugs. The nurse withholds which medication for clarification from the provider?
Pharmacology Nursing Practice Question Answer 3:
Pharmacology nursing practice question rationale 3:.
- Acetaminophen is safe to give this client, as it is not an NSAID.
- This drug is an NSAID. The nurse should hold the medication and ask the client about the severity of the allergy, as well as ask the provider if they would like to change the medication to something else.
- This is a quinolone antibiotic, not a penicillin or a sulfa drug.
- This is a macrolide antibiotic, not a penicillin or a sulfa drug.
Basics of Med Math Calculations
Med math does NOT have to be your arch nemesis! I know it’s something that a lot of people struggle with and I promise I am here to help! I’m not going to lie, I’m a big nerd and I actually love this stuff!
There are only THREE main formulas you need to know. There are some rare times you may need something different but 95% of the time it will be one of these three.
- Dosages Dose = Want/Have x In
- Infusions Rate = Volume/Time
- Drip Rate Drip Rate = Volume/Time x Drip Factor
Let's take a few nursing practice questions!
Pharmacology Nursing Practice
A pediatric nurse is performing an admission assessment. The mother of the client tells the nurse that she gave the child 2 teaspoons of acetaminophen. The nurse knows this is how many mL?
Pharmacology Nursing Practice Question Answer 4:
Pharmacology nursing practice question rationale 4:.
- 2 teaspoons equals 10 mL.
- This only equals 1 teaspoon.
- A single teaspoon = 5 mL, so 2 teaspoons is 10 mLs.
- This is only 2/5 of 1 teaspoon.
A nurse is preparing levothyroxine for a client. The ordered dose is 62.5 mcg. The medication comes in the following preparations: 25 mcg, 50 mcg, 75 mcg, and 100 mcg. The pills are scored and able to be cut in half. Which configuration would require the least amount of pills for the client to ingest?
- One 75mcg and half a 25mcg
- One 100mcg and half 25 mcg
- One 25 mcg and half 50 mcg
- One 50mcg and half 25mcg
Pharmacology Nursing Practice Question Answer 5:
Pharmacology nursing practice question rationale 5:.
- This equals 87.5 mcg, which is an incorrect dose.
- This equals 112.5 mcg, which is not the correct dose.
- This equals 50 mcg, which is not the correct dose.
- Half of 25 is 12.5. 12.5 mcg + 50 mcg equals 62.5 mcg.
The nurse is preparing the medications for a client. The client has ordered 3.75 mg of prednisone. The medication comes in 2.5 mg tabs. How many tabs will the nurse administer?
Pharmacology Nursing Practice Question Answer 6:
Pharmacology nursing practice question rationale 6:.
- The client would take 1.5 tabs of prednisone.
- 3.75/2.5=1.5 tabs of prednisone.
Essential NCLEX Meds by Class
As a nursing student preparing for the NCLEX exam, understanding the essential medications organized by class is crucial. Medication administration and knowledge of drug classes play a significant role in safe and effective patient care.
A client is taking Parnate, which is classified as a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI). Which of the following foods should the nurse counsel the client to avoid?
- Cottage cheese
- Green beans
Pharmacology Nursing Practice Question Answer 7:
Pharmacology nursing practice question rationale 7:.
- A monoamine oxidase inhibitor is a type of medication used for the treatment of depression. This type of medicine can react with foods that contain tyramine, causing hypertensive crisis. The client should be counseled to avoid tyramine-containing foods such as sauerkraut, aged cheeses, and fermented or smoked meats.
- This food does not contain tyramine.
A nurse is reviewing appropriate pain medications for a client with heart failure. The nurse reminds the client not to take non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) with symptomatic heart failure. Which of the following best describes the rationale for this?
- NSAIDs cause the breakdown of the stomach lining more readily among heart failure clients when compared to the general population
- NSAIDs cause increased pulmonary congestion in the heart failure client, which can worsen breathing
- NSAIDs are ineffective in treating the pain of heart failure
- NSAIDs can cause a decrease in renal function and subsequent fluid overload in the heart failure client
Pharmacology Nursing Practice Question Answer 8:
Pharmacology nursing practice question rationale 8:.
- A client with heart failure does not have breakdown of stomach lining more readily than the general population.
- The danger from NSAIDS is due to the stress the drugs put on the renal system, not the pulmonary system.
- Heart failure itself does not cause pain. In this scenario, NSAIDs are taken for pain that is not due to HF.
- Some pain medications, such as NSAIDs, can worsen symptoms of heart failure and should be avoided. NSAIDs require the kidneys to work harder and can cause a decrease in renal function. When this occurs, the kidneys may be unable to filter blood properly or to create appropriate amounts of urine. Fluid can therefore back up into circulation, causing a worsening of heart failure symptoms.
If a client is taking an antifungal medication and thiazide diuretics, which of the following electrolyte disturbances would the nurse expect to find?
Pharmacology Nursing Practice Question Answer 9:
Pharmacology nursing practice question rationale 9:.
- Antifungal and thiazide diuretic use causes high calcium levels, not low calcium levels.
- Antifungal and thiazide diuretic use causes low potassium levels. This would be hypokalemia.
- Antifungal and thiazide diuretic use cause low potassium and high calcium levels.
- Both antifungals and thiazide diuretics cause hypercalcemia, so when used concurrently, the nurse must monitor calcium levels closely.
Which of the following drugs is classified as a Schedule I controlled substance?
- Tylenol with codeine
Pharmacology Nursing Practice Question Answer 10:
Pharmacology nursing practice question rationale 10:.
- This is a Schedule II drug.
- This is a Schedule III drug.
- Controlled substances are substances that have the potential for harm or abuse, and whose possession and manufacturing are controlled by the government. A Schedule I controlled substance has the highest rate of abuse, is not used medically and possession of these substances is prohibited. Examples of Schedule I controlled substances include heroin, LSD and ecstasy.
Boost Your Confidence in Administering Medications
In conclusion, I hope these nursing pharmacology practice questions provided you with a valuable resource to enhance your medication management skills and prepare for success in pharmacology-related exams, such as the NCLEX.
By engaging with these practice questions and reviewing the comprehensive answers and rationales, you can deepen your understanding of key drug classes, improve critical thinking abilities, and boost your confidence in administering medications.
Don't forget to grab your free copy of our "140 Must Know Meds" book (just pay to ship) Click below 👇👇👇
You CAN Do This!
5 Tips on How to Master NCLEX Test Questions
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Pharmacology Quiz – Antipsychotics
- Which of the following is a minor tranquilizer?
Risperidone Lithium Lorazepam Fluoxetine
- All are antidepressant drugs except?
SSRI Tricyclics MAOI Minor tranquilezers
- Which of the following drug is having least Extrapyramidal symptoms?
Clozapine Haloperidol Olanzepine Chlorpromazine
- Which of the following should be evaluated for a patient on Tab Clozapine?
TFT WBC Serum Electrolytes PT/INR
- Therapeutic range of lithium is?
0.2 – 0.6 mEq/L 0.6 – 1.2 mEq/L 1 – 2 mEq/L 2 – 2.5 mEq/L
Pharmacology: Test Questions and Answers
1. How is the neurotransmitter acetylcholine inactivated at the parasympathetic terminal receptor site?
A. The the enzyme catechol O-methtransferase (COMT)
B. By the reuptake process
C. By the enzyme cholinesterase
D. By the enzyme monoamine oxidase
E. By the enzyme nicotinase
1. You adminster an inhaled bronchodilator that is known to have adrenergic side effects on the heart. What clnical sign should you watch for in your patient?
1. On administering a dose of atropine to your patient, which of the following effects would you expect NOT to see?
A. Dry mouth
B. Increased mucous production
C. Bronchial dilation
D. Increased heart rate
1. Your patient is accidently given a large dose of the parasympathomimetic drug pyridostigmine. What side effects of parasympathetic overstimulation do you expect to see?
A. Decreased urination
C. Dry eye and eye irritation
D. Excessive secretion production
1. Your patient has bradycardia. What type of drug do you recommend?
D. Both A and C
1. Epinephrine stimulates which of the following receptor sites? (multiple answers)
1. Stimulation of which receptor produces blood vessel constriction in the systemic circulation?
1. Which of the following drugs are sympathomimetic agents?
C. 1, 2, 3, and 4
D. 1, 2, and 4 1 points
1. A parasympathetic effect is generally the same as which of the following?
A. Antimuscarinic effect
B. Muscarinic effect
C. Parasympatholytic effect
D. Anticholinergic effect
1. Match the appropriate cholinergic effect to each organ site. The answers may be used more than once. Answer Heart Rate Read Answer Items for Question 10 Bronchial smooth muscle Read Answer Items for Question 10 Airway mucous glands Read Answer Items for Question 10 Salivary glands Read Answer Items for Question 10
B. Increased secretion
C. Reduced secretion
D. Dilate or relax
1. Match the following terms to their definitions. Answer Agent causing stimulation of the parasympathetic nervous system Read Answer Items for Question 11 Agent blocking or inhibiting the effects of the parasympathetic nervous system Read Answer Items for Question 11 Agent causing stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system Read Answer Items for Question 11 Drug causing stimulation of a receptor for acetylcholine Read Answer Items for Question 11 Drug blocking a receptor for acetylcholine. Read Answer Items for Question 11 Drug stimulating a receptor for norepinephrine or epinephrine Read Answer Items for Question 11 Agent blocking or inhibiting the effect of the sympathetic nervous system Read Answer Items for Question 11 Alternative term for cholinergic receptor Read Answer Items for Question 11 Alternative term for adrenergic receptor Read Answer Items for Question 11
1. Adrenergic bronchodilators mimic the actions of:
1. Short-acting Beta-2 agonists are indicated for:
A. Reduction of airway edema
B. Relief of acute reversible airflow obstruction
C. Maintenance of bronchodilation
D. Thinning of secretions
1. Your patient is diagnosed with persistent asthma. Which typ eof drug would you recommend for maintenance bronchodilation and control of bronchospasm?
A. Short-acting adrenergic agent
B. Long-acting adrenergic agent
C. Alpha-adrenergic agent
D. Mucolytic agents
E. Short-acting anticholinergic agent
1. Your patient presents with post-extubation stridor. You recommend racemic epinephrine for its:
A. Alpha-adrenergic vasoconstricting effect
B. Short-acting beta-2 adrenergic effect
C. Long-acting beta-2 adrenergic effect
D. Beta-one adrenergic effect
E. Muscarinic parasympathetic effect
1. Which of the following statements is correct about the drug Levalbuterol? Answer A. It has identical actions as racemic epinephrine B. It is the single R-isomer of albuterol. C. It is an equal mixture of (R)-isomers and (S)-isomers D. It is thought to be pro-inflammatory and shouldn’t be used in asthma 1 points
1. By modifying the catechol nucleus of bronchodilators, what changed regarding the new bronchodilators (resorcinols and saligenins) activity? Answer A. It increased its duration of action B. It made the drug more beta-2 specific C. It made the new drug resistant to inactivation by COMT D. a & c E. a, b, & c 1 points
1. Catecholamines should not be given by the following route? Answer A. Inhalation B. Subcutaneous C. Oral. D. Injection 1 points
1. Which of the following is not a catecholamine?
B. 1, 3,and 4
C. 1,2 and 3
D. 1, 2, 3 and 4
1. Which of the following drugs is a saligenin?
1. Combivent® is a combination drug including which agents?
A. Albuterol and salmeterol
B. Salmeterol and ipratropium
C. Albuterol and ipratropium
D. Piralbuterol and flovent
E. Racemic epinephrine and alupent.
1. Sympathetic nervous system stimulation produces which of the following effects?
- Increased salivation
- Increased heart rate
- Decreased cardiac contractility
A. 1, 2 and 5
D. 1, 2 and 4
E. 1, 2, 3 and 4
1. The most common side effect of anticholinergic bronchodilators is:
B. INcreased heart rate
1. WHich of the following is correct about neta-1 receptor stimulation?
A. Causes vasoconstriction
B. Provides decongestion of the upper airway
C. Increases heart rate and stroke volume
D. Relaxes bronchial smooth muscle
1. Smooth muscle relaxaton most likely occurs as a result of:
A. A decrease in intracellular cAMP
B. An increase in intracellular cAMP
C. An increase in intracelluar ATP
D. Increased production of phosphodiesterase
E. A inhibition of phosphodiesterase
1. Continuous nebulization of inhaled beta agonists has been used for:
A. Severe asthma
C. Cystic fibrosis
E. Pulmonary fibrosis
1. Match the appropriate medication to the classification of adrenergic bronchodilators based on the differences of duration of action. Choices can be used more than once. Answer Formoterol Read Answer Items for Question 27 Epinephrine Read Answer Items for Question 27 Metaproterenol Read Answer Items for Question 27 Levalbuterol Read Answer Items for Question 27 Isoproterenol Read Answer Items for Question 27 Racemic epinephrine Read Answer Items for Question 27 Salmeterol Read Answer Items for Question 27
A. Ultra-short acting
B. Short acting
C. Long acting
1.Which of the following statements is true regarding the drug Indacatrol?
A. It is indicated as a rescue drug for obstructive lung diseases
B. It is available in nebulizer solution only
C. It inhibits airway inflammation as well as bronchodilation
D. It is the only once-a-day long-acting beta-two adrenergic agent
1. What is the common adverse effect of albuterol?
A. Dilated pupils
B. Dry mouth
1. What is the trade name for tiotropium?
1. What is the trade name for arformoterol?
1. The keyhole theory indicates that the larger the side-chain attachment to a catechol base the:
A. Shorter the duration of action
B. The more rapidly it is metabolized
C. More easily it is broken down by COMT
D. The greater the beta-2 specificity
1. In relation to bronchodilators, “rescue” agents refer to:
C. Ultra-short acting agents
D. Short-acting agents
1. How would you classify the drug tiotropium?
A. It is an ultra-short acting sympathomimetic bronchodilator
B. It is short acting anticholinergic bronchodilator
C. It is a short acting sympathomimetic bronchodilator
D. It is a long-acting parasympatholytic bronchodilator
1. What is the main difference between salmeterol and formoterol?
A. Formoterol is short-acting and salmeterol is long-acting
B. Formoterol has less side effects than salmeterol
C. Formoterol is more beta-two specific than salmeterol
D. Formoterol has a quicker onset and peak effect than salmeterol
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Pharmacology Blood Short And Long Essay Question And Answers
Blood important notes.
- It is a powerful anticoagulant
- Effective both in vivo and vitro
- Present in all tissues containing mast cells
- In high doses, inhibits platelet aggregation and prolongs bleeding time
- Activates plasma antithrombin III
- This inactivates dotting factors of common and intrinsic pathways
- It does not cross the blood-brain barrier or placenta
- Thus it is safer during pregnancy
- They are local hemostatic agents
- Particularly effective on oozing surfaces
- Examples: thrombin, fibrin, gelatin foam, astringents like tannic add, vasoconstrictors like adrenaline
3. Drugs and anticoagulant action
4. Contraindications of vasoconstrictors
- Patients receiving beta-blockers
- During anesthesia with halothane
3. Antiplatelet drugs
- Coronary artery disease
- Cerebrovascular disease
- Coronary angioplasty, bypass implants
- Prosthetic heart valves
- Venous thromboembolism
- Peripheral vascular diseases
- Glycoprotein receptor antagonist
4. Vitamin K
- In vitro – Citrate, oxalate, EDTA
- In vivo – Coumarin, warfarin
- Both Vivo and vitro – heparin
- Epsilon amino Caproic acid
- Tranexamic acid
7. Iron preparation
8. Blood substitutes
- Whole blood
- Plasma proteins
- 0.9% saline
- 5% dextrose
9. Daily dose of iron
- Adult male – 0.5-1 mg
- Adult female – 1-2 mg
- Pregnancy – 3-5 mg in the last two trimesters
10. Megaloblastic anemia
- Occurs due to deficiency of vitamin B12 or folic acid
- Treatment includes vitamin B12 + folic acid
- Folic acid given alone may worsen the neurological deficit
Read And Learn More: Pharmacology Question and Answers
Blood Long Essays
Question 1. Explain the mechanism of iron absorption in the body. Add a note on different iron preparations Answer:
- Dietary iron is in the ferric form bound to proteins or organic acids
- The acidic medium of gastric juice releases this ferric ion
- Later it is converted to ferrous form by reducing substances like ascorbic acid and cysteine
- The ferrous form is soluble and is readily absorbed by mucosal cells
- It is oxidized to ferric form by ferroxidase
- This ferric form then combines with apoferritin and forms ferritin
- Iron from the mucosal cells may enter the bloodstream
- The ferric form is- Fe3+
- The ferrous form is Fe2+
- Gastric acid, reducing substances, and amino acids facilitate iron absorption
- Antacids, tetracyclines, phosphates, and phytates decrease iron absorption
1. Oral iron preparations
It is the preferred route of administration
Oral iron Preparations:
- Contains 20% hydrated salt and 32% dried salt
- It is inexpensive
- Produces a metallic taste in the mouth
- Contains 12% of iron
- Causes less gastric irritation
- Contains 33% iron
- It is less water soluble and tasteless
- Better absorbed and expensive
- Total -200 mg given daily in 3 divided doses
- Prophylactic dose -30 mg daily
- Iron deficiency anemia
Iron Preparations Adverse Effects:
- Nausea, vomiting, epigastric pain
- Staining of teeth
- Metallic taste
2. Parenteral iron preparations
- Intramuscular injection of iron is given deep in the gluteal region using the Z technique
- Intravenous is given slowly over 5-10 minutes
- It is a colloidal solution containing 50 mg of elemental iron
- It is given intravenously and Intramuscularly
- Contains 50 mg of elemental iron
- Can be given only IM
- If given IV it quickly saturates transferrin stores
- Due to it free iron levels in the plasma rise and cause toxicity
- It is calculated using the formula:
- Iron requirement (in mg] = 4.4 * body weight (in kg) * Hb deficit (in g/dl)
- When oral iron is not tolerated
- Failure of absorption of oral iron
- In the presence of severe deficiency with chronic bleeding
- Along with erythropoietin
Parenteral Adverse Effects:
- Pain at the site of injection
- Pigmentation of skin
- Sterile abscess
- Joint pain, flushing, palpitation
- Chest pain, dyspnoea
- Anaphylactic reaction
2. Systemic agents
Question 2. Enumerate the agents used to control bleeding. Discuss their actions and uses. Answer:
- Agents that help in controlling bleeding and are used in preventing or treating hemorrhagic conditions are known as coagulants
Control bleeding Classification:
1. Local agents or styptics
Control bleeding Actions:
- These materials provide a meshwork
- This activates the clotting mechanism and checks bleeding.
Question 3. Classify Anticoagulants. Discuss the mechanism of action, uses, and adverse effects of the coumarin derivatives. Answer:
- Anticoagulants are drugs used to reduce the coagulability of blood
- Used in vivo
1. Parenteral Anticoagulant
- Heparin, low molecular weight heparin, heparan sulfate
2. Oral Anticoagulants .
- Coumarin derivatives- Dicoumarol, warfarin, acenocoumarol, ethylbiscoumacetate
- Indandione derivative- Phenindione
- Used in vitro
2. Calcium complexing agents
- Sodium citrate, sodium oxalate, sodium edetate.
Anticoagulants Coumarin Derivatives:
- Coumarin derivatives are
- Bishydroxycoumarin- Dicoumarol
- Acenocoumarol- nicoumalone
Anticoagulants Mechanism of Action:
- They act only in vivo
- They interfere with the synthesis of vitamin K-dependent clotting factors in liver
- Act as a competitive antagonist of vitamin K
- Reduces plasma levels of clotting factors
- Interferes with the regeneration of the active hydro, quinone form of vitamin K.
- Blocks the gamma-carboxylation of glutamate residues in prothrombin, factors VII, IX, and X
- This gamma-carboxylation is needed by these factors for coagulation
- Deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism
- Myocardial infarction
- Unstable angina,
- Rheumatic heart disease, atrial fibrillation
- Vascular surgery, prosthetic heart valves, retinal vessel thrombosis, extracorporeal circulation, hemodialysis
Anticoagulants Adverse Effects:
- Bleeding- ecchymosis, epistaxis, hematuria, bleeding in the GIT, intracranial bleeding
- Gastrointestinal disturbances
- Skin necrosis
Question 4. Classify styptics. Describe the role of vitamin K when bleeding is due to oral anticoagulant therapy. Answer:
- Styptics are local hemostatic substances used to stop bleeding from a local approachable site
- Oxidized cellulose
- Gelatin foam
Role of Vitamin K
- Oral Anticoagulants interfere with the synthesis of vitamin K-dependent clotting factors in liver
- Interferes with the regeneration of the active hydroquinone form of vitamin K.
- Blocks the gamma-carboxylation of glutamate residues in prothrombin, factors VII, IX, and X ‘
- This gamma-carboxylation is essential for the ability of the clotting factors to bind Ca ions and to get the bound phospholipid surface necessary for the coagulation sequence to proceed
- Vitamin K acts as an antidote for Warfarin
- Administration of vitamin K by competitive antagonism with oral Anticoagulants reduces the anticoagulant action and brings about carboxylation of glutamate residues of prothrombin and factor VII, IX, and X necessary for the coagulation sequence to proceed.
- Hence vitamin K is used for bleeding due to oral Anticoagulants
Question 5. Describe how heparin and dicumarol act as Anticoagulants. Indicate their route of administration, duration of action and name their antagonists. Answer:
- It is a mucopolysaccharide found in the mast cells of the liver, lungs, and intestinal mucosa
Heparin Mechanism of Action:
- Heparin activates plasma antithrombin III
- Anti-thrombin III binds and inhibits activated Thrombin and coagulation factors Xa and IXa
- Heparin antithrombin III complex inhibits activated factor X and thrombin
- Low molecular weight heparin inhibits only factor X and not thrombin
Heparin Route of Administration:
- Heparin is given IV or SC
Heparin Duration of Action:
- Protamine sulfate is an antagonist of heparin
- It is a low molecular-weight protein
- When given IV it neutralizes heparin
- It is used when heparin action needs to be terminated rapidly
- Dicoumarol is a Coumarin derivative
Dicoumarol Mechanism of Action:
- It interferes with the synthesis of vitamin K-dependent clotting factors in liver
- Interferes with the regeneration of the active hydro-quinone form of vitamin K
Dicoumarol Route of Administration:
- It is given orally
Dicoumarol Duration of Action:
- Duration of action -4-7 day
- Vitamin K acts as an antagonist for Dicoumarol
- Administration of vitamin K by competitive antagonism reduces the anticoagulant action and brings about carboxylation of glutamate residues of prothrombin and factor VII, IX, and X necessary for the coagulation sequence to proceed
Question 6. Explain in detail about pharmacological action, pharmacodynamics, therapeutic uses, and toxicity of heparin. Answer:
Heparin Pharmacological Actions:
- Heparin is a powerful anticoagulant
- It is effective in vivo and in vitro
- At low concentrations, it prolongs activated partial thromboplastin time
- At high concentrations, it prolongs prothrombin time as well as partial thromboplastin time
2. Antiplatelet action
- Heparin inhibits platelet aggregation
- this prolongs the bleeding time
3. Lipaemia clearing
- Heparin activates lipoprotein lipase
- This hydrolyses triglycerides present in the plasma and thus clears the plasma of lipids
Heparin Low molecular weight heparin is used in:
- Prophylaxis of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism
- Treatment of established deep vein thrombosis
- Unstable angina
- To maintain patency of cannula and shunts in dialysis patients
- Hypersensitivity reactions
Blood Short Essays
Question 1. Cyanocobalamin Answer:
- 5′- Deoxyadenosyl cobalamin
1. Synthesis of methionine from homocysteine
- Vitamin B12 is used as Methylcobalamin in this reaction
2. Isomerization of methyl malonyl CoA to succinyl CoA
- It occurs in the presence of vitamin B12 Coenzyme, deoxy adenosylcobalamin
Cyanocobalamin Dietary Requirements:
- Adults- 3 micrograms/day
- Children-0.5-1.5 microgram/day
- During pregnancy and lactation- 4 micrograms/day
- Prevention and treatment of B12 deficiency
- Mega doses used in neuropathies, psychiatric disorders, cutaneous sarcoid
Question 3. List two Anticoagulants acting by different mechanisms. Mention any two uses of them. Answer:
- Interferes with the regeneration of the active hydro-quinone form of vitamin K.
- This gamma-carboxylation is needed by these factors for coagulation.
- Myocardial infarction.
- Unstable angina.
Question 4. Iron-sorbitol-citric acid Answer:
- Iron sorbitol citric acid complex is parenteral iron preparation.
Iron-sorbitol-citric acid Dose:
- Iron requirement ( in mg) = 4.4 * body weight (in kg) * Hb deficit (in g/dl)
Iron-sorbitol-citric acid Indications:
Iron-sorbitol-citric acid Adverse Effects:
- Pigmentation of skin
Question 5. Anticoagulants Answer:
2. Oral Anticoagulants
Question 6. Compare heparin and oral anticoagulants. (or) Compare heparin and dicumarol Answer:
Question 7. Explain the mechanism of action of streptokinase and mention one use of it. Answer:
- Streptokinase is a fibrinolytic drug
Streptokinase Mechanism of Action:
- Streptokinase is antigenic
- It combines with plasminogen to form tissue plasminogen activator complex
- This complex then causes limited proteolysis of other plasminogen molecules to plasmin
- Plasmin degrades fibrin thereby dissolving the clot
- Acute Myocardial infarction
- Deep vein thrombosis
- Pulmonary embolism
Question 8. Name two oral anticoagulants. Mention one drug treating toxicity of oral anticoagulants. (or) Dicumoral poisoning Answer:
1. Coumarin derivatives- Dicoumarol, warfarin, acenocoumarol, ethylbiscoumacetate
2. Indandione derivative- Phenindione
Drug Used to Treat Toxicity of Oral Anticoagulants:
- Vitamin K is used to treat toxicity of oral anticoagulant
- Administration of vitamin K by competitive antagonism with oral Anticoagulants reduces the anticoagulant action and brings about carboxylation of glutamate residues of prothrombin and factor VII, IX, and X necessary for coagulation sequence to proceed
Question 9. Heparin and Warfarin. Answer:
Blood Short Question And Answers
Question 1. Drugs for anemia. Answer.
Question 2. Ferrous sulfate. Answer:
Ferrous sulfate is oral iron preparation
Ferrous sulfate Dose:
- 200 mg tab, 3-4 tablets daily
Ferrous sulfate Indication:
- Prophylactic use in iron deficiency Anemia
Ferrous sulfate Adverse Effects:
Question 3. Folic acid Answer:
Folic acid is important in one-carbon metabolism
Folic acid Sources:
- Green vegetables, liver, yeast, egg, milk, and some fruits
Folic acid Functions:
- The Coenzyme of it, tetrahydrofolate( THF], serves as an acceptor or donor of one carbon units
- It is involved in the synthesis of important compounds like
- Purines- Incorporated into DNA and RNA
- Pyrimidine nucleotide- deoxythymidylic acid- Involved in the synthesis of DNA
- Aminoacids- Glycine, serine, ethanolamine, and choline
- N-Formylmethionine- Initiator of protein biosynthesis
Folic acid Deficiency Manifestations:
- Megaloblastic anemia
Question 4. Drugs used in microcytic anemia. Answer.
1. Oral iron preparation
- Ferrous sulfate-200 mg tab
- Ferrous fumarate -200 mg tab
2. Parenteral iron preparation
- Iron dextran containing 50 mg of elemental iron
- Iron sorbitol citric acid complex containing 50 mg of elemental iron
Question 5. Drugs used for pernicious anemia. Answer:
- Vitamin B12 supplements
- 1-5 mg of folic acid and iron preparation
Question 8. Indications for parenteral use of iron. Answer:
Question 6. Mention two oral and parenteral preparations. Answer:
- Ferrous sulfate
- ferrous gluconate
- Ferrous fumarate
- Colloidal ferric hydroxide
- Iron dextran
- Iron sorbitol citric acid complex
Question 7. Vitamin C is given with iron in the treatment of anemia. Answer:
- Vitamin C Improves Absorption Of Iron In The Intestine
- It maintains ferrous salts in a reduced state
- So vitamin C is used in the treatment of anemia along with iron,
Question 8. Vitamin K deficiency. Answer:
Causes of Vitamin K Deficiency:
- Liver diseases
- Obstructive jaundice
- Long-term antimicrobial therapy altering intestinal flora
Vitamin K Deficiency Manifestations:
- Bleeding tendencies- hematuria, GIT bleeding, epistaxis, ecchymosis
Question 9. Heparin Answer:
- Low molecular weight heparin is used in:
Question 10. Vitamin K Answer:
- It is a fat-soluble vitamin
Vitamin K Sources:
1. Animals sources
- Egg yolk, meat, liver, cheese and dairy products
2. Plant sources
- Cabbage, cauliflower, tomatoes, alfa, spinach
Vitamin K Functions:
- It helps in blood coagulation
Vitamin K Daily Requirements:
- 70-140 micrograms/day
Question 11. Fibrinolytic Answer:
- Fibrinolytic are drugs that lose the clot or thrombus by activating the natural fibrinolytic system
Fibrinolytic Adverse Effects:
- Anaphylactic reactions
- In recent surgeries
- GIT bleeding
- Severe hypertension
- Bleeding disorders
Question 12. Hemostasis Answer:
- Hemostasis is the process of stopping bleeding postsurgically or from a site of injury
- Applying pressure at the bleeding site
- Use of styptics
- Contraction of the injured vessel wall
- Adhesion and aggregation of platelets to form a plug
- Formation of a blood clot
- Dissolution of the clot by fibrinolysis
Question 13. Warfarin sodium Answer:
- It is a Coumarin derivative
Warfarin sodium Uses:
Warfarin sodium Adverse Effects:
- Bleeding- ecchymosis, epistaxis, hematuria, bleeding in the git, intracranial bleeding
Question 14. Oral anticoagulants Answer:
Question 15. Uses of vitamin K Answer:
- Act as a cofactor for the synthesis of coagulation proteins- Ffrothrombin, factor VII, IX, and X
- Required for carboxylation of glutamic acid residues of osteocalcin
- Participates in the coagulation cascade
Question 16. Vitamin K used in the overdosage of Warfarin Answer:
- Warfarin interferes with the synthesis of vitamin K-dependent clotting factors in liver
- Blocks the gamma-carboxylation of glutamate residues in prothrombin, factors VII, IX, and X v
- Administration of vitamin K by competitive antagonism with Warfarin reduces the anticoagulant action and brings about carboxylation of glutamate residues of prothrombin and factor VII, IX, and X necessary for the coagulation sequence ta proceed
Question 17. Adverse effects of vitamin B12. Answer:
- Vitamin B12 is used
- In the treatment of vitamin B12 deficiency
- Cyanacobalamine -100 ml in. daily
- Hydroxocobalamin -100-500,1000 mg daily
- Multivitamins for oral use
- B12 deficiency – Prophylaxis 3-10 mg daily
- B12 neuropathies, psychiatric disorders, cutaneous sarcoid, and as a general tonic to allay fatigue and improve growth
vitamin B12 Adverse Effects:
- Anaphylactoid reaction on IV injection occurs due to sulfite contained in the formulation
Question 18. Name two oral anticoagulants. Mention two adverse effects. Answer:
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