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Indus Valley Civilisation - Concepts - Chapter 4 Class 6 History - The First Cities - History

Last updated at Oct. 10, 2023 by Teachoo

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  • The Indus Valley Civilization was a Bronze Age civilization that developed around 2500 BCE in the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent. It was named after the Indus River, which flows through the region.
  • The civilization was one of the world's earliest urban societies , with well-planned cities, advanced architecture, and a high level of technological development.
  • The most notable cities of the Indus Valley Civilization were Mohenjo-daro and Harappa, which are now located in modern-day Pakistan.
  • These cities were inhabited till 3,500 years ago.
  • In the early twentieth century , they were discovered and excavated.

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  • Harappa was the first excavated by Rai Bahadur Ram Sahni in 1921.

Mohenjodaro - Teachoo.png

  • Mohenjodaro was first excavated by Rakhl Das Banerji in 1922.

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Indus Valley Civilization

Distribution of Ancient Civilizations:

Valley Region:

The Location:

These settlements

were established

Indus River some 5000 years ago.

These were one of the world's earliest major urban settlements.

Indus civilization is also called Indus valley civilization or Harappan civilization, 

Mohenjo-daro, the modern name for the site, simply means “Mound of the Dead” in Sindhi.

It was not discovered until the

T he Indus civilization is known to have comprised two large cities, Harappa and Mohenjo-daro, and more than 100 towns and villages, often of relatively small size but well planned and walled also .

Trade and Agriculture

were the major sources of their income.

Harappa to have been far larger than once thought,

perhaps supporting a population of 50,000 at certain periods

These cities were well planned with wide streets, public and private wells, drains, bathing platforms and reservoirs. One of its most well-known structures is the  Great Bath of Mohenjo Daro .

The inscriptions used by them are yet

to be decoded in an understandable

Clay model of a cart, pulled by oxen or water buffalo. 

Many things found during the

Excavations.

Maze puzzles and dice games were enjoyed by children and adults.

People in the Indus Valley

played board games like this,

moving pieces between

A piece of painted pottery from Harappa, as it was found by archaeologists.

The “ Priest King ”

Found in Mohenjo Daro, Sindh.

Jewelry found during the excavations…

Alone Harappa was home to approximately 40, 000 people.

& Some seals also….

Many hypothesis were laid down for the reasons of its destruction

  • Indus River changed course (flood?)
  • Earthquake?

The causes of its mysterious destruction are yet to be known for us!

ICSE Solutions

ICSE Solutions for Class 6 History and Civics – The River Valley Civilisations: Indus Valley Civilisation

ICSE Solutions Selina ICSE Solutions ML Aggarwal Solutions

APlusTopper.com provides step by step solutions for ICSE Solutions for Class 6 History and Civics Chapter 3 The River Valley Civilisations: Indus Valley Civilisation. You can download the History and Civics ICSE Solutions for Class 6 with Free PDF download option. History and Civics for Class 6 ICSE Solutions all questions are solved and explained by expert teachers as per ICSE board guidelines.

ICSE Solutions Class 6 History & Civics  Geography  Biology  Chemistry  Physics  Maths

I. Fill in the blanks:

  • The Indus Valley Civilisation was the Earliest civilisation of India.
  • Harappa is situated in Sahiwal district in Pakistan.
  • The Indus Valley Civilisation stood on the bank of river Indus
  • The largest building discovered at Mohenjodaro is Great Granary .
  • Bronze metal was used by the people of the Indus Valley Civilisation.
  • Indus people used Burnt bricks for constructing buildings.
  • The Harappan culture came to an end by 1500 BC .

ICSE Solutions for Class 6 History and Civics - The River Valley Civilisations Indus Valley Civilisation 1

III. Answer the following questions? Question 1. Who discovered the Indus Valley Civilisation and when? Answer: Mr. Daya Ram Sahni discovered the ruins of Harappa in 1921. Next year, in 1922 Dr. Rakhal Das Bannerjee discovered the ruins of Mohenjodaro.

Question 2. What does civilisation mean? Give four characteristics of a civilisation. Answer: The stage of development when man looks for more than just fulfillment of his basic needs, is called civilisation. Characteristics of a civilisation:

  • Surplus food production
  • Flourishing of many arts and crafts
  • Law and order exists
  • Presence of a government.

Question 3. Why did the earliest civilisations grow up near rivers? Answer: The earliest civilisations grew up on the banks of rivers because of the following reasons.

  • The rivers provided abundant supply of water for various purposes all through the year.
  • The lands near the rivers were very fertile, hence good for growing crops.
  • Rivers provided means of transport and communication.

Question 4. Name the different sites of the Indus Valley Civilisation. Answer: Various sites of the Indus Valley Civilisation were —The river valleys had warm and pleasant climate which favoured permanent settlement of population. Harappa, Mohenjodaro, Lothal, Kalibangan, Ropar, Alamgirpur, Banwali, Sutkagendor and others.

Question 5. Describe the town planning and the drainage system of the Indus Valley Civilisation. Answer: The cities were divided into two parts. The upper part called ‘citadel’ was built on a raised ground. It was inhabited by the upper class and had public buildings such as granaries. The lower part was inhabited by the common people. Each house had a courtyard, several rooms around it, a toilet and a well. All the buildings were built of burnt bricks. Large blocks of houses were built along both the sides of streets.The roads were wide and straight and cut each other at right angles. Smaller streets led to bigger streets. The streets had lamp­ posts. The drainage system was of the highest order ; even many of our present towns do not have such excellent drainage system. House drains were connected to the street drains which joined the main drains which emptied outside the city limits. The drains were covered with stone slabs and had manholes at regular intervals. They were cleaned regularly.The Indus people were veiy conscious of hygiene and sanitation.

Question 6. Describe the Great Bath. Where has it been found? What was it used for? Answer:

  • The Great Bath was a sort of modem swimming pool, discovered at Mohenjodaro. It is an example of excellent engineering’work. It was built of burnt brick. It measures 11 .-88 x 7.01 metres
  • The river valleys had warm and pleasant climate which favoured permanent settlement of population.

Question 7. Describe the Great Granary. Where has it been found? Answer: The Great Granary was found at Mohenjodaro and it was the largest building discovered there. It was used for storing grains in huge quantities for lean periods. Brick platforms have been found near the granaries which were used for threshing grain. Many two-room shelters have also been found nearby which were perhaps used by labourers. Granaries were built close to river banks to facilitate easier transportation of grains during emergencies.

Question 8. Describe the religion of Indus Valley Civilisation Answer: The Harappans worshiped the pipal tree and humped bull which have been found on hundreds of seals. They also worshiped Mother Goddess which were beautifully depicted as terracotta figurines. The Harappans also worshiped ‘Shiva’ or ‘Pashupati’. A three-faced figure with horns has been found sitting in the posture of a yogi. He is surrounded by a tiger, a rhinoceros, a buffalo, and an elephant. But no temple or any other religious building has been found so far. The Harappans believed in life after death and buried the dead with his belongings.

Question 9. Name the three social classes of the Indus Valley Civilisation. Answer: The three social classes were:

  • Rich merchants and priests e. the ruling class.
  • Small merchants, artisans and craftsmen.
  • Peasants and labourers.

Question 10. What were the probable causes which could have brought about an abrupt end to the Indus Valley  Civilisation? Answer: There are many reasons attributed to the fall of the Indus Valley Civilisation.

  • The Harappan cities were destroyed by invaders who were probably the Aryans.
  • Natural calamities such as floods, earthquakes and epidemics might have destroyed the civilisation.
  • River Indus might have changed its course and turned the region into a desert.

IV. Give reasons why we say that the people of the Indus Valley Civilisation —

  • Had a good sense of cleanliness
  • Carried on trade with Mesopotamia
  • Produced surplus grains
  • Had an idea of metallurgy
  • The arrangement of drains, wide roads and houses with toilets and drains attest to their sense of cleanliness.
  • Mesopotamian seals have been found in Harappan cities and Harappan seals have been discovered in cities of ancient Mesopotamia.
  • Big granaries and existence of towns prove the fact that they produced surplus food grains.
  • A bronze figure of a dancing girl has been found. Several other images, weapons, utensils and tools of copper and bronze have also been found. Jewellery made of gold and silver has been found at various sites.

Textbook Keywords

  • Dwelling houses are buildings, that people live in and but do not use as offices, trading places, etc.
  • Public building These buildings are used by all the people and are not privately owned.
  • Granaries were the store houses where the people of Indus valley civilization stored their extra grain. The Great Granary was discovered at Harappa.
  • Great Bath was a big tank at Mohanjodaro that was probably used by the general public during religious ceremonies. Drainage system It is a process by which water or liquid waste is drained out from an area.
  • Terracotta It is a reddish-brown clay that has been baked. Seals are the clay tablets used by Harappan merchants to stamp their goods.
  • Mother Goddess was the female deity worshiped by the people of the Indus Valley civilization. Many smoke- stained clay figures of the Mother Goddess have been found

Additional Questions

A. Fill in the blanks.

  • The main river of the Harappan civilization was Ravi.
  • The Great Bath is located in Mohenjodaro.
  • The main occupation of the Harappan were farming.
  • The rich wore ornaments made of gold, silver and ivoiy.
  • The Harappan seals are made of clay, soapstone and copper .

ICSE Solutions for Class 6 History and Civics - The River Valley Civilisations Indus Valley Civilisation 4

C. Choose the correct answer:

1. The Harappan civilization belongs to the Mesolithic/ Neolithic/Bronze Ans. The Harappan civilization belongs to the Bronze Age.

2.Lothal/Ropar/Harappa was the first city to be discovered in the Indus Valley region. Ans. Harappa was the first city to be discovered in the Indus Valley region.

3. The Assembly Hall is in Mohanjodaro/Lothal/Harappa. Ans. The Assembly Hall is in Mohanjodaro.

4. Wheat/Fish/Barley was the staple food of the Harappans. Ans. Wheat was the staple food of the Harappans.

5. The neem/banyan/pipal tree was probably regarded as sacred by the Harappans. Ans. The pipal tree was probably regarded as sacred by the Harappans.

D. State whether the following are true or false.

1. The Harappan cities had an elaborate drainage system. False. Correct: The Harappan cities had well planned system. 2. Domestication of animals was the main occupation of the Harappans.  False. Correct: Farming was the main occupation of the Flarappans. 3.The Harappans decorated their pottery with various designs. True. 4.The Harappans built strong boats. True. 5. The Indus Valley civilization was governed by kings and queens. False. Correct: The Indus Valley civilization was not governed   by kings and queens

E. Answer the following questions in one or two words/ sentences:

Question 1. What discoveries proved that India had a 4,500-year old urban civilization? Answer: The excavations carried out at various sites prove that around 4,500 years ago highly civilized people lived in this region and gave to the world its earliest cities, its first town planning, its first architecture in stone and clay and its first example of sanitary engineering and drainage system.

Question 2. Why is the Indus Valley Civilization also called the Harappan civilization? Answer: The Indus Valley civilization is also called the Flarappan civilizations because the things found in all the sites were very much like the articles found at Harappa.

Question 3. Why did the Indus Valley people build granaries close to the river bank? Answer: All the granaries were built close to the river bank so that the grains could be easily transported with the help of boats.

Question 4. Give one example to prove that the Indus Valley bronzesmiths were skilled craftspeople. Answer: The bronzesmiths made tools, weapons and metal sculptures such as the famous figure of the ‘dancing girl’. They were also engaged in other crafts like brick laying, boat making, stone cutting, masonry and carpentry.

Question 5. How do we know that the Harappans had trade relations with the Mesopotamians? Answer: Trade relations with Mesopotamia have been proved with the discovery of Mesopotamian seals in the cities of the Indus Valley Civilization and Harappan seals in the ancient cities of Mesopotamia.

F. Answer the following questions briefly:

Question 1. How were the Harappan cities planned? Explain briefly the main features of their dwelling houses. Answer: The Harappan cities were well-planned. The main streets ran parallel to each other, cut at right angles by smaller, streets, dividing the cities into rectangular blocks. The main roads were straight and very wide. The streets were often paved with baked bricks.Dwelling houses were building that people live in. They were in different sizes. They were made of baked bricks of very good quality. But they not used as office, trading place etc.

Question 2. With reference to the engineering skills of the Indus Valley people, explain briefly the features of (1)The Great Bath and (2) the drainage system Answer:

  • The Great Bath: It was important building at Mohenjodero. This building resembled a large swimming pool, It had six entrances,central bathing pool, galleries and dressing rooms. It was probably used by the general public during religious ceremonies.
  • The drainage system: The people of the Indus valley had an excellent, well-planned drainage system. The Kitchens and the bathrooms had drains connected to the street drains. The street drains ran along the side of the streets and were usually covered. They had manholes at regular intervals. The drainage system proves that the Indus Valley people paid great attention to sanitation and cleanliness.

Question 3. Give a brief account of

  • Great Granary
  • Assembly Hall
  • Great Granary: The Great Granary at Harappa was a large building. Historians believe that it was used to store surplus food grains. There were two rows of granaries. Each row had six granaries.
  • Assembly Hall: The Assembly Hall was another striking building found in Mohenjodaro. It was a pillared hall with thick walls and 20 pillars made of burnt or baked bricks. This may have been and assembly hall, a prayer hall or a palace.

Question 4. Describe

  • The dress and
  • Ornaments of the Indus Valley people.
  • Dress: People wore cotton and woolen garments. Two- piece dresses were worn by both men and women. The men wore a garment similar to the dhoti while the women wore skirts. The upper garments was a shawl worn around the shoulder.
  • Ornaments: Both men and women wore ornaments. They wore necklaces, amulets and finger rings. The women also wore a headdress, earrings, bangles, girdles, bracelets and anklets. The rich wore ornaments made of gold, silver and ivory. The poor wore shell, bone and copper jewellery.

Question 5. Describe the occupation and crafts of the Harappan people. Answer: The main occupation of the people of the Indus Valley was farming. Farmers gr«w wheat, barley, fruits and vegetables. They also cultivated cotton. The land was fertile. The second occupation of the people of the Indus Valley was domestication of animals like goat, sheep, buffaloes, elephants, bulls, dogs and cats.The Indus Valley people were excellent potters and skilled crafts people. They made pottery of various shapes and sizes. They also made terracotta. The goldsmiths made gold and silver jewellery, copper smiths made utensils and the bronze smith made tools, weapons and metal sculptures. The people were also engaged in other crafts like brick laying, boat making, stone cutting, masonry and carpentry. Spinning and weaving were important occupations.

Question 6. Write short notes on the following:

  • Seals of the Indus Valley
  • Trade: The Indus Valley people carried on flourishing trade both within and outside India. They traded with countries like Mesopotamia, (Iraq), Persia (Iran) and Afghanistan. Trade was carried on both by land and sea routes. Bullock carts, boats and ships were probably used for transport. A dockyard has been discovered at Lothal.
  • Seals of the Indus Valley: More than 2,000 seals have been unearthed from various sites. They are generally small, flat, rectangular or square in shape and made of clay, soapstone and copper. They are skillfully carved with figures of humans and animals such as the unicorn, humped bull, goat, tiger, elephant, etc. These seals were probably used by merchants and traders to stamp goods.

Question 7. The study of objects and artifacts found in the ruins of the Indus Valley cities help us us to form an idea of Harrapan religion. Explain. Answer: Some of the objects found in the ruins help us to form an idea of the religion of the Harappans. No temples have been found. Numerous smoke-stained clay figures of a female deity have been found. This was probably the Mother Goddess. A three­ faced figure, seated in a yogic posture and surrounded by various animals is engraved on some seals. The pipal tree was probably regarded as sacred and worshiped. The discovery of a large number of amulets suggests that people probably wore them as lucky charms to ward off evil spirits.

Question 8. How did the Harappan civilization end? Answer: These are some causes of the decay of the Harappan civilization.

  • The Harappan might have been destroyed by natural calamities like earthquakes, floods.
  • The climate also began to change and the region became more and more dry like a desert.
  •  Perhaps the Aryans attacked their cities and destroyed them.
  • An epidemic or some terrible disease might have killed the people.

G Picture study.

ICSE Solutions for Class 6 History and Civics - The River Valley Civilisations Indus Valley Civilisation 6

1. Identify the civilization from the ruins in the picture. Ans. This picture is about Harappa Civilization.

2. When and by whom were these ruins discovered? Ans. These ruins were discovered by Dayaram Sahni in 1921.

3.These ruins are an important source of information about the (a) town planning and (b) drainage system of this period. Explain. Ans. (a) Town planning— The Indus Valley cities were very well- planned. The streets were quite broad varying from a feet to 30 feet in breadth. The streets and roads were straight and they cut one another at right angles. The streets had rounded comers to enable the heavy carts to take a turn easily. Every street had a lighting system. Such a system of town-planning was not to be found at that time anywhere in the world.

(b) Drainage system— The people of the Indus valley had an excellent, well-planned drainage system. The kitchens and the bathrooms had drains connected to the street drains. The street drains ran along the side of the streets and were usually covered. They had manholes at regular intervals. The drainage system proves that the Indus Valley people paid great attention to sanitation and cleanliness.

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Free Printable the indus civilization Worksheets for 6th Class

Discover the Indus Civilization with our free printable Social Studies worksheets, tailored for Class 6 students. Enhance your lessons and help students explore the rich history and culture of this ancient society.

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The Indus Civilization worksheets for Class 6 are an excellent resource for teachers looking to engage their students in Social Studies and History lessons. These worksheets provide a comprehensive and interactive learning experience, covering various aspects of the ancient Indus Valley Civilization, such as its geography, culture, achievements, and decline. Designed specifically for Class 6 students, these worksheets are tailored to their learning abilities and interests, making it easier for teachers to keep their students engaged and motivated. With a wide range of activities, including map work, reading comprehension, and creative writing tasks, the Indus Civilization worksheets for Class 6 are an essential tool for any Social Studies or History teacher looking to bring this fascinating ancient civilization to life in the classroom.

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History — Chapter 1

The river valley civilisations, class 6 - effective history & civics solutions, with respect to the harappan civilisation name the following.

Two Harappan sites.

(a) Harappa in Montgomery district in Punjab.

(b) Mohenjo-daro in the Larkana district.

Two parts of a Harappan city.

(a) The Citadel.

(b) The Lower Town.

Two Public buildings.

(a) The Great Bath.

(b) The Granaries.

Two sites where Granaries have been found.

(a) Harappa

(b) Mohenjo-daro

Two crops grown by the Harappans.

Two animals domesticated by the Harappans.

Two deities worshipped by the Harappans.

(a) Mother Goddess

(b) Pashupati Mahadeva

Two items of art and craft.

(a) Dancing Girl

(b) Bearded Man

Match the following

Fill in the blanks.

The Indus Valley Civilisation is also known as Harappan civilisation .

Mohenjo Daro was situated on the Indus river in Sind.

A male deity shown on the Indus seals is Pashupati Shiva .

Wheat was the staple food of the Harappans.

The Harappan pottery was Reddish brown in colour with design in Black .

The Harappans worshipped Mother Goddess and Pashupati Mahadeva .

The Harappans were the first people in the world to grow Cotton .

Answer the following questions

Why is the Indus Valley Civilisation also known as the Harappan Civilisation?

Indus Valley Civilisation is also known as Harappan Civilisation after the name of a major site of this civilisation in Harappa.

How was the Harappan Civilisation discovered? Name the two archaeologists associated with this discovery.

In 1920, during the construction of a railway track near Harappa, the railway authorities noticed that the bricks which were used from a nearby ruin belonged to a very old Civilisation. The Archaeological survey of India working on this information carried out extensive excavations at the site which lead to the discovery of the Harappan Civilisation. The two archaeologists associated with this discovery are Dayaram Sahni and R.D. Banerjee.

Mention three important features of Harappan town planning.

The three important features of the Harappan town planning were

  • The Citadel was a raised platform where the rulers and the nobles lived.
  • The lower town had residential buildings for common people.
  • The streets were quite wide varying from 9 feet to 34 feet in width.The streets intersected each other at right angles. Lamp posts discovered along the roads indicate that the cities probably had street lights. The main roads were wide and curved at the corners so that heavy carts could turn easily.

The Harappans had a well planned drainage system. The house drains emptied waste water into the street drains. The drains were covered with bricks or stones. Manholes and inspection traps were provided at regular intervals.

Describe the organisation of the citadel in the town planning of Harappa.

The Citadel was a raised platform, rectangular in shape and about 12 meters high. It was constructed with bricks and stones with watchtowers. It had massive walls and its height acted as a protection against floods. It is believed that the ruler along with his nobles lived here. Important public buildings like the great bath, the granary, the assembly hall and the workshops were located here.

Explain how the Harappans maintained an efficient drainage system.

What were the occupations and crafts of the Harappan people?

The occupations and crafts of the Harappan people were:

  • Agriculture — Most of the Harappan people were farmers. They grew wheat, barley, pulses, peas, rice, sesame, linseed and mustard. The Harappans reared cattle, sheep, goat and buffalo.
  • Pottery — The Harappans knew the use of the potter's wheel. They made pots with fine clay, glazed and decorated with beautiful black designs.
  • Crafts — They were skilled crafts persons and artists making all kinds of things such as a large variety of clay toys, seals, beads, ornaments of copper, bronze, gold and silver and statues.
  • Spinning and weaving — The discovery of spindle whorls made of Terracotta and woven cloths attached to the lid of a silver vase suggests that the Harappans were skilled in the art of spinning and weaving.
  • Building-Construction — The presence of large number of individual houses and public buildings and the discovery of a number of kilns for baking bricks found at a variety of Harappan sites indicate that building industry provided employment to a large number of people.

Explain briefly the nature of the Harappan trade.

The Harappans carried out both internal and external trade. The internal trade was carried out through land routes by bullock-carts. Within India, they got precious stones, metals and other articles from many towns. The Harappans had commercial relations with Mesopotamia and other West Asian countries. The Harappans used to obtain gold from south India and metals like silver, tin and copper from Persia, Oman, Afghanistan and Mesopotamia. The small boats depicted on the seals indicate that the external trade was carried out by sea.

What were religious beliefs and practices of the Harappans?

The religious beliefs and practices of the Harappans can be known from the seals and objects of sculptures. The animals like humped bull, elephant, rhinoceros, tiger, lion and trees like peepal and acacia depicted on the seals tell us that these plants and animals were considered sacred by the Harappans. Discovery of a large number of terracotta female figures show that worship of Mother Goddess was quite popular. Among the male gods, the most significant is a three-faced deity wearing a horned dress and surrounded by elephant, tiger, buffalo and rhinoceros. This God has been identified as Pashupati Mahadeva.

What factors were responsible for the decline of the Harappan Civilisation?

Various factors were responsible for the decline of the Harappan Civilisation. Some of these are the followings

  • Natural Calamities like floods and earthquakes caused havoc and destroyed human habitation.
  • The invading Aryans destroyed Indus settlements.
  • Deforestation due to the excessive use of wood for making copper and bronze, to bake bricks, pottery, stone wear and to make boats and furniture, led to drying up of land and rendered it infertile.
  • Decrease in fertility because of increasing salinity of the soil caused by the expansion of the neighbouring desert.
  • Changes brought about in the course of the river Indus lead to the flooding of the hinterland of Mohenjo-daro and its ultimate decline.

Question 10

Write short notes on the following:

(a) Granaries.

(b) Dress and Ornaments worn by the Harappans.

(a) Granaries — Granaries were found at Harappa, Mohenjo-daro, Lothal and Kalibangan. The largest granary was found at Mohenjo-daro which measured 45.71 metres in length and 15.23 meters in breadth. At Harappa, there were two rows of six granaries with a wide passage between them. The granaries were used to store surplus grain. Near these granaries, circular brick platforms have been found. They were probably meant for threshing grain. These granaries were built close to rivers so that grains could easily be transported by boats to other places.

(b) Dress and Ornaments worn by the Harappans — The Harappans mostly used to wear cotton clothes. The rich people used woollen clothes in winter. The women wore some kinds of skirts and covered upper part of their body with a cloak. They used to cover their head with a scarf. Men used to wear a dhoti, and a shawl around the shoulders. Both men and women used to wear ornaments made of beads or shell. The rich people wore gold and silver ornaments. These included necklaces, amulets and finger rings. The women also wore head-dresses, girdles bangles and ear rings.

Picture Study

Study the picture and answer the following questions:

(a) Name the structure shown in the picture.

(b) Give its location.

(c) Describe the details of the structure.

(d) State its purpose.

(a) The structure shown in the picture is The Greatbath .

(b) This is located at Mohenjo-daro.

(c) The Great Bath at Mohenjo-daro is the most important building of the Harappan civilisation. It was a huge rectangular tank with a flight of steps on the northern and southern sides, leading to the bottom of the tank. The water for the bath was provided by a well in an adjacent room. To make the pool watertight, burnt bricks and mortar lined with bitumen and gypsum were used for construction. The tank was surrounded by rooms which were either used as living rooms by the priest or were meant for changing clothes.

(d) It is generally believed that this Great Bath was used on religious occasions for ritual bathing.

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indus valley civilization

Indus Valley Civilization

Feb 12, 2013

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Indus Valley Civilization. AMH Mr. Moran. Largest of the 4 Urban Civilization Mesopotamia Egypt China India It was not discovered until 1920’s. The earliest people are called Harappans Named after the city of Harappa This was a highly complex culture

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Indus Valley Civilization AMH Mr. Moran

Largest of the 4 Urban Civilization Mesopotamia Egypt China India It was not discovered until 1920’s The earliest people are called Harappans Named after the city of Harappa This was a highly complex culture Not much is know because we can not read their writing Ancient Indus Valley Civilization

The main source of water came from the Indus River. Provided fertile land Overflowed twice a year March/April & August The valley is larger than Mesopotamia or Egypt A second river, the Hakra, ran parallel to the Indus River A Civilization in India

Indus civilization remnants have been discovered from as far south as Mumbai [Bombay], in Maharashtra State, India To as far north as the Himalayas and northern Afghanistan. Major cities Harappa Mohenjo Daro Dholavira Geography

The land was very fertile and flooding allowed farmers to plant two crops a year. River brought nutritious to the land Monsoon season brought great amounts of rain Agricultural surplus existed These people spoke Dravidian Natural Environment

River Valley Civilization Indus River runs from Lake Mansarovar in Tibet to the Arabian Sea Indus River

Indus culture seems to have gradually spread from west to east, after Harappa and Mohenjo Daro had declined. The drying up of the ancient Saraswati or Ghaggar-Hakra River, east of and parallel to the Indus, may also have affected the civilization. There are numerous Indus sites along that river bed. Spread of Culture • Earlier scholars believe that Indo-Aryan invaders destroyed the Indus cities and pushed the remnant populations into southern India.

Well planned Wide Streets Public baths Private and public wells Drains Reservoirs For example the Great Bath of Mohenjo Daro Cities

First Street, DK-G Area

Narrow streets and drains

Great Bath and Granary, SD Area

Great Bath and Granary, SD Area, looking west from the stupa mound

Great Bath, SD Area, looking north

Indoor plumbing Excellent pottery Jewelry Ivory objects Cotton clothing Used High quality tools System of weights and measures A writing system Harappan Achievements

Aryans invaded from the West Used chariots and advanced weapons Skilled warriors By 1200 BCE-Aryan warriors had swept through the Hindu Kush Much of what we know come from the Vedas-collections of poems, hymns, myths, and rituals written by priests. Aryan Invasion

Government, Society, and Language • Aryans were nomads who settled in villages (became sedentary) • Small communities emerged based on family and cooperation • Each community had its own leader (usually a great warrior) • Communities soon grew into villages • Villages were governed by Rajas-Hindu ruler • Most Rajas were related • Rajas fought against each other but united against a common enemy • Aryans developed the language of Sanskrit • First an oral language then written

Aryan society became complex and divided 4 varnas or social divisions were created. Based on occupation The Vedas dictate the varnas Brahmin-priests Kshatriyas-rulers and warriors Vaisyas-farmers , cratspeople, traders Sudras-laborers and non-Aryans Interactions between the varnas were strict and became complex. The Caste system was created The Caste system divided people by birth, wealth, or occupation Determined one’s place in society Very rare occasions people changed caste Caste Rules Sutras or guides were created Listed rules for the caste system The Caste System

Caste Rules Sutras or guides were created Listed rules for the caste system People could not eat with members of different castes If you broke rules you could be banned from homes and castes Banning sent one to the untouchables A member of the class that is excluded from and considered unclean and defiling by the four Hindu castes. Caste Rules- Sutras

Aryan religion Brought into India The religion was based on the Vedas Rig Veda-Creation Story Aryan Brahmins (priests) created additional Vedas which provided reflection and rituals for the religion Sacrifices/ Offerings Secret rituals Reflection/ thoughts Brahmanism

Hinduism emerges with the blending of the Vedas and Persian cultures Beliefs Many gods Brahma the creator, Siva the Destroyer, and Vishnu the Preserver All gods are part of a single universal spirit called Brahman The different gods represent the different aspects of Brahman Life and Rebirth Everyone has a soul or atman Soul holds a person’s personality (qualities) Person’s goal is to reunite one’ soul with Brahman Souls will eventually be reunited because our world is an illusion and Brahman is the only reality To obtain this one needs to look through the illusion and may take multiple lifetimes Reincarnation Karma- actions that determine future state Hinduism

Not everyone agreed with Hinduism Jainism was based on the teachings of Mahavira (a Kshatriya) Born 559 BC Believed the Brahmins put too much emphasis on rituals Gave up his life of luxury and became a monk. 4 Principles of Jainism Injure not life Tell the truth Do not steal Own no property Jainism Ahimsa- nonviolence

Ahimsa- nonviolence • Everything is alive and part of the cycle or rebirth • Humans, animals, insects, or even plants • No animal sacrifice • Vegetarians

In the late 500s BCE Siddhartha Guatama began to ask his won questions about life and religion He too was dissatisfied with Hinduism His quest for the answer created the following of Buddhism Born 563 BCE in northern India Prince (Kshatriya) Discovered the suffering of others Questioned the meaning of human life Traveled all of India looking for the answer to his questions Buddhism

In an effort to free his mind from daily concerns Did not wash himself Fasting Meditation Legend tells of 6 years of wandering and meditation Came to Gaya, near the Ganges River After 7 weeks of deep meditation, he became enlightened and had the answers to what he had been looking for (tree of wisdom) Humans suffer comes from 3 things Wanting what we like but do not have Wanting to keep what we like and already have Not wanting what we dislike but have Enlightenment

4 Noble truths Suffering and unhappiness are a part of human life. No one can escape sorrow Suffering comes from our desires for pleasure and material goods. People cause their own misery because they want things they cannot have People can overcome desire and ignorance and reach nirvana-a state of perfect peace. Reaching nirvana frees the soul from suffering and from the need for further reincarnation. People can overcome ignorance and desire by following an eight-fold path that leads to wisdom, enlightenment, and salvation. Teachings of Buddhism

4 Noble truths Control feelings and thought Goodness and kindness Proper meditation No lies or gossip Steal or cause harm Do good prevail evil Reject work that harms others

In 320 BC a military leader – Candragupta Maurya seized control of northern India Founded the Mauryan empire Mauryan rule lasted 150 years Used spies and 600,000 + army Thousands of elephants and chariots 301 BC gave up throne to become a Jainist monk 270 BC Asoka (grandson of Candragupta) extended rule over most of India Strongest of all Mauryan emperors Increase power and wealth Improved lives of India after converting to Buddhism Dug wells, built roads, planted trees, rest homes for travelers, sent missionaries spreading Buddhism Mauryan Empires

Fall of Mauryan Empire • After Asoka’s death (223 BC) the Empire fell apart • Sons fought each other for power • Invaders threatened the empire • By 184 BC, the last Mauryan King was killed by one of his own generals. • India was divided into small states

After 500 years of division- a new dynasty emerged Gupta Dynasty too over India around 320 AD Gupta Empire United most of India Became prosperous Candra Gupta I- not Mauryan Built Hindu temples Promoted Hinduism Tolerated Buddhism and Jainism Built Universities (Nalanda) Society Under Candra Gupta II India hit another high point All of the North was unified Strong economy Fine works of art and literature Wealth and beauty was admired by foreigners Gupta rule remained strong in India until the late 400s Gupta Empire

Religious Art Temples Hindu Buddhist Jainist Painting and sculpture Jewelry Paintings Sculptures Gods, daily life, ceremonies Literature Sanskrit Religious epics Mahabharata and Ramayana Pachatantra (poetry) Scientific Metallurgy Iron pillars Mathematics Hindu-Arabic numerals First to create the “zero” Medical Sciences Medicines from plants and minerals Inoculation Surgery Astronomy Seven planets Earth was a sphere Overall Indian Achievements

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  1. Indus valley civilization ppt

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    One of the first civilizations in the world developed in the valley of the Indus River in Asia. It occupied both sides of what is now the border between Pakistan and India . The Indus Valley civilization lasted from about 2500 bc to about 1700 bc .

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    Overview. The Indus River Valley Civilization, 3300-1300 BCE, also known as the Harappan Civilization, extended from modern-day northeast Afghanistan to Pakistan and northwest India. Important innovations of this civilization include standardized weights and measures, seal carving, and metallurgy with copper, bronze, lead, and tin.

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    Indus civilization is also called Indus valley civilization or Harappan civilization, 6 of 20. Mohenjo-daro, the modern name for the site, simply means "Mound of the Dead" in Sindhi. 7 of 20. It was not discovered until the . 1920's.

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    Feb 06, 2014. 781 likes | 1.62k Views. Indus Valley Civilization. 2500 B.C.E. Harappan Civilization. Harappan civilization began along the Indus River around 2500 BCE. It is also known as the Indus Valley civilization. Thank the Rivers!. Download Presentation. 19th centuries c e. carefully planned cities.

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    5. The Indus Valley civilization was governed by kings and queens. False. Correct: The Indus Valley civilization was not governed by kings and queens. E. Answer the following questions in one or two words/ sentences: Question 1. What discoveries proved that India had a 4,500-year old urban civilization? Answer:

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    Presentation Transcript. Indus Valley Civilization. Indus Valley: Where and When • The Harappan culture existed along the Indus River in what is present day Pakistan. • It was named after the city of Harappa. Harappa and the city of Mohenjo-Daro were important centers of the Indus valley civilization. • This Indus Valley "civilization ...

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    The Indus Civilization worksheets for Class 6 are an excellent resource for teachers looking to engage their students in Social Studies and History lessons. These worksheets provide a comprehensive and interactive learning experience, covering various aspects of the ancient Indus Valley Civilization, such as its geography, culture, achievements ...

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