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Time and Place in Reported Speech

When we report something, we may need to make changes to:

  • time (now, tomorrow)
  • place (here, this room)

If we report something around the same time, then we probably do not need to make any changes to time words . But if we report something at a different time, we need to change time words. Look at these example sentences:

  • He said: "It was hot yesterday ." → He said that it had been hot the day before .
  • He said: "We are going to swim tomorrow ." → He said they were going to swim the next day .

Here is a list of common time words, showing how you change them for reported speech:

Place words

If we are in the same place when we report something, then we do not need to make any changes to place words . But if we are in a different place when we report something, then we need to change the place words. Look at these example sentences:

  • He said: "It is cold in here ." → He said that it was cold in there .
  • He said: "How much is this book ?" → He asked how much the book was.

Here are some common place words, showing how you change them for reported speech:

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Cambridge Dictionary

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Reported speech: indirect speech

Indirect speech focuses more on the content of what someone said rather than their exact words. In indirect speech , the structure of the reported clause depends on whether the speaker is reporting a statement, a question or a command.

Indirect speech: reporting statements

Indirect reports of statements consist of a reporting clause and a that -clause. We often omit that , especially in informal situations:

The pilot commented that the weather had been extremely bad as the plane came in to land. (The pilot’s words were: ‘The weather was extremely bad as the plane came in to land.’ )
I told my wife I didn’t want a party on my 50th birthday. ( that -clause without that ) (or I told my wife that I didn’t want a party on my 50th birthday .)

Indirect speech: reporting questions

Reporting yes-no questions and alternative questions.

Indirect reports of yes-no questions and questions with or consist of a reporting clause and a reported clause introduced by if or whether . If is more common than whether . The reported clause is in statement form (subject + verb), not question form:

She asked if [S] [V] I was Scottish. (original yes-no question: ‘Are you Scottish?’ )
The waiter asked whether [S] we [V] wanted a table near the window. (original yes-no question: ‘Do you want a table near the window? )
He asked me if [S] [V] I had come by train or by bus. (original alternative question: ‘Did you come by train or by bus?’ )

Questions: yes-no questions ( Are you feeling cold? )

Reporting wh -questions

Indirect reports of wh -questions consist of a reporting clause, and a reported clause beginning with a wh -word ( who, what, when, where, why, how ). We don’t use a question mark:

He asked me what I wanted.
Not: He asked me what I wanted?

The reported clause is in statement form (subject + verb), not question form:

She wanted to know who [S] we [V] had invited to the party.
Not: … who had we invited …

Who , whom and what

In indirect questions with who, whom and what , the wh- word may be the subject or the object of the reported clause:

I asked them who came to meet them at the airport. ( who is the subject of came ; original question: ‘Who came to meet you at the airport?’ )
He wondered what the repairs would cost. ( what is the object of cost ; original question: ‘What will the repairs cost?’ )
She asked us what [S] we [V] were doing . (original question: ‘What are you doing?’ )
Not: She asked us what were we doing?

When , where , why and how

We also use statement word order (subject + verb) with when , where, why and how :

I asked her when [S] it [V] had happened (original question: ‘When did it happen?’ ).
Not: I asked her when had it happened?
I asked her where [S] the bus station [V] was . (original question: ‘Where is the bus station?’ )
Not: I asked her where was the bus station?
The teacher asked them how [S] they [V] wanted to do the activity . (original question: ‘How do you want to do the activity?’ )
Not: The teacher asked them how did they want to do the activity?

Questions: wh- questions

Indirect speech: reporting commands

Indirect reports of commands consist of a reporting clause, and a reported clause beginning with a to -infinitive:

The General ordered the troops to advance . (original command: ‘Advance!’ )
The chairperson told him to sit down and to stop interrupting . (original command: ‘Sit down and stop interrupting!’ )

We also use a to -infinitive clause in indirect reports with other verbs that mean wanting or getting people to do something, for example, advise, encourage, warn :

They advised me to wait till the following day. (original statement: ‘You should wait till the following day.’ )
The guard warned us not to enter the area. (original statement: ‘You must not enter the area.’ )

Verbs followed by a to -infinitive

Indirect speech: present simple reporting verb

We can use the reporting verb in the present simple in indirect speech if the original words are still true or relevant at the time of reporting, or if the report is of something someone often says or repeats:

Sheila says they’re closing the motorway tomorrow for repairs.
Henry tells me he’s thinking of getting married next year.
Rupert says dogs shouldn’t be allowed on the beach. (Rupert probably often repeats this statement.)

Newspaper headlines

We often use the present simple in newspaper headlines. It makes the reported speech more dramatic:

JUDGE TELLS REPORTER TO LEAVE COURTROOM
PRIME MINISTER SAYS FAMILIES ARE TOP PRIORITY IN TAX REFORM

Present simple ( I work )

Reported speech

Reported speech: direct speech

Indirect speech: past continuous reporting verb

In indirect speech, we can use the past continuous form of the reporting verb (usually say or tell ). This happens mostly in conversation, when the speaker wants to focus on the content of the report, usually because it is interesting news or important information, or because it is a new topic in the conversation:

Rory was telling me the big cinema in James Street is going to close down. Is that true?
Alex was saying that book sales have gone up a lot this year thanks to the Internet.

‘Backshift’ refers to the changes we make to the original verbs in indirect speech because time has passed between the moment of speaking and the time of the report.

In these examples, the present ( am ) has become the past ( was ), the future ( will ) has become the future-in-the-past ( would ) and the past ( happened ) has become the past perfect ( had happened ). The tenses have ‘shifted’ or ‘moved back’ in time.

The past perfect does not shift back; it stays the same:

Modal verbs

Some, but not all, modal verbs ‘shift back’ in time and change in indirect speech.

We can use a perfect form with have + - ed form after modal verbs, especially where the report looks back to a hypothetical event in the past:

He said the noise might have been the postman delivering letters. (original statement: ‘The noise might be the postman delivering letters.’ )
He said he would have helped us if we’d needed a volunteer. (original statement: ‘I’ll help you if you need a volunteer’ or ‘I’d help you if you needed a volunteer.’ )

Used to and ought to do not change in indirect speech:

She said she used to live in Oxford. (original statement: ‘I used to live in Oxford.’ )
The guard warned us that we ought to leave immediately. (original statement: ‘You ought to leave immediately.’ )

No backshift

We don’t need to change the tense in indirect speech if what a person said is still true or relevant or has not happened yet. This often happens when someone talks about the future, or when someone uses the present simple, present continuous or present perfect in their original words:

He told me his brother works for an Italian company. (It is still true that his brother works for an Italian company.)
She said she ’s getting married next year. (For the speakers, the time at the moment of speaking is ‘this year’.)
He said he ’s finished painting the door. (He probably said it just a short time ago.)
She promised she ’ll help us. (The promise applies to the future.)

Indirect speech: changes to pronouns

Changes to personal pronouns in indirect reports depend on whether the person reporting the speech and the person(s) who said the original words are the same or different.

Indirect speech: changes to adverbs and demonstratives

We often change demonstratives ( this, that ) and adverbs of time and place ( now, here, today , etc.) because indirect speech happens at a later time than the original speech, and perhaps in a different place.

Typical changes to demonstratives, adverbs and adverbial expressions

Indirect speech: typical errors.

The word order in indirect reports of wh- questions is the same as statement word order (subject + verb), not question word order:

She always asks me where [S] [V] I am going .
Not: She always asks me where am I going .

We don’t use a question mark when reporting wh- questions:

I asked him what he was doing.
Not: I asked him what he was doing?

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Word of the Day

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something that you do, or a thing that you give someone, that expresses your feelings or intentions, although it might have little practical effect

Renowned and celebrated (Words meaning ‘famous’)

Renowned and celebrated (Words meaning ‘famous’)

reported speech here there

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Reported speech.

How to use reported speech in english, structure and explanations., table showing tense changes - direct to reported speech..

This table (right column) shows the verb tense or modal verb we use after we change from direct speech to reported speech.

Learn more about the tenses and modals in this list...

What is reported speech?

Reported speech is a structure used to repeat what somebody has said before (direct speech):

John: "My name is John" (direct speech) He said (that*) his name was John (reported speech)

* that can be omitted.

Note that after the verb said , which is in past tense, it is natural to continue the rest of the sentence in the past: "...his name was John". This does not mean that John is now not his name; we use the past for agreement of the verbs in the sentence: said and was .

However, if John is still John, we cannot reject the present tense. So that...

He said that his name is John.

...is also correct.

Let's consider a sentence said a week ago:

Mary: "I am going to Madrid."

If, a week later, we repeat what Mary said, we must now use the verb in past tense because the action cannot refer to the present  but to  seven days before :

Mary said that she was going to Madrid.

A tense one step further in the past.

We can see that I'm going in direct speech changes to I was going in reported speech. All tenses change to one step further in the past. In the above example, present continuous to past continuous .

In this next example, we can see how present perfect changes to past perfect :

Dave: I have seen that film. Dave said that he had seen that film.

In the case where we can not go further into the past, we repeat the same tense:

Mike: I had been there. He said that he had been there.

Other words that change.

Let's now look at other words that can change in reported speech if we refer to past actions:

I'm going tomorrow . He said he was going the next day (o " the following day ").

I'm playing football next week . He said he was playing football the following week .

I went last week . He said he had gone the week before .

If we have also moved in space, in other words, we are not in the same place where the direct speech was said, words referring to place must also change:

I like it here . He said that he liked it there .

Reported speech and modal auxiliary verbs.

Modal auxiliary verbs, in some cases, have also got a past tense form which is used in reported speech:

I can speak English. He said that he could speak English.

I 'll see you next week. She said that she would see him the following week.

See table above for full list of modals that change...

Reported speech and closed questions.

Let's now consider this question:

Is your name John?

A question in reported speech that requires the answer yes or no (closed question) must include  if . In other words, we want to know if the answer is yes or no :

She asked him if his name was John.

Open questions and inversion.

Open questions which do not require a yes or no , for example, questions with words like: what?, when?, why?, who?, which?, how?, whose?, where?, how much? , what time?, etc. usually take inversion between the subject and auxiliary (or verb to be) in direct speech but no inversion in reported speech:

What is your name ? She asked what his name was (and not, ... what was his name ).

How much are the potatoes ? They asked how much the potatoes were (and not, ... how much were the potatoes ).

Where can we go? He asked where they could go (and not, ... where could they go ).

When did you see that film? She asked when he had seen that film (and not, ... where had he seen that film).

Reported speech and the imperative.

We will now look at sentences in the imperative. In these cases, it is common to use told + indirect object . Also note that the following verb is in the infinitive with to :

Go away! She told him to go away.

Sit down and be quiet! She told the child to sit down and (to) be quiet. Please take these things into the kitchen. She told him to take the things into the kitchen.

Exercises on reported speech...

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Reported Speech in English Grammar

Direct speech, changing the tense (backshift), no change of tenses, question sentences, demands/requests, expressions with who/what/how + infinitive, typical changes of time and place.

  • Lingolia Plus English

Introduction

In English grammar, we use reported speech to say what another person has said. We can use their exact words with quotation marks , this is known as direct speech , or we can use indirect speech . In indirect speech , we change the tense and pronouns to show that some time has passed. Indirect speech is often introduced by a reporting verb or phrase such as ones below.

Learn the rules for writing indirect speech in English with Lingolia’s simple explanation. In the exercises, you can test your grammar skills.

When turning direct speech into indirect speech, we need to pay attention to the following points:

  • changing the pronouns Example: He said, “ I saw a famous TV presenter.” He said (that) he had seen a famous TV presenter.
  • changing the information about time and place (see the table at the end of this page) Example: He said, “I saw a famous TV presenter here yesterday .” He said (that) he had seen a famous TV presenter there the day before .
  • changing the tense (backshift) Example: He said, “She was eating an ice-cream at the table where you are sitting .” He said (that) she had been eating an ice-cream at the table where I was sitting .

If the introductory clause is in the simple past (e.g. He said ), the tense has to be set back by one degree (see the table). The term for this in English is backshift .

The verbs could, should, would, might, must, needn’t, ought to, used to normally do not change.

If the introductory clause is in the simple present , however (e.g. He says ), then the tense remains unchanged, because the introductory clause already indicates that the statement is being immediately repeated (and not at a later point in time).

In some cases, however, we have to change the verb form.

When turning questions into indirect speech, we have to pay attention to the following points:

  • As in a declarative sentence, we have to change the pronouns, the time and place information, and set the tense back ( backshift ).
  • Instead of that , we use a question word. If there is no question word, we use whether / if instead. Example: She asked him, “ How often do you work?” → She asked him how often he worked. He asked me, “Do you know any famous people?” → He asked me if/whether I knew any famous people.
  • We put the subject before the verb in question sentences. (The subject goes after the auxiliary verb in normal questions.) Example: I asked him, “ Have you met any famous people before?” → I asked him if/whether he had met any famous people before.
  • We don’t use the auxiliary verb do for questions in indirect speech. Therefore, we sometimes have to conjugate the main verb (for third person singular or in the simple past ). Example: I asked him, “What do you want to tell me?” → I asked him what he wanted to tell me.
  • We put the verb directly after who or what in subject questions. Example: I asked him, “ Who is sitting here?” → I asked him who was sitting there.

We don’t just use indirect questions to report what another person has asked. We also use them to ask questions in a very polite manner.

When turning demands and requests into indirect speech, we only need to change the pronouns and the time and place information. We don’t have to pay attention to the tenses – we simply use an infinitive .

If it is a negative demand, then in indirect speech we use not + infinitive .

To express what someone should or can do in reported speech, we leave out the subject and the modal verb and instead we use the construction who/what/where/how + infinitive.

Say or Tell?

The words say and tell are not interchangeable. say = say something tell = say something to someone

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Reported Speech: Rules, Examples, Exceptions

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What is reported speech?

“Reported speech” is when we talk about what somebody else said – for example:

  • Direct Speech: “I’ve been to London three times.”
  • Reported Speech: She said she’d been to London three times.

There are a lot of tricky little details to remember, but don’t worry, I’ll explain them and we’ll see lots of examples. The lesson will have three parts – we’ll start by looking at statements in reported speech, and then we’ll learn about some exceptions to the rules, and finally we’ll cover reported questions, requests, and commands.

Reported Speech: Rules, Examples, Exceptions Espresso English

So much of English grammar – like this topic, reported speech – can be confusing, hard to understand, and even harder to use correctly. I can help you learn grammar easily and use it confidently inside my Advanced English Grammar Course.

In this course, I will make even the most difficult parts of English grammar clear to you – and there are lots of opportunities for you to practice!

Reported Speech: Rules, Examples, Exceptions Espresso English

Backshift of Verb Tenses in Reported Speech

When we use reported speech, we often change the verb tense backwards in time. This can be called “backshift.”

Here are some examples in different verb tenses:

Reported Speech (Part 1) Quiz

Exceptions to backshift in reported speech.

Now that you know some of the reported speech rules about backshift, let’s learn some exceptions.

There are two situations in which we do NOT need to change the verb tense.

No backshift needed when the situation is still true

For example, if someone says “I have three children” (direct speech) then we would say “He said he has three children” because the situation continues to be true.

If I tell you “I live in the United States” (direct speech) then you could tell someone else “She said she lives in the United States” (that’s reported speech) because it is still true.

When the situation is still true, then we don’t need to backshift the verb.

Reported Speech: Rules, Examples, Exceptions Espresso English

He said he HAS three children

But when the situation is NOT still true, then we DO need to backshift the verb.

Imagine your friend says, “I have a headache.”

  • If you immediately go and talk to another friend, you could say, “She said she has a headache,” because the situation is still true
  • If you’re talking about that conversation a month after it happened, then you would say, “She said she had a headache,” because it’s no longer true.

No backshift needed when the situation is still in the future

We also don’t need to backshift to the verb when somebody said something about the future, and the event is still in the future.

Here’s an example:

  • On Monday, my friend said, “I ‘ll call you on Friday .”
  • “She said she ‘ll call me on Friday”, because Friday is still in the future from now.
  • It is also possible to say, “She said she ‘d (she would) call me on Friday.”
  • Both of them are correct, so the backshift in this case is optional.

Let’s look at a different situation:

  • On Monday, my friend said, “I ‘ll call you on Tuesday .”
  • “She said she ‘d  call me on Tuesday.” I must backshift because the event is NOT still in the future.

Reported Speech: Rules, Examples, Exceptions Espresso English

Review: Reported Speech, Backshift, & Exceptions

Quick review:

  • Normally in reported speech we backshift the verb, we put it in a verb tense that’s a little bit further in the past.
  • when the situation is still true
  • when the situation is still in the future

Reported Requests, Orders, and Questions

Those were the rules for reported statements, just regular sentences.

What about reported speech for questions, requests, and orders?

For reported requests, we use “asked (someone) to do something”:

  • “Please make a copy of this report.” (direct speech)
  • She asked me to make a copy of the report. (reported speech)

For reported orders, we use “told (someone) to do something:”

  • “Go to the bank.” (direct speech)
  • “He told me to go to the bank.” (reported speech)

The main verb stays in the infinitive with “to”:

  • She asked me to make a copy of the report. She asked me  make  a copy of the report.
  • He told me to go to the bank. He told me  go  to the bank.

For yes/no questions, we use “asked if” and “wanted to know if” in reported speech.

  • “Are you coming to the party?” (direct)
  • He asked if I was coming to the party. (reported)
  • “Did you turn off the TV?” (direct)
  • She wanted to know if I had turned off the TV.” (reported)

The main verb changes and back shifts according to the rules and exceptions we learned earlier.

Notice that we don’t use do/does/did in the reported question:

  • She wanted to know did I turn off the TV.
  • She wanted to know if I had turned off the TV.

For other questions that are not yes/no questions, we use asked/wanted to know (without “if”):

  • “When was the company founded?” (direct)
  • She asked when the company was founded.” (reported)
  • “What kind of car do you drive?” (direct)
  • He wanted to know what kind of car I drive. (reported)

Again, notice that we don’t use do/does/did in reported questions:

  • “Where does he work?”
  • She wanted to know  where does he work.
  • She wanted to know where he works.

Also, in questions with the verb “to be,” the word order changes in the reported question:

  • “Where were you born?” ([to be] + subject)
  • He asked where I was born. (subject + [to be])
  • He asked where was I born.

Reported Speech: Rules, Examples, Exceptions Espresso English

Reported Speech (Part 2) Quiz

Learn more about reported speech:

  • Reported speech: Perfect English Grammar
  • Reported speech: BJYU’s

If you want to take your English grammar to the next level, then my Advanced English Grammar Course is for you! It will help you master the details of the English language, with clear explanations of essential grammar topics, and lots of practice. I hope to see you inside!

I’ve got one last little exercise for you, and that is to write sentences using reported speech. Think about a conversation you’ve had in the past, and write about it – let’s see you put this into practice right away.

Master the details of English grammar:

Reported Speech: Rules, Examples, Exceptions Espresso English

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Shayna Oliveira is the founder of Espresso English, where you can improve your English fast - even if you don’t have much time to study. Millions of students are learning English from her clear, friendly, and practical lessons! Shayna is a CELTA-certified teacher with 10+ years of experience helping English learners become more fluent in her English courses.

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Reported speech: reporting verbs

Reported speech: reporting verbs

Do you know how to tell someone what another person said using reporting verbs? Test what you know with interactive exercises and read the explanation to help you.

Look at these examples to see how reporting verbs are used.

direct speech: 'You should come, it's going to be a lot of fun,' she said. indirect speech: She persuaded me to come. direct speech: 'Wait here,' he said. indirect speech: He told us to wait there. direct speech: 'It wasn't me who finished the coffee,' he said. indirect speech: He denied finishing the coffee.

Try this exercise to test your grammar.

Reported speech 3 – reporting verbs: 1

Grammar explanation

When we tell someone what another person said, we often use the verbs say , tell or ask . These are called 'reporting verbs'. However, we can also use other reporting verbs. Many reporting verbs can be followed by another verb in either an infinitive or an -ing form. 

Reporting verb + infinitive

Verbs like advise , agree , challenge , claim , decide , demand , encourage , invite , offer , persuade , promise , refuse and remind can follow an infinitive pattern.

'Let's see. I'll have the risotto, please.' He decided to have the risotto. 'I'll do the report by Friday, for sure.' She promised to do the report by Friday. 'It's not a good idea to write your passwords down.' They advised us not to write our passwords down.

We can also use an infinitive to report imperatives, with a reporting verb like tell , order , instruct , direct or warn .

'Please wait for me in reception.' The guide told us to wait for her in reception. 'Don't go in there!' The police officer warned us not to go in there.

Reporting verb + -ing form

Verbs like admit , apologise for , complain about , deny , insist on , mention and suggest can follow an -ing form pattern.

'I broke the window.' She admitted breaking the window. 'I'm really sorry I didn't get back to you sooner.' He apologised for not getting back to me sooner. 'Let's take a break.' She suggested taking a break.

Do this exercise to test your grammar again.

Reported speech 3 – reporting verbs: 2

Language level

Would you consider the following structure to be reported speech?

The original sentence went as follows:

- After the procedure the doctors confirmed it was the right thing to have done.

Why am I asking? As far as I know the top notch phrasing should go like this:

- After the procedure the doctors confirmed it HAD BEEN the right thing to have done.

I think so because at that time the doctors must have said something like:

- Doctors confirming after the procedure - It was the right thing to have done, Dominik.

Would you be so kind to comment on this one, please :)

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Hello Dominik992,

The version that you propose is correct, and, as you mention, is what is taught as best practice in most grammars.

The other version is also fine, however. Especially in more informal speaking and writing, we often use a past simple form when a past perfect form doesn't add any additional or important meaning.

Best wishes, Kirk LearnEnglish team

Hello! I would like to know whether this two sentences are correct. I think they are both correct, but I am not sure.

"He apologized for letting me down." Or: "He apologized for having let me down"

Thank you in advance! GabDip

Hello GabDip,

Yes, both sentences are correct. There is a slight difference in meaning:

Sentence 1 ( for letting ) could be about a particular situation or it could be about his general habit of being unreliable.

Sentence 2 ( for having let ) describes an issue in the past which is not true any more.

The LearnEnglish Team

Hello, i have 2 questions, firstly is the same use advise with verb + object + infinitive that use it with + gerund, it changes the meaning or no? secondly, when we use warn + object + infinitive it has the same meaning that warn somebody against?

Hi facundo62,

For  advise , the meaning is the same with those two structures. For example:

  • I'd advise resting as much as you can.
  • I'd advise you to rest as much as you can.

However, the structure  advise  + - ing form is less commonly used than the advise + object + to + infinitive structure. 

About  warn , the two structures you mentioned do also have the same meaning. But just to be clear, it's  warn  + object + not + to  + infinitive that has that meaning. For example:

  • The doctor warned me not to eat too much.
  • The doctor warned me against eating too much.

I hope that helps.

LearnEnglish team

what is the diffrence beetween he suggested to ask andi for some ideas and he suggested asking andi for ideas

"He suggested to ask ..." is not grammatically correct. 

The verb "suggest" is followed by either:

  • an - ing  verb form -->  He suggested asking ...  OR
  • a  that  clause -->  He suggested  that we ask   ...

"Suggest" is not in the group of verbs that is followed by an infinitive ( to  + verb).

it helped alot thanks

Why can't we say "Katie suggested us going for a walk" but instead should say "KATIE SUGGESTED THAT WE GO FOR A WALK" whilst "The man warned us not to park in this street" is correct. It's unclear why "She suggested us" isn't correct but "The man warned us...." is.

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Reported Speech

Direct speech and reported speech (indirect speech), reported speech table of contents:, overview and definitions, reporting verbs.

  • Using the word THAT

Reported speech – changes

Third person singular verbs, place and time expressions, tense backshift, no tense backshift, reporting questions, reporting orders and requests.

Click Here for Step-by-Step Rules, Stories and Exercises to Practice All English Tenses

Click Here for Step-by-Step Rules, Stories and Exercises to Practice All Tenses

  • She says we should go.
  • They told us to bring our stuff.
  • He asked them the time.
  • I  explained  the rules to her.

The word THAT

  • She says they are full = She says that they are full
  • I told them we could help = I told them that we could help
  • I suggest we start = I suggest that we start

How to report

So when reporting speech we must apply this rule., a list of common place and time expressions.

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reported speech here there

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StoryLearning

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Learn A Language Through Stories

Reported speech in English

A Comprehensive Guide To Reported Speech In English

Olly Richards Headshot

There are times when someone tells you something and you’ll have to report what they said to someone else.

How can you do this in English?

You’ll need to know how to use what's called reported speech in English and this is what you’ll learn in this blog post.

What Is Reported Speech In English?

Reported speech, also known as indirect speech, is a way of retelling what someone else has said without repeating their exact words. 

For example, let’s say you have a friend called Jon and one called Mary. Mary has organised a house party and has invited you and Jon. 

Jon, however, is not feeling well. He says to you, “Sorry but I cannot come to the party. I spent all day working outside under the rain and I feel ill today.” 

A few days after the party, you meet Sarah. She’s another one of your friends and she was at the party too, but she arrived late – a moment before you left. You only had time to say hello to each other. 

She asks you, “I saw you at the party but I didn’t see Jon. Where was he?”

When Sarah asks you, “Where was Jon?” you can say, 

“Jon said, ‘Sorry but I cannot come to the party. I spent all day working outside under the rain and I feel ill today’.”

However, it would be more natural to use indirect speech in this case. So you would say, “Jon said he couldn’t come to the party. He had spent all day working outside under the rain and he felt ill that day .” 

reported speech here there

Did you notice how the sentence changes in reported speech?

Here’s what happened:

  • “I” became “he”
  • “Cannot” became “couldn’t”
  • “Spent” became “had spent”
  • “I feel ill today” became “he felt ill on that day” 

Let’s take a closer look at how we form reported speech.

How To Form Reported Speech In English

To form reported speech, you might have to make a few changes to the original sentence that was spoken (or written). 

You may have to change pronouns, verb tenses, place and time expressions and, in the case of questions, the word order.

There are certain patterns to learn for reporting promises, agreements, orders, offers, requests, advice and suggestions.

Let’s have a look at all these cases one by one.

Reported Speech In English: Changing Verb Tenses

In general, when we use reported speech, the present tenses become past tenses.  

We do this because we are often reporting someone else’s words at a different time (Jon’s words were spoken 3 days before you reported them to Sarah).

Here’s an example:

Jenny (on Saturday evening) says,  “I don't like this place. I want to go home now.”(present tenses)

Matt (on Sunday morning) talks to James and says, “Jenny said that she didn't like the place, and she wanted to go home. (past tenses)

So this is how different verb tenses change:

Simple Present → Simple Past

DIRECT: I need money.

INDIRECT: She said she needed money.

Present Progressive → Past Progressive

DIRECT: My French is improving.

INDIRECT: He said his French was improving.

Present Perfect → Past Perfect

DIRECT: This has been an amazing holiday.

INDIRECT: She told me that it had been an amazing holiday.

What if there is a past simple form of the verb in direct speech? Well, in this case, it can stay the same in reported speech or you can change it to past perfect .

Past Simple → Past Simple Or Past Perfect

DIRECT: I didn’t go to work.

INDIRECT: Mary said that she didn’t go to work / Mary said that she hadn’t gone to work 

Past Perfect Tenses Do Not Change

reported speech here there

DIRECT: I arrived late because I had missed the bus.

INDIRECT: He said he arrived (or had arrived) late because he had missed the bus.

Modal verbs like “can,” “may,” and “will” also change in reported speech.

Will → Would

DIRECT: The exam will be difficult.

INDIRECT: They said that the exam would be difficult.

Can → Could

DIRECT: I can’t be there.

INDIRECT: He told me he couldn’t be there.

May → Might

DIRECT: We may go there another time.

INDIRECT: They said they might go there another time.

However, past modal verbs don’t change (would, must, could, should, etc.) don’t change in reported speech.

DIRECT: It would be nice if we could go to Paris.

INDIRECT: He said it would be nice if we could go to Paris.

Here are some other examples:

So, in summary, 

  • am/is → were
  • do/does → did
  • have/has → had
  • had done → had done
  • will → would
  • can → could
  • may → might
  • could → could
  • would → would
  • like/love/buy/see → liked/loved/bought/saw or had liked/ had loved/had bought/had seen.

You make these verb tense shifts when you report the original words at a different time from when they were spoken. However, it is often also possible to keep the original speaker’s tenses when the situation is still the same.

For example, 

1. DIRECT: I am feeling sick.

   INDIRECT: She said she is feeling sick.

2. DIRECT: We have to leave now.

   INDIRECT: They said they have to leave now.

3. DIRECT: I will call you later.

   INDIRECT: He said he will call me later.

4. DIRECT: She is not coming to the party.

   INDIRECT: He said she is not coming to the party.

reported speech here there

5. DIRECT: They are working on a new project.

   INDIRECT: She said they are working on a new project.

What about conditional sentences? How do they change in reported speech?

Sentences with “if” and “would” are usually unchanged.

DIRECT: It would be best if we went there early.

INDIRECT: He said it would be best if they went there early.

But conditional sentences used to describe unreal situations (e.g. second conditional or third conditional sentences) can change like this:

DIRECT: If I had more money I would buy a new car.

INDIRECT: She said if she had had more money, she would have bought a new car OR She said if she had more money, she would buy a new car.

Reported Speech In English: Changing Pronouns

In reported speech, because you’re reporting someone else’s words, there’s a change of speaker so this may mean a change of pronoun.

An example:

Jenny says,  “I don't like this place. I want to go home now.”

Matt says, “Jenny said that she didn't like the place, and she wanted to go home.” 

In this example, Jenny says “I” to refer to herself but Matt, talking about what Jenny said, uses “she”.

So the sentence in reported speech becomes:

  • Jenny said that she didn’t like . . . ( not Jenny said that I didn’t like . . .)

Some other examples:

reported speech here there

1 . DIRECT: I have been studying for hours.

   INDIRECT: He said he had been studying for hours.

2. DIRECT: I don’t like that movie.

   INDIRECT: She said she didn’t like that movie.

3. DIRECT: He doesn't like coffee.

   INDIRECT: She said he doesn't like coffee.

4. DIRECT: We have a new car.

   INDIRECT: They told me they had a new car.

5. DIRECT: We are going on vacation next week.

    INDIRECT: They said they are going on vacation next week.

Reported Speech In English: Place And Time Expressions

When you’re reporting someone’s words, there is often a change of place and time.  This may mean that you will need to change or remove words that are used to refer to places and time like “here,” “this,” “now,” “today,” “next,” “last,” “yesterday,” “tomorrow,” and so on. 

Check the differences in the following sentences:

DIRECT: I'll be back next month.

INDIRECT: She said she would be back the next month , but I never saw her again.

DIRECT: Emma got her degree last Tuesday.

INDIRECT: He said Emma had got her degree the Tuesday before.

DIRECT: I had an argument with my mother-in-law yesterday .

INDIRECT: He said he’d had an argument with his mother-in-law the day before .

reported speech here there

DIRECT: We're going to have an amazing party tomorrow.

INDIRECT: They said they were going to have an amazing party the next day.

DIRECT: Meet me here at 10 am.

INDIRECT: He told me to meet him there at 10 am.

DIRECT: This restaurant is really good.

INDIRECT: She said that the restaurant was really good.

DIRECT: I'm going to the gym now.

INDIRECT: He said he was going to the gym at that time.

DIRECT: Today is my birthday.

INDIRECT: She told me that it was her birthday that day .

DIRECT: I'm leaving for Europe next week.

INDIRECT: She said she was leaving for Europe the following week.

Reported Speech In English: Word Order In Questions

What if you have to report a question? For example, how would you report the following questions?

  • Where’s Mark?
  • When are you going to visit your grandmother?
  • What do I need to buy for the celebration?
  • Where are your best friend and his wife staying?
  • Do you like coffee?
  • Can you sing?
  • Who’s your best friend?
  • What time do you usually wake up?
  • What would you do if you won the lottery?
  • Do you ever read nonfiction books?

In reported questions, the subject normally comes before the verb and auxiliary “do” is not used.

So, here is what happens when you're reporting a question:

DIRECT: Where’s Mark?

INDIRECT: I asked where Mark was. 

DIRECT: When are you going to visit your grandmother?

INDIRECT: He wanted to know when I was going to visit my grandmother.

DIRECT: What do I need to buy for the celebration?

INDIRECT: She asked what she needed to buy for the celebration.

DIRECT: Where are your best friend and his wife staying?

INDIRECT: I asked where his best friend and his wife were staying.

reported speech here there

DIRECT: Do you like coffee?

INDIRECT: I asked if she liked coffee.

DIRECT: Can you sing?

INDIRECT: She asked me if I could sing.

DIRECT: Who’s your best friend?

INDIRECT: They asked me who my best friend was. 

DIRECT: What time do you usually wake up?

INDIRECT: She asked me what time I usually wake up.

DIRECT: What would you do if you won the lottery?

INDIRECT: He asked me what I would do if I won the lottery.

DIRECT: Do you ever read nonfiction books?

INDIRECT: She asked me if I ever read nonfiction books.

You might have noticed that question marks are not used in reported questions and you don’t use “say” or “tell” either.

Promises, Agreements, Orders, Offers, Requests & Advice

When you’re reporting these, you can use the following verbs + an infinitive:

Here are some examples:

DIRECT SPEECH: I’ll always love you.

PROMISE IN INDIRECT SPEECH: She promised to love me.

DIRECT SPEECH: OK, let’s go to the pub.

INDIRECT SPEECH: He agreed to come to the pub with me.

reported speech here there

DIRECT SPEECH: Sit down!

INDIRECT SPEECH: They told me to sit down OR they ordered me to sit down.

DIRECT SPEECH: I can go to the post office for you.

INDIRECT SPEECH: She offered to go to the post office.

DIRECT SPEECH: Could I please have the documentation by tomorrow evening?

INDIRECT SPEECH: She requested to have the documentation by the following evening.

DIRECT SPEECH: You should think twice before giving him your phone number.

INDIRECT SPEECH: She advised me to think twice before giving him my phone number.

Reported Speech In English

All right! I hope you have a much clearer idea about what reported speech is and how it’s used. 

And the good news is that both direct and indirect speech structures are commonly used in stories, so why not try the StoryLearning method ? 

You'll notice this grammatical pattern repeatedly in the context of short stories in English.

Not only will this help you acquire it naturally, but you will also have a fun learning experience by immersing yourself in an interesting and inspiring narrative.

Have a wonderful time learning through books in English !

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Reported Speech (Indirect Speech) in English – Summary

How to use reported speech.

If you have a sentence in Direct Speech, try to follow our 5 steps to put the sentence into Reported Speech..

  • Define the type of the sentence (statement, questions, command)
  • What tense is used in the introductory sentence?
  • Do you have to change the person (pronoun)?
  • Do you have to backshift the tenses?
  • Do you have to change expressions of time and place?

1. Statements, Questions, Commands

Mind the type of sentences when you use Reported Speech. There is more detailed information on the following pages.

  • Commands, Requests

2. The introductory sentence

If you use Reported Speech there are mostly two main differences.

The introductory sentence in Reported Speech can be in the Present or in the Past .

If the introductory sentences is in the Simple Present, there is no backshift of tenses.

Direct Speech:

  • Susan, “ Mary work s in an office.”

Reported Speech:

  • Introductory sentence in the Simple Present → Susan says (that)* Mary work s in an office.
  • Introductory sentence in the Simple Past → Susan said (that)* Mary work ed in an office.

3. Change of persons/pronouns

If there is a pronoun in Direct Speech, it has possibly to be changed in Reported Speech, depending on the siutation.

  • Direct Speech → Susan, “I work in an office.”
  • Reported Speech → Susan said (that)* she worked in an office.

Here I is changed to she .

4. Backshift of tenses

If there is backshift of tenses in Reported Speech, the tenses are shifted the following way.

  • Direct Speech → Peter, “ I work in the garden.”
  • Reported Speech → Peter said (that)* he work ed in the garden.

5. Conversion of expressions of time and place

If there is an expression of time/place in the sentence, it may be changed, depending on the situation.

  • Direct Speech → Peter, “I worked in the garden yesterday .”
  • Reported Speech → Peter said (that) he had worked in the garden the day before .

6. Additional information

In some cases backshift of tenses is not necessary, e.g. when statements are still true. Backshift of tenses is never wrong.

  • John, “My brother is at Leipzig university.”
  • John said (that) his brother was at Leipzig university. or
  • John said (that) his brother is at Leipzig university.

when you use general statements.

  • Mandy, “The sun rises in the east.”
  • Mandy said (that) the sun rose in the east. or
  • Mandy said (that) the sun rises in the east.

* The word that is optional, that is the reason why we put it in brackets.

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  • Grammar Explanations
  • Reported Speech
  • English Grammar
  • Reported Speech

Reported Speech - Definition, Rules and Usage with Examples

Reported speech or indirect speech is the form of speech used to convey what was said by someone at some point of time. This article will help you with all that you need to know about reported speech, its meaning, definition, how and when to use them along with examples. Furthermore, try out the practice questions given to check how far you have understood the topic.

reported speech here there

Table of Contents

Definition of reported speech, rules to be followed when using reported speech, table 1 – change of pronouns, table 2 – change of adverbs of place and adverbs of time, table 3 – change of tense, table 4 – change of modal verbs, tips to practise reported speech, examples of reported speech, check your understanding of reported speech, frequently asked questions on reported speech in english, what is reported speech.

Reported speech is the form in which one can convey a message said by oneself or someone else, mostly in the past. It can also be said to be the third person view of what someone has said. In this form of speech, you need not use quotation marks as you are not quoting the exact words spoken by the speaker, but just conveying the message.

Now, take a look at the following dictionary definitions for a clearer idea of what it is.

Reported speech, according to the Oxford Learner’s Dictionary, is defined as “a report of what somebody has said that does not use their exact words.” The Collins Dictionary defines reported speech as “speech which tells you what someone said, but does not use the person’s actual words.” According to the Cambridge Dictionary, reported speech is defined as “the act of reporting something that was said, but not using exactly the same words.” The Macmillan Dictionary defines reported speech as “the words that you use to report what someone else has said.”

Reported speech is a little different from direct speech . As it has been discussed already, reported speech is used to tell what someone said and does not use the exact words of the speaker. Take a look at the following rules so that you can make use of reported speech effectively.

  • The first thing you have to keep in mind is that you need not use any quotation marks as you are not using the exact words of the speaker.
  • You can use the following formula to construct a sentence in the reported speech.
  • You can use verbs like said, asked, requested, ordered, complained, exclaimed, screamed, told, etc. If you are just reporting a declarative sentence , you can use verbs like told, said, etc. followed by ‘that’ and end the sentence with a full stop . When you are reporting interrogative sentences, you can use the verbs – enquired, inquired, asked, etc. and remove the question mark . In case you are reporting imperative sentences , you can use verbs like requested, commanded, pleaded, ordered, etc. If you are reporting exclamatory sentences , you can use the verb exclaimed and remove the exclamation mark . Remember that the structure of the sentences also changes accordingly.
  • Furthermore, keep in mind that the sentence structure , tense , pronouns , modal verbs , some specific adverbs of place and adverbs of time change when a sentence is transformed into indirect/reported speech.

Transforming Direct Speech into Reported Speech

As discussed earlier, when transforming a sentence from direct speech into reported speech, you will have to change the pronouns, tense and adverbs of time and place used by the speaker. Let us look at the following tables to see how they work.

Here are some tips you can follow to become a pro in using reported speech.

  • Select a play, a drama or a short story with dialogues and try transforming the sentences in direct speech into reported speech.
  • Write about an incident or speak about a day in your life using reported speech.
  • Develop a story by following prompts or on your own using reported speech.

Given below are a few examples to show you how reported speech can be written. Check them out.

  • Santana said that she would be auditioning for the lead role in Funny Girl.
  • Blaine requested us to help him with the algebraic equations.
  • Karishma asked me if I knew where her car keys were.
  • The judges announced that the Warblers were the winners of the annual acapella competition.
  • Binsha assured that she would reach Bangalore by 8 p.m.
  • Kumar said that he had gone to the doctor the previous day.
  • Lakshmi asked Teena if she would accompany her to the railway station.
  • Jibin told me that he would help me out after lunch.
  • The police ordered everyone to leave from the bus stop immediately.
  • Rahul said that he was drawing a caricature.

Transform the following sentences into reported speech by making the necessary changes.

1. Rachel said, “I have an interview tomorrow.”

2. Mahesh said, “What is he doing?”

3. Sherly said, “My daughter is playing the lead role in the skit.”

4. Dinesh said, “It is a wonderful movie!”

5. Suresh said, “My son is getting married next month.”

6. Preetha said, “Can you please help me with the invitations?”

7. Anna said, “I look forward to meeting you.”

8. The teacher said, “Make sure you complete the homework before tomorrow.”

9. Sylvester said, “I am not going to cry anymore.”

10. Jade said, “My sister is moving to Los Angeles.”

Now, find out if you have answered all of them correctly.

1. Rachel said that she had an interview the next day.

2. Mahesh asked what he was doing.

3. Sherly said that her daughter was playing the lead role in the skit.

4. Dinesh exclaimed that it was a wonderful movie.

5. Suresh said that his son was getting married the following month.

6. Preetha asked if I could help her with the invitations.

7. Anna said that she looked forward to meeting me.

8. The teacher told us to make sure we completed the homework before the next day.

9. Sylvester said that he was not going to cry anymore.

10. Jade said that his sister was moving to Los Angeles.

What is reported speech?

What is the definition of reported speech.

Reported speech, according to the Oxford Learner’s Dictionary, is defined as “a report of what somebody has said that does not use their exact words.” The Collins Dictionary defines reported speech as “speech which tells you what someone said, but does not use the person’s actual words.” According to the Cambridge Dictionary, reported speech is defined as “the act of reporting something that was said, but not using exactly the same words.” The Macmillan Dictionary defines reported speech as “the words that you use to report what someone else has said.”

What is the formula of reported speech?

You can use the following formula to construct a sentence in the reported speech. Subject said that (report whatever the speaker said)

Give some examples of reported speech.

Given below are a few examples to show you how reported speech can be written.

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REPORTED SPEECH – How can I use it correctly?

reported speech here there

In today’s blog we are going to look at how you can use this correctly. Below I’ve broken down everything for you in a step by step manner. There are examples with info graphics, and I’ve included my YouTube video lesson for all my visual learners as well. Let’s get started! Reported Speech comes from Direct Speech.

Direct Speech is exactly what someone says . Reported Speech is repeating someone else’s words .

Let’s look at 2 examples:

reported speech

Professor Albert: Direct Speech

Students : Reported Speech. They are reporting Professor Albert’s words.

reported speech here there

Trainer: Direct Speech.

Student: Reported Speech. Brenda is reporting her trainer’s words.

SAY and TELL are reporting verbs. We need these two verbs to report other people’s words.

SAY + (that): Amy said (that) she loved horses.

SAY + to + object + (that): Amy said to me (that) she loved horses.

TELL + object + (that): Amy told me (that) she loved horses.

(that) is optional.

COMMON MISTAKES!

Amy said me that she loved horses.

☑Amy told me that she loved horses.

Eric said Jack about his holiday.

☑Eric told Jack about his holiday.

My dad told to me that he was going to visit next week.

☑My dad said to me that he was going to visit next week.

SAY or TELL? How can I use these verbs correctly?

Tense Change in Reported Speech

When you use reported speech, many times the verb from direct speech changes. Think about the verb going one step backwards.

Present Simple → Past Simple

Direct Speech: I eat a lot of fruit. Reported Speech: Mary said that she ate a lot of fruit. / Mary told me that she ate a lot of fruit.

Present Continuous → Past Continuous 

Direct Speech: Our English is improving . Reported Speech: My students said that their English was improving . / My students told me that their English was improving. 

Present Perfect → Past Perfect

Direct Speech: I have been to France many times. Reported Speech: Gary said that he had been to France many times. / Gary told me that he had been to France many times.

Present Perfect Continuous → Past Perfect Continuous

Direct Speech: I’ ve been working out a lot lately. Reported Speech: My sister said that she had been working out  a lot lately. / My sister told me that she had been working out a lot lately.

Past Simple → Past Perfect 

Direct Speech: I bought a new car. Reported Speech: Jessica said that she that she had bought a new car. / Jessica told me that she had bought a new car.

Past Continuous → Past Perfect Continuous

Direct Speech: I was working as a chef. Reported Speech: Max said that he had been working as a chef. / Max told me that he had been working as a chef.

Past Perfect → Past Perfect (It stays the same!)

Direct Speech: I had gone to work. Reported Speech: Carla said that she had gone to work. / Carla told me that she had gone to work.

Past Perfect Continuous → Past Perfect Continuous (It stays the same!) 

Direct Speech: We had been agonizing over our mortgage for months. Reported Speech: Our neighbours said that they had been agonizing over their mortgage for months. / My neighbours told us that they had been agonizing over their mortgage for months.

Future Simple (WILL) → Would 

Direct Speech: You will be famous one day. Reported Speech: Rebecca said that I would be famous one day. / Rebecca told me that I would be famous one day.

Modal Verb Tense Change

Can → could .

Direct Speech: I can help you later. Reported Speech: My teacher said that she could help me later. / My teacher told me that she could help me later.

(Possibility) May → Might 

Direct Speech: I may go out later. I’m not sure. Reported Speech: George said that he might go out later. / George told me that he might go out later.

(Possibility) Might → Might (It stays the same!) 

Direct Speech: I might watch a Star Wars film later. Reported Speech: My flatmate said that she might watch a Star Wars film later. / My flatmate told me that she might watch a Star Wars film later.

(Obligation) Must → Had to

Direct Speech: Everyone must be here by 7 a.m. tomorrow. Reported Speech: Our boss said that we had to be here by 7 a.m. tomorrow. / Our boss told us that we had to be here by 7 a.m. tomorrow.

Should → Should (It stays the same!)

Direct Speech: You look tired Ramiro. You should sleep. Reported Speech: My girlfriend said that I should sleep. / My girlfriend told me that I should sleep.

Would → Would (It stays the same!)

Direct Speech: It would be nice to see you later. Reported Speech: Sarah said that it would be nice to see me later. / Sarah told me that it would be nice to see me later.

reported speech here there

We DO NOT need to change the verb form if the information is STILL TRUE NOW.

So, remember earlier:

You can also say: Mary said that she eats a lot of fruit. (This information is still true now.) 

Direct Speech: Our English is improving. Reported Speech: My students said that their English was improving. / My students told me that their English was improving.

You can also say: My students said that their English is improving. (This information is still true now.) 

This is a lot of information to remember. This list is in my Free Library! Subscribe for the password: 

Yes, I want a list of this grammar

Thank you so much for reading! I hope you found it helpful.

Don’t forget to check out my youtube channel ,  instagram ,   facebook  and  other blogs., see you next time arnel , related posts.

reported speech here there

Adverb Clauses – where, when, how, why

reported speech here there

How To Use Comparative and Superlative Adjectives

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MUST or HAVE TO? modals of obligation, probability, deductions

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Reported speech

Changing time and place in reported speech

Time and place must often change when going from direct to reported speech (indirect speech).

In general, personal pronouns change to the third person singular or plural, except when the speaker reports his own words: I/me/my/mine, you/your/yours = him/his/her/hers we/us/our/ours, you/your/yours = they/their/theirs

He said: "I like your new car." = He told her that he liked her new car. I said: "I'm going to my friend's house." = I said that I was going to my friend's house.

If we are in the same place when we report something, then we do not need to make any changes to  place words . But if we are in a different place when we report something, then we need to change the place words. Look at these example sentences:

  • He said: "It is cold in  here ." → He said that it was cold in  there .
  • He said: "How much is  this book ?" → He asked how much  the book was.

Here are some common place words, showing how you change them for reported speech:

Course Curriculum

  • Direct and indirect speech 15 mins
  • Tense changes in reported speech 20 mins
  • Changing time and place in reported speech 20 mins
  • Reported questions 20 mins
  • Reporting verbs 20 mins
  • Reporting orders and requests 15 mins
  • Reporting hopes, intentions and promises 20 mins

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  • Reported Speech

Reported Speech: Whenever you are quoting someone else’s words , you use two kinds of speeches – Direct or Indirect speech . In this chapter, we will learn all about Direct and Indirect speech and how to convert one into another.

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Reported speech- how does it work.

Reported speech

Whenever you report a speech there’s a reporting verb used like “say” or “tell”. For example:

Direct speech: I love to play football .

Reported speech: She said that she loves to play football. (Note 1 : Assume a gender if not mentioned already. Note 2: Using “that” is optional. This sentence could also have been written as “She said she loves to play football.”)

The tense doesn’t have to be changed in this case of reported speech. But of the reporting verb is in the past tense , we do change the tense of the sentence.

Browse more Topics under Transformation Sentences

  • Active and Passive Voice
  • Parts of Speech
  • Types of Sentences

Reported speech- Play of the tenses:

Learn more about  Parts of Speech here in detail

This is a summary table that will be crystal clear to you as you read further. Just come back to this table after this section and use this as a summary table:

Some word transitions from direct to reported speech that will come in handy:

  • Will becomes would
  • Can becomes could
  • would stays would
  • should stays should
  • must stays must or had to(matter of choice)
  • shall becomes should

Exception : A present tense in direct speech may not become a past tense in the reported speech if it’s a fact or something generic we are talking about in the sentence. For example-

Direct speech: The sun rises from the East.

Reported speech: She said that the sun rises/rose from the East.

Reported speech- Handling questions:

What happens when the sentence we are trying to report was actually a question? That’s something we are going to deal with in this section. Reported questions- It’s quite interesting. let’s get into it:

Well the good news is that the tense change you learnt above stays the same in reported speech for questions. The only difference is that when you report a question, you no more report it in the form of a question but in the form of a statement. For example:

Direct speech: Where do you want to eat?

Reported speech: She asked me where I wanted to eat.

Notice how the question mark is gone from the reported speech. The reported speech is a statement now. Keep that in mind as you read further.

Remember the tense change? Let’s apply that to a few questions now.

Now these are questions that have wordy answers to them. What about the questions that has yes/no answers to them? In these type of questions just add “if” before asking the question. For example:

  • Direct speech: Would you like to eat some cupcakes?
  • Reported speech: He asked me if i would like to eat some cupcakes.
  • Direct speech: Have you ever seen the Van Gogh paintings?
  • Reported speech: She asked me if I had ever seen the Van Gogh paintings.
  • Direct speech: Are you eating your vegetables?
  • Reported speech: She asked if I was eating my vegetables.

Reported speech- Reported requests:

Well not all questions require answers. Some questions are polite requests. Remember? Could you please try to remember? And then there are request statements. Let’s see how do we convert these into reported speech.

Reported request = ask me + to + verb or requested me + to +verb

Just add this rule to your reported speech and you have what is called a reported request.

Reported speech- Reported orders:

Well, not everyone is going to be polite. Sometimes, we get orders. Now how will you report them? Unlike the request, the reporting verb isn’t ask but told or tell. Also, when in orders, sometimes subjects are omitted but while reporting we have to revive the subjects. Let’s see a few examples:

  • Direct speech: Sit down!
  • Reported speech: She told  me to sit down.
  • Direct speech: don’t worry!
  • Reported speech: She told me not to worry.

Reported speech- Time transitions:

With that, you have everything it takes to understand reported speech. you are all se to change the direct to reported speech. Go ahead and try a few examples. All the best!

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Transformation of Sentences

  • Active and Passive voice

37 responses to “Active and Passive voice”

Simple but very nice explanation and helpfull too.

What is the voice change of ” I have endeavoured to understand the fundamental truths.”

ENDEAVOUR HAS BEEN MADE BY ME TO UNDERSTAND THE FUNDAMENTAL TRUTH.

The fundamental truths have been endeavoured to be understood by me

The fundamental truths to understand had been endeavoured by him

The fundamental truths have endeavoured to be understood by me

The fundamental truths has been understood endeavoured to by me

How to change the voice for the following sentence – the books will be received by tomorrow

By whom? We need a subject. If the subject was for example “The library”, then the sentence in active voice would read “The library will receive the books by tomorrow”.

You will receive the books by tomorrow.

Tomorrow you will receive the book

You will receive the books (by) tomorrow.

Someone will receive the books by tomorrow

Tomorrow will be receive the books

HE WILL RECEIVE THE BOOKS BY TOMORROW.

By tomorrow the books will be received.

By tomorrow, you will receive the books

Tomorrow received the book

Change this “take right and turn left” into passive voice

Let the right be taken amd left be turned

‘amd’ is “and” 😅

You are advised to take right and turn left

Very helpful information thanks

Very well explained all basics that can lead to gain further knowledge very easily

What is in this box change into passive

what is the voice change of,” some people think nuclear is the best, because it doesnt add to global warming “….

Brilliant stuff!! – Rishabh

A kite was made by Ravi . What is the active form of this statement???

how to change into passive this sentence “when they were shifting the patient to the I.C.U.,he died

change into passive voice this sentence “when they were shifting the patient to I.C.U.,he died .

May you tell us tense conversion in voice.

Sentences without action like…. Jim is a doctor . Is it active or passive and if any how would you decide without having a main verb ?

It is named after the name of its principal tree ‘sundari'(passive)

how can ocean be object 🙄???

They made a bag

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  • Reported Speech

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Reported Speech How does it Work?

Indirect speech or Reported speech is just a way of expressing your intent in questions, statements or other phrases, without essentially quoting them outrightly as the way it is done in indirect speech.

Reported Speech Rules

To understand Reported Speech Grammar and Reported Verbs, you need to first understand reported speech rules and how it works. Here are some types of reported speech:

Reported Statements

Reported speech is used when someone says a sentence, like, "I'm going to the movie tonight". Later, we want to tell a 3rd person what the first person is doing.

It works like this:

We use a reporting verb i.e 'say' or 'tell'. In the present tense, just put in 'he says.

Direct Speech: I like burgers.

Reported Speech: He says (that) he likes burgers.

You don't need to change the tense, but you do need to switch the 'person' from 'I' to 'he’. You also need to change words like 'my' and 'your'.

But, in case the reporting verb is in the past tense, then change the tenses in the reported speech itself.

Reported Questions

Reported questions to go like 

Direct Speech: Where do you reside?

We make the change to reported speech by-

It is similar to reported statements. The tense changes are exact, and we keep the question’s word. But we need to change the grammar of that normal sentence into positive. For eg:

Reported Speech: He asked me where I resided.

The direct speech question is in the present simple tense. We make a present simple question with 'do' or 'does'. For that, I need to take that away. Then change the verb to the past simple. 

Direct Speech: Where is Jolly?

Reported Speech: He asked me where Jolly was.

The direct question is the present simple of 'be'. We change the question form of the present simple of being by changing the position of the subject and the verb. So, change them back before putting the verb into the past simple.

Here Are Some More Examples

Reported Requests

The reported speech goes a long way. What if a person asks you to do something politely or make a request? It’s called a reported request. For example

Direct Speech: Close the door, please / Could you close the door please? / Would you mind closing the door, please?

All these requests mean the same, so we don't need to report every word there when we tell a 3rd person about it. 

We can simply use 'ask me + to + infinitive':

Reported Speech: They asked me to close the door.

Direct Speech: Please be punctual.

Reported Speech: They asked us to be punctual.

Reported Orders

And lastly, how about when someone doesn't ask that politely? This is known as an 'order' in English, which is when someone tells you to do something pretty much directly. This is called a reported order. For example

Direct Speech: Stand up right now!

We make this into a reported speech in the same way as that for a request. Just use 'tell' rather than 'ask':

Reported Speech: She told me to stand up right now.

Time Expressions within the Ambit of Reported Speech

Sometimes when we want to change the direct speech into reported speech, we will have to change the time expressions too. We don't necessarily always have to do that. However, It depends on when we heard the speech in indirect form and when we said the speech in reported form. 

For Example,

It's Sunday. Kiran Ma’am says "I'm leaving today".

If You tell someone on Sunday, You will say "Kiran Ma’am said she was leaving today".

If you tell someone on Tuesday, You will say "Kiran Ma’am said she was leaving yesterday".

If you tell someone on Friday, you will say "Kiran Ma’am said she was leaving on Sunday ".

If you tell someone a month later, you will say "Kiran Ma’am said she was leaving that day".

So, technically there's no easy way to convert. You need to put in real effort and have to think about it when the direct speech is said.

Here's a Table of How Some Conversions can be Made 

now can be converted to then / at that time

today can be converted to yesterday / that day / Tuesday / the 27 th of June

yesterday can be converted to the day before yesterday / the day before / Wednesday / the 5th of December

last night can be converted to the night before, Thursday night

last week can be converted to the week before / the previous week

tomorrow can be converted to today / the next day / the following day / Friday

Now Let us Check our Understanding Through this Table

This is all about reported speech. English grammar is a tricky thing given both the rules and practice. Reading these rules solely will not help you to get a strong grasp of them. You also have to practice reported speech sentences in practical life to know how and when they can be used.

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FAQs on Reported Speech

1. How to convert present tenses to reported speech and give some examples.

There are certain rules to follow while converting sentences to reported speech. We need to manage tenses also.

Usually, the present sentences change to simple past tense.

Ex: I do yoga every morning

She said that she did yoga every morning.

I play cricket a lot

He said that he played cricket a lot 

Usually The present continuous tense changes to the past continuous tense. 

Ex: My friend is watching a movie.

She said that her friend was watching a movie.

We are eating dinner

They said that they were eating dinner.

Usually, the  Present Perfect Tense changes into Past Perfect Tense

Ex: I have been to the USA

She told me that she had been to the USA.

She has finished her task.

She said that she had finished her task.

Usually the Present Perfect Progressive Tense changes into Past Perfect Tense

2. How to convert present tenses to reported speech and give some examples.

Usually the Past Simple Tense changes into the Past Perfect Tense.

Ex: He arrived on Friday

He said that he had arrived on Friday.

My mom enjoyed the stay here

He said that his mom had enjoyed the stay there.

Usually, the Past Progressive Tense changes into the Perfect Continuous Tense

Ex: I was playing the cricket

He said that he had been playing cricket.

My husband was cooking

She said that her husband had been cooking.

Usually, the Past Perfect Tense doesn’t change.

Ex: She had worked hard.

She said that she had worked hard.

And also the Past Perfect Progressive Tense doesn’t change.

3. State the rules for conversion of future tenses into reported speech

There are rules to follow while converting the future tenses to reported speech.

In general, the Future Simple Tense changes into would. And also the future Progressive Tense changes into “would be”. The Future Perfect Tense changes into “would have”. The Future Perfect Progressive Tense changes into “would have been”.

Ex: I will be attending the wedding.

She said that she would be attending the wedding.

4. Give examples for conversion of  ‘can ‘, ‘can’t’ and ‘will’,’’won’t’ 

5. Give some examples for reported requests and reported orders.  

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"here" in indirect speech

  • Thread starter primroseheel
  • Start date Sep 4, 2017

primroseheel

Senior member.

  • Sep 4, 2017

Is it okay if I use "here" in a indirect speech? He asked me "Please do not take pictures here." He asked me not to take pictures here . Can I use only "there", not here, in the second sentence?  

Hercules Grytpype-Thynne

Hercules Grytpype-Thynne

No, you can say here if you're still in the location where you were told not to take pictures. If you are not in that location, then there would be appropriate.  

Hercules Grytpype-Thynne said: No, you can say here if you're still in the location where you were told not to take pictures. If you are not in that location, then there would be appropriate. Click to expand...

velisarius

"Ask" is the wrong verb for what is definitely a (polite) command. He told me not to take pictures there.  

velisarius said: "Ask" is the wrong verb for what is definitely a (polite) command. He told me not to take pictures there. Click to expand...

He asked me not to take pictures there - would be fine. When you quote the words, it's "telling", not asking because there's no question. "Order" is stronger, and less polite. He asked me, "Would you mind not taking pictures here, please?" (Ask, followed by the question.)  

velisarius said: He asked me not to take pictures there - would be fine. When you quote the words, it's "telling", not asking because there's no question. "Order" is stronger, and less polite. He asked me, "Would you mind not taking pictures here, please?" (Ask, followed by the question.) Click to expand...

natkretep

Moderato con anima (English Only)

  • Sep 5, 2017

Yes, this is part of the standard transformation when you convert something in direct speech to indirect speech because the point of reference has been changed. today --> that day now --> then here --> there  

reported speech here there

White House Announced 2 Intermissions for Biden's State of the Union?

"he is cognitively declining," one user said of the rumor. "they have to do it in sections so that he can hold up.", jordan liles, published march 7, 2024.

False

About this rating

On March 7, 2024, Sean Spicer — a White House press secretary during U.S. President Donald Trump's term in office — posted  ( archived ) on X, "White House announces there will be 2 'intermissions' during tonight's State of the Union." The post was created in the hours ahead of President Joe Biden's televised State of the Union speech that was to be delivered in front of a joint session of Congress.

White House announces there will be 2 "intermissions" during tonight's State of the Union — Sean Spicer (@seanspicer) March 7, 2024

The post — which was not true — apparently referenced an oft-discussed topic in the 2024 election year: the mental acuity of the two major-party candidates. Biden will be 82 during his inauguration, should he be reelected. Trump will be 78 at the same time, should he win.

Users on X responded to the supposed news and appeared to believe the two-intermissions rumor was true. For example, the user @MarioNawfal — who has more than 1.2 million followers and whose bio reads, "Unfiltered Unbiased Verified 24x7 Breaking News" — posted ( archived ), "Biden's State of the Union for the first time will have two intermission breaks."

reported speech here there

A different person  posted  ( archived ) on X, "Are you kidding me?? White House announces there will be 2 'intermissions' during tonight's State of the Union! ABSOLUTELY PATHETIC!"

Meanwhile, another user wrote  ( archived ), "Two intermissions with the State of the Union, because Biden is not able to do it, he is cognitively declining, they have to do it in sections so that he can hold up, maybe he will last until November."

Other users also added jokes, such as one  response  ( archived ) to Spicer's post that said of the purported two intermissions, "Diaper change then ice cream cone reward."

Speaking of jokes, another user  replied  ( archived ) to Spicer, asking, "Is this a joke? Please say this is a joke." Spicer responded  ( archived ), "Joke right now. But I won't put it past them."

In other words, it was not true that there were two planned intermissions for Biden's address. The rumor was nothing more than an attempt at humor.

Joke right now. But I won't put it past them — Sean Spicer (@seanspicer) March 7, 2024

As for how long Biden's 2024 State of the Union address might last, speeches from past years might provide some insight.

CBS News reported that Biden's 2023 speech before Congress lasted one hour and 13 minutes, citing The American Presidency Project . In 2022, the speech ran close to one hour and two minutes. His first speech before a joint session of Congress — which was not technically a State of the Union address — lasted around one hour and five minutes.

"1.2 Length of State of the Union Addresses in Minutes (from 1964)." The American Presidency Project , https://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/documents/presidential-documents-archive-guidebook/annual-messages-congress-the-state-the-union-0.

Quinn, Melissa. "When Does Biden's State of the Union for 2024 Start and End Tonight? Key Times to Know." CBS News , 7 Mar. 2024, https://www.cbsnews.com/news/state-of-the-union-2024-time/.

By Jordan Liles

Jordan Liles is a Senior Reporter who has been with Snopes since 2016.

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United States House Passes Bill That Could Ban TikTok

If the tiktok bill were to become law, it would likely deepen a cold war between the united states and china over the control of important technologies..

“Two-thirds being in the affirmative, the rules are suspended — the bill is passed.” “This is a common sense measure to protect our national security.” “TikTok said its data is not accessible to China-based ByteDance employees. False. China-based employees routinely access this data, even unbeknownst to employees of TikTok U.S.A.”

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By Sapna Maheshwari ,  David McCabe and Annie Karni

The House on Wednesday passed a bill with broad bipartisan support that would force TikTok’s Chinese owner to either sell the hugely popular video app or have it banned in the United States.

The move escalates a showdown between Beijing and Washington over the control of a wide range of technologies that could affect national security, free speech and the social media industry.

Republican leaders fast-tracked the bill through the House with limited debate, and it passed on a lopsided vote of 352 to 65, reflecting widespread backing for legislation that would take direct aim at China in an election year.

The action came despite TikTok’s efforts to mobilize its 170 million U.S. users against the measure, and amid the Biden administration’s push to persuade lawmakers that Chinese ownership of the platform poses grave national security risks to the United States, including the ability to meddle in elections.

The result was a bipartisan coalition behind the measure that included Republicans, who defied former President Donald J. Trump in supporting it, and Democrats, who also fell in line behind a bill that President Biden has said he would sign.

The bill faces a difficult road to passage in the Senate, where Senator Chuck Schumer, Democrat of New York and the majority leader, has been noncommittal about bringing it to the floor for a vote and where some lawmakers have vowed to fight it. And even if it passes the Senate and becomes law, it is likely to face legal challenges.

But Wednesday’s vote was the first time a measure that could widely ban TikTok for consumers was approved by a full chamber of Congress. The app has been under threat since 2020, with lawmakers increasingly arguing that Beijing’s relationship with TikTok’s parent company, ByteDance, raises national security risks. The bill is aimed at getting ByteDance to sell TikTok to non-Chinese owners within six months. The president would sign off on the sale if it resolved national security concerns. If that sale did not happen, the app would be banned.

Representative Mike Gallagher, the Wisconsin Republican who is among the lawmakers leading the bill, said on the floor before the vote that it “forces TikTok to break up with the Chinese Communist Party.”

“This is a common-sense measure to protect our national security,” he said.

Mike Gallagher, in a dark suit, gestures while speaking to a group reporters holding microphones outside the Capitol.

Alex Haurek, a spokesman for TikTok, said in a statement that the House “process was secret and the bill was jammed through for one reason: It’s a ban.”

“We are hopeful that the Senate will consider the facts, listen to their constituents, and realize the impact on the economy — seven million small businesses — and the 170 million Americans who use our service,” he added.

On Wednesday, before the House vote, Beijing condemned the push by U.S. lawmakers and rejected the notion that TikTok was a danger to the United States. At a daily press briefing, Wang Wenbin, a spokesman for China’s foreign ministry, accused Washington of “resorting to hegemonic moves when one could not succeed in fair competition.”

If the bill were to become law, it would likely deepen a cold war between the United States and China over the control of many important technologies, including solar panels, electric vehicles and semiconductors.

Mr. Biden has announced limitations on how U.S. financial firms can invest in Chinese companies and restricted the sale of Americans’ sensitive data like location and health information to data brokers that could sell it to China. Platforms like Facebook and YouTube are blocked in China, and Beijing said last year that it would oppose a sale of TikTok.

TikTok has said that it has gone to great lengths to protect U.S. user data and provide third-party oversight of the platform, and that no government can influence the company’s recommendation model. It has also said there is no proof that Beijing has used TikTok to obtain U.S. user data or to influence Americans’ views, two of the concerns lawmakers have cited.

In an unusually aggressive move for a technology company, TikTok urged users to call their representatives last week to protest the bill, saying, “This legislation has a predetermined outcome: a total ban of TikTok in the United States.”

TikTok has spent more than $1 billion on an extensive plan known as Project Texas that aims to handle sensitive U.S. user data separately from the rest of the company’s operations. That plan has for several years been under review by a panel known as the Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States, or CFIUS.

Two of the lawmakers behind the bill, Mr. Gallagher and Raja Krishnamoorthi, an Illinois Democrat, said last week that lawmakers were acting because CFIUS “hasn’t solved the problem.”

It’s very unusual for a bill to garner broad bipartisan support but at the same time divide both parties. President Biden has said he would sign the bill into law, but top House leaders like Representative Katherine Clark of Massachusetts, the No. 2 Democrat in the House, voted against the bill. Mr. Trump said he opposed the bill, but many of his most stalwart allies in the House, like Representative Elise Stefanik of New York, the No. 4 Republican in the House, voted for it.

The vote came down to something of a free-for-all, with unusual alliances in support of and opposed to the bill. Representative Nancy Pelosi, Democrat of California and the former house speaker, sat in the chamber nodding along with hard-right Republicans like Representative Dan Crenshaw, Republican of Texas, as they outlined their support for the bill. At one point, she got up and crossed over to the Republican side of the aisle to confer with Representative Chip Roy, a hard-right Republican of Texas, who had vocally supported the bill on the floor.

Several Republicans and Democrats expressed their opposition to the bill based on free speech concerns and TikTok’s popularity in the United States. Some legal experts have said that if the bill were to become law, it would probably face First Amendment scrutiny in the courts.

Representative Maxwell Frost, a Democrat of Florida, said on Tuesday that “not only am I no, but I’m a hell no.” He said the legislation was an infringement of First Amendment rights. “I hear from students all the time that get their information, the truth of what has happened in this country, from content creators on TikTok.” He said he was concerned about Americans’ data, but “this bill does not fix that problem.”

There wasn’t any legislation last year in the aftermath of a fiery hearing with Shou Chew, TikTok’s chief executive, despite bipartisan support to regulate the app. But concern among lawmakers has grown even more in recent months, with many of them saying that TikTok’s content recommendations could be used for misinformation, a concern that has escalated in the United States since the Israel-Hamas war began.

“It was a lot of things in the interim, including Oct. 7, including the fact that the Osama bin Laden ‘Letter to America’ went viral on TikTok and the platform continued to show dramatic differences in content relative to other social media platforms,” Mr. Krishnamoorthi said in an interview.

There’s also a chance that even if the bill is signed and survives court challenges, it could crumble under a new administration. Mr. Trump, who tried to ban TikTok or force its sale in 2020, publicly reversed his position on the app over the past week. In a television appearance on Monday, Mr. Trump said that the app was a national security threat, but that banning it would help Facebook, a platform the former president criticized.

“There are a lot of young kids on TikTok who will go crazy without it,” he said.

Mr. Trump’s administration had threatened to remove TikTok from American app stores if ByteDance did not sell its share in the app. ByteDance even seemed ready to sell a stake in the app to Walmart and Oracle, where executives were close to Mr. Trump.

That plan went awry in federal court. Multiple judges stopped Mr. Trump’s proposed ban from taking effect.

Mr. Biden’s administration has tried turning to a legislative solution. The White House provided “technical assistance” to Mr. Gallagher and Mr. Krishnamoorthi as they wrote their bill, Karine Jean-Pierre, the White House press secretary, said at a briefing last week. When the bill was introduced, a National Security Council spokesman quickly called the legislation “an important and welcome step to address” the threat of technology that imperils Americans’ sensitive data.

The administration has repeatedly sent national security officials to Capitol Hill to privately make the case for the legislation and offer dire warnings on the risks of TikTok’s current ownership. The White House briefed lawmakers before the 50 to 0 committee vote last week that advanced the bill to the full House.

On Tuesday, officials from the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the Office of the Director of National Intelligence and the Justice Department spoke with lawmakers in a classified briefing about national security concerns tied to TikTok.

Mr. Gallagher and Mr. Krishnamoorthi had previously sponsored a bill aimed at banning TikTok. The latest bill has been viewed as something of a last stand against the company for Mr. Gallagher, who recently said he would not run for a fifth term because “the framers intended citizens to serve in Congress for a season and then return to their private lives.”

Sapna Maheshwari reports on TikTok, technology and emerging media companies. She has been a business reporter for more than a decade. Contact her at [email protected] . More about Sapna Maheshwari

David McCabe covers tech policy. He joined The Times from Axios in 2019. More about David McCabe

Annie Karni is a congressional correspondent for The Times. She writes features and profiles, with a recent focus on House Republican leadership. More about Annie Karni

TikTok Under Scrutiny

The popular video app, which is owned by the chinese company bytedance, is under pressure amid concerns over the handling of users’ data..

Efforts to Ban TikTok: Over the last year, lawmakers in the United States, Canada and Europe have escalated efforts to restrict access to the app, citing security threats. Here is what to know .

In the United States: The House passed a bill  with broad bipartisan support that would force TikTok’s Chinese owner to sell its hugely popular video app  or be banned in the United States. The move escalates a showdown between Beijing and Washington  over the control of technologies that could affect national security, free speech and the social media industry.

How TikTok Shares User Data: Internal documents show how TikTok employees have regularly posted user information , including the driver’s licenses of American users, on a messaging and collaboration tool called Lark.

First U.S. Ban: In November, a federal judge blocked Montana’s statewide ban of TikTok  from taking effect, at least temporarily preventing the nation’s first such prohibition on the app.

The Stakes: Even as U.S. officials are focused on the dangers of TikTok, many users disagree with those concerns. We spoke with nine young Americans  about how a ban would change their lives.

Despite being found liable for attack, Trump claims E. Jean Carroll made 'false accusations' against him

Donald Trump at campaign event in Rome, Georgia.

ROME, Georgia — Former President Donald Trump on Saturday reiterated his claim that writer E. Jean Carroll had levied “false accusations” against him, even as similar remarks have resulted in large court judgments against him.

Speaking at a Georgia campaign rally that represented Trump’s pivot toward the general election as he seeks to prevent a second loss to Democratic President Joe Biden, Trump reiterated a number of grievances, Carroll’s civil court victories among them.

“I just posted a $91 million bond, $91 million on a fake story, totally made-up story,” he said, referencing the bond he posted this week as he appeals a defamation verdict against him.

“Ninety-one million based on false accusations made about me by a woman that I knew nothing about, didn’t know, never heard of, I know nothing about her,” he continued.

“She wrote a book, she said things,” Trump told the raucous crowd in Rome, about 70 miles northeast of Atlanta. “And when I denied it, I said, ‘It’s so crazy. It’s false.’ I get sued for defamation. That’s where it starts.”

At issue for Trump has been Carroll’s allegation that he raped her during an encounter in the dressing room of a New York department store in the 1990s and then defamed her by calling her account a “hoax” and a “con job.” 

In May, a jury did not find Trump liable for the alleged   rape but awarded Carroll $5 million after finding the former president liable for sexually abusing and defaming her.

A separate case focused on similar comments Trump made about Carroll while in office and concluded he defamed her when casting doubt on her story. U.S. District Judge Lewis Kaplan said that case would be about determining damages — later adjudged to be $83.3 million — as the abuse was factual.

Trump is appealing both cases.

The judgments did not appear to dissuade him from returning to his denials of her account. On Saturday, Trump said that Carroll “is not a believable person” and that Kaplan — whom he called “a terrible person, a terrible judge” and “highly corrupt” — knows as much.

Trump blamed “Democratic operatives” for his defamation woes, and called the city where he and his father bought, sold, traded and developed real estate projects for the better part of a century a crooked metropolis.

“New York is a very corrupt place,” Trump said.

It did not appear Carroll had responded to Trump’s latest denials of her story as of early Sunday.

reported speech here there

Jake Traylor is a 2024 NBC News campaign embed.

reported speech here there

Dennis Romero is a breaking news reporter for NBC News Digital. 

Lindsey Pipia is an Associate Producer for the 2024 Political Desk.

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Interview transcript shows more nuance on Biden's memory than special counsel report

Tamara Keith headshot

Tamara Keith

reported speech here there

President Biden speaks to reporters about the special counsel report on his handling of classified documents in the Diplomatic Reception Room of the White House on Feb. 8. Evan Vucci/AP hide caption

President Biden speaks to reporters about the special counsel report on his handling of classified documents in the Diplomatic Reception Room of the White House on Feb. 8.

During more than five hours of interviews over two days last October, President Biden cracked jokes, went into great detail about the design of his Wilmington home and spoke with confidence about world events from more than a decade ago. At times, he was defiant.

He also said some combination of "I don't know," "I don't recall," "I don't specifically remember," "I have no goddamn idea" and similar phrases more than 100 times during the deposition for a special counsel review of his handling of classified documents after he left office in 2017, according to an NPR review of the transcript.

The 258-page transcript of the interviews conducted by special counsel Robert Hur on Oct. 8 and 9 paints a more nuanced portrait of the president than was described in Hur's report last month. Hur is set to testify before Congress on Tuesday about that investigation.

Special counsel Hur defended Biden classified documents probe before Congress

Special counsel testifies on Capitol Hill about Biden classified documents probe

Read the special counsel's report on Biden's handling of classified documents

Read the special counsel's report on Biden's handling of classified documents

The transcript shows moments where Biden felt around trying to remember the year of certain events, like Donald Trump winning the election in 2016 and the death of his son Beau. Biden recalled the day, May 30, but not the year.

Hur concluded that criminal charges were not warranted because the evidence did not establish Biden's guilt beyond a reasonable doubt. He said that Biden would come across to jurors as a "sympathetic, well-meaning elderly man with a poor memory," had trouble remembering timelines and details, and said it would have been "difficult to convince a jury that they should convict him ... of a serious felony that requires a mental state of willfulness" in his retention of some of the classified documents.

Biden and the White House pushed back angrily against the characterization. Voters have questioned whether Biden, 81, is too old for a second term in office. Since the Hur report landed, Biden has made a public push to show otherwise, including in a vigorous State of the Union address last week.

reported speech here there

Robert Hur is slated to testify on Tuesday about his probe of President Biden's handling of classified documents. In this file photo, he arrives at U.S. District Court in Baltimore on Nov. 21, 2019. Steve Ruark/AP hide caption

Robert Hur is slated to testify on Tuesday about his probe of President Biden's handling of classified documents. In this file photo, he arrives at U.S. District Court in Baltimore on Nov. 21, 2019.

During the interviews, the timelines bounced around

The first interview began at the White House at 12:15 p.m. on Oct. 8, the day after the deadly Hamas attacks in Israel. Hur thanked Biden for making time for it. "I just got off the phone with Bibi Netanyahu," Biden said.

Throughout the interview, Hur and his deputy Marc Krickbaum asked detailed questions about how documents were handled when Biden was vice president and once he had left office — including about specific rooms he was working in at various times, and even specific pieces of furniture. The timelines bounced around.

Biden defends how he handled classified docs after scathing special counsel report

Biden defends how he handled classified docs after scathing special counsel report

About halfway through the first day, Hur asked Biden how he stored documents related to his work after he no longer was vice president. "Where did you keep papers that related to those things that you were actively working on?"

Biden said he wasn't sure. "This is what, 2017, 2018, that area?" he asked. "Yes, sir," Hur responded.

The most confusing part of the interview concerned the timeline surrounding his son's death

They discussed the nature of his work after he left office, work that included Biden's " cancer moonshot " push to find cures and treatments for the disease — and writing a book.

But Biden went further back in time and began talking about the death of his son Beau, from cancer, just as Biden was trying to decide whether to run for president. "Remember in this timeframe, my son is — either been deployed or is dying, and so it was — and by the way, there were still a lot of people at the time when I got out of the Senate that were encouraging me to run in this period, except the president," said Biden.

Beau Biden, Vice President's Son, Remembered In Delaware Service

The Two-Way

Beau biden, vice president's son, remembered in delaware service.

"He (former President Barack Obama) just thought she had a better chance," Biden said, referring to Hillary Clinton, who ended up being the Democratic nominee in 2016. He briefly talked about how, by 2017-18, he hadn't ruled out trying to run for president again — then returned to talking about his son.

"And so what was happening, though — what month did Beau die? Oh God, May 30," Biden said, according to the transcript. An attorney from the White House counsel's office interjected to say "2015," a year then echoed by a second unidentified speaker.

"Was it 2015, he had died?" Biden said. Moments later, the president — still seemingly looking for his bearings in time — asked: "and what's happened in the meantime is that Trump gets elected in November of 2017?"

Two people corrected him, saying, "2016."

"2016. All right, so — why do I have 2017 here?" Biden asked. "That's when you left office, January of 2017," another of Biden's lawyers said.

Biden then launched into recounting how Beau implored him not to shrink from public life, which led to his book title, Promise Me, Dad .

Biden went into great detail about his Wilmington home

Early on, Hur thanked Biden for cooperating with the searches of his homes. "The FBI knows my house better than I do," Biden quipped, to laughter.

Hur asked Biden to try his hardest to recall details. "I acknowledge that some of the questions we are asking relate to events that happened years ago," Hur said. Biden replied: "I'm a young man, so it's not a problem."

Dela-Where He'd Rather Be: Come The Weekend, Biden Leaves D.C.

Why Biden spends his weekends away from the White House

At another point in the interview, Biden went into great detail about his home in Wilmington — so much detail that there were numerous redactions in the transcript by the U.S. Secret Service. Biden described himself as a "frustrated architect" as he went through minutiae about the home he helped design and decorate.

"This room cost one-third of the entirety of my entire home," Biden said. "Swear to God."

"It's very impressive," Hur replied.

Hur complimented Biden on his memory. "That was very helpful. We have some photographs to show you, but you have — appear to have a photographic understanding and recall of the house," Hur said.

He was less clear about the state of his garage

Biden had a less photographic memory when trying to explain when and how certain boxes appeared in his very cluttered garage, photographs of which appeared in Hur's report.

"I just came home and all of it was on the garage floor," Biden said.

He noted at one point that investigators who had searched his Wilmington home had "left everything in place," even some personal items.

"I just hope you didn't find any risqué pictures of my wife in a bathing suit. Which you probably did. She's beautiful," Biden said.

Asked at another point whether Jill Biden ever stored her files with his, the president was adamant in his reply. "She wanted nothing to do with my filing system," he said.

reported speech here there

President Biden leaves the podium on Feb. 8 after speaking about the special counsel report on his handling of classified documents. Evan Vucci/AP hide caption

President Biden leaves the podium on Feb. 8 after speaking about the special counsel report on his handling of classified documents.

Biden was defiant about notebooks he kept from his time as vice president

Krickbaum attempted to ask Biden about whether he was authorized to have notebooks he kept full of handwritten notes about events and items he was briefed on. "You view those as yours —" Krickbaum began to ask.

"They are mine," Biden interrupted, in one of the more defiant moments of the interview.

"Every president before me has done the same exact thing," Biden said. Earlier in the conversation, Biden had described how former President Ronald Reagan had held onto his personal notes and diaries. It was a precedent Biden and his legal team have leaned on to explain why he kept notebooks that could have contained summaries of classified briefing materials.

"I'm not arguing with you about that right now, Mr. President," Krickbaum said. "I just want to make sure we are on the same page," Biden replied, before they moved on.

reported speech here there

Then-Vice President Biden tries out archery on a tour in Mongolia on Aug. 22, 2011. Andy Wong/AP hide caption

Then-Vice President Biden tries out archery on a tour in Mongolia on Aug. 22, 2011.

Biden told a lot of his favorite stories during the two days of interviews

The interviewers spent a lot of time walking Biden through photos of home and office spaces, asking him to recall details. In one instance, Biden told Hur he remembered buying a conference table "in Wilmington at Berger Brothers, I believe." Hur then asked about another piece of furniture.

"So, you just told us where you bought the conference table. Do you remember where the file cabinet came from?" Hur asked.

"I don't know," Biden replied. It was one of the many times Biden told Hur he didn't know — about things mundane (why he wasn't using the hanging folders in his file cabinet in Wilmington) to procedural (what his staff did with highly classified materials when he was done with them).

The interview also included Biden going on at length about the decision-making process around the troop surge in Afghanistan in 2009, his decision in the early 1970s to become a public defender, his decision to run for office the first time, his family meeting where the grandkids convinced him to run for president in 2019 — and this one time he used a bow and arrow to hit a target during a trip to Mongolia .

At one point, Biden became aware that he was going on too long with one of his favorite stories, saying, "to make a long story not quite so long..." and then he kept on going.

"My generic point was: There was a lot of material that I had amassed that I wanted to save," Biden explained.

At the end of the second day, Biden ended the interview with one last quip.

"I know it's a lot of work for you — putting a lot together. I may now write a book, you have all this," Biden said, before adding: "That was a joke."

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  1. Reported Speech: Important Grammar Rules and Examples • 7ESL

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  2. Reported Speech: A Complete Grammar Guide ~ ENJOY THE JOURNEY

    reported speech here there

  3. ESL Teachers: REPORTED SPEECH

    reported speech here there

  4. How to Use Reported Speech in English

    reported speech here there

  5. Changes in Time and Place in Reported Speech • 7ESL

    reported speech here there

  6. Reported Speech: How To Use Reported Speech

    reported speech here there

VIDEO

  1. Reported Speech for CBSE Boards

  2. Reported speech

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  4. Reported Speech Part 1

  5. Reported speech الكلام المنقول

  6. Reported Speech || Narration

COMMENTS

  1. Time and Place in Reported Speech

    Time and Place in Reported Speech. She said, "I saw Mary yesterday." She said she had seen Mary the day before. He said: "My mother is here." He said that his mother was there. Don't confuse time with tense. "Tense" is the grammatical form of the verb that in the reported clause we sometimes shift back (backshift).

  2. Reported Speech

    Here - there. Tomorrow - the next/following day. Two weeks ago - two weeks before. Yesterday - the day before. Here are some examples. Direct speech: "I am baking cookies now." Indirect speech: He said he was baking cookies then. Direct speech: "Myra went here yesterday." Indirect speech: She said Myra went there the day before.

  3. Reported Speech

    Watch my reported speech video: Here's how it works: We use a 'reporting verb' like 'say' or 'tell'. (Click here for more about using 'say' and 'tell'.) If this verb is in the present tense, it's easy. ... So, there's no easy conversion. You really have to think about when the direct speech was said. Here's a table of some possible conversions ...

  4. Reported speech

    Both forms are possible here. The 'ending' is a moment in the past; after this there is no war. By the way, we treat 'World War 2' as a name so there is no article before it. ... He said " I was there that day" Indirect speech : He said he had been there that day or Indirect speech : He said he was there that day. Log in or register to post ...

  5. Reported speech: indirect speech

    Reported speech: indirect speech - English Grammar Today - a reference to written and spoken English grammar and usage - Cambridge Dictionary

  6. Reported Speech: Important Grammar Rules and Examples • 7ESL

    Pin. No Change in Verb Tenses in Reported Speech. There is no change in verb tenses in Indirect Speech when:. The introductory verb is in the Present, Present Perfect or Future.; If the reported sentence deals with a fact or general truth.; The reported sentence contains a time clause.; The verb of the sentence is in the unreal past (the second or the third conditional).

  7. Reported speech and direct speech

    Reported speech is a structure used to repeat what somebody has said before (direct speech): John: "My name is John" ... Words that change in reported speech: here. there. this. that. these. those. today. that day. tomorrow. the following day. yesterday. the day before. next week. the following week. last week . the week before. now. then.

  8. What is Reported Speech and How to Use It? with Examples

    In reported speech, the adverbs and adverbial phrases that indicate time or place may need to be changed to reflect the perspective of the new speaker. For example: Direct speech: "I'm going to the cinema tonight." Reported speech: She said she was going to the cinema that night. Direct speech: "He is here." Reported speech: She said he was there.

  9. Reported speech: statements

    He said that was his house. [You are not currently in front of the house.] 'We like it here.'. She told me they like it here. [You are currently in the place they like.] She told me they like it there. [You are not in the place they like.] 'I'm planning to do it today.'. She told me she's planning to do it today.

  10. Reported Speech in English Grammar

    Introduction. In English grammar, we use reported speech to say what another person has said. We can use their exact words with quotation marks, this is known as direct speech, or we can use indirect speech.In indirect speech, we change the tense and pronouns to show that some time has passed.Indirect speech is often introduced by a reporting verb or phrase such as ones below.

  11. Reported Speech: Rules, Examples, Exceptions

    Reported Speech: She said she'd been to London three times. There are a lot of tricky little details to remember, but don't worry, I'll explain them and we'll see lots of examples. The lesson will have three parts - we'll start by looking at statements in reported speech, and then we'll learn about some exceptions to the rules ...

  12. Reported speech: reporting verbs

    direct speech: 'You should come, it's going to be a lot of fun,' she said. indirect speech: She persuaded me to come. direct speech: 'Wait here,' he said. indirect speech: He told us to wait there. direct speech: 'It wasn't me who finished the coffee,' he said. indirect speech: He denied finishing the coffee. Try this exercise to test your grammar.

  13. Reported Speech and Direct Speech

    Direct speech and reported speech fully explained: all the rules and details, full with examples and illustrations. Reported Speech Direct Speech and Reported Speech ... here: there: now: then / at the time: today: that day / yesterday: yesterday: the day before / the previous day: a week ago / last week: a week before / the previous week:

  14. Reported Speech In English: The Ultimate Guide

    Reported Speech In English: Place And Time Expressions When you're reporting someone's words, there is often a change of place and time. This may mean that you will need to change or remove words that are used to refer to places and time like "here," "this," "now," "today," "next," "last," "yesterday ...

  15. Reported Speech (Indirect Speech) in English

    Reported Speech → Susan said (that)* she worked in an office. Here I is changed to she. 4. Backshift of tenses. If there is backshift of tenses in Reported Speech, the tenses are shifted the following way. Direct Speech → Peter, " I work in the garden." Reported Speech → Peter said (that)* he work ed in the garden.

  16. Reported Speech

    Reported speech is the form in which one can convey a message said by oneself or someone else, mostly in the past. It can also be said to be the third person view of what someone has said. In this form of speech, you need not use quotation marks as you are not quoting the exact words spoken by the speaker, but just conveying the message. Q2.

  17. Indirect speech

    What is indirect speech or reported speech? When we tell people what another person said or thought, we often use reported speech or indirect speech. To do that, we need to change verb tenses (present, past, etc.) and pronouns (I, you, my, your, etc.) if the time and speaker are different.For example, present tenses become past, I becomes he or she, and my becomes his or her, etc.

  18. REPORTED SPEECH

    Direct Speech: Everyone must be here by 7 a.m. tomorrow. Reported Speech: Our boss said that we had to be here by 7 a.m. tomorrow. / Our boss told us that we had to be here by 7 a.m. tomorrow. Should → Should (It stays the same!) Direct Speech: You look tired Ramiro. You should sleep. Reported Speech: My girlfriend said that I should sleep.

  19. Changing time and place in reported speech| reported speech| English EFL

    Place. If we are in the same place when we report something, then we do not need to make any changes to place words. But if we are in a different place when we report something, then we need to change the place words. Look at these example sentences: He said: "It is cold in here ." → He said that it was cold in there.

  20. Reported Speech: Direct and Indirect speech

    Whenever you report a speech there's a reporting verb used like "say" or "tell". For example: Direct speech: I love to play football. Reported speech: She said that she loves to play football. (Note 1 : Assume a gender if not mentioned already. Note 2: Using "that" is optional.

  21. Reported Speech

    Here are some types of reported speech: Reported Statements. Reported speech is used when someone says a sentence, like, "I'm going to the movie tonight". Later, we want to tell a 3rd person what the first person is doing. ... There are certain rules to follow while converting sentences to reported speech. We need to manage tenses also.

  22. "here" in indirect speech

    Is it okay if I use "here" in a indirect speech? ... Can I use only "there", not here, in the second sentence? Hercules Grytpype-Thynne Senior Member. English - U.S. Sep 4, 2017 #2 No, you can say here if you're still in the location where you were told not to take pictures.

  23. White House Announced 2 Intermissions for Biden's State of the Union?

    CBS News reported that Biden's 2023 speech before Congress lasted one hour and 13 minutes, citing The American Presidency Project. In 2022, the speech ran close to one hour and two minutes.

  24. Powell: 'There will be bank failures' caused by ...

    "This is a problem we'll be working on for years more, I'm sure. There will be bank failures," he said during a Thursday hearing on the Fed's monetary policy in the Senate Banking Committee.

  25. Full Transcript of Biden's State of the Union Speech

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