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How to Write a Strong Hypothesis | Steps & Examples

Published on May 6, 2022 by Shona McCombes . Revised on November 20, 2023.

A hypothesis is a statement that can be tested by scientific research. If you want to test a relationship between two or more variables, you need to write hypotheses before you start your experiment or data collection .

Example: Hypothesis

Daily apple consumption leads to fewer doctor’s visits.

Table of contents

What is a hypothesis, developing a hypothesis (with example), hypothesis examples, other interesting articles, frequently asked questions about writing hypotheses.

A hypothesis states your predictions about what your research will find. It is a tentative answer to your research question that has not yet been tested. For some research projects, you might have to write several hypotheses that address different aspects of your research question.

A hypothesis is not just a guess – it should be based on existing theories and knowledge. It also has to be testable, which means you can support or refute it through scientific research methods (such as experiments, observations and statistical analysis of data).

Variables in hypotheses

Hypotheses propose a relationship between two or more types of variables .

  • An independent variable is something the researcher changes or controls.
  • A dependent variable is something the researcher observes and measures.

If there are any control variables , extraneous variables , or confounding variables , be sure to jot those down as you go to minimize the chances that research bias  will affect your results.

In this example, the independent variable is exposure to the sun – the assumed cause . The dependent variable is the level of happiness – the assumed effect .

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Step 1. Ask a question

Writing a hypothesis begins with a research question that you want to answer. The question should be focused, specific, and researchable within the constraints of your project.

Step 2. Do some preliminary research

Your initial answer to the question should be based on what is already known about the topic. Look for theories and previous studies to help you form educated assumptions about what your research will find.

At this stage, you might construct a conceptual framework to ensure that you’re embarking on a relevant topic . This can also help you identify which variables you will study and what you think the relationships are between them. Sometimes, you’ll have to operationalize more complex constructs.

Step 3. Formulate your hypothesis

Now you should have some idea of what you expect to find. Write your initial answer to the question in a clear, concise sentence.

4. Refine your hypothesis

You need to make sure your hypothesis is specific and testable. There are various ways of phrasing a hypothesis, but all the terms you use should have clear definitions, and the hypothesis should contain:

  • The relevant variables
  • The specific group being studied
  • The predicted outcome of the experiment or analysis

5. Phrase your hypothesis in three ways

To identify the variables, you can write a simple prediction in  if…then form. The first part of the sentence states the independent variable and the second part states the dependent variable.

In academic research, hypotheses are more commonly phrased in terms of correlations or effects, where you directly state the predicted relationship between variables.

If you are comparing two groups, the hypothesis can state what difference you expect to find between them.

6. Write a null hypothesis

If your research involves statistical hypothesis testing , you will also have to write a null hypothesis . The null hypothesis is the default position that there is no association between the variables. The null hypothesis is written as H 0 , while the alternative hypothesis is H 1 or H a .

  • H 0 : The number of lectures attended by first-year students has no effect on their final exam scores.
  • H 1 : The number of lectures attended by first-year students has a positive effect on their final exam scores.
Research question Hypothesis Null hypothesis
What are the health benefits of eating an apple a day? Increasing apple consumption in over-60s will result in decreasing frequency of doctor’s visits. Increasing apple consumption in over-60s will have no effect on frequency of doctor’s visits.
Which airlines have the most delays? Low-cost airlines are more likely to have delays than premium airlines. Low-cost and premium airlines are equally likely to have delays.
Can flexible work arrangements improve job satisfaction? Employees who have flexible working hours will report greater job satisfaction than employees who work fixed hours. There is no relationship between working hour flexibility and job satisfaction.
How effective is high school sex education at reducing teen pregnancies? Teenagers who received sex education lessons throughout high school will have lower rates of unplanned pregnancy teenagers who did not receive any sex education. High school sex education has no effect on teen pregnancy rates.
What effect does daily use of social media have on the attention span of under-16s? There is a negative between time spent on social media and attention span in under-16s. There is no relationship between social media use and attention span in under-16s.

If you want to know more about the research process , methodology , research bias , or statistics , make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples.

  • Sampling methods
  • Simple random sampling
  • Stratified sampling
  • Cluster sampling
  • Likert scales
  • Reproducibility

 Statistics

  • Null hypothesis
  • Statistical power
  • Probability distribution
  • Effect size
  • Poisson distribution

Research bias

  • Optimism bias
  • Cognitive bias
  • Implicit bias
  • Hawthorne effect
  • Anchoring bias
  • Explicit bias

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A hypothesis is not just a guess — it should be based on existing theories and knowledge. It also has to be testable, which means you can support or refute it through scientific research methods (such as experiments, observations and statistical analysis of data).

Null and alternative hypotheses are used in statistical hypothesis testing . The null hypothesis of a test always predicts no effect or no relationship between variables, while the alternative hypothesis states your research prediction of an effect or relationship.

Hypothesis testing is a formal procedure for investigating our ideas about the world using statistics. It is used by scientists to test specific predictions, called hypotheses , by calculating how likely it is that a pattern or relationship between variables could have arisen by chance.

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What Is a Hypothesis and How Do I Write One?

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General Education

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Think about something strange and unexplainable in your life. Maybe you get a headache right before it rains, or maybe you think your favorite sports team wins when you wear a certain color. If you wanted to see whether these are just coincidences or scientific fact, you would form a hypothesis, then create an experiment to see whether that hypothesis is true or not.

But what is a hypothesis, anyway? If you’re not sure about what a hypothesis is--or how to test for one!--you’re in the right place. This article will teach you everything you need to know about hypotheses, including: 

  • Defining the term “hypothesis” 
  • Providing hypothesis examples 
  • Giving you tips for how to write your own hypothesis

So let’s get started!

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What Is a Hypothesis?

Merriam Webster defines a hypothesis as “an assumption or concession made for the sake of argument.” In other words, a hypothesis is an educated guess . Scientists make a reasonable assumption--or a hypothesis--then design an experiment to test whether it’s true or not. Keep in mind that in science, a hypothesis should be testable. You have to be able to design an experiment that tests your hypothesis in order for it to be valid. 

As you could assume from that statement, it’s easy to make a bad hypothesis. But when you’re holding an experiment, it’s even more important that your guesses be good...after all, you’re spending time (and maybe money!) to figure out more about your observation. That’s why we refer to a hypothesis as an educated guess--good hypotheses are based on existing data and research to make them as sound as possible.

Hypotheses are one part of what’s called the scientific method .  Every (good) experiment or study is based in the scientific method. The scientific method gives order and structure to experiments and ensures that interference from scientists or outside influences does not skew the results. It’s important that you understand the concepts of the scientific method before holding your own experiment. Though it may vary among scientists, the scientific method is generally made up of six steps (in order):

  • Observation
  • Asking questions
  • Forming a hypothesis
  • Analyze the data
  • Communicate your results

You’ll notice that the hypothesis comes pretty early on when conducting an experiment. That’s because experiments work best when they’re trying to answer one specific question. And you can’t conduct an experiment until you know what you’re trying to prove!

Independent and Dependent Variables 

After doing your research, you’re ready for another important step in forming your hypothesis: identifying variables. Variables are basically any factor that could influence the outcome of your experiment . Variables have to be measurable and related to the topic being studied.

There are two types of variables:  independent variables and dependent variables. I ndependent variables remain constant . For example, age is an independent variable; it will stay the same, and researchers can look at different ages to see if it has an effect on the dependent variable. 

Speaking of dependent variables... dependent variables are subject to the influence of the independent variable , meaning that they are not constant. Let’s say you want to test whether a person’s age affects how much sleep they need. In that case, the independent variable is age (like we mentioned above), and the dependent variable is how much sleep a person gets. 

Variables will be crucial in writing your hypothesis. You need to be able to identify which variable is which, as both the independent and dependent variables will be written into your hypothesis. For instance, in a study about exercise, the independent variable might be the speed at which the respondents walk for thirty minutes, and the dependent variable would be their heart rate. In your study and in your hypothesis, you’re trying to understand the relationship between the two variables.

Elements of a Good Hypothesis

The best hypotheses start by asking the right questions . For instance, if you’ve observed that the grass is greener when it rains twice a week, you could ask what kind of grass it is, what elevation it’s at, and if the grass across the street responds to rain in the same way. Any of these questions could become the backbone of experiments to test why the grass gets greener when it rains fairly frequently.

As you’re asking more questions about your first observation, make sure you’re also making more observations . If it doesn’t rain for two weeks and the grass still looks green, that’s an important observation that could influence your hypothesis. You'll continue observing all throughout your experiment, but until the hypothesis is finalized, every observation should be noted.

Finally, you should consult secondary research before writing your hypothesis . Secondary research is comprised of results found and published by other people. You can usually find this information online or at your library. Additionally, m ake sure the research you find is credible and related to your topic. If you’re studying the correlation between rain and grass growth, it would help you to research rain patterns over the past twenty years for your county, published by a local agricultural association. You should also research the types of grass common in your area, the type of grass in your lawn, and whether anyone else has conducted experiments about your hypothesis. Also be sure you’re checking the quality of your research . Research done by a middle school student about what minerals can be found in rainwater would be less useful than an article published by a local university.

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Writing Your Hypothesis

Once you’ve considered all of the factors above, you’re ready to start writing your hypothesis. Hypotheses usually take a certain form when they’re written out in a research report.

When you boil down your hypothesis statement, you are writing down your best guess and not the question at hand . This means that your statement should be written as if it is fact already, even though you are simply testing it.

The reason for this is that, after you have completed your study, you'll either accept or reject your if-then or your null hypothesis. All hypothesis testing examples should be measurable and able to be confirmed or denied. You cannot confirm a question, only a statement! 

In fact, you come up with hypothesis examples all the time! For instance, when you guess on the outcome of a basketball game, you don’t say, “Will the Miami Heat beat the Boston Celtics?” but instead, “I think the Miami Heat will beat the Boston Celtics.” You state it as if it is already true, even if it turns out you’re wrong. You do the same thing when writing your hypothesis.

Additionally, keep in mind that hypotheses can range from very specific to very broad.  These hypotheses can be specific, but if your hypothesis testing examples involve a broad range of causes and effects, your hypothesis can also be broad.  

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The Two Types of Hypotheses

Now that you understand what goes into a hypothesis, it’s time to look more closely at the two most common types of hypothesis: the if-then hypothesis and the null hypothesis.

#1: If-Then Hypotheses

First of all, if-then hypotheses typically follow this formula:

If ____ happens, then ____ will happen.

The goal of this type of hypothesis is to test the causal relationship between the independent and dependent variable. It’s fairly simple, and each hypothesis can vary in how detailed it can be. We create if-then hypotheses all the time with our daily predictions. Here are some examples of hypotheses that use an if-then structure from daily life: 

  • If I get enough sleep, I’ll be able to get more work done tomorrow.
  • If the bus is on time, I can make it to my friend’s birthday party. 
  • If I study every night this week, I’ll get a better grade on my exam. 

In each of these situations, you’re making a guess on how an independent variable (sleep, time, or studying) will affect a dependent variable (the amount of work you can do, making it to a party on time, or getting better grades). 

You may still be asking, “What is an example of a hypothesis used in scientific research?” Take one of the hypothesis examples from a real-world study on whether using technology before bed affects children’s sleep patterns. The hypothesis read s:

“We hypothesized that increased hours of tablet- and phone-based screen time at bedtime would be inversely correlated with sleep quality and child attention.”

It might not look like it, but this is an if-then statement. The researchers basically said, “If children have more screen usage at bedtime, then their quality of sleep and attention will be worse.” The sleep quality and attention are the dependent variables and the screen usage is the independent variable. (Usually, the independent variable comes after the “if” and the dependent variable comes after the “then,” as it is the independent variable that affects the dependent variable.) This is an excellent example of how flexible hypothesis statements can be, as long as the general idea of “if-then” and the independent and dependent variables are present.

#2: Null Hypotheses

Your if-then hypothesis is not the only one needed to complete a successful experiment, however. You also need a null hypothesis to test it against. In its most basic form, the null hypothesis is the opposite of your if-then hypothesis . When you write your null hypothesis, you are writing a hypothesis that suggests that your guess is not true, and that the independent and dependent variables have no relationship .

One null hypothesis for the cell phone and sleep study from the last section might say: 

“If children have more screen usage at bedtime, their quality of sleep and attention will not be worse.” 

In this case, this is a null hypothesis because it’s asking the opposite of the original thesis! 

Conversely, if your if-then hypothesis suggests that your two variables have no relationship, then your null hypothesis would suggest that there is one. So, pretend that there is a study that is asking the question, “Does the amount of followers on Instagram influence how long people spend on the app?” The independent variable is the amount of followers, and the dependent variable is the time spent. But if you, as the researcher, don’t think there is a relationship between the number of followers and time spent, you might write an if-then hypothesis that reads:

“If people have many followers on Instagram, they will not spend more time on the app than people who have less.”

In this case, the if-then suggests there isn’t a relationship between the variables. In that case, one of the null hypothesis examples might say:

“If people have many followers on Instagram, they will spend more time on the app than people who have less.”

You then test both the if-then and the null hypothesis to gauge if there is a relationship between the variables, and if so, how much of a relationship. 

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4 Tips to Write the Best Hypothesis

If you’re going to take the time to hold an experiment, whether in school or by yourself, you’re also going to want to take the time to make sure your hypothesis is a good one. The best hypotheses have four major elements in common: plausibility, defined concepts, observability, and general explanation.

#1: Plausibility

At first glance, this quality of a hypothesis might seem obvious. When your hypothesis is plausible, that means it’s possible given what we know about science and general common sense. However, improbable hypotheses are more common than you might think. 

Imagine you’re studying weight gain and television watching habits. If you hypothesize that people who watch more than  twenty hours of television a week will gain two hundred pounds or more over the course of a year, this might be improbable (though it’s potentially possible). Consequently, c ommon sense can tell us the results of the study before the study even begins.

Improbable hypotheses generally go against  science, as well. Take this hypothesis example: 

“If a person smokes one cigarette a day, then they will have lungs just as healthy as the average person’s.” 

This hypothesis is obviously untrue, as studies have shown again and again that cigarettes negatively affect lung health. You must be careful that your hypotheses do not reflect your own personal opinion more than they do scientifically-supported findings. This plausibility points to the necessity of research before the hypothesis is written to make sure that your hypothesis has not already been disproven.

#2: Defined Concepts

The more advanced you are in your studies, the more likely that the terms you’re using in your hypothesis are specific to a limited set of knowledge. One of the hypothesis testing examples might include the readability of printed text in newspapers, where you might use words like “kerning” and “x-height.” Unless your readers have a background in graphic design, it’s likely that they won’t know what you mean by these terms. Thus, it’s important to either write what they mean in the hypothesis itself or in the report before the hypothesis.

Here’s what we mean. Which of the following sentences makes more sense to the common person?

If the kerning is greater than average, more words will be read per minute.

If the space between letters is greater than average, more words will be read per minute.

For people reading your report that are not experts in typography, simply adding a few more words will be helpful in clarifying exactly what the experiment is all about. It’s always a good idea to make your research and findings as accessible as possible. 

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Good hypotheses ensure that you can observe the results. 

#3: Observability

In order to measure the truth or falsity of your hypothesis, you must be able to see your variables and the way they interact. For instance, if your hypothesis is that the flight patterns of satellites affect the strength of certain television signals, yet you don’t have a telescope to view the satellites or a television to monitor the signal strength, you cannot properly observe your hypothesis and thus cannot continue your study.

Some variables may seem easy to observe, but if you do not have a system of measurement in place, you cannot observe your hypothesis properly. Here’s an example: if you’re experimenting on the effect of healthy food on overall happiness, but you don’t have a way to monitor and measure what “overall happiness” means, your results will not reflect the truth. Monitoring how often someone smiles for a whole day is not reasonably observable, but having the participants state how happy they feel on a scale of one to ten is more observable. 

In writing your hypothesis, always keep in mind how you'll execute the experiment.

#4: Generalizability 

Perhaps you’d like to study what color your best friend wears the most often by observing and documenting the colors she wears each day of the week. This might be fun information for her and you to know, but beyond you two, there aren’t many people who could benefit from this experiment. When you start an experiment, you should note how generalizable your findings may be if they are confirmed. Generalizability is basically how common a particular phenomenon is to other people’s everyday life.

Let’s say you’re asking a question about the health benefits of eating an apple for one day only, you need to realize that the experiment may be too specific to be helpful. It does not help to explain a phenomenon that many people experience. If you find yourself with too specific of a hypothesis, go back to asking the big question: what is it that you want to know, and what do you think will happen between your two variables?

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Hypothesis Testing Examples

We know it can be hard to write a good hypothesis unless you’ve seen some good hypothesis examples. We’ve included four hypothesis examples based on some made-up experiments. Use these as templates or launch pads for coming up with your own hypotheses.

Experiment #1: Students Studying Outside (Writing a Hypothesis)

You are a student at PrepScholar University. When you walk around campus, you notice that, when the temperature is above 60 degrees, more students study in the quad. You want to know when your fellow students are more likely to study outside. With this information, how do you make the best hypothesis possible?

You must remember to make additional observations and do secondary research before writing your hypothesis. In doing so, you notice that no one studies outside when it’s 75 degrees and raining, so this should be included in your experiment. Also, studies done on the topic beforehand suggested that students are more likely to study in temperatures less than 85 degrees. With this in mind, you feel confident that you can identify your variables and write your hypotheses:

If-then: “If the temperature in Fahrenheit is less than 60 degrees, significantly fewer students will study outside.”

Null: “If the temperature in Fahrenheit is less than 60 degrees, the same number of students will study outside as when it is more than 60 degrees.”

These hypotheses are plausible, as the temperatures are reasonably within the bounds of what is possible. The number of people in the quad is also easily observable. It is also not a phenomenon specific to only one person or at one time, but instead can explain a phenomenon for a broader group of people.

To complete this experiment, you pick the month of October to observe the quad. Every day (except on the days where it’s raining)from 3 to 4 PM, when most classes have released for the day, you observe how many people are on the quad. You measure how many people come  and how many leave. You also write down the temperature on the hour. 

After writing down all of your observations and putting them on a graph, you find that the most students study on the quad when it is 70 degrees outside, and that the number of students drops a lot once the temperature reaches 60 degrees or below. In this case, your research report would state that you accept or “failed to reject” your first hypothesis with your findings.

Experiment #2: The Cupcake Store (Forming a Simple Experiment)

Let’s say that you work at a bakery. You specialize in cupcakes, and you make only two colors of frosting: yellow and purple. You want to know what kind of customers are more likely to buy what kind of cupcake, so you set up an experiment. Your independent variable is the customer’s gender, and the dependent variable is the color of the frosting. What is an example of a hypothesis that might answer the question of this study?

Here’s what your hypotheses might look like: 

If-then: “If customers’ gender is female, then they will buy more yellow cupcakes than purple cupcakes.”

Null: “If customers’ gender is female, then they will be just as likely to buy purple cupcakes as yellow cupcakes.”

This is a pretty simple experiment! It passes the test of plausibility (there could easily be a difference), defined concepts (there’s nothing complicated about cupcakes!), observability (both color and gender can be easily observed), and general explanation ( this would potentially help you make better business decisions ).

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Experiment #3: Backyard Bird Feeders (Integrating Multiple Variables and Rejecting the If-Then Hypothesis)

While watching your backyard bird feeder, you realized that different birds come on the days when you change the types of seeds. You decide that you want to see more cardinals in your backyard, so you decide to see what type of food they like the best and set up an experiment. 

However, one morning, you notice that, while some cardinals are present, blue jays are eating out of your backyard feeder filled with millet. You decide that, of all of the other birds, you would like to see the blue jays the least. This means you'll have more than one variable in your hypothesis. Your new hypotheses might look like this: 

If-then: “If sunflower seeds are placed in the bird feeders, then more cardinals will come than blue jays. If millet is placed in the bird feeders, then more blue jays will come than cardinals.”

Null: “If either sunflower seeds or millet are placed in the bird, equal numbers of cardinals and blue jays will come.”

Through simple observation, you actually find that cardinals come as often as blue jays when sunflower seeds or millet is in the bird feeder. In this case, you would reject your “if-then” hypothesis and “fail to reject” your null hypothesis . You cannot accept your first hypothesis, because it’s clearly not true. Instead you found that there was actually no relation between your different variables. Consequently, you would need to run more experiments with different variables to see if the new variables impact the results.

Experiment #4: In-Class Survey (Including an Alternative Hypothesis)

You’re about to give a speech in one of your classes about the importance of paying attention. You want to take this opportunity to test a hypothesis you’ve had for a while: 

If-then: If students sit in the first two rows of the classroom, then they will listen better than students who do not.

Null: If students sit in the first two rows of the classroom, then they will not listen better or worse than students who do not.

You give your speech and then ask your teacher if you can hand out a short survey to the class. On the survey, you’ve included questions about some of the topics you talked about. When you get back the results, you’re surprised to see that not only do the students in the first two rows not pay better attention, but they also scored worse than students in other parts of the classroom! Here, both your if-then and your null hypotheses are not representative of your findings. What do you do?

This is when you reject both your if-then and null hypotheses and instead create an alternative hypothesis . This type of hypothesis is used in the rare circumstance that neither of your hypotheses is able to capture your findings . Now you can use what you’ve learned to draft new hypotheses and test again! 

Key Takeaways: Hypothesis Writing

The more comfortable you become with writing hypotheses, the better they will become. The structure of hypotheses is flexible and may need to be changed depending on what topic you are studying. The most important thing to remember is the purpose of your hypothesis and the difference between the if-then and the null . From there, in forming your hypothesis, you should constantly be asking questions, making observations, doing secondary research, and considering your variables. After you have written your hypothesis, be sure to edit it so that it is plausible, clearly defined, observable, and helpful in explaining a general phenomenon.

Writing a hypothesis is something that everyone, from elementary school children competing in a science fair to professional scientists in a lab, needs to know how to do. Hypotheses are vital in experiments and in properly executing the scientific method . When done correctly, hypotheses will set up your studies for success and help you to understand the world a little better, one experiment at a time.

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What’s Next?

If you’re studying for the science portion of the ACT, there’s definitely a lot you need to know. We’ve got the tools to help, though! Start by checking out our ultimate study guide for the ACT Science subject test. Once you read through that, be sure to download our recommended ACT Science practice tests , since they’re one of the most foolproof ways to improve your score. (And don’t forget to check out our expert guide book , too.)

If you love science and want to major in a scientific field, you should start preparing in high school . Here are the science classes you should take to set yourself up for success.

If you’re trying to think of science experiments you can do for class (or for a science fair!), here’s a list of 37 awesome science experiments you can do at home

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  • How to Write a Strong Hypothesis | Guide & Examples

How to Write a Strong Hypothesis | Guide & Examples

Published on 6 May 2022 by Shona McCombes .

A hypothesis is a statement that can be tested by scientific research. If you want to test a relationship between two or more variables, you need to write hypotheses before you start your experiment or data collection.

Table of contents

What is a hypothesis, developing a hypothesis (with example), hypothesis examples, frequently asked questions about writing hypotheses.

A hypothesis states your predictions about what your research will find. It is a tentative answer to your research question that has not yet been tested. For some research projects, you might have to write several hypotheses that address different aspects of your research question.

A hypothesis is not just a guess – it should be based on existing theories and knowledge. It also has to be testable, which means you can support or refute it through scientific research methods (such as experiments, observations, and statistical analysis of data).

Variables in hypotheses

Hypotheses propose a relationship between two or more variables . An independent variable is something the researcher changes or controls. A dependent variable is something the researcher observes and measures.

In this example, the independent variable is exposure to the sun – the assumed cause . The dependent variable is the level of happiness – the assumed effect .

Prevent plagiarism, run a free check.

Step 1: ask a question.

Writing a hypothesis begins with a research question that you want to answer. The question should be focused, specific, and researchable within the constraints of your project.

Step 2: Do some preliminary research

Your initial answer to the question should be based on what is already known about the topic. Look for theories and previous studies to help you form educated assumptions about what your research will find.

At this stage, you might construct a conceptual framework to identify which variables you will study and what you think the relationships are between them. Sometimes, you’ll have to operationalise more complex constructs.

Step 3: Formulate your hypothesis

Now you should have some idea of what you expect to find. Write your initial answer to the question in a clear, concise sentence.

Step 4: Refine your hypothesis

You need to make sure your hypothesis is specific and testable. There are various ways of phrasing a hypothesis, but all the terms you use should have clear definitions, and the hypothesis should contain:

  • The relevant variables
  • The specific group being studied
  • The predicted outcome of the experiment or analysis

Step 5: Phrase your hypothesis in three ways

To identify the variables, you can write a simple prediction in if … then form. The first part of the sentence states the independent variable and the second part states the dependent variable.

In academic research, hypotheses are more commonly phrased in terms of correlations or effects, where you directly state the predicted relationship between variables.

If you are comparing two groups, the hypothesis can state what difference you expect to find between them.

Step 6. Write a null hypothesis

If your research involves statistical hypothesis testing , you will also have to write a null hypothesis. The null hypothesis is the default position that there is no association between the variables. The null hypothesis is written as H 0 , while the alternative hypothesis is H 1 or H a .

Research question Hypothesis Null hypothesis
What are the health benefits of eating an apple a day? Increasing apple consumption in over-60s will result in decreasing frequency of doctor’s visits. Increasing apple consumption in over-60s will have no effect on frequency of doctor’s visits.
Which airlines have the most delays? Low-cost airlines are more likely to have delays than premium airlines. Low-cost and premium airlines are equally likely to have delays.
Can flexible work arrangements improve job satisfaction? Employees who have flexible working hours will report greater job satisfaction than employees who work fixed hours. There is no relationship between working hour flexibility and job satisfaction.
How effective is secondary school sex education at reducing teen pregnancies? Teenagers who received sex education lessons throughout secondary school will have lower rates of unplanned pregnancy than teenagers who did not receive any sex education. Secondary school sex education has no effect on teen pregnancy rates.
What effect does daily use of social media have on the attention span of under-16s? There is a negative correlation between time spent on social media and attention span in under-16s. There is no relationship between social media use and attention span in under-16s.

Hypothesis testing is a formal procedure for investigating our ideas about the world using statistics. It is used by scientists to test specific predictions, called hypotheses , by calculating how likely it is that a pattern or relationship between variables could have arisen by chance.

A hypothesis is not just a guess. It should be based on existing theories and knowledge. It also has to be testable, which means you can support or refute it through scientific research methods (such as experiments, observations, and statistical analysis of data).

A research hypothesis is your proposed answer to your research question. The research hypothesis usually includes an explanation (‘ x affects y because …’).

A statistical hypothesis, on the other hand, is a mathematical statement about a population parameter. Statistical hypotheses always come in pairs: the null and alternative hypotheses. In a well-designed study , the statistical hypotheses correspond logically to the research hypothesis.

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make sentence in english hypothesis

How to Write a Hypothesis

make sentence in english hypothesis

If I [do something], then [this] will happen.

This basic statement/formula should be pretty familiar to all of you as it is the starting point of almost every scientific project or paper. It is a hypothesis – a statement that showcases what you “think” will happen during an experiment. This assumption is made based on the knowledge, facts, and data you already have.

How do you write a hypothesis? If you have a clear understanding of the proper structure of a hypothesis, you should not find it too hard to create one. However, if you have never written a hypothesis before, you might find it a bit frustrating. In this article from EssayPro - custom essay writing services , we are going to tell you everything you need to know about hypotheses, their types, and practical tips for writing them.

Hypothesis Definition

According to the definition, a hypothesis is an assumption one makes based on existing knowledge. To elaborate, it is a statement that translates the initial research question into a logical prediction shaped on the basis of available facts and evidence. To solve a specific problem, one first needs to identify the research problem (research question), conduct initial research, and set out to answer the given question by performing experiments and observing their outcomes. However, before one can move to the experimental part of the research, they should first identify what they expect to see for results. At this stage, a scientist makes an educated guess and writes a hypothesis that he or she is going to prove or refute in the course of their study.

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A hypothesis can also be seen as a form of development of knowledge. It is a well-grounded assumption put forward to clarify the properties and causes of the phenomena being studied.

As a rule, a hypothesis is formed based on a number of observations and examples that confirm it. This way, it looks plausible as it is backed up with some known information. The hypothesis is subsequently proved by turning it into an established fact or refuted (for example, by pointing out a counterexample), which allows it to attribute it to the category of false statements.

As a student, you may be asked to create a hypothesis statement as a part of your academic papers. Hypothesis-based approaches are commonly used among scientific academic works, including but not limited to research papers, theses, and dissertations.

Note that in some disciplines, a hypothesis statement is called a thesis statement. However, its essence and purpose remain unchanged – this statement aims to make an assumption regarding the outcomes of the investigation that will either be proved or refuted.

Characteristics and Sources of a Hypothesis

Now, as you know what a hypothesis is in a nutshell, let’s look at the key characteristics that define it:

  • It has to be clear and accurate in order to look reliable.
  • It has to be specific.
  • There should be scope for further investigation and experiments.
  • A hypothesis should be explained in simple language—while retaining its significance.
  • If you are making a relational hypothesis, two essential elements you have to include are variables and the relationship between them.

The main sources of a hypothesis are:

  • Scientific theories.
  • Observations from previous studies and current experiences.
  • The resemblance among different phenomena.
  • General patterns that affect people’s thinking process.

Types of Hypothesis

Basically, there are two major types of scientific hypothesis: alternative and null.

Types of Hypothesis

  • Alternative Hypothesis

This type of hypothesis is generally denoted as H1. This statement is used to identify the expected outcome of your research. According to the alternative hypothesis definition, this type of hypothesis can be further divided into two subcategories:

  • Directional — a statement that explains the direction of the expected outcomes. Sometimes this type of hypothesis is used to study the relationship between variables rather than comparing between the groups.
  • Non-directional — unlike the directional alternative hypothesis, a non-directional one does not imply a specific direction of the expected outcomes.

Now, let’s see an alternative hypothesis example for each type:

Directional: Attending more lectures will result in improved test scores among students. Non-directional: Lecture attendance will influence test scores among students.

Notice how in the directional hypothesis we specified that the attendance of more lectures will boost student’s performance on tests, whereas in the non-directional hypothesis we only stated that there is a relationship between the two variables (i.e. lecture attendance and students’ test scores) but did not specify whether the performance will improve or decrease.

  • Null Hypothesis

This type of hypothesis is generally denoted as H0. This statement is the complete opposite of what you expect or predict will happen throughout the course of your study—meaning it is the opposite of your alternative hypothesis. Simply put, a null hypothesis claims that there is no exact or actual correlation between the variables defined in the hypothesis.

To give you a better idea of how to write a null hypothesis, here is a clear example: Lecture attendance has no effect on student’s test scores.

Both of these types of hypotheses provide specific clarifications and restatements of the research problem. The main difference between these hypotheses and a research problem is that the latter is just a question that can’t be tested, whereas hypotheses can.

Based on the alternative and null hypothesis examples provided earlier, we can conclude that the importance and main purpose of these hypotheses are that they deliver a rough description of the subject matter. The main purpose of these statements is to give an investigator a specific guess that can be directly tested in a study. Simply put, a hypothesis outlines the framework, scope, and direction for the study. Although null and alternative hypotheses are the major types, there are also a few more to keep in mind:

Research Hypothesis — a statement that is used to test the correlation between two or more variables.

For example: Eating vitamin-rich foods affects human health.

Simple Hypothesis — a statement used to indicate the correlation between one independent and one dependent variable.

For example: Eating more vegetables leads to better immunity.

Complex Hypothesis — a statement used to indicate the correlation between two or more independent variables and two or more dependent variables.

For example: Eating more fruits and vegetables leads to better immunity, weight loss, and lower risk of diseases.

Associative and Causal Hypothesis — an associative hypothesis is a statement used to indicate the correlation between variables under the scenario when a change in one variable inevitably changes the other variable. A causal hypothesis is a statement that highlights the cause and effect relationship between variables.

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Hypothesis vs Prediction

When speaking of hypotheses, another term that comes to mind is prediction. These two terms are often used interchangeably, which can be rather confusing. Although both a hypothesis and prediction can generally be defined as “guesses” and can be easy to confuse, these terms are different. The main difference between a hypothesis and a prediction is that the first is predominantly used in science, while the latter is most often used outside of science.

Simply put, a hypothesis is an intelligent assumption. It is a guess made regarding the nature of the unknown (or less known) phenomena based on existing knowledge, studies, and/or series of experiments, and is otherwise grounded by valid facts. The main purpose of a hypothesis is to use available facts to create a logical relationship between variables in order to provide a more precise scientific explanation. Additionally, hypotheses are statements that can be tested with further experiments. It is an assumption you make regarding the flow and outcome(s) of your research study.

A prediction, on the contrary, is a guess that often lacks grounding. Although, in theory, a prediction can be scientific, in most cases it is rather fictional—i.e. a pure guess that is not based on current knowledge and/or facts. As a rule, predictions are linked to foretelling events that may or may not occur in the future. Often, a person who makes predictions has little or no actual knowledge of the subject matter he or she makes the assumption about.

Another big difference between these terms is in the methodology used to prove each of them. A prediction can only be proven once. You can determine whether it is right or wrong only upon the occurrence or non-occurrence of the predicted event. A hypothesis, on the other hand, offers scope for further testing and experiments. Additionally, a hypothesis can be proven in multiple stages. This basically means that a single hypothesis can be proven or refuted numerous times by different scientists who use different scientific tools and methods.

To give you a better idea of how a hypothesis is different from a prediction, let’s look at the following examples:

Hypothesis: If I eat more vegetables and fruits, then I will lose weight faster.

This is a hypothesis because it is based on generally available knowledge (i.e. fruits and vegetables include fewer calories compared to other foods) and past experiences (i.e. people who give preference to healthier foods like fruits and vegetables are losing weight easier). It is still a guess, but it is based on facts and can be tested with an experiment.

Prediction: The end of the world will occur in 2023.

This is a prediction because it foretells future events. However, this assumption is fictional as it doesn’t have any actual grounded evidence supported by facts.

Based on everything that was said earlier and our examples, we can highlight the following key takeaways:

  • A hypothesis, unlike a prediction, is a more intelligent assumption based on facts.
  • Hypotheses define existing variables and analyze the relationship(s) between them.
  • Predictions are most often fictional and lack grounding.
  • A prediction is most often used to foretell events in the future.
  • A prediction can only be proven once – when the predicted event occurs or doesn’t occur. 
  • A hypothesis can remain a hypothesis even if one scientist has already proven or disproven it. Other scientists in the future can obtain a different result using other methods and tools.

We also recommend that you read about some informative essay topics .

Now, as you know what a hypothesis is, what types of it exist, and how it differs from a prediction, you are probably wondering how to state a hypothesis. In this section, we will guide you through the main stages of writing a good hypothesis and provide handy tips and examples to help you overcome this challenge:

how to write

1. Define Your Research Question

Here is one thing to keep in mind – regardless of the paper or project you are working on, the process should always start with asking the right research question. A perfect research question should be specific, clear, focused (meaning not too broad), and manageable.

Example: How does eating fruits and vegetables affect human health?

2. Conduct Your Basic Initial Research

As you already know, a hypothesis is an educated guess of the expected results and outcomes of an investigation. Thus, it is vital to collect some information before you can make this assumption.

At this stage, you should find an answer to your research question based on what has already been discovered. Search for facts, past studies, theories, etc. Based on the collected information, you should be able to make a logical and intelligent guess.

3. Formulate a Hypothesis

Based on the initial research, you should have a certain idea of what you may find throughout the course of your research. Use this knowledge to shape a clear and concise hypothesis.

Based on the type of project you are working on, and the type of hypothesis you are planning to use, you can restate your hypothesis in several different ways:

Non-directional: Eating fruits and vegetables will affect one’s human physical health. Directional: Eating fruits and vegetables will positively affect one’s human physical health. Null: Eating fruits and vegetables will have no effect on one’s human physical health.

4. Refine Your Hypothesis

Finally, the last stage of creating a good hypothesis is refining what you’ve got. During this step, you need to define whether your hypothesis:

  • Has clear and relevant variables;
  • Identifies the relationship between its variables;
  • Is specific and testable;
  • Suggests a predicted result of the investigation or experiment.

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Hypothesis Examples

Following a step-by-step guide and tips from our essay writers for hire , you should be able to create good hypotheses with ease. To give you a starting point, we have also compiled a list of different research questions with one hypothesis and one null hypothesis example for each:

How does stress affect the academic performance of undergraduate students?

Increasing levels of stress among undergraduate students will result in decreasing academic performance.

Increasing levels of stress among undergraduate students will have no effect on academic performance.

How does improved work-life balance influence employees’ productivity in the workplace?

Employees who have a better work-life balance will demonstrate higher productivity compared to those employees who do not have a good work-life balance.

There is no relationship between work-life balance and productivity at the workplace.

How does the frequent use of social media impact users' attention span under 16 years of age?

There is a negative dependence between the frequency of social media usage and the attention span of users under 16 years of age.

There is no correlation between the time spent on social media and the attention span of users under 16 years of age.

How does playing video games affect the brain?

Video games can have a negative impact on a person’s brain, vision, and memory.

Playing video games does not affect a person’s brain.

Why is it important to integrate mental health education into school programs?

The increase of mental health awareness in schools will result in a better understanding of mental health issues and possible ways to combat them among pupils and teachers.

The implementation of mental health education in schools will have no effect on students.

Ask Pros to Make a Perfect Hypothesis for You!

Sometimes, coping with a large academic load is just too much for a student to handle. Papers like research papers and dissertations can take too much time and effort to write, and, often, a hypothesis is a necessary starting point to get the task on track. Writing or editing a hypothesis is not as easy as it may seem. However, if you need help with forming it, the team at EssayPro is always ready to come to your rescue! If you’re feeling stuck, or don’t have enough time to cope with other tasks, don’t hesitate to send us you rewrite my essay for me or any other request.

Adam Jason

is an expert in nursing and healthcare, with a strong background in history, law, and literature. Holding advanced degrees in nursing and public health, his analytical approach and comprehensive knowledge help students navigate complex topics. On EssayPro blog, Adam provides insightful articles on everything from historical analysis to the intricacies of healthcare policies. In his downtime, he enjoys historical documentaries and volunteering at local clinics.

make sentence in english hypothesis

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How to Write a Hypothesis

Last Updated: May 2, 2023 Fact Checked

This article was co-authored by Bess Ruff, MA . Bess Ruff is a Geography PhD student at Florida State University. She received her MA in Environmental Science and Management from the University of California, Santa Barbara in 2016. She has conducted survey work for marine spatial planning projects in the Caribbean and provided research support as a graduate fellow for the Sustainable Fisheries Group. There are 9 references cited in this article, which can be found at the bottom of the page. This article has been fact-checked, ensuring the accuracy of any cited facts and confirming the authority of its sources. This article has been viewed 1,034,109 times.

A hypothesis is a description of a pattern in nature or an explanation about some real-world phenomenon that can be tested through observation and experimentation. The most common way a hypothesis is used in scientific research is as a tentative, testable, and falsifiable statement that explains some observed phenomenon in nature. [1] X Research source Many academic fields, from the physical sciences to the life sciences to the social sciences, use hypothesis testing as a means of testing ideas to learn about the world and advance scientific knowledge. Whether you are a beginning scholar or a beginning student taking a class in a science subject, understanding what hypotheses are and being able to generate hypotheses and predictions yourself is very important. These instructions will help get you started.

Preparing to Write a Hypothesis

Step 1 Select a topic.

  • If you are writing a hypothesis for a school assignment, this step may be taken care of for you.

Step 2 Read existing research.

  • Focus on academic and scholarly writing. You need to be certain that your information is unbiased, accurate, and comprehensive. Scholarly search databases such as Google Scholar and Web of Science can help you find relevant articles from reputable sources.
  • You can find information in textbooks, at a library, and online. If you are in school, you can also ask for help from teachers, librarians, and your peers.

Step 3 Analyze the literature.

  • For example, if you are interested in the effects of caffeine on the human body, but notice that nobody seems to have explored whether caffeine affects males differently than it does females, this could be something to formulate a hypothesis about. Or, if you are interested in organic farming, you might notice that no one has tested whether organic fertilizer results in different growth rates for plants than non-organic fertilizer.
  • You can sometimes find holes in the existing literature by looking for statements like “it is unknown” in scientific papers or places where information is clearly missing. You might also find a claim in the literature that seems far-fetched, unlikely, or too good to be true, like that caffeine improves math skills. If the claim is testable, you could provide a great service to scientific knowledge by doing your own investigation. If you confirm the claim, the claim becomes even more credible. If you do not find support for the claim, you are helping with the necessary self-correcting aspect of science.
  • Examining these types of questions provides an excellent way for you to set yourself apart by filling in important gaps in a field of study.

Step 4 Generate questions.

  • Following the examples above, you might ask: "How does caffeine affect females as compared to males?" or "How does organic fertilizer affect plant growth compared to non-organic fertilizer?" The rest of your research will be aimed at answering these questions.

Step 5 Look for clues as to what the answer might be.

  • Following the examples above, if you discover in the literature that there is a pattern that some other types of stimulants seem to affect females more than males, this could be a clue that the same pattern might be true for caffeine. Similarly, if you observe the pattern that organic fertilizer seems to be associated with smaller plants overall, you might explain this pattern with the hypothesis that plants exposed to organic fertilizer grow more slowly than plants exposed to non-organic fertilizer.

Formulating Your Hypothesis

Step 1 Determine your variables.

  • You can think of the independent variable as the one that is causing some kind of difference or effect to occur. In the examples, the independent variable would be biological sex, i.e. whether a person is male or female, and fertilizer type, i.e. whether the fertilizer is organic or non-organically-based.
  • The dependent variable is what is affected by (i.e. "depends" on) the independent variable. In the examples above, the dependent variable would be the measured impact of caffeine or fertilizer.
  • Your hypothesis should only suggest one relationship. Most importantly, it should only have one independent variable. If you have more than one, you won't be able to determine which one is actually the source of any effects you might observe.

Step 2 Generate a simple hypothesis.

  • Don't worry too much at this point about being precise or detailed.
  • In the examples above, one hypothesis would make a statement about whether a person's biological sex might impact the way the person is affected by caffeine; for example, at this point, your hypothesis might simply be: "a person's biological sex is related to how caffeine affects his or her heart rate." The other hypothesis would make a general statement about plant growth and fertilizer; for example your simple explanatory hypothesis might be "plants given different types of fertilizer are different sizes because they grow at different rates."

Step 3 Decide on direction.

  • Using our example, our non-directional hypotheses would be "there is a relationship between a person's biological sex and how much caffeine increases the person's heart rate," and "there is a relationship between fertilizer type and the speed at which plants grow."
  • Directional predictions using the same example hypotheses above would be : "Females will experience a greater increase in heart rate after consuming caffeine than will males," and "plants fertilized with non-organic fertilizer will grow faster than those fertilized with organic fertilizer." Indeed, these predictions and the hypotheses that allow for them are very different kinds of statements. More on this distinction below.
  • If the literature provides any basis for making a directional prediction, it is better to do so, because it provides more information. Especially in the physical sciences, non-directional predictions are often seen as inadequate.

Step 4 Get specific.

  • Where necessary, specify the population (i.e. the people or things) about which you hope to uncover new knowledge. For example, if you were only interested the effects of caffeine on elderly people, your prediction might read: "Females over the age of 65 will experience a greater increase in heart rate than will males of the same age." If you were interested only in how fertilizer affects tomato plants, your prediction might read: "Tomato plants treated with non-organic fertilizer will grow faster in the first three months than will tomato plants treated with organic fertilizer."

Step 5 Make sure it is testable.

  • For example, you would not want to make the hypothesis: "red is the prettiest color." This statement is an opinion and it cannot be tested with an experiment. However, proposing the generalizing hypothesis that red is the most popular color is testable with a simple random survey. If you do indeed confirm that red is the most popular color, your next step may be to ask: Why is red the most popular color? The answer you propose is your explanatory hypothesis .

Step 6 Write a research hypothesis.

  • An easy way to get to the hypothesis for this method and prediction is to ask yourself why you think heart rates will increase if children are given caffeine. Your explanatory hypothesis in this case may be that caffeine is a stimulant. At this point, some scientists write a research hypothesis , a statement that includes the hypothesis, the experiment, and the prediction all in one statement.
  • For example, If caffeine is a stimulant, and some children are given a drink with caffeine while others are given a drink without caffeine, then the heart rates of those children given a caffeinated drink will increase more than the heart rate of children given a non-caffeinated drink.

Step 7 Contextualize your hypothesis.

  • Using the above example, if you were to test the effects of caffeine on the heart rates of children, evidence that your hypothesis is not true, sometimes called the null hypothesis , could occur if the heart rates of both the children given the caffeinated drink and the children given the non-caffeinated drink (called the placebo control) did not change, or lowered or raised with the same magnitude, if there was no difference between the two groups of children.
  • It is important to note here that the null hypothesis actually becomes much more useful when researchers test the significance of their results with statistics. When statistics are used on the results of an experiment, a researcher is testing the idea of the null statistical hypothesis. For example, that there is no relationship between two variables or that there is no difference between two groups. [8] X Research source

Step 8 Test your hypothesis.

Hypothesis Examples

make sentence in english hypothesis

Community Q&A

Community Answer

  • Remember that science is not necessarily a linear process and can be approached in various ways. [10] X Research source Thanks Helpful 0 Not Helpful 0
  • When examining the literature, look for research that is similar to what you want to do, and try to build on the findings of other researchers. But also look for claims that you think are suspicious, and test them yourself. Thanks Helpful 0 Not Helpful 0
  • Be specific in your hypotheses, but not so specific that your hypothesis can't be applied to anything outside your specific experiment. You definitely want to be clear about the population about which you are interested in drawing conclusions, but nobody (except your roommates) will be interested in reading a paper with the prediction: "my three roommates will each be able to do a different amount of pushups." Thanks Helpful 0 Not Helpful 0

make sentence in english hypothesis

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  • ↑ https://undsci.berkeley.edu/for-educators/prepare-and-plan/correcting-misconceptions/#a4
  • ↑ https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/general_writing/common_writing_assignments/research_papers/choosing_a_topic.html
  • ↑ https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/subject_specific_writing/writing_in_the_social_sciences/writing_in_psychology_experimental_report_writing/experimental_reports_1.html
  • ↑ https://www.grammarly.com/blog/how-to-write-a-hypothesis/
  • ↑ https://grammar.yourdictionary.com/for-students-and-parents/how-create-hypothesis.html
  • ↑ https://flexbooks.ck12.org/cbook/ck-12-middle-school-physical-science-flexbook-2.0/section/1.19/primary/lesson/hypothesis-ms-ps/
  • ↑ https://iastate.pressbooks.pub/preparingtopublish/chapter/goal-1-contextualize-the-studys-methods/
  • ↑ http://mathworld.wolfram.com/NullHypothesis.html
  • ↑ http://undsci.berkeley.edu/article/scienceflowchart

About This Article

Bess Ruff, MA

Before writing a hypothesis, think of what questions are still unanswered about a specific subject and make an educated guess about what the answer could be. Then, determine the variables in your question and write a simple statement about how they might be related. Try to focus on specific predictions and variables, such as age or segment of the population, to make your hypothesis easier to test. For tips on how to test your hypothesis, read on! Did this summary help you? Yes No

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How Do You Write an Hypothesis? Detailed Explanation and Examples

Writing a hypothesis is a fundamental step in the scientific research process. It serves as a tentative explanation or prediction that can be tested through experimentation and observation. A well-crafted hypothesis provides a clear direction for research and helps in drawing meaningful conclusions. This article will guide you through the process of writing a hypothesis, including understanding its concept, formulating it, and avoiding common pitfalls, with illustrative examples from various fields of study.

Key Takeaways

  • A hypothesis is a testable and falsifiable statement that predicts an outcome based on certain conditions.
  • There are different types of hypotheses, including null, alternative, and directional hypotheses, each serving a specific purpose in research.
  • Formulating a hypothesis involves identifying research questions, conducting preliminary research, and crafting a clear and precise statement.
  • A strong hypothesis is characterized by its testability, clarity, precision, and relevance to the research objectives.
  • Common pitfalls in hypothesis writing include vague statements, overly complex hypotheses, and lack of testability.

Understanding the Concept of a Hypothesis

A hypothesis is a foundational element in scientific research, serving as a preliminary statement that proposes a potential relationship between variables. It is essential for guiding the direction of your study and providing a basis for data collection and analysis.

Steps to Formulate a Hypothesis

Identifying research questions.

The first step in formulating a hypothesis is to identify your research question . This involves observing the subject matter and recognizing patterns or relationships between variables. Crafting a clear, testable, and grounded hypothesis is essential for research success. By pinpointing the exact question you aim to answer, you lay the foundation for a focused and effective hypothesis.

Conducting Preliminary Research

Once you have your research question, the next step is to conduct preliminary research. This involves gathering as much information as possible about the topic. Evaluate these observations to identify potential causes and effects related to your research question. This stage helps you understand the existing knowledge and gaps, which is crucial for developing a well-informed hypothesis.

Formulating the Hypothesis Statement

After conducting preliminary research, you can begin formulating your hypothesis statement. This statement should clearly define the variables involved and the expected relationship between them. Ensure that your hypothesis is specific, testable, and falsifiable. A well-crafted hypothesis not only guides your research but also provides a clear direction for your experimental design and data collection methods.

Characteristics of a Strong Hypothesis

A strong hypothesis is essential for guiding your research and ensuring that your study is both meaningful and scientifically valid. Here are the key characteristics that define a robust hypothesis:

Testability and Falsifiability

A strong hypothesis must be testable, meaning you can design experiments to verify or refute it. Falsifiability is equally important; there should be a possibility to collect data that could disprove the hypothesis. This ensures that your hypothesis is grounded in empirical research rather than mere speculation.

Clarity and Precision

Your hypothesis should be clear and precise, leaving no room for ambiguity. This clarity helps in designing experiments and interpreting results. A well-defined hypothesis often begins with a specific research question and is articulated in simple, straightforward language.

Relevance to Research Objectives

A strong hypothesis is directly related to your research objectives. It should address the core question of your study and be aligned with the goals you aim to achieve. This relevance ensures that your hypothesis is not just an isolated statement but a crucial part of your overall research framework.

Common Pitfalls in Hypothesis Writing

When crafting a hypothesis, it's crucial to avoid common mistakes that can undermine your research. Vague statements are a frequent issue; they lack the specificity needed to be testable. For instance, saying "exercise improves health" is too broad. Instead, specify the type of exercise and the health outcome you are measuring.

Overly complex hypotheses can also be problematic. A hypothesis should be straightforward and focused. If it includes too many variables or conditions, it becomes difficult to test and analyze. Simplify your hypothesis to ensure clarity and feasibility.

Another major pitfall is the lack of testability. A hypothesis must be testable through empirical methods. If you cannot design an experiment or collect data to support or refute your hypothesis, it is not scientifically valid. Ensure your hypothesis can be tested with the resources and methods available to you.

Examples of Well-Written Hypotheses

In this section, you will explore various examples of well-crafted hypotheses across different fields of study. Understanding these examples will help you grasp the nuances of formulating a strong hypothesis.

Hypotheses in Natural Sciences

A well-written hypothesis in the natural sciences is both specific and testable. For instance, consider the hypothesis: "If plants are exposed to higher levels of sunlight, then their growth rate will increase." This statement clearly defines the variables and the expected relationship between them, making it a robust hypothesis for experimental testing.

Hypotheses in Social Sciences

In the social sciences, hypotheses often address complex human behaviors and societal trends. An example of a good hypothesis in this field is: "Individuals who participate in regular physical activity are more likely to report higher levels of mental well-being." This hypothesis is specific, testable, and relevant to the research objectives, providing a clear direction for the study.

Hypotheses in Applied Research

Applied research focuses on practical problem-solving. A strong hypothesis in this area might be: "Implementing a new software system will reduce the time required to complete administrative tasks by 20%." This hypothesis is not only testable but also directly applicable to real-world scenarios, making it highly valuable for applied research.

By examining these examples, you can better understand how to construct hypotheses that are clear, precise, and aligned with your research goals.

Testing and Refining Your Hypothesis

Designing experiments.

Before you dive into any experiment, you first formulate what you think will happen. This is where your hypothesis comes into play. A hypothesis in experimental design is essentially a testable prediction. Ensure that your hypothesis has clear and relevant variables, identifies the relationship between its variables, and is specific and testable. Designing a robust experiment involves controlling the independent variable and observing the dependent variable to validate or refute your hypothesis.

Data Collection Methods

Once your experiment is designed, the next step is to collect data. This involves choosing appropriate methods to gather data that will support or refute your hypothesis. Whether you use surveys, observations, or experiments, the key is to ensure that your data collection methods are reliable and valid. Remember, the priority of any scientific research is the conclusion, so collect data meticulously.

Analyzing Results and Making Adjustments

After data collection, the next step is to analyze the results. This involves statistical analysis to determine whether the data supports your hypothesis. If the data does not support your hypothesis, do not worry. This is a normal part of the scientific method. You may need to refine your hypothesis based on the findings. Use the results to identify weaknesses in your hypothesis and revise it if necessary. This iterative process helps in honing a more accurate and testable hypothesis.

The Importance of Hypotheses in Academic Writing

In academic writing, hypotheses serve as foundational elements that guide the direction and structure of your research. A well-formulated hypothesis not only provides a clear focus for your study but also helps in organizing your research methods and analysis. This is crucial for ensuring that your research remains coherent and targeted.

Guiding Research Direction

A hypothesis plays an important role in the scientific method by helping to create an appropriate experimental design. By establishing a specific, testable statement, you can streamline your research process and avoid unnecessary detours. This focused approach is essential for producing meaningful and reliable results.

Facilitating Critical Thinking

Formulating a hypothesis requires you to engage in critical thinking and problem-solving. This process helps you to clarify your research questions and objectives, making your study more robust and intellectually rigorous. It also encourages you to consider various outcomes and their implications, thereby enhancing the depth of your analysis.

Enhancing Academic Rigor

A well-constructed hypothesis adds a layer of academic rigor to your work. It demonstrates that you have a clear understanding of the theoretical framework and existing literature related to your topic. This not only strengthens your argument but also makes your research more credible and persuasive. In essence, a strong hypothesis is a testament to the quality and seriousness of your academic endeavor.

In academic writing, hypotheses play a crucial role in guiding research and providing a clear focus for your study. They help in formulating research questions and determining the direction of your investigation. If you're struggling with your thesis and need a structured approach, our Thesis Action Plan is here to help. Visit our website to claim your special offer now and overcome the challenges of thesis writing with ease.

In conclusion, writing a hypothesis is a fundamental step in the scientific research process that requires careful consideration and a structured approach. By observing the subject, identifying variables, and formulating a clear and testable statement, researchers can lay a solid foundation for their experiments. A well-crafted hypothesis not only guides the research but also provides a framework for analyzing results and drawing meaningful conclusions. As demonstrated in this article, understanding the components and steps involved in hypothesis writing is crucial for academic success and contributes significantly to the advancement of knowledge in various fields. By following the detailed explanations and examples provided, students and researchers can enhance their ability to construct effective hypotheses, thereby improving the quality and impact of their scientific inquiries.

Frequently Asked Questions

What is a hypothesis.

A hypothesis is a statement that predicts the outcome of a scientific study. It is an educated guess based on prior knowledge and observations.

Why is a hypothesis important in scientific research?

A hypothesis provides a focused direction for research. It helps researchers make predictions that can be tested through experiments and observations, thereby advancing scientific knowledge.

What are the types of hypotheses?

There are several types of hypotheses, including null hypotheses, alternative hypotheses, directional hypotheses, and non-directional hypotheses. Each serves a different purpose in research.

How do you formulate a hypothesis?

Formulating a hypothesis involves identifying a research question, conducting preliminary research, and then crafting a clear and testable statement that predicts an outcome.

What makes a hypothesis strong?

A strong hypothesis is testable, falsifiable, clear, precise, and relevant to the research objectives. It should be specific enough to be tested but broad enough to cover the scope of the research.

What are common pitfalls in writing a hypothesis?

Common pitfalls include making vague statements, creating overly complex hypotheses, and failing to ensure that the hypothesis is testable.

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make sentence in english hypothesis

Learn English Writing: the Hypothesis

Learning how to write a sentence with a hypothesis helps ESL students organize text, summarize complex ideas, and write with style.

Summarizing information is a challenge for my EFL students. For example, if I ask students to summarize a short story in a video, they tend to present information in the same sequence as the story. There is no synthesis of information, no presentation of a theme, no defense of an idea.  It’s all very cook bookish.

Teaching students how to write a hypothesis is one solution. The idea is that students synthesize information into a specific sentence pattern and then spend the balance of the text defending the idea or at least explaining it with evidence and details.

Part 1. Basic Hypothesis Format

A hypothesis is a sentence that tells us two (or more) things are related to each other. What is not in the hypothesis is an explanation about HOW the two things are related.

Hypothesis sentences are useful for two reasons.

  • They can summarize complex ideas in one sentence.
  • They tell us what to expect in the future.

Here are some basic patterns for a hypothesis sentence:

  • the more this, the more that
  • the more this, the less that
  • the less this, the more that
  • the less this, the less that

Part 2. Examples

  • The longer I study, the higher my grades.
  • The more I exercise, the more weight I lose.
  • The more junk food teenagers eat, the more pimples they get.
  • The more I work, the less happiness I feel.

In each of these examples, answer these questions:

  • What are the two things that are related to each other?
  • How are they connected?
  • Are these claims accurate?

Part 3. Practice

Open this pdf file and look at the chart .

  • Summarize the chart data by writing one hypothesis sentence that connects two things that seem to change.
  • Do you think the assertion is true?

Part 4. More Practice

Work with a partner. Write five hypothesis sentences.

Part 5. Even More Practice

Read the story below about teaching styles. Write at least one hypothesis based on this study.

This story is about a research project that looked at the impact of different teaching styles on student achievement and attitudes. It is based on 1954 research at the University of Michigan with a large first year psychology class.

All students were divided into 3 groups.

  • Group A had a traditional lecture.
  • Groups B and C were tutorials and discussions.

At the end of the semester, two differences were noticed. Students in the lecture class (Group A) got higher final scores than students in the discussion classes. Plus, the teacher in the lecture class got a higher rating by students than teachers in the other groups.

Initially, the research seems to suggest that traditional lecturing is more effective. But, researchers followed the students after the first year. None of the students in the lecture class decided to major in psychology. But 14 of the students from the tutorial and discussion class decided to major in psychology.

Part 6. Apply New Skills

Now you know how to write a hypothesis sentence. Let’s put that knowledge into practice.

Click here  to go to a longer writing exercise. Your task is to:

  • watch the video
  • summarize the information in a hypothesis
  • use your creative thinking to explain this relationship
  • write your own ideas about this argument – do you think it is true?

Teach writing?

If you are looking for new lesson ideas and activities for your writing class, take a look at my ebook  Teach Essential Writing Skills . Transform the quality of EFL student writing by focusing on four essential skills.

Save time. Teach well.

Note: the story about psychology students comes from The Art and Science of Teaching by Ted Wragg.

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How to Write a Great Hypothesis

Hypothesis Definition, Format, Examples, and Tips

Verywell / Alex Dos Diaz

  • The Scientific Method

Hypothesis Format

Falsifiability of a hypothesis.

  • Operationalization

Hypothesis Types

Hypotheses examples.

  • Collecting Data

A hypothesis is a tentative statement about the relationship between two or more variables. It is a specific, testable prediction about what you expect to happen in a study. It is a preliminary answer to your question that helps guide the research process.

Consider a study designed to examine the relationship between sleep deprivation and test performance. The hypothesis might be: "This study is designed to assess the hypothesis that sleep-deprived people will perform worse on a test than individuals who are not sleep-deprived."

At a Glance

A hypothesis is crucial to scientific research because it offers a clear direction for what the researchers are looking to find. This allows them to design experiments to test their predictions and add to our scientific knowledge about the world. This article explores how a hypothesis is used in psychology research, how to write a good hypothesis, and the different types of hypotheses you might use.

The Hypothesis in the Scientific Method

In the scientific method , whether it involves research in psychology, biology, or some other area, a hypothesis represents what the researchers think will happen in an experiment. The scientific method involves the following steps:

  • Forming a question
  • Performing background research
  • Creating a hypothesis
  • Designing an experiment
  • Collecting data
  • Analyzing the results
  • Drawing conclusions
  • Communicating the results

The hypothesis is a prediction, but it involves more than a guess. Most of the time, the hypothesis begins with a question which is then explored through background research. At this point, researchers then begin to develop a testable hypothesis.

Unless you are creating an exploratory study, your hypothesis should always explain what you  expect  to happen.

In a study exploring the effects of a particular drug, the hypothesis might be that researchers expect the drug to have some type of effect on the symptoms of a specific illness. In psychology, the hypothesis might focus on how a certain aspect of the environment might influence a particular behavior.

Remember, a hypothesis does not have to be correct. While the hypothesis predicts what the researchers expect to see, the goal of the research is to determine whether this guess is right or wrong. When conducting an experiment, researchers might explore numerous factors to determine which ones might contribute to the ultimate outcome.

In many cases, researchers may find that the results of an experiment  do not  support the original hypothesis. When writing up these results, the researchers might suggest other options that should be explored in future studies.

In many cases, researchers might draw a hypothesis from a specific theory or build on previous research. For example, prior research has shown that stress can impact the immune system. So a researcher might hypothesize: "People with high-stress levels will be more likely to contract a common cold after being exposed to the virus than people who have low-stress levels."

In other instances, researchers might look at commonly held beliefs or folk wisdom. "Birds of a feather flock together" is one example of folk adage that a psychologist might try to investigate. The researcher might pose a specific hypothesis that "People tend to select romantic partners who are similar to them in interests and educational level."

Elements of a Good Hypothesis

So how do you write a good hypothesis? When trying to come up with a hypothesis for your research or experiments, ask yourself the following questions:

  • Is your hypothesis based on your research on a topic?
  • Can your hypothesis be tested?
  • Does your hypothesis include independent and dependent variables?

Before you come up with a specific hypothesis, spend some time doing background research. Once you have completed a literature review, start thinking about potential questions you still have. Pay attention to the discussion section in the  journal articles you read . Many authors will suggest questions that still need to be explored.

How to Formulate a Good Hypothesis

To form a hypothesis, you should take these steps:

  • Collect as many observations about a topic or problem as you can.
  • Evaluate these observations and look for possible causes of the problem.
  • Create a list of possible explanations that you might want to explore.
  • After you have developed some possible hypotheses, think of ways that you could confirm or disprove each hypothesis through experimentation. This is known as falsifiability.

In the scientific method ,  falsifiability is an important part of any valid hypothesis. In order to test a claim scientifically, it must be possible that the claim could be proven false.

Students sometimes confuse the idea of falsifiability with the idea that it means that something is false, which is not the case. What falsifiability means is that  if  something was false, then it is possible to demonstrate that it is false.

One of the hallmarks of pseudoscience is that it makes claims that cannot be refuted or proven false.

The Importance of Operational Definitions

A variable is a factor or element that can be changed and manipulated in ways that are observable and measurable. However, the researcher must also define how the variable will be manipulated and measured in the study.

Operational definitions are specific definitions for all relevant factors in a study. This process helps make vague or ambiguous concepts detailed and measurable.

For example, a researcher might operationally define the variable " test anxiety " as the results of a self-report measure of anxiety experienced during an exam. A "study habits" variable might be defined by the amount of studying that actually occurs as measured by time.

These precise descriptions are important because many things can be measured in various ways. Clearly defining these variables and how they are measured helps ensure that other researchers can replicate your results.

Replicability

One of the basic principles of any type of scientific research is that the results must be replicable.

Replication means repeating an experiment in the same way to produce the same results. By clearly detailing the specifics of how the variables were measured and manipulated, other researchers can better understand the results and repeat the study if needed.

Some variables are more difficult than others to define. For example, how would you operationally define a variable such as aggression ? For obvious ethical reasons, researchers cannot create a situation in which a person behaves aggressively toward others.

To measure this variable, the researcher must devise a measurement that assesses aggressive behavior without harming others. The researcher might utilize a simulated task to measure aggressiveness in this situation.

Hypothesis Checklist

  • Does your hypothesis focus on something that you can actually test?
  • Does your hypothesis include both an independent and dependent variable?
  • Can you manipulate the variables?
  • Can your hypothesis be tested without violating ethical standards?

The hypothesis you use will depend on what you are investigating and hoping to find. Some of the main types of hypotheses that you might use include:

  • Simple hypothesis : This type of hypothesis suggests there is a relationship between one independent variable and one dependent variable.
  • Complex hypothesis : This type suggests a relationship between three or more variables, such as two independent and dependent variables.
  • Null hypothesis : This hypothesis suggests no relationship exists between two or more variables.
  • Alternative hypothesis : This hypothesis states the opposite of the null hypothesis.
  • Statistical hypothesis : This hypothesis uses statistical analysis to evaluate a representative population sample and then generalizes the findings to the larger group.
  • Logical hypothesis : This hypothesis assumes a relationship between variables without collecting data or evidence.

A hypothesis often follows a basic format of "If {this happens} then {this will happen}." One way to structure your hypothesis is to describe what will happen to the  dependent variable  if you change the  independent variable .

The basic format might be: "If {these changes are made to a certain independent variable}, then we will observe {a change in a specific dependent variable}."

A few examples of simple hypotheses:

  • "Students who eat breakfast will perform better on a math exam than students who do not eat breakfast."
  • "Students who experience test anxiety before an English exam will get lower scores than students who do not experience test anxiety."​
  • "Motorists who talk on the phone while driving will be more likely to make errors on a driving course than those who do not talk on the phone."
  • "Children who receive a new reading intervention will have higher reading scores than students who do not receive the intervention."

Examples of a complex hypothesis include:

  • "People with high-sugar diets and sedentary activity levels are more likely to develop depression."
  • "Younger people who are regularly exposed to green, outdoor areas have better subjective well-being than older adults who have limited exposure to green spaces."

Examples of a null hypothesis include:

  • "There is no difference in anxiety levels between people who take St. John's wort supplements and those who do not."
  • "There is no difference in scores on a memory recall task between children and adults."
  • "There is no difference in aggression levels between children who play first-person shooter games and those who do not."

Examples of an alternative hypothesis:

  • "People who take St. John's wort supplements will have less anxiety than those who do not."
  • "Adults will perform better on a memory task than children."
  • "Children who play first-person shooter games will show higher levels of aggression than children who do not." 

Collecting Data on Your Hypothesis

Once a researcher has formed a testable hypothesis, the next step is to select a research design and start collecting data. The research method depends largely on exactly what they are studying. There are two basic types of research methods: descriptive research and experimental research.

Descriptive Research Methods

Descriptive research such as  case studies ,  naturalistic observations , and surveys are often used when  conducting an experiment is difficult or impossible. These methods are best used to describe different aspects of a behavior or psychological phenomenon.

Once a researcher has collected data using descriptive methods, a  correlational study  can examine how the variables are related. This research method might be used to investigate a hypothesis that is difficult to test experimentally.

Experimental Research Methods

Experimental methods  are used to demonstrate causal relationships between variables. In an experiment, the researcher systematically manipulates a variable of interest (known as the independent variable) and measures the effect on another variable (known as the dependent variable).

Unlike correlational studies, which can only be used to determine if there is a relationship between two variables, experimental methods can be used to determine the actual nature of the relationship—whether changes in one variable actually  cause  another to change.

The hypothesis is a critical part of any scientific exploration. It represents what researchers expect to find in a study or experiment. In situations where the hypothesis is unsupported by the research, the research still has value. Such research helps us better understand how different aspects of the natural world relate to one another. It also helps us develop new hypotheses that can then be tested in the future.

Thompson WH, Skau S. On the scope of scientific hypotheses .  R Soc Open Sci . 2023;10(8):230607. doi:10.1098/rsos.230607

Taran S, Adhikari NKJ, Fan E. Falsifiability in medicine: what clinicians can learn from Karl Popper [published correction appears in Intensive Care Med. 2021 Jun 17;:].  Intensive Care Med . 2021;47(9):1054-1056. doi:10.1007/s00134-021-06432-z

Eyler AA. Research Methods for Public Health . 1st ed. Springer Publishing Company; 2020. doi:10.1891/9780826182067.0004

Nosek BA, Errington TM. What is replication ?  PLoS Biol . 2020;18(3):e3000691. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.3000691

Aggarwal R, Ranganathan P. Study designs: Part 2 - Descriptive studies .  Perspect Clin Res . 2019;10(1):34-36. doi:10.4103/picr.PICR_154_18

Nevid J. Psychology: Concepts and Applications. Wadworth, 2013.

By Kendra Cherry, MSEd Kendra Cherry, MS, is a psychosocial rehabilitation specialist, psychology educator, and author of the "Everything Psychology Book."

HYPOTHESIS in a Sentence Examples: 21 Ways to Use Hypothesis

sentence with Hypothesis

Have you ever wondered what a “hypothesis” is and how it fits into the scientific method? A hypothesis is a proposed explanation or educated guess that can be tested through research and experimentation to determine its validity.

Table of Contents

7 Examples Of Hypothesis Used In a Sentence For Kids

14 sentences with hypothesis examples, how to use hypothesis in sentences.

Hypothesis is an educated guess or prediction that can be tested through observation or experimentation. When incorporating this term into a sentence, it is important to clearly identify it so readers can understand its significance.

Here are some tips on how to use hypothesis effectively in a sentence:

Clearly state your hypothesis in a simple and concise manner. For example, “The scientist’s hypothesis is that plants will grow faster with added sunlight.”

Make sure to refer back to your hypothesis when discussing the results of your experiment. For example, “The data supported our initial hypothesis that exercise leads to improved cardiovascular health.”

By following these guidelines, you can effectively incorporate hypothesis into your writing to communicate your predictions or expectations clearly and accurately.

In conclusion, sentences with the keyword “hypothesis” often express a proposed explanation or prediction that can be tested through research or observation. These sentences play a crucial role in scientific inquiry by guiding investigations and exploring relationships between variables. For example, “The researchers formulated a hypothesis to predict the effect of sunlight on plant growth” demonstrates how hypotheses are used to frame a study’s objectives and outcomes.

Related Posts

In front or infront: which is the correct spelling, targeted vs. targetted: correct spelling explained in english (us) usage.

Are you unsure about whether to use “targetted” or “targeted”?…  Read More » Targeted vs. Targetted: Correct Spelling Explained in English (US) Usage

As per Request or As per Requested: Understanding the Correct Usage

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How to Write a Research Hypothesis: Good & Bad Examples

make sentence in english hypothesis

What is a research hypothesis?

A research hypothesis is an attempt at explaining a phenomenon or the relationships between phenomena/variables in the real world. Hypotheses are sometimes called “educated guesses”, but they are in fact (or let’s say they should be) based on previous observations, existing theories, scientific evidence, and logic. A research hypothesis is also not a prediction—rather, predictions are ( should be) based on clearly formulated hypotheses. For example, “We tested the hypothesis that KLF2 knockout mice would show deficiencies in heart development” is an assumption or prediction, not a hypothesis. 

The research hypothesis at the basis of this prediction is “the product of the KLF2 gene is involved in the development of the cardiovascular system in mice”—and this hypothesis is probably (hopefully) based on a clear observation, such as that mice with low levels of Kruppel-like factor 2 (which KLF2 codes for) seem to have heart problems. From this hypothesis, you can derive the idea that a mouse in which this particular gene does not function cannot develop a normal cardiovascular system, and then make the prediction that we started with. 

What is the difference between a hypothesis and a prediction?

You might think that these are very subtle differences, and you will certainly come across many publications that do not contain an actual hypothesis or do not make these distinctions correctly. But considering that the formulation and testing of hypotheses is an integral part of the scientific method, it is good to be aware of the concepts underlying this approach. The two hallmarks of a scientific hypothesis are falsifiability (an evaluation standard that was introduced by the philosopher of science Karl Popper in 1934) and testability —if you cannot use experiments or data to decide whether an idea is true or false, then it is not a hypothesis (or at least a very bad one).

So, in a nutshell, you (1) look at existing evidence/theories, (2) come up with a hypothesis, (3) make a prediction that allows you to (4) design an experiment or data analysis to test it, and (5) come to a conclusion. Of course, not all studies have hypotheses (there is also exploratory or hypothesis-generating research), and you do not necessarily have to state your hypothesis as such in your paper. 

But for the sake of understanding the principles of the scientific method, let’s first take a closer look at the different types of hypotheses that research articles refer to and then give you a step-by-step guide for how to formulate a strong hypothesis for your own paper.

Types of Research Hypotheses

Hypotheses can be simple , which means they describe the relationship between one single independent variable (the one you observe variations in or plan to manipulate) and one single dependent variable (the one you expect to be affected by the variations/manipulation). If there are more variables on either side, you are dealing with a complex hypothesis. You can also distinguish hypotheses according to the kind of relationship between the variables you are interested in (e.g., causal or associative ). But apart from these variations, we are usually interested in what is called the “alternative hypothesis” and, in contrast to that, the “null hypothesis”. If you think these two should be listed the other way round, then you are right, logically speaking—the alternative should surely come second. However, since this is the hypothesis we (as researchers) are usually interested in, let’s start from there.

Alternative Hypothesis

If you predict a relationship between two variables in your study, then the research hypothesis that you formulate to describe that relationship is your alternative hypothesis (usually H1 in statistical terms). The goal of your hypothesis testing is thus to demonstrate that there is sufficient evidence that supports the alternative hypothesis, rather than evidence for the possibility that there is no such relationship. The alternative hypothesis is usually the research hypothesis of a study and is based on the literature, previous observations, and widely known theories. 

Null Hypothesis

The hypothesis that describes the other possible outcome, that is, that your variables are not related, is the null hypothesis ( H0 ). Based on your findings, you choose between the two hypotheses—usually that means that if your prediction was correct, you reject the null hypothesis and accept the alternative. Make sure, however, that you are not getting lost at this step of the thinking process: If your prediction is that there will be no difference or change, then you are trying to find support for the null hypothesis and reject H1. 

Directional Hypothesis

While the null hypothesis is obviously “static”, the alternative hypothesis can specify a direction for the observed relationship between variables—for example, that mice with higher expression levels of a certain protein are more active than those with lower levels. This is then called a one-tailed hypothesis. 

Another example for a directional one-tailed alternative hypothesis would be that 

H1: Attending private classes before important exams has a positive effect on performance. 

Your null hypothesis would then be that

H0: Attending private classes before important exams has no/a negative effect on performance.

Nondirectional Hypothesis

A nondirectional hypothesis does not specify the direction of the potentially observed effect, only that there is a relationship between the studied variables—this is called a two-tailed hypothesis. For instance, if you are studying a new drug that has shown some effects on pathways involved in a certain condition (e.g., anxiety) in vitro in the lab, but you can’t say for sure whether it will have the same effects in an animal model or maybe induce other/side effects that you can’t predict and potentially increase anxiety levels instead, you could state the two hypotheses like this:

H1: The only lab-tested drug (somehow) affects anxiety levels in an anxiety mouse model.

You then test this nondirectional alternative hypothesis against the null hypothesis:

H0: The only lab-tested drug has no effect on anxiety levels in an anxiety mouse model.

hypothesis in a research paper

How to Write a Hypothesis for a Research Paper

Now that we understand the important distinctions between different kinds of research hypotheses, let’s look at a simple process of how to write a hypothesis.

Writing a Hypothesis Step:1

Ask a question, based on earlier research. Research always starts with a question, but one that takes into account what is already known about a topic or phenomenon. For example, if you are interested in whether people who have pets are happier than those who don’t, do a literature search and find out what has already been demonstrated. You will probably realize that yes, there is quite a bit of research that shows a relationship between happiness and owning a pet—and even studies that show that owning a dog is more beneficial than owning a cat ! Let’s say you are so intrigued by this finding that you wonder: 

What is it that makes dog owners even happier than cat owners? 

Let’s move on to Step 2 and find an answer to that question.

Writing a Hypothesis Step 2:

Formulate a strong hypothesis by answering your own question. Again, you don’t want to make things up, take unicorns into account, or repeat/ignore what has already been done. Looking at the dog-vs-cat papers your literature search returned, you see that most studies are based on self-report questionnaires on personality traits, mental health, and life satisfaction. What you don’t find is any data on actual (mental or physical) health measures, and no experiments. You therefore decide to make a bold claim come up with the carefully thought-through hypothesis that it’s maybe the lifestyle of the dog owners, which includes walking their dog several times per day, engaging in fun and healthy activities such as agility competitions, and taking them on trips, that gives them that extra boost in happiness. You could therefore answer your question in the following way:

Dog owners are happier than cat owners because of the dog-related activities they engage in.

Now you have to verify that your hypothesis fulfills the two requirements we introduced at the beginning of this resource article: falsifiability and testability . If it can’t be wrong and can’t be tested, it’s not a hypothesis. We are lucky, however, because yes, we can test whether owning a dog but not engaging in any of those activities leads to lower levels of happiness or well-being than owning a dog and playing and running around with them or taking them on trips.  

Writing a Hypothesis Step 3:

Make your predictions and define your variables. We have verified that we can test our hypothesis, but now we have to define all the relevant variables, design our experiment or data analysis, and make precise predictions. You could, for example, decide to study dog owners (not surprising at this point), let them fill in questionnaires about their lifestyle as well as their life satisfaction (as other studies did), and then compare two groups of active and inactive dog owners. Alternatively, if you want to go beyond the data that earlier studies produced and analyzed and directly manipulate the activity level of your dog owners to study the effect of that manipulation, you could invite them to your lab, select groups of participants with similar lifestyles, make them change their lifestyle (e.g., couch potato dog owners start agility classes, very active ones have to refrain from any fun activities for a certain period of time) and assess their happiness levels before and after the intervention. In both cases, your independent variable would be “ level of engagement in fun activities with dog” and your dependent variable would be happiness or well-being . 

Examples of a Good and Bad Hypothesis

Let’s look at a few examples of good and bad hypotheses to get you started.

Good Hypothesis Examples

Working from home improves job satisfaction.Employees who are allowed to work from home are less likely to quit within 2 years than those who need to come to the office.
Sleep deprivation affects cognition.Students who sleep <5 hours/night don’t perform as well on exams as those who sleep >7 hours/night. 
Animals adapt to their environment.Birds of the same species living on different islands have differently shaped beaks depending on the available food source.
Social media use causes anxiety.Do teenagers who refrain from using social media for 4 weeks show improvements in anxiety symptoms?

Bad Hypothesis Examples

Garlic repels vampires.Participants who eat garlic daily will not be harmed by vampires.Nobody gets harmed by vampires— .
Chocolate is better than vanilla.           No clearly defined variables— .

Tips for Writing a Research Hypothesis

If you understood the distinction between a hypothesis and a prediction we made at the beginning of this article, then you will have no problem formulating your hypotheses and predictions correctly. To refresh your memory: We have to (1) look at existing evidence, (2) come up with a hypothesis, (3) make a prediction, and (4) design an experiment. For example, you could summarize your dog/happiness study like this:

(1) While research suggests that dog owners are happier than cat owners, there are no reports on what factors drive this difference. (2) We hypothesized that it is the fun activities that many dog owners (but very few cat owners) engage in with their pets that increases their happiness levels. (3) We thus predicted that preventing very active dog owners from engaging in such activities for some time and making very inactive dog owners take up such activities would lead to an increase and decrease in their overall self-ratings of happiness, respectively. (4) To test this, we invited dog owners into our lab, assessed their mental and emotional well-being through questionnaires, and then assigned them to an “active” and an “inactive” group, depending on… 

Note that you use “we hypothesize” only for your hypothesis, not for your experimental prediction, and “would” or “if – then” only for your prediction, not your hypothesis. A hypothesis that states that something “would” affect something else sounds as if you don’t have enough confidence to make a clear statement—in which case you can’t expect your readers to believe in your research either. Write in the present tense, don’t use modal verbs that express varying degrees of certainty (such as may, might, or could ), and remember that you are not drawing a conclusion while trying not to exaggerate but making a clear statement that you then, in a way, try to disprove . And if that happens, that is not something to fear but an important part of the scientific process.

Similarly, don’t use “we hypothesize” when you explain the implications of your research or make predictions in the conclusion section of your manuscript, since these are clearly not hypotheses in the true sense of the word. As we said earlier, you will find that many authors of academic articles do not seem to care too much about these rather subtle distinctions, but thinking very clearly about your own research will not only help you write better but also ensure that even that infamous Reviewer 2 will find fewer reasons to nitpick about your manuscript. 

Perfect Your Manuscript With Professional Editing

Now that you know how to write a strong research hypothesis for your research paper, you might be interested in our free AI Proofreader , Wordvice AI, which finds and fixes errors in grammar, punctuation, and word choice in academic texts. Or if you are interested in human proofreading , check out our English editing services , including research paper editing and manuscript editing .

On the Wordvice academic resources website , you can also find many more articles and other resources that can help you with writing the other parts of your research paper , with making a research paper outline before you put everything together, or with writing an effective cover letter once you are ready to submit.

Hypothesis Maker Online

Looking for a hypothesis maker? This online tool for students will help you formulate a beautiful hypothesis quickly, efficiently, and for free.

Are you looking for an effective hypothesis maker online? Worry no more; try our online tool for students and formulate your hypothesis within no time.

  • 🔎 How to Use the Tool?
  • ⚗️ What Is a Hypothesis in Science?

👍 What Does a Good Hypothesis Mean?

  • 🧭 Steps to Making a Good Hypothesis

🔗 References

📄 hypothesis maker: how to use it.

Our hypothesis maker is a simple and efficient tool you can access online for free.

If you want to create a research hypothesis quickly, you should fill out the research details in the given fields on the hypothesis generator.

Below are the fields you should complete to generate your hypothesis:

  • Who or what is your research based on? For instance, the subject can be research group 1.
  • What does the subject (research group 1) do?
  • What does the subject affect? - This shows the predicted outcome, which is the object.
  • Who or what will be compared with research group 1? (research group 2).

Once you fill the in the fields, you can click the ‘Make a hypothesis’ tab and get your results.

⚗️ What Is a Hypothesis in the Scientific Method?

A hypothesis is a statement describing an expectation or prediction of your research through observation.

It is similar to academic speculation and reasoning that discloses the outcome of your scientific test . An effective hypothesis, therefore, should be crafted carefully and with precision.

A good hypothesis should have dependent and independent variables . These variables are the elements you will test in your research method – it can be a concept, an event, or an object as long as it is observable.

You can observe the dependent variables while the independent variables keep changing during the experiment.

In a nutshell, a hypothesis directs and organizes the research methods you will use, forming a large section of research paper writing.

Hypothesis vs. Theory

A hypothesis is a realistic expectation that researchers make before any investigation. It is formulated and tested to prove whether the statement is true. A theory, on the other hand, is a factual principle supported by evidence. Thus, a theory is more fact-backed compared to a hypothesis.

Another difference is that a hypothesis is presented as a single statement , while a theory can be an assortment of things . Hypotheses are based on future possibilities toward a specific projection, but the results are uncertain. Theories are verified with undisputable results because of proper substantiation.

When it comes to data, a hypothesis relies on limited information , while a theory is established on an extensive data set tested on various conditions.

You should observe the stated assumption to prove its accuracy.

Since hypotheses have observable variables, their outcome is usually based on a specific occurrence. Conversely, theories are grounded on a general principle involving multiple experiments and research tests.

This general principle can apply to many specific cases.

The primary purpose of formulating a hypothesis is to present a tentative prediction for researchers to explore further through tests and observations. Theories, in their turn, aim to explain plausible occurrences in the form of a scientific study.

It would help to rely on several criteria to establish a good hypothesis. Below are the parameters you should use to analyze the quality of your hypothesis.

Testability You should be able to test the hypothesis to present a true or false outcome after the investigation. Apart from the logical hypothesis, ensure you can test your predictions with .
Variables It should have a dependent and independent variable. Identifying the appropriate variables will help readers comprehend your prediction and what to expect at the conclusion phase.
Cause and effect A good hypothesis should have a cause-and-effect connection. One variable should influence others in some way. It should be written as an “if-then” statement to allow the researcher to make accurate predictions of the investigation results. However, this rule does not apply to a .
Clear language Writing can get complex, especially when complex research terminology is involved. So, ensure your hypothesis has expressed as a brief statement. Avoid being vague because your readers might get confused. Your hypothesis has a direct impact on your entire research paper’s quality. Thus, use simple words that are easy to understand.
Ethics Hypothesis generation should comply with . Don’t formulate hypotheses that contravene taboos or are questionable. Besides, your hypothesis should have correlations to published academic works to look data-based and authoritative.

🧭 6 Steps to Making a Good Hypothesis

Writing a hypothesis becomes way simpler if you follow a tried-and-tested algorithm. Let’s explore how you can formulate a good hypothesis in a few steps:

Step #1: Ask Questions

The first step in hypothesis creation is asking real questions about the surrounding reality.

Why do things happen as they do? What are the causes of some occurrences?

Your curiosity will trigger great questions that you can use to formulate a stellar hypothesis. So, ensure you pick a research topic of interest to scrutinize the world’s phenomena, processes, and events.

Step #2: Do Initial Research

Carry out preliminary research and gather essential background information about your topic of choice.

The extent of the information you collect will depend on what you want to prove.

Your initial research can be complete with a few academic books or a simple Internet search for quick answers with relevant statistics.

Still, keep in mind that in this phase, it is too early to prove or disapprove of your hypothesis.

Step #3: Identify Your Variables

Now that you have a basic understanding of the topic, choose the dependent and independent variables.

Take note that independent variables are the ones you can’t control, so understand the limitations of your test before settling on a final hypothesis.

Step #4: Formulate Your Hypothesis

You can write your hypothesis as an ‘if – then’ expression . Presenting any hypothesis in this format is reliable since it describes the cause-and-effect you want to test.

For instance: If I study every day, then I will get good grades.

Step #5: Gather Relevant Data

Once you have identified your variables and formulated the hypothesis, you can start the experiment. Remember, the conclusion you make will be a proof or rebuttal of your initial assumption.

So, gather relevant information, whether for a simple or statistical hypothesis, because you need to back your statement.

Step #6: Record Your Findings

Finally, write down your conclusions in a research paper .

Outline in detail whether the test has proved or disproved your hypothesis.

Edit and proofread your work, using a plagiarism checker to ensure the authenticity of your text.

We hope that the above tips will be useful for you. Note that if you need to conduct business analysis, you can use the free templates we’ve prepared: SWOT , PESTLE , VRIO , SOAR , and Porter’s 5 Forces .

❓ Hypothesis Formulator FAQ

Updated: Oct 25th, 2023

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Use our hypothesis maker whenever you need to formulate a hypothesis for your study. We offer a very simple tool where you just need to provide basic info about your variables, subjects, and predicted outcomes. The rest is on us. Get a perfect hypothesis in no time!

What Are Examples of a Hypothesis?

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A hypothesis is an explanation for a set of observations. Here are examples of a scientific hypothesis.

Although you could state a scientific hypothesis in various ways, most hypotheses are either "If, then" statements or forms of the null hypothesis . The null hypothesis is sometimes called the "no difference" hypothesis. The null hypothesis is good for experimentation because it's simple to disprove. If you disprove a null hypothesis, that is evidence for a relationship between the variables you are examining.

Examples of Null Hypotheses

  • Hyperactivity is unrelated to eating sugar.
  • All daisies have the same number of petals.
  • The number of pets in a household is unrelated to the number of people living in it.
  • A person's preference for a shirt is unrelated to its color.

Examples of If, Then Hypotheses

  • If you get at least 6 hours of sleep, you will do better on tests than if you get less sleep.
  • If you drop a ball, it will fall toward the ground.
  • If you drink coffee before going to bed, then it will take longer to fall asleep.
  • If you cover a wound with a bandage, then it will heal with less scarring.

Improving a Hypothesis to Make It Testable

You may wish to revise your first hypothesis in order to make it easier to design an experiment to test. For example, let's say you have a bad breakout the morning after eating a lot of greasy food. You may wonder if there is a correlation between eating greasy food and getting pimples. You propose the hypothesis:

Eating greasy food causes pimples.

Next, you need to design an experiment to test this hypothesis. Let's say you decide to eat greasy food every day for a week and record the effect on your face. Then, as a control, you'll avoid greasy food for the next week and see what happens. Now, this is not a good experiment because it does not take into account other factors such as hormone levels, stress, sun exposure, exercise, or any number of other variables that might conceivably affect your skin.

The problem is that you cannot assign cause to your effect . If you eat french fries for a week and suffer a breakout, can you definitely say it was the grease in the food that caused it? Maybe it was the salt. Maybe it was the potato. Maybe it was unrelated to diet. You can't prove your hypothesis. It's much easier to disprove a hypothesis.

So, let's restate the hypothesis to make it easier to evaluate the data:

Getting pimples is unaffected by eating greasy food.

So, if you eat fatty food every day for a week and suffer breakouts and then don't break out the week that you avoid greasy food, you can be pretty sure something is up. Can you disprove the hypothesis? Probably not, since it is so hard to assign cause and effect. However, you can make a strong case that there is some relationship between diet and acne.

If your skin stays clear for the entire test, you may decide to accept your hypothesis . Again, you didn't prove or disprove anything, which is fine

  • Null Hypothesis Examples
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Definition of hypothesis

Did you know.

The Difference Between Hypothesis and Theory

A hypothesis is an assumption, an idea that is proposed for the sake of argument so that it can be tested to see if it might be true.

In the scientific method, the hypothesis is constructed before any applicable research has been done, apart from a basic background review. You ask a question, read up on what has been studied before, and then form a hypothesis.

A hypothesis is usually tentative; it's an assumption or suggestion made strictly for the objective of being tested.

A theory , in contrast, is a principle that has been formed as an attempt to explain things that have already been substantiated by data. It is used in the names of a number of principles accepted in the scientific community, such as the Big Bang Theory . Because of the rigors of experimentation and control, it is understood to be more likely to be true than a hypothesis is.

In non-scientific use, however, hypothesis and theory are often used interchangeably to mean simply an idea, speculation, or hunch, with theory being the more common choice.

Since this casual use does away with the distinctions upheld by the scientific community, hypothesis and theory are prone to being wrongly interpreted even when they are encountered in scientific contexts—or at least, contexts that allude to scientific study without making the critical distinction that scientists employ when weighing hypotheses and theories.

The most common occurrence is when theory is interpreted—and sometimes even gleefully seized upon—to mean something having less truth value than other scientific principles. (The word law applies to principles so firmly established that they are almost never questioned, such as the law of gravity.)

This mistake is one of projection: since we use theory in general to mean something lightly speculated, then it's implied that scientists must be talking about the same level of uncertainty when they use theory to refer to their well-tested and reasoned principles.

The distinction has come to the forefront particularly on occasions when the content of science curricula in schools has been challenged—notably, when a school board in Georgia put stickers on textbooks stating that evolution was "a theory, not a fact, regarding the origin of living things." As Kenneth R. Miller, a cell biologist at Brown University, has said , a theory "doesn’t mean a hunch or a guess. A theory is a system of explanations that ties together a whole bunch of facts. It not only explains those facts, but predicts what you ought to find from other observations and experiments.”

While theories are never completely infallible, they form the basis of scientific reasoning because, as Miller said "to the best of our ability, we’ve tested them, and they’ve held up."

  • proposition
  • supposition

hypothesis , theory , law mean a formula derived by inference from scientific data that explains a principle operating in nature.

hypothesis implies insufficient evidence to provide more than a tentative explanation.

theory implies a greater range of evidence and greater likelihood of truth.

law implies a statement of order and relation in nature that has been found to be invariable under the same conditions.

Examples of hypothesis in a Sentence

These examples are programmatically compiled from various online sources to illustrate current usage of the word 'hypothesis.' Any opinions expressed in the examples do not represent those of Merriam-Webster or its editors. Send us feedback about these examples.

Word History

Greek, from hypotithenai to put under, suppose, from hypo- + tithenai to put — more at do

1641, in the meaning defined at sense 1a

Phrases Containing hypothesis

  • counter - hypothesis
  • nebular hypothesis
  • null hypothesis
  • planetesimal hypothesis
  • Whorfian hypothesis

Articles Related to hypothesis

hypothesis

This is the Difference Between a...

This is the Difference Between a Hypothesis and a Theory

In scientific reasoning, they're two completely different things

Dictionary Entries Near hypothesis

hypothermia

hypothesize

Cite this Entry

“Hypothesis.” Merriam-Webster.com Dictionary , Merriam-Webster, https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/hypothesis. Accessed 18 Jul. 2024.

Kids Definition

Kids definition of hypothesis, medical definition, medical definition of hypothesis, more from merriam-webster on hypothesis.

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Britannica.com: Encyclopedia article about hypothesis

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Hypothesis in a Sentence  🔊

Definition of Hypothesis

a proposed explanation or theory that is studied through scientific testing

Examples of Hypothesis in a sentence

The scientist’s hypothesis did not stand up, since research data was inconsistent with his guess.  🔊

Each student gave a hypothesis and theorized which plant would grow the tallest during the study.  🔊

A hypothesis was presented by the panel, giving a likely explanation for why the trial medicine didn’t seem to have much of an effect on the patients.  🔊

During the study, the researcher changed her hypothesis to a new assumption that fit with current data.  🔊

To confirm his hypothesis on why the dolphin wasn’t eating, the marine biologists did several tests over a week’s time.  🔊

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Examples of “Hypothesis” In A Sentence

Hypothesis In A Sentence

The hypothesis is a very important part of doing science and thinking carefully. It is like the strong supporting structure of a building for the process of research. A hypothesis is a clever guess or idea that can be tested to see if it is true or not. It helps us understand things or predict what might happen. In this article, we will look at many examples of ‘hypothesis’ in sentences .

Table of Contents

Sentences with Hypothesis

  • Hypothesis : The sun rises in the east.
  • They formulated a null hypothesis to compare against the alternative.
  • We need to revise the original hypothesis .
  • They discussed the hypothesis with colleagues in their field.
  • They formulated competing hypotheses to compare and contrast the findings.
  • The students generated multiple hypotheses for their investigation.
  • The hypothesis was generated from observations.
  • The hypothesis is the starting point of scientific investigation.
  • The researchers tested the hypothesis using various methodologies.
  • We need to investigate the hypothesis
  • The hypothesis needs more evidence to be proven.
  • The hypothesis was rejected due to flaws in the experimental design.
  • They tested the hypothesis using computer simulations.
  • The team tested the hypothesis using advanced technology.
  • The hypothesis was derived from logical reasoning.
  • They conducted surveys to gather data for their hypotheses .
  • They proposed alternative hypotheses for further exploration.
  • The hypothesis was consistent with data from other studies.
  • The hypothesis was based on logical reasoning.
  • The hypothesis was supported by the statistical analysis.

Sentences with “Hypothesis”

  • The hypothesis was proven incorrect.
  • The hypothesis was rejected due to lack of evidence.
  • They discussed the hypothesis with their peers.
  • The hypothesis was proposed based on logical deductions.
  • The hypothesis was validated through rigorous peer review.
  • The team discussed potential hypotheses during brainstorming sessions.
  • They discussed the limitations of their hypothesis
  • The students proposed various hypotheses for the investigation.
  • The hypothesis was confirmed by independent replication studies.
  • The students formed testable hypotheses for their projects.
  • They used a control group to test their hypothesis .
  • The hypothesis was formulated as a cause-and-effect relationship.
  • The hypothesis was supported by the literature review.
  • Scientists test their hypotheses through experiments.
  • The hypothesis was proposed based on observations in nature.
  • They analyzed the data to validate the hypothesis .
  • They designed the experiment to test the hypothesis
  • The hypothesis was based on previous research findings.
  • They revised the hypothesis based on constructive feedback.
  • They presented their hypotheses at a research symposium.
  • They conducted experiments to test their hypotheses .
  • The hypothesis was supported by a large and diverse sample.
  • The researchers tested the hypothesis using a variety of methodologies.
  • They conducted surveys to gather data that supported their hypothesis .
  • The team formulated new hypotheses for future investigations.
  • The hypothesis was consistent with experimental results.

“Hypothesis” Use in Sentence

  • They discussed the implications of the hypothesis on their field.
  • The researchers discussed the implications of their hypotheses .
  • The hypothesis was derived from careful observation and analysis.
  • The team developed alternative hypotheses for further investigation.
  • They presented their hypotheses to the research community.
  • The hypothesis was based on a comprehensive review of the literature.
  • The hypothesis was supported by strong logical reasoning.
  • They discussed the implications of their hypothesis for future research.
  • The hypothesis was based on a well-established scientific theory.
  • The researchers tested their hypotheses using different methodologies.
  • The hypothesis was supported by empirical evidence.
  • The researchers evaluated their hypotheses
  • The hypothesis was disproven by contradictory evidence.
  • The researchers discussed the limitations of their hypotheses .
  • The hypothesis was based on a well-established theory.
  • The hypothesis was supported by a large sample size.
  • The hypothesis was consistent with patterns observed in nature.
  • They proposed new hypotheses for future investigation.
  • The hypothesis was confirmed by the results of the study.
  • The hypothesis guided the research process.
  • The hypothesis was supported by strong scientific consensus.
  • The hypothesis was rejected due to methodological limitations.
  • The researchers proposed several hypotheses to explain the phenomenon.
  • The hypothesis was confirmed by multiple researchers in the field.
  • The hypothesis was validated through multiple studies.

Sentences Using “Hypothesis”

  • The researchers conducted experiments to test their hypotheses .
  • The hypothesis was based on observations from nature.
  • The hypothesis was supported by a wide range of evidence.
  • They formed competing hypotheses to compare.
  • Scientists often revise their hypotheses based on new data.
  • They conducted experiments to support their hypotheses .
  • The team discussed their hypothesis during the meeting.
  • The students discussed their hypotheses in class.
  • They developed a new hypothesis based on recent findings.
  • They discussed the hypothesis with other experts in the field.
  • The hypothesis was supported by a significant p-value.
  • The hypothesis was generated from real-world observations.
  • Mary’s hypothesis was supported by the data.
  • They tested their hypotheses across different populations.
  • The researchers tested multiple hypotheses to find the answer.
  • They presented their hypothesis at a scientific conference.
  • The hypothesis was supported by strong evidence.
  • They presented their hypotheses in a clear and concise manner.
  • The researchers proposed a working hypothesis to start their study.
  • The team discussed the hypothesis during the brainstorming session.
  • The researchers proposed different hypotheses for the observed behavior.
  • The hypothesis is a crucial part of any scientific study.
  • The hypothesis was refuted by the experimental results.

“Hypothesis” Sentences Examples

  • We need to gather more data to test the hypothesis .
  • The hypothesis was consistent with existing theories.
  • The hypothesis was supported by a strong theoretical framework.
  • The hypothesis was based on previous studies.
  • They formulated a null hypothesis as the default assumption.
  • The hypothesis was consistent with theoretical predictions.
  • The hypothesis was based on prior knowledge.
  • The hypothesis was supported by strong experimental data.
  • The team formed a new hypothesis after analyzing the data.
  • The hypothesis was consistent with the findings of previous studies.
  • The hypothesis was rejected due to methodological flaws.
  • The hypothesis was proven right after extensive testing.
  • The hypothesis was consistent with real-world observations.
  • The team tested their hypothesis in different conditions.
  • The hypothesis was consistent with the predictions.
  • The students generated their hypotheses for the experiment.
  • The hypothesis was confirmed by multiple independent studies.
  • The hypothesis was tested using a randomized controlled trial.
  • They formulated a null hypothesis to compare against.
  • The hypothesis was based on inductive reasoning.
  • The hypothesis was validated through repeated experiments.
  • The hypothesis guided the design of the experiment.
  • They used statistical analysis to validate the hypothesis .
  • The researchers discussed the implications of their hypothesis on society.
  • They revised the hypothesis based on feedback from experts.
  • The hypothesis was confirmed by expert analysis.
  • Hypotheses are essential in the scientific method.
  • Lisa proposed an interesting hypothesis for her project.
  • They analyzed the data to support their hypothesis .
  • The hypothesis was supported by compelling arguments.
  • They conducted interviews to explore their hypotheses .

Use “Hypothesis” In A Sentence

  • Sarah formulated a new hypothesis for her research.
  • The hypothesis was confirmed by the experiment.
  • The hypothesis was generated from prior observations.
  • They conducted surveys to test their hypotheses .
  • The hypothesis was supported by well-documented experimental results.
  • The hypothesis was supported by strong correlations.
  • The hypothesis was proposed after reviewing the literature.
  • They proposed a working hypothesis to guide their study.
  • The hypothesis was consistent with the observed results.
  • They proposed alternative hypotheses for future exploration.
  • The hypothesis was validated through rigorous statistical methods.
  • The researchers tested their hypotheses
  • John’s hypothesis led to groundbreaking discoveries.
  • The hypothesis was supported by statistical significance.
  • The researchers formulated a null hypothesis to compare against.
  • The hypothesis was supported by theoretical predictions.
  • They formed competing hypotheses to compare and contrast.
  • The hypothesis was consistent with historical data.
  • The hypothesis was supported by multiple lines of evidence.
  • The hypothesis was revised based on feedback from reviewers.
  • The scientists formulated a specific hypothesis to test.
  • The hypothesis was based on empirical data.

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  1. Sentences with Hypothesis, Sentences about Hypothesis

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  2. Examples of “Hypothesis” In A Sentence

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  3. Examples of “Hypothesis” In A Sentence

    make sentence in english hypothesis

  4. How to Write a Strong Hypothesis in 6 Simple Steps

    make sentence in english hypothesis

  5. How to Write a Hypothesis

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  6. Hypothesis sentence starters for writing

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  4. Hypothesis in the English Classroom: Annotation to Extend Student Reading and Writing Skills

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COMMENTS

  1. How to Write a Strong Hypothesis in 6 Simple Steps

    Learning how to write a hypothesis comes down to knowledge and strategy. So where do you start? Learn how to make your hypothesis strong step-by-step here.

  2. How to Write a Strong Hypothesis

    4. Refine your hypothesis. You need to make sure your hypothesis is specific and testable. There are various ways of phrasing a hypothesis, but all the terms you use should have clear definitions, and the hypothesis should contain: The relevant variables; The specific group being studied; The predicted outcome of the experiment or analysis; 5.

  3. What Is a Hypothesis and How Do I Write One?

    Merriam Webster defines a hypothesis as "an assumption or concession made for the sake of argument.". In other words, a hypothesis is an educated guess. Scientists make a reasonable assumption--or a hypothesis--then design an experiment to test whether it's true or not.

  4. How to Write a Strong Hypothesis

    Step 5: Phrase your hypothesis in three ways. To identify the variables, you can write a simple prediction in if … then form. The first part of the sentence states the independent variable and the second part states the dependent variable. If a first-year student starts attending more lectures, then their exam scores will improve.

  5. How to Write a Hypothesis w/ Strong Examples

    Simple Hypothesis Examples. Increasing the amount of natural light in a classroom will improve students' test scores. Drinking at least eight glasses of water a day reduces the frequency of headaches in adults. Plant growth is faster when the plant is exposed to music for at least one hour per day.

  6. How to Write a Hypothesis: Types, Steps and Examples

    Search for facts, past studies, theories, etc. Based on the collected information, you should be able to make a logical and intelligent guess. 3. Formulate a Hypothesis. Based on the initial research, you should have a certain idea of what you may find throughout the course of your research.

  7. How to Write a Hypothesis: 13 Steps (with Pictures)

    1. Select a topic. Pick a topic that interests you, and that you think it would be good to know more about. [2] If you are writing a hypothesis for a school assignment, this step may be taken care of for you. 2. Read existing research. Gather all the information you can about the topic you've selected.

  8. How Do You Write an Hypothesis? Detailed Explanation and Examples

    The first step in formulating a hypothesis is to identify your research question. This involves observing the subject matter and recognizing patterns or relationships between variables. Crafting a clear, testable, and grounded hypothesis is essential for research success. By pinpointing the exact question you aim to answer, you lay the ...

  9. Teach English Writing: Hypothesis

    They write one sentence hypothesis sentence that summarizes the data. Step 3: Show the first image as a group practice effort. Step 4: Give students 1 to 2 minutes to study the image and write a hypothesis sentence with their partner. Step 5: After time has passed, review answers in class. Step 6: Begin the drill.

  10. Learn to write a hypothesis

    Part 1. Basic Hypothesis Format. A hypothesis is a sentence that tells us two (or more) things are related to each other. What is not in the hypothesis is an explanation about HOW the two things are related. Hypothesis sentences are useful for two reasons. They can summarize complex ideas in one sentence. They tell us what to expect in the future.

  11. Hypothesis: Definition, Examples, and Types

    A hypothesis is a tentative statement about the relationship between two or more variables. It is a specific, testable prediction about what you expect to happen in a study. It is a preliminary answer to your question that helps guide the research process. Consider a study designed to examine the relationship between sleep deprivation and test ...

  12. Examples of 'Hypothesis' in a Sentence

    Synonyms for hypothesis. The results of the experiment did not support his hypothesis. Their hypothesis is that watching excessive amounts of television reduces a person's ability to concentrate. Other chemists rejected his hypothesis. Isaac Newton initially argued against a parabolic orbit for the … comet of 1680, preferring the hypothesis ...

  13. HYPOTHESIS in a Sentence Examples: 21 Ways to Use Hypothesis

    Clearly state your hypothesis in a simple and concise manner. For example, "The scientist's hypothesis is that plants will grow faster with added sunlight.". Use the word hypothesis to introduce your prediction or expectation before testing it. For instance, "Our hypothesis is that students who study regularly will perform better on the ...

  14. How to Write a Research Hypothesis: Good & Bad Examples

    Another example for a directional one-tailed alternative hypothesis would be that. H1: Attending private classes before important exams has a positive effect on performance. Your null hypothesis would then be that. H0: Attending private classes before important exams has no/a negative effect on performance.

  15. Examples of "Hypothesis" in a Sentence

    2. 1. Advertisement. It follows that philosophy is in a sense both dualist and monist; it is a cosmic dualism inasmuch as it admits the possible existence of matter as a hypothesis, though it denies the possibility of any true knowledge of it, and is hence in regard of the only possible knowledge an idealistic monism.

  16. Hypothesis Maker

    Use our hypothesis formulator to generate an effective hypothesis for your research. All you have to do is fill out the details in the required fields and click the 'create hypothesis' button. The AI-based algorithm will generate a list of great hypotheses you can use in your investigation.

  17. Examples of 'HYPOTHESIS' in a sentence

    Competing in a Global Economy. ( 1990) His colleagues must surely be asking themselves whether they really need to test this hypothesis before making a change. Times, Sunday Times. ( 2011) First, that the lifestyle concept suggests hypotheses which are true by definition and therefore trivial.

  18. What Are Examples of a Hypothesis?

    Examples of If, Then Hypotheses. If you get at least 6 hours of sleep, you will do better on tests than if you get less sleep. If you drop a ball, it will fall toward the ground. If you drink coffee before going to bed, then it will take longer to fall asleep.

  19. Hypothesis Definition & Meaning

    hypothesis: [noun] an assumption or concession made for the sake of argument. an interpretation of a practical situation or condition taken as the ground for action.

  20. Hypothesis: In a Sentence

    Definition of Hypothesis. a proposed explanation or theory that is studied through scientific testing. Examples of Hypothesis in a sentence. The scientist's hypothesis did not stand up, since research data was inconsistent with his guess. Each student gave a hypothesis and theorized which plant would grow the tallest during the study.

  21. Examples of "Hypothesis" In A Sentence

    Sentences with Hypothesis. Hypothesis: The sun rises in the east. They formulated a null hypothesis to compare against the alternative. We need to revise the original hypothesis. They discussed the hypothesis with colleagues in their field. They formulated competing hypotheses to compare and contrast the findings.