essay about political freedom

PovertyCure is an initiative of the Acton Institute

Get the Series

PovertyCure Logo

Political Freedom

Political freedom is the ability of a nation’s citizens to participate freely in the political process. It involves both the freedom of the majority to influence and guide policy (rather than merely entrenched insiders doing so) and the freedom of political minorities to publicly advocate for their positions. In the words of Lord Acton, “The most certain test by which we judge whether a country is really free is the amount of security enjoyed by minorities.” Practically, this absence of coercion is expressed in such rights as freedom of the press, freedom of worship and freedom of assembly. 

Political Freedom and Prosperity

Although political freedom and economic freedom are far from perfectly correlated, history indicates that the two are mutually supportive. Political freedom often lays the foundation upon which economic freedom—and therefore prosperity—can be built. For example, a rule of law that respects property rights, enforces contracts, and punishes corruption is essential for the operation of business enterprise. These conditions most often exist in a country where free elections and active participation by the electorate ensure that government officeholders are responsive to the common good.

A society with wide berth for the political activity of its citizens also encourages civic participation, concern for the common good, and a sense of personal responsibility (traits that support enterprise and economic growth). This is substantiated by data from surveys that measure each. Based on studies by Freedom House (political freedom) and the Heritage Foundation/Wall Street Journal (economic freedom) Freedom House director Adrian Karatnycky reported that “there is a high and statistically significant correlation between the level of political freedom … and economic freedom."

Political Freedom in the Developing World

One of the obstacles holding back developing nations is political oppression. “Bad governance,” one of the four main “poverty traps” identified by Paul Collier, keeps nations locked in poverty. Dictatorships and military juntas discourage the conditions necessary for economic development. In addition, the relative predominance of the political sphere over and above other spheres creates a set of bad incentives. As Theodore Dalrymple notes, in many poor nations “there’s no way of getting on in the world or becoming prosperous other than by finding a political sponsor.”

When people stand to gain more by political success than by entrepreneurial success, the most talented and ambitious individuals will tend to direct their energy toward personal success in the political sphere rather than to creating jobs and wealth through business activity. When minorities or individuals feel that they are powerless victims rather than active participants in the political arena, they will take their skill, creativity, and drive to a new location, depriving their native country of its most important resource: human capital.

essay about political freedom

Rethink Poverty

Subtitled in 15 languages, this six part video series that will change absolutely everything about how you approach charity and missions.

Freedom Essay for Students and Children


500+ Words Essay on Freedom

Freedom is something that everybody has heard of but if you ask for its meaning then everyone will give you different meaning. This is so because everyone has a different opinion about freedom. For some freedom means the freedom of going anywhere they like, for some it means to speak up form themselves, and for some, it is liberty of doing anything they like.

Freedom Essay

Meaning of Freedom

The real meaning of freedom according to books is. Freedom refers to a state of independence where you can do what you like without any restriction by anyone. Moreover, freedom can be called a state of mind where you have the right and freedom of doing what you can think off. Also, you can feel freedom from within.

The Indian Freedom

Indian is a country which was earlier ruled by Britisher and to get rid of these rulers India fight back and earn their freedom. But during this long fight, many people lost their lives and because of the sacrifice of those people and every citizen of the country, India is a free country and the world largest democracy in the world.

Moreover, after independence India become one of those countries who give his citizen some freedom right without and restrictions.

The Indian Freedom Right

India drafted a constitution during the days of struggle with the Britishers and after independence it became applicable. In this constitution, the Indian citizen was given several fundaments right which is applicable to all citizen equally. More importantly, these right are the freedom that the constitution has given to every citizen.

These right are right to equality, right to freedom, right against exploitation, right to freedom of religion¸ culture and educational right, right to constitutional remedies, right to education. All these right give every freedom that they can’t get in any other country.

Value of Freedom

The real value of anything can only be understood by those who have earned it or who have sacrificed their lives for it. Freedom also means liberalization from oppression. It also means the freedom from racism, from harm, from the opposition, from discrimination and many more things.

Get the huge list of more than 500 Essay Topics and Ideas

Freedom does not mean that you violate others right, it does not mean that you disregard other rights. Moreover, freedom means enchanting the beauty of nature and the environment around us.

The Freedom of Speech

Freedom of speech is the most common and prominent right that every citizen enjoy. Also, it is important because it is essential for the all-over development of the country.

Moreover, it gives way to open debates that helps in the discussion of thought and ideas that are essential for the growth of society.

Besides, this is the only right that links with all the other rights closely. More importantly, it is essential to express one’s view of his/her view about society and other things.

To conclude, we can say that Freedom is not what we think it is. It is a psychological concept everyone has different views on. Similarly, it has a different value for different people. But freedom links with happiness in a broadway.

FAQs on Freedom

Q.1 What is the true meaning of freedom? A.1 Freedom truly means giving equal opportunity to everyone for liberty and pursuit of happiness.

Q.2 What is freedom of expression means? A.2 Freedom of expression means the freedom to express one’s own ideas and opinions through the medium of writing, speech, and other forms of communication without causing any harm to someone’s reputation.


  • Travelling Essay
  • Picnic Essay
  • Our Country Essay
  • My Parents Essay
  • Essay on Favourite Personality
  • Essay on Memorable Day of My Life
  • Essay on Knowledge is Power
  • Essay on Gurpurab
  • Essay on My Favourite Season
  • Essay on Types of Sports

Which class are you in?


Download the App

Google Play

Claiming the Freedom to Shape Politics Essay


Mitchell (1) explores the importance of human rights in an article titled, “Character Development.” The article is a narration of the ethical and professional conduct of military operations – through the role of the military in upholding human rights. The story’s setting is an interview room where military officers quiz a doctor (Shariba) regarding his role in aiding sectarian violence.

While trying to employ a radical interview strategy, one military officer accidentally shoots the doctor and Mitchell (the author) is encouraged to cover up the incident. Throughout the interview, an exploration of the politics and ethics surrounding human right violations occur because the military officers used excessive force on the interviewee (Mitchell 5).

This paper demonstrates that Mitchell’s article provides an insight into how people may claim the freedom to shape policies by demonstrating the effect of politics on peoples’ families and community well-being. In addition, this paper also shows that ordinary people claim the freedom to shape politics because politics influence human rights, and the violation of human rights in one part of the world affects another.

Similarly, this paper demonstrates that ordinary people fund political processes and therefore, people have the right to influence political decisions. Nonetheless, this paper limits the extent ordinary citizens claim the freedom to influence politics to heroism, public perception, and the development of an understanding regarding political ramifications.

How Ordinary People Claim the Freedom to Shape Politics

Ordinary people may claim the freedom to shape politics through their ability to influence funding. Taxpayers always fund political processes and by dictating the use of taxes, ordinary people may effectively exercise their freedom to shape politics. According to Mitchell (10), Shariba’s service as a doctor depended on taxpayer funding, regardless of his thoughts regarding the separation of duties between saving lives and aiding militia activities. Indeed, while trying to separate his role and the role of the military, Shariba said, the role of preventing human slaughter was the role of the British military, but his role was constrained to saving lives (Mitchell 19).

Therefore, in his view, he did not see any problem with saving the lives of militiamen. This statement bears some ethical and political undertones but ordinary citizens can assert their views by financing what they believe to be right. For example, if ordinary people support the doctor’s assertion, they should be able to continue funding hospitals – where the doctor practices. Indeed, Toseland said, Shariba should not forget that tax money paid for the hospital where he worked (Mitchell 20). Through this assertion, citizens claim the influence of political processes.

Universal Human Rights

Ordinary people can equally claim the freedom to shape politics because politics affect human rights and human rights are universal (Dursun and Cooper 394). This statement implies that if human right breaches occur in one part of the world, its impact is likely to be felt in other parts of the world as well. For example, Mitchell (21) focused on human rights violations in the British army. Considering the fact that Britain is a leader in human right advancement, smaller armies around the world may also conceal human right breaches the same way the British army does. This way, humanity is under threat. Ordinary people, therefore, stake a claim to shape politics because politics affect their human rights, which are non-negotiable (Dursun and Cooper 394).

Community and Family Well-being

Politics is more than a framework for making decisions because political actions have far-reaching ramifications that equally affect community well-being. Since community well-being is a function of family well-being, it is easy to see the influence of politics on families and the welfare of future generations. Mitchell (22) emphasizes this remark when he highlighted the threats of Shariba’s life and his family.

He reports, “Shariba just asks Bax if he is threatening his family” (Mitchell (22). Later, after Shariba’s killing, Mitchell (30) asks who will feed and take care of Shariba’s family. Comprehensively, these two statements show that ordinary people have a stake in political processes because politics affects their families, and by extension, the well-being of their communities (Dursun and Cooper 399).

Extent Ordinary Citizens Claim the Freedom to Influence Politics

One unconventional approach to claim the freedom to influence politics is heroism. Doctor Shariba exercised his right to influence political processes by going against the norm and volunteering his services to save lives, even when he seemed to be aiding the enemy.

Shariba’s action is heroic. Even Mitchell (32), recognized the doctor’s contribution and questioned why the doctor did not stay in Canterbury and play with his children. In fact, he says, “Most of the Western-trained professionals got out before the invasion” (Mitchell 33). Instead, the doctor stayed behind to provide his services to people who needed it. This way, he was able to change and influence the politics of the war (albeit in a small way).

“If that is not heroism, what is?” (Mitchell 33).

Another way that ordinary citizens can exercise their freedom to influence political processes lies in their power to approve or disapprove political actions. By approving political actions, there is a wide sense of approval by the citizenry regarding political decisions (Dursun and Cooper 399). By disapproving political actions, political processes are bound to take a different turn because it is potentially disastrous to pursue unpopular political decisions. Mitchell acknowledges this issue when he says; the British army receives a good cover-up that conceals human right breaches (Mitchell 33). He makes this reference to the unwarranted killing of the doctor. By creating a positive perception about the role of the military in solving political dilemmas, Mitchell (34) stands the risk of creating a positive perception within the public, which is later bound to solidify human right abuses.


Mitchell (34) says military officers often witness many bad experiences on duty. However, civilians do not understand these experiences no matter how well they offer their support to the victims. Mitchell (34) affirms, ‘It is okay, Owen, I understand, and you are not lying, you think you do get it, but No. You do not.” Through this misconception, Mitchell (34) demonstrates the misunderstanding of civilians regarding the experiences of military personnel on the field.

However, by trying to understand the experiences and implications that certain political operations contend, ordinary people may merge their expectations with the reality of the officers. Through this understanding, there will be a more realistic expectation of the activities and conduct of military officers in the field because Mitchell (35) demonstrates that military officers feel misunderstood by the public. Through this understanding, people can claim influence to politics by understanding and supporting instruments of power (such as the military).

Mitchell’s story depicts the real-life situation characterizing human rights violations in today’s society. Albeit unintentional, Mitchell (39) exposes how politics affect ordinary citizens by drawing the link between civilian life and political actions. These similarities manifest through the respect for human rights, the well-being of the society, and the role of the society in funding political programs.

Through these platforms, ordinary citizens claim the freedom to shape politics. This paper however further explains that ordinary citizens may exercise their freedom to influence politics by creating a positive or negative perception about political actions, showing more understanding to political ramifications, and influencing politics (directly) through heroism. These strategies define the extent of citizens’ influence on politics.

Works Cited

Dursun, Peksen and Cooper Drury. “Economic Sanctions and Political Repression: Assessing the Impact of Coercive Diplomacy on Political Freedoms.” Human Rights Review 10.3 (2009): 393-411. Print.

Mitchell, David 2009, Character Development .

  • Chicago (A-D)
  • Chicago (N-B)

IvyPanda. (2022, May 3). Claiming the Freedom to Shape Politics.

"Claiming the Freedom to Shape Politics." IvyPanda , 3 May 2022,

IvyPanda . (2022) 'Claiming the Freedom to Shape Politics'. 3 May.

IvyPanda . 2022. "Claiming the Freedom to Shape Politics." May 3, 2022.

1. IvyPanda . "Claiming the Freedom to Shape Politics." May 3, 2022.


IvyPanda . "Claiming the Freedom to Shape Politics." May 3, 2022.

  • “Gone With the Wind” by Margret Mitchell
  • “When the State Trembled” by Kramer, Reinhold and Tom Mitchell
  • “Black Swan Green” by David Mitchell
  • “McJihad: Islam in the U.S. Global Order” by Mitchell
  • Internet, Architecture, and Urban Planning: William J. Mitchell's "City of Bits"
  • The Mitchell's Case Analysis
  • Analysis of the poems “Elephant Eternity” (Adrian Mitchell) and “Washing the Elephant” (Barbara Ras)
  • The Sale of Goods Act 1979: The Mitchell's Case
  • Photography: the Art of Seeing
  • When the State Trembled by Reinhold Kramer
  • The US’s Democracy Features
  • Egypt Democratization Process
  • Neorealism's Theory of Politics and Warfare
  • Social Theory: Sustainable Development Challenges and Solutions
  • Early Scholars' Views on the Internet
  • Search Menu
  • Browse content in Arts and Humanities
  • Browse content in Archaeology
  • Anglo-Saxon and Medieval Archaeology
  • Archaeological Methodology and Techniques
  • Archaeology by Region
  • Archaeology of Religion
  • Archaeology of Trade and Exchange
  • Biblical Archaeology
  • Contemporary and Public Archaeology
  • Environmental Archaeology
  • Historical Archaeology
  • History and Theory of Archaeology
  • Industrial Archaeology
  • Landscape Archaeology
  • Mortuary Archaeology
  • Prehistoric Archaeology
  • Underwater Archaeology
  • Zooarchaeology
  • Browse content in Architecture
  • Architectural Structure and Design
  • History of Architecture
  • Landscape Art and Architecture
  • Residential and Domestic Buildings
  • Theory of Architecture
  • Browse content in Art
  • Art Subjects and Themes
  • Gender and Sexuality in Art
  • History of Art
  • Industrial and Commercial Art
  • Theory of Art
  • Biographical Studies
  • Byzantine Studies
  • Browse content in Classical Studies
  • Classical History
  • Classical Philosophy
  • Classical Mythology
  • Classical Literature
  • Classical Reception
  • Classical Art and Architecture
  • Classical Oratory and Rhetoric
  • Greek and Roman Papyrology
  • Greek and Roman Epigraphy
  • Greek and Roman Law
  • Greek and Roman Archaeology
  • Late Antiquity
  • Religion in the Ancient World
  • Digital Humanities
  • Browse content in History
  • Colonialism and Imperialism
  • Diplomatic History
  • Environmental History
  • Genealogy, Heraldry, Names, and Honours
  • Genocide and Ethnic Cleansing
  • Historical Geography
  • History by Period
  • History of Agriculture
  • History of Education
  • History of Gender and Sexuality
  • Industrial History
  • Intellectual History
  • International History
  • Labour History
  • Legal and Constitutional History
  • Local and Family History
  • Maritime History
  • Military History
  • National Liberation and Post-Colonialism
  • Oral History
  • Political History
  • Public History
  • Regional and National History
  • Revolutions and Rebellions
  • Slavery and Abolition of Slavery
  • Social and Cultural History
  • Theory, Methods, and Historiography
  • Urban History
  • World History
  • Browse content in Language Teaching and Learning
  • Language Learning (Specific Skills)
  • Language Teaching Theory and Methods
  • Browse content in Linguistics
  • Applied Linguistics
  • Cognitive Linguistics
  • Computational Linguistics
  • Forensic Linguistics
  • Grammar, Syntax and Morphology
  • Historical and Diachronic Linguistics
  • History of English
  • Language Evolution
  • Language Reference
  • Language Acquisition
  • Language Variation
  • Language Families
  • Lexicography
  • Linguistic Anthropology
  • Linguistic Theories
  • Linguistic Typology
  • Phonetics and Phonology
  • Psycholinguistics
  • Sociolinguistics
  • Translation and Interpretation
  • Writing Systems
  • Browse content in Literature
  • Bibliography
  • Children's Literature Studies
  • Literary Studies (Romanticism)
  • Literary Studies (American)
  • Literary Studies (Asian)
  • Literary Studies (European)
  • Literary Studies (Eco-criticism)
  • Literary Studies (Modernism)
  • Literary Studies - World
  • Literary Studies (1500 to 1800)
  • Literary Studies (19th Century)
  • Literary Studies (20th Century onwards)
  • Literary Studies (African American Literature)
  • Literary Studies (British and Irish)
  • Literary Studies (Early and Medieval)
  • Literary Studies (Fiction, Novelists, and Prose Writers)
  • Literary Studies (Gender Studies)
  • Literary Studies (Graphic Novels)
  • Literary Studies (History of the Book)
  • Literary Studies (Plays and Playwrights)
  • Literary Studies (Poetry and Poets)
  • Literary Studies (Postcolonial Literature)
  • Literary Studies (Queer Studies)
  • Literary Studies (Science Fiction)
  • Literary Studies (Travel Literature)
  • Literary Studies (War Literature)
  • Literary Studies (Women's Writing)
  • Literary Theory and Cultural Studies
  • Mythology and Folklore
  • Shakespeare Studies and Criticism
  • Browse content in Media Studies
  • Browse content in Music
  • Applied Music
  • Dance and Music
  • Ethics in Music
  • Ethnomusicology
  • Gender and Sexuality in Music
  • Medicine and Music
  • Music Cultures
  • Music and Media
  • Music and Religion
  • Music and Culture
  • Music Education and Pedagogy
  • Music Theory and Analysis
  • Musical Scores, Lyrics, and Libretti
  • Musical Structures, Styles, and Techniques
  • Musicology and Music History
  • Performance Practice and Studies
  • Race and Ethnicity in Music
  • Sound Studies
  • Browse content in Performing Arts
  • Browse content in Philosophy
  • Aesthetics and Philosophy of Art
  • Epistemology
  • Feminist Philosophy
  • History of Western Philosophy
  • Metaphysics
  • Moral Philosophy
  • Non-Western Philosophy
  • Philosophy of Language
  • Philosophy of Mind
  • Philosophy of Perception
  • Philosophy of Science
  • Philosophy of Action
  • Philosophy of Law
  • Philosophy of Religion
  • Philosophy of Mathematics and Logic
  • Practical Ethics
  • Social and Political Philosophy
  • Browse content in Religion
  • Biblical Studies
  • Christianity
  • East Asian Religions
  • History of Religion
  • Judaism and Jewish Studies
  • Qumran Studies
  • Religion and Education
  • Religion and Health
  • Religion and Politics
  • Religion and Science
  • Religion and Law
  • Religion and Art, Literature, and Music
  • Religious Studies
  • Browse content in Society and Culture
  • Cookery, Food, and Drink
  • Cultural Studies
  • Customs and Traditions
  • Ethical Issues and Debates
  • Hobbies, Games, Arts and Crafts
  • Lifestyle, Home, and Garden
  • Natural world, Country Life, and Pets
  • Popular Beliefs and Controversial Knowledge
  • Sports and Outdoor Recreation
  • Technology and Society
  • Travel and Holiday
  • Visual Culture
  • Browse content in Law
  • Arbitration
  • Browse content in Company and Commercial Law
  • Commercial Law
  • Company Law
  • Browse content in Comparative Law
  • Systems of Law
  • Competition Law
  • Browse content in Constitutional and Administrative Law
  • Government Powers
  • Judicial Review
  • Local Government Law
  • Military and Defence Law
  • Parliamentary and Legislative Practice
  • Construction Law
  • Contract Law
  • Browse content in Criminal Law
  • Criminal Procedure
  • Criminal Evidence Law
  • Sentencing and Punishment
  • Employment and Labour Law
  • Environment and Energy Law
  • Browse content in Financial Law
  • Banking Law
  • Insolvency Law
  • History of Law
  • Human Rights and Immigration
  • Intellectual Property Law
  • Browse content in International Law
  • Private International Law and Conflict of Laws
  • Public International Law
  • IT and Communications Law
  • Jurisprudence and Philosophy of Law
  • Law and Politics
  • Law and Society
  • Browse content in Legal System and Practice
  • Courts and Procedure
  • Legal Skills and Practice
  • Primary Sources of Law
  • Regulation of Legal Profession
  • Medical and Healthcare Law
  • Browse content in Policing
  • Criminal Investigation and Detection
  • Police and Security Services
  • Police Procedure and Law
  • Police Regional Planning
  • Browse content in Property Law
  • Personal Property Law
  • Study and Revision
  • Terrorism and National Security Law
  • Browse content in Trusts Law
  • Wills and Probate or Succession
  • Browse content in Medicine and Health
  • Browse content in Allied Health Professions
  • Arts Therapies
  • Clinical Science
  • Dietetics and Nutrition
  • Occupational Therapy
  • Operating Department Practice
  • Physiotherapy
  • Radiography
  • Speech and Language Therapy
  • Browse content in Anaesthetics
  • General Anaesthesia
  • Neuroanaesthesia
  • Clinical Neuroscience
  • Browse content in Clinical Medicine
  • Acute Medicine
  • Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Clinical Genetics
  • Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
  • Dermatology
  • Endocrinology and Diabetes
  • Gastroenterology
  • Genito-urinary Medicine
  • Geriatric Medicine
  • Infectious Diseases
  • Medical Toxicology
  • Medical Oncology
  • Pain Medicine
  • Palliative Medicine
  • Rehabilitation Medicine
  • Respiratory Medicine and Pulmonology
  • Rheumatology
  • Sleep Medicine
  • Sports and Exercise Medicine
  • Community Medical Services
  • Critical Care
  • Emergency Medicine
  • Forensic Medicine
  • Haematology
  • History of Medicine
  • Browse content in Medical Skills
  • Clinical Skills
  • Communication Skills
  • Nursing Skills
  • Surgical Skills
  • Browse content in Medical Dentistry
  • Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
  • Paediatric Dentistry
  • Restorative Dentistry and Orthodontics
  • Surgical Dentistry
  • Medical Ethics
  • Medical Statistics and Methodology
  • Browse content in Neurology
  • Clinical Neurophysiology
  • Neuropathology
  • Nursing Studies
  • Browse content in Obstetrics and Gynaecology
  • Gynaecology
  • Occupational Medicine
  • Ophthalmology
  • Otolaryngology (ENT)
  • Browse content in Paediatrics
  • Neonatology
  • Browse content in Pathology
  • Chemical Pathology
  • Clinical Cytogenetics and Molecular Genetics
  • Histopathology
  • Medical Microbiology and Virology
  • Patient Education and Information
  • Browse content in Pharmacology
  • Psychopharmacology
  • Browse content in Popular Health
  • Caring for Others
  • Complementary and Alternative Medicine
  • Self-help and Personal Development
  • Browse content in Preclinical Medicine
  • Cell Biology
  • Molecular Biology and Genetics
  • Reproduction, Growth and Development
  • Primary Care
  • Professional Development in Medicine
  • Browse content in Psychiatry
  • Addiction Medicine
  • Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
  • Forensic Psychiatry
  • Learning Disabilities
  • Old Age Psychiatry
  • Psychotherapy
  • Browse content in Public Health and Epidemiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Public Health
  • Browse content in Radiology
  • Clinical Radiology
  • Interventional Radiology
  • Nuclear Medicine
  • Radiation Oncology
  • Reproductive Medicine
  • Browse content in Surgery
  • Cardiothoracic Surgery
  • Critical Care Surgery
  • Gastro-intestinal and Colorectal Surgery
  • General Surgery
  • Neurosurgery
  • Paediatric Surgery
  • Peri-operative Care
  • Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
  • Surgical Oncology
  • Transplant Surgery
  • Trauma and Orthopaedic Surgery
  • Vascular Surgery
  • Browse content in Science and Mathematics
  • Browse content in Biological Sciences
  • Aquatic Biology
  • Biochemistry
  • Bioinformatics and Computational Biology
  • Developmental Biology
  • Ecology and Conservation
  • Evolutionary Biology
  • Genetics and Genomics
  • Microbiology
  • Molecular and Cell Biology
  • Natural History
  • Plant Sciences and Forestry
  • Research Methods in Life Sciences
  • Structural Biology
  • Study and Communication Skills in Life Sciences
  • Systems Biology
  • Zoology and Animal Sciences
  • Browse content in Chemistry
  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Computational Chemistry
  • Crystallography
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Industrial Chemistry
  • Inorganic Chemistry
  • Materials Chemistry
  • Medicinal Chemistry
  • Mineralogy and Gems
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Physical Chemistry
  • Polymer Chemistry
  • Study and Communication Skills in Chemistry
  • Theoretical Chemistry
  • Browse content in Computer Science
  • Artificial Intelligence
  • Audio Processing
  • Computer Architecture and Logic Design
  • Game Studies
  • Human-Computer Interaction
  • Mathematical Theory of Computation
  • Programming Languages
  • Software Engineering
  • Systems Analysis and Design
  • Virtual Reality
  • Browse content in Computing
  • Business Applications
  • Computer Security
  • Computer Games
  • Computer Networking and Communications
  • Digital Lifestyle
  • Graphical and Digital Media Applications
  • Operating Systems
  • Browse content in Earth Sciences and Geography
  • Atmospheric Sciences
  • Environmental Geography
  • Geology and the Lithosphere
  • Maps and Map-making
  • Meteorology and Climatology
  • Oceanography and Hydrology
  • Palaeontology
  • Physical Geography and Topography
  • Regional Geography
  • Soil Science
  • Urban Geography
  • Browse content in Engineering and Technology
  • Agriculture and Farming
  • Biological Engineering
  • Civil Engineering, Surveying, and Building
  • Electronics and Communications Engineering
  • Energy Technology
  • Engineering (General)
  • Environmental Science, Engineering, and Technology
  • History of Engineering and Technology
  • Mechanical Engineering and Materials
  • Technology of Industrial Chemistry
  • Transport Technology and Trades
  • Browse content in Environmental Science
  • Applied Ecology (Environmental Science)
  • Conservation of the Environment (Environmental Science)
  • Environmental Sustainability
  • Environmentalist and Conservationist Organizations (Environmental Science)
  • Environmentalist Thought and Ideology (Environmental Science)
  • Management of Land and Natural Resources (Environmental Science)
  • Natural Disasters (Environmental Science)
  • Nuclear Issues (Environmental Science)
  • Pollution and Threats to the Environment (Environmental Science)
  • Social Impact of Environmental Issues (Environmental Science)
  • History of Science and Technology
  • Browse content in Materials Science
  • Ceramics and Glasses
  • Composite Materials
  • Metals, Alloying, and Corrosion
  • Nanotechnology
  • Browse content in Mathematics
  • Applied Mathematics
  • Biomathematics and Statistics
  • History of Mathematics
  • Mathematical Education
  • Mathematical Finance
  • Mathematical Analysis
  • Numerical and Computational Mathematics
  • Probability and Statistics
  • Pure Mathematics
  • Browse content in Neuroscience
  • Cognition and Behavioural Neuroscience
  • Development of the Nervous System
  • Disorders of the Nervous System
  • History of Neuroscience
  • Invertebrate Neurobiology
  • Molecular and Cellular Systems
  • Neuroendocrinology and Autonomic Nervous System
  • Neuroscientific Techniques
  • Sensory and Motor Systems
  • Browse content in Physics
  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics
  • Biological and Medical Physics
  • Classical Mechanics
  • Computational Physics
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Electromagnetism, Optics, and Acoustics
  • History of Physics
  • Mathematical and Statistical Physics
  • Measurement Science
  • Nuclear Physics
  • Particles and Fields
  • Plasma Physics
  • Quantum Physics
  • Relativity and Gravitation
  • Semiconductor and Mesoscopic Physics
  • Browse content in Psychology
  • Affective Sciences
  • Clinical Psychology
  • Cognitive Psychology
  • Cognitive Neuroscience
  • Criminal and Forensic Psychology
  • Developmental Psychology
  • Educational Psychology
  • Evolutionary Psychology
  • Health Psychology
  • History and Systems in Psychology
  • Music Psychology
  • Neuropsychology
  • Organizational Psychology
  • Psychological Assessment and Testing
  • Psychology of Human-Technology Interaction
  • Psychology Professional Development and Training
  • Research Methods in Psychology
  • Social Psychology
  • Browse content in Social Sciences
  • Browse content in Anthropology
  • Anthropology of Religion
  • Human Evolution
  • Medical Anthropology
  • Physical Anthropology
  • Regional Anthropology
  • Social and Cultural Anthropology
  • Theory and Practice of Anthropology
  • Browse content in Business and Management
  • Business Ethics
  • Business Strategy
  • Business History
  • Business and Technology
  • Business and Government
  • Business and the Environment
  • Comparative Management
  • Corporate Governance
  • Corporate Social Responsibility
  • Entrepreneurship
  • Health Management
  • Human Resource Management
  • Industrial and Employment Relations
  • Industry Studies
  • Information and Communication Technologies
  • International Business
  • Knowledge Management
  • Management and Management Techniques
  • Operations Management
  • Organizational Theory and Behaviour
  • Pensions and Pension Management
  • Public and Nonprofit Management
  • Strategic Management
  • Supply Chain Management
  • Browse content in Criminology and Criminal Justice
  • Criminal Justice
  • Criminology
  • Forms of Crime
  • International and Comparative Criminology
  • Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice
  • Development Studies
  • Browse content in Economics
  • Agricultural, Environmental, and Natural Resource Economics
  • Asian Economics
  • Behavioural Finance
  • Behavioural Economics and Neuroeconomics
  • Econometrics and Mathematical Economics
  • Economic History
  • Economic Systems
  • Economic Methodology
  • Economic Development and Growth
  • Financial Markets
  • Financial Institutions and Services
  • General Economics and Teaching
  • Health, Education, and Welfare
  • History of Economic Thought
  • International Economics
  • Labour and Demographic Economics
  • Law and Economics
  • Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics
  • Microeconomics
  • Public Economics
  • Urban, Rural, and Regional Economics
  • Welfare Economics
  • Browse content in Education
  • Adult Education and Continuous Learning
  • Care and Counselling of Students
  • Early Childhood and Elementary Education
  • Educational Equipment and Technology
  • Educational Strategies and Policy
  • Higher and Further Education
  • Organization and Management of Education
  • Philosophy and Theory of Education
  • Schools Studies
  • Secondary Education
  • Teaching of a Specific Subject
  • Teaching of Specific Groups and Special Educational Needs
  • Teaching Skills and Techniques
  • Browse content in Environment
  • Applied Ecology (Social Science)
  • Climate Change
  • Conservation of the Environment (Social Science)
  • Environmentalist Thought and Ideology (Social Science)
  • Social Impact of Environmental Issues (Social Science)
  • Browse content in Human Geography
  • Cultural Geography
  • Economic Geography
  • Political Geography
  • Browse content in Interdisciplinary Studies
  • Communication Studies
  • Museums, Libraries, and Information Sciences
  • Browse content in Politics
  • African Politics
  • Asian Politics
  • Chinese Politics
  • Comparative Politics
  • Conflict Politics
  • Elections and Electoral Studies
  • Environmental Politics
  • European Union
  • Foreign Policy
  • Gender and Politics
  • Human Rights and Politics
  • Indian Politics
  • International Relations
  • International Organization (Politics)
  • International Political Economy
  • Irish Politics
  • Latin American Politics
  • Middle Eastern Politics
  • Political Behaviour
  • Political Economy
  • Political Institutions
  • Political Methodology
  • Political Communication
  • Political Philosophy
  • Political Sociology
  • Political Theory
  • Politics and Law
  • Public Policy
  • Public Administration
  • Quantitative Political Methodology
  • Regional Political Studies
  • Russian Politics
  • Security Studies
  • State and Local Government
  • UK Politics
  • US Politics
  • Browse content in Regional and Area Studies
  • African Studies
  • Asian Studies
  • East Asian Studies
  • Japanese Studies
  • Latin American Studies
  • Middle Eastern Studies
  • Native American Studies
  • Scottish Studies
  • Browse content in Research and Information
  • Decision Theory
  • Research Methods
  • Browse content in Social Work
  • Addictions and Substance Misuse
  • Adoption and Fostering
  • Care of the Elderly
  • Child and Adolescent Social Work
  • Couple and Family Social Work
  • Developmental and Physical Disabilities Social Work
  • Direct Practice and Clinical Social Work
  • Emergency Services
  • Human Behaviour and the Social Environment
  • International and Global Issues in Social Work
  • Mental and Behavioural Health
  • Social Justice and Human Rights
  • Social Policy and Advocacy
  • Social Work and Crime and Justice
  • Social Work Macro Practice
  • Social Work Practice Settings
  • Social Work Research and Evidence-based Practice
  • Welfare and Benefit Systems
  • Browse content in Sociology
  • Childhood Studies
  • Community Development
  • Comparative and Historical Sociology
  • Economic Sociology
  • Gender and Sexuality
  • Gerontology and Ageing
  • Health, Illness, and Medicine
  • Marriage and the Family
  • Migration Studies
  • Occupations, Professions, and Work
  • Organizations
  • Population and Demography
  • Race and Ethnicity
  • Social Theory
  • Social Movements and Social Change
  • Social Research and Statistics
  • Social Stratification, Inequality, and Mobility
  • Sociology of Religion
  • Sociology of Education
  • Sport and Leisure
  • Urban and Rural Studies
  • Browse content in Warfare and Defence
  • Defence Strategy, Planning, and Research
  • Land Forces and Warfare
  • Military Administration
  • Military Life and Institutions
  • Naval Forces and Warfare
  • Other Warfare and Defence Issues
  • Peace Studies and Conflict Resolution
  • Weapons and Equipment

The Morality of Freedom

  • < Previous

1 The Problem of Political Freedom

Author Webpage

  • Published: September 1988
  • Cite Icon Cite
  • Permissions Icon Permissions

Central to liberalism is the concept of political freedom. Revisionists wrongly claim that liberty has only instrumental value, but they do nevertheless contribute several cogent arguments relevant to the question of how the value of liberty is to be justified. The doctrine of the presumption of liberty and the thesis that liberty ‘just has’ intrinsic value are rightly rejected by revisionists, since neither can ground distinctions between different freedoms. Linguistic analysis is of limited use to the justification of the value of liberty, since distinctions between notions of freedom and unfreedom do not match normatively relevant distinctions. This book seeks to defend a liberal theory of limited government without resort to the mistaken premises of individualism, which it rejects.

Signed in as

Institutional accounts.

  • Google Scholar Indexing
  • GoogleCrawler [DO NOT DELETE]

Personal account

  • Sign in with email/username & password
  • Get email alerts
  • Save searches
  • Purchase content
  • Activate your purchase / trial code

Institutional access

  • Sign in with a library card Sign in with username / password Recommend to your librarian
  • Institutional account management
  • Get help with access

Access to content on Oxford Academic is often provided through institutional subscriptions and purchases. If you are a member of an institution with an active account, you may be able to access content in one of the following ways:

IP based access

Typically, access is provided across an institutional network to a range of IP addresses. This authentication occurs automatically, and it is not possible to sign out of an IP authenticated account.

Sign in through your institution

Choose this option to get remote access when outside your institution. Shibboleth / Open Athens technology is used to provide single sign-on between your institution’s website and Oxford Academic.

  • Click Sign in through your institution.
  • Select your institution from the list provided, which will take you to your institution's website to sign in.
  • When on the institution site, please use the credentials provided by your institution. Do not use an Oxford Academic personal account.
  • Following successful sign in, you will be returned to Oxford Academic.

If your institution is not listed or you cannot sign in to your institution’s website, please contact your librarian or administrator.

Sign in with a library card

Enter your library card number to sign in. If you cannot sign in, please contact your librarian.

Society Members

Society member access to a journal is achieved in one of the following ways:

Sign in through society site

Many societies offer single sign-on between the society website and Oxford Academic. If you see ‘Sign in through society site’ in the sign in pane within a journal:

  • Click Sign in through society site.
  • When on the society site, please use the credentials provided by that society. Do not use an Oxford Academic personal account.

If you do not have a society account or have forgotten your username or password, please contact your society.

Sign in using a personal account

Some societies use Oxford Academic personal accounts to provide access to their members. See below.

A personal account can be used to get email alerts, save searches, purchase content, and activate subscriptions.

Some societies use Oxford Academic personal accounts to provide access to their members.

Viewing your signed in accounts

Click the account icon in the top right to:

  • View your signed in personal account and access account management features.
  • View the institutional accounts that are providing access.

Signed in but can't access content

Oxford Academic is home to a wide variety of products. The institutional subscription may not cover the content that you are trying to access. If you believe you should have access to that content, please contact your librarian.

For librarians and administrators, your personal account also provides access to institutional account management. Here you will find options to view and activate subscriptions, manage institutional settings and access options, access usage statistics, and more.

Our books are available by subscription or purchase to libraries and institutions.

  • About Oxford Academic
  • Publish journals with us
  • University press partners
  • What we publish
  • New features  
  • Open access
  • Rights and permissions
  • Accessibility
  • Advertising
  • Media enquiries
  • Oxford University Press
  • Oxford Languages
  • University of Oxford

Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide

  • Copyright © 2023 Oxford University Press
  • Cookie settings
  • Cookie policy
  • Privacy policy
  • Legal notice

This Feature Is Available To Subscribers Only

Sign In or Create an Account

This PDF is available to Subscribers Only

For full access to this pdf, sign in to an existing account, or purchase an annual subscription.


  1. 😊 Political freedom essay. Free Essays on Political Freedom Without

    essay about political freedom

  2. 💋 Freedom of speech essays. Freedom of Speech: The First Amendment

    essay about political freedom

  3. Essay On Freedom and Determinism

    essay about political freedom

  4. Pi 2012 12-18-presidents-essay the march of freedom

    essay about political freedom

  5. 7+ Sample Freedom of Speech Templates in PDF

    essay about political freedom

  6. Freedom Essay

    essay about political freedom


  1. Article 19 (1) freedom of speech and expression

  2. Unsung Heroes Of Freedom Struggle #essay #trending

  3. Freedom for Palestine // Essay on Freedom for Palestine // Palestine freedom // 10 lines essay //

  4. Freedom fighters essay writing today 👍👌 higher section students

  5. Skinner, Rogers, and Control. Theories of Personality

  6. Theory of Freedom and Theory of Obligation l Political Thoughts l T.H. Green l


  1. What Are Examples of Freedom of Speech?

    Examples of freedom of speech, protected by the First Amendment, include the right to voice political criticisms, the right to speak out against the government, the right to protest on school grounds or within the community and the right to...

  2. What Is Autonomy in Ethics?

    Autonomy in ethics refers to individual freedom or one’s right to make decisions without being coerced. It is the concept of social, political and ethical morals that give individuals the rational right to make their own informed choices.

  3. What Is an Informative Essay?

    An informative essay is any type of essay that has the goal of informing or educating an audience. By definition, it is not used to persuade or to give one’s personal beliefs on a subject.

  4. Political Freedom

    Political freedom is the ability of a nation's citizens to participate freely in the political process. It involves both the freedom of the majority to

  5. Review Essay Political Theory, Political Freedom and the Political

    A great deal of modern and contemporary political theory claims that liberty and freedom is the same thing (Hobbes [1651] 1968, 261; Berlin [1969] 2002,.

  6. Essay On Political Freedom

    When in the course of human events, it becomes necessary to completely abolish my doubt. I will not let the


    essay, am advocating the extension of the meaning of political freedom to include criteria often not embraced by this concept. This commendatory function of

  8. Importance Of Political Freedom

    Free Essay: Political Freedom and How it is Preserved Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness, three unalienable rights said to have been bestowed upon.


    I. The Great Tradition. The Anglo-American concept of freedom of expres- sion is one of breathtaking grandeur. Embracing free- dom to speak and to write

  10. Political freedom

    Political freedom is a central concept in history and political thought and one of the most important features of democratic societies. Political freedom

  11. Essay on Political Freedom in a Pluralistic Democracy: the

    Essay on Political Freedom in a Pluralistic Democracy: the Compatibility of Pos [Scribellito, Giorgia] on *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.

  12. Freedom Essay for Students and Children

    500+ Words Essay on Freedom. Freedom is something that everybody has heard of but if you ask for its meaning then everyone will give you different meaning.

  13. Claiming the Freedom to Shape Politics Essay

    Ordinary people can equally claim the freedom to shape politics because politics affect human rights and human rights are universal (Dursun and Cooper 394).

  14. The Problem of Political Freedom

    Instead, the essay will concentrate on the moral principles of political action, on the political morality of liberalism, in an attempt to extract from them