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High school biology
Course: high school biology > unit 8.
- Skeletal structure and function
- Ligaments, tendons, and joints
- Three types of muscle
- Anatomy of a skeletal muscle cell
- LeBron Asks: What muscles do we use when shooting a basket?
The musculoskeletal system review
The musculoskeletal system, the human skeleton, the skeleton.
- the skull, which protects the brain and supports facial structure
- the vertebral column (spine), which surrounds and protects the spinal cord and support the head
- the thoracic (rib cage), which surrounds and protects the organs within the chest (including heart and lungs)
- the pectoral girdle (shoulders):
- upper and lower limbs (arms and legs)
- the pelvic girdle (hip bones)
Joints, cartilage, ligaments, and tendons
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The Musculoskeletal System
Musculoskeletal system anatomy.
The musculoskeletal system provides humans with the ability to move and perform different tasks using their skeletal and muscular systems. Therefore, the body gets its form, movement capability, and overall stability from the strength of its muscular and skeletal formations. The musculoskeletal system (also known as the locomotor system) consists of the skeleton, muscles, and numerous connective tissues, joints, tendons, and ligaments (Boros and Freemont 205). In this way, vital human organs are protected and the body is recurrently supported. The skeleton serves as a reinforcement mechanism that ensures the stability of the body and also guarantees that muscles may keep bones in place. The motion becomes possible owing to the joints and cartilage that prevent bones from touching and destroying one another.
Speaking of the skeletal system in detail, it may be important to mention that it serves as the key “reservoir” for phosphorus and calcium. The bloodstream is regulated by this storage, as excessive amounts of minerals are not fluctuating across the body but rather get stored in bones. The skeleton is also important because it is associated with the hematopoietic system that is responsible for blood production (Boros and Freemont 208). There are two types of bone marrow that are known to humans: red and yellow. The red marrow can be found only in some of the human bones, as it helps replace blood cells that are destroyed by the liver. Therefore, healthy blood circulation would not be possible without red marrow. As for its yellow counterpart, it is mostly addressed in times of starvation due to the fatty connective tissue that can be used by the organism to generate energy.
The muscular system includes all muscles that have the possibility to contract and move the respective bone that is attached to a certain joint. Each of the skeletal muscles is attached to a specific bone, with joints serving as a divider between the opposing groups of muscles (for example, biceps and triceps). Each of the muscles features nerves, as the latter conduct electrical currents that force muscles to contract when necessary (Boros and Freemont 209). Muscle tissue can be of three essential types: skeletal, smooth, and cardiac. Yet, the musculoskeletal system only includes the first two, as the cardiac muscles are not under conscious human control.
The last part of the human musculoskeletal system is a mix of ligaments, tendons, and joints. The main task of ligaments (bands of white elastic tissue) is to connect the ends of bones and ensure that joints are formed in an accurate manner. Joints, on the other hand, make human movement possible owing to bone articulations. A tendon is another flexible tissue required to connect bones and muscles (Boros and Freemont 211). All these issues are necessary for the musculoskeletal system to prevent hyperextension and limit joint dislocation. An additional type of connective tissue is bursae. The latter is necessary to establish “cushions” between parts of the musculoskeletal system and prevent excessive adhesive friction.
Musculoskeletal System Physiology
From the point of physiology, the main purpose of the muscular system is to establish human movement and help the person in question perform all required tasks in the smoothest way possible. Given the fact that muscles are the only part of the human body that can contract, it means that they are moving all body parts. The second vital function of the muscular system is to maintain a specific body position and create a posture for the person that would keep the organism healthy. Most often, muscle contractions are aimed at causing movement or keeping the body still. As the literature on the subject suggests, the muscles that are responsible for posture are the most enduring and powerful in the entire human body, as they have to maintain an individual’s posture throughout the day with no interruptions (Griffith 324). One more specific function that has to be completed by the muscular system is to move various substances inside the human body. Muscles transport blood from one body part to another while also ensuring that a decent amount of body heat has been generated.
Another physiological point that has to be taken into consideration is the lever-like structure of skeletal muscles that work together with joints and bones. The bone is the lever, the joint is the pivot, and the muscle stands for the effort force. The majority of human body levers relate to third-class levers, meaning that the pivot may only be located at the end of the lever (Griffith 325). The idea behind the third-class levers is that the distance of muscle contraction is always smaller than the distance progressed by the load. The only tradeoff, in this case, is that the force applied to the load should be higher than the mass of the load itself.
The last physiological point related to the human musculoskeletal system is the presence of motor units. A motor unit is a group of muscle cells controlled by nerve cells that are also known as motor neurons. At the moment when a motor neuron accepts a signal from the brain, all muscle cells get stimulated at the same time, allowing the human to perform physical tasks. The variety of motor unit sizes depends on the list of functions that a muscle fulfills. For example, high-precision muscles such as finger- or eye-bound do not contain many muscle fibers in order to help the brain have stronger control of fine movements (Griffith 326). As for the muscles that require more strength, each motor unit contains much more muscle cells to ensure that there is enough power in the legs and arms to perform resource-intensive tasks. This is why the human body controls motor units and limits their activation depending on the complexity of the task (for instance, the same muscles may be used to pick up a 50 lbs. bag and a pen).
Musculoskeletal System Disorders
Carpal tunnel syndrome.
The main issue that causes carpal tunnel syndrome is the pressure applied to the median nerve that causes the latter to compress. The nerve can be found on the palm side of the hand, and it is in control of sensations located in the index finger, thumb, long finger, and a fragment of the ring finger. The syndrome causes an individual’s wrist to swell and affects the carpal tunnel, causing the nerve to compress (Padua et al. 1274). When exposed to carpal tunnel syndrome, a person may feel weakness and numbness near the thumb. One of the main causes for the development of carpal tunnel syndrome is the presence of excessive pressure applied to the wrist and the median nerve in particular. The issue of carpal tunnel syndrome may lead to the obstruction of blood flow as well. There are several frequent conditions that may be associated with the syndrome such as high blood pressure, diabetes, wrist traumas, and autoimmune disorders.
In the case where the wrist gets overextended from time to time, carpal tunnel syndrome may get even worse. The median nerve gets even more compressed, and repeated motions generate even more swelling. One of the most common reasons for the development of carpal tunnel syndrome is incorrect hand positioning during the utilization of computer keyboard and mouse. Nevertheless, piano players may also be exposed to the risk of carpal tunnel syndrome due to constant wrist overextension. It is important to mention that women are at least 30% more likely to suffer from carpal tunnel syndrome, with lifestyle factors having the biggest influence on the potential outcomes of the condition (Padua et al. 1276). People employed as construction workers or those who take on keyboarding occupations are at a much higher risk of exposing themselves to carpal tunnel syndrome.
Osteoarthritis is a chronic joint condition that affects the cartilage and forces bones to rub together. Even though this condition is most likely to affect the elderly, it may also be found in adults of any age. Another name for osteoarthritis is the degenerative joint disease, and it is known as one of the leading causes of disability (da Costa et al. 23). Joint damage that forces the development of osteoarthritis may be a result of accumulated injuries. If a person had dislocated joints or torn cartilage in the past, they are at risk for the development of osteoarthritis as well. There are additional hazards that include obesity and poor posture.
Speaking of the association between osteoarthritis and cartilage, the breakdown of the latter may easily cause bones to rub against each other, making bones rougher and bumpier. Broken cartilage generates enormous pain within joints and cannot restore itself. The problem is that there are no blood vessels in cartilage, forcing bone-on-bone contact over time (da Costa et al. 27). Most commonly, osteoarthritis affects the knees, hands, fingertips, and lower back. Advanced osteoarthritis causes even more acute pain that may also be accompanied by swelling in the nearby joints and surrounding body parts.
When tendons get damaged by inflammation or irritation, it ultimately causes the condition called tendinitis. Tendons become tender and the individual starts feeling acute pain that averts them from moving affected joints. The most common body parts at risk of development of tendinitis are wrists, knees, elbows, and shoulders (Verstraelen et al. 425). The main cause of this condition is the presence of a specific repetitive action that puts a strain on a certain tendon that gets worn down quicker, especially in the case where the motion is performed the wrong way. Frequently, individuals develop tendinitis while working or playing sports. The highest level of risk is characteristic of professional basketball, tennis, and golf athletes.
There are numerous symptoms that could be investigated by any given person and help them prevent further development of tendinitis. Firstly, there will be a dull ache around the affected area. The pain is going to increase during movements involving the injured body part (Verstraelen et al. 425). The damaged zone will become tender and limit the person’s movements due to increased tightness. Swelling is also an important sign of tendinitis, and it may be recommended to visit the doctor if the symptoms did not go away after reasonable rest and application of ice.
Musculoskeletal System Disorder Treatments
Carpal tunnel syndrome should be treated during the earlier stages in order for the treatments to be most effective. The most common recommendations include taking more breaks during work and avoiding activities that cause damage to the wrists. As for the medical approach to carpal tunnel syndrome, there are three general ways to treat it: medications, surgery, and wrist splinting. The latter is most likely to help in the case where symptoms did not exceed either mild or moderate. If a person has numbness in their hands, this is a serious reason to see the doctor. Wrist splinting is one of the most popular nonsurgical methods of dealing with carpal tunnel syndrome, as it may be used to fix a patient’s wrists during the night and relieve the sensations of numbness and tingling (Kleopa 3). Even though carpal tunnel syndrome splints are only worn during the nighttime, they could also serve as a preventive mechanism for daytime symptoms. For pregnant patients, nighttime splinting is the best option because it does not involve any medications but still tends to be effective.
The pain from carpal tunnel syndrome may be effectively relieved by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as ibuprofen, for example (Motrin IB or Advil). There is no practical evidence in the literature that these drugs may improve carpal tunnel syndrome, but there are also corticosteroids that could be injected to relieve pain with the help of cortisone. After the inoculation, the contents may be guided with an ultrasound. The main benefit of corticosteroids within the framework of carpal tunnel syndrome consists in the ability to decrease swelling and reduce the pressure applied to the median nerve (Kleopa 6). There are also oral corticosteroids, but they are not as effective as their injected counterparts. If carpal tunnel syndrome is a comorbid condition for rheumatoid arthritis, for example, it would be reasonable to treat arthritis first to relieve the symptoms of the syndrome.
Surgery is another viable option in the case of carpal tunnel syndrome but it is only appropriate when other treatments do not help. The main objective of surgery with carpal tunnel syndrome is to cut the ligament that compresses the median nerve. There are two essential techniques used to perform surgery on carpal tunnel syndrome: endoscopic and open. Throughout endoscopic surgery, the surgeon tries to look inside the patient’s carpal tunnel with the help of a tiny camera attached to a stick. Instead of the endoscope, some surgeons may use ultrasound to guide the process of cutting the ligament (Kleopa 7). Open surgery, on the other hand, suggests that the surgeon is going to cut open the patient’s palm to free the nerve by cutting the pressing ligament.
Even though the effects of osteoarthritis cannot be overturned, there are several methods of reducing pain in the patients and relieving some of the symptoms (with pain being the leading cause for applying any particular treatments). The first type of required medication is acetaminophen (for instance, Tylenol) that is expected to help those patients who only display mild to moderate symptoms of osteoarthritis. The doctor should carefully monitor the intake of acetaminophen, as improper dosage could lead to liver damage. Other types of medications are nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs that may be gained over the counter. These include ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin IB) or naproxen sodium (Aleve) (Bruyere et al. 182). Recommended dosages could easily relieve the symptoms of osteoarthritis and reduce pain. Nevertheless, patients should be careful with this type of medication as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs could cause kidney damage and generate cardiovascular problems. The last type of medication expected to relieve the symptoms of osteoarthritis is an antidepressant such as duloxetine (Cymbalta), for example, which may be helpful when dealing with chronic conditions.
Another conservative type of treatment for osteoarthritis is physical therapy that may be used to strengthen the patient’s muscles and reduce pain by increasing muscle flexibility. Regular exercises could lead to positive results, as the patient would gently increase their strength (Bruyere et al. 183). Another type of therapy is named occupational due to the ability of the patient to find ways to cause less damage to their joints when performing everyday tasks.
In the case where conformist treatments are not helpful, it may be recommended to perform special injections. The first type is cortisone injection that may be used to reduce joint pain and reduce swelling in the area. As the area around the joint is numbed by the doctor, medication is injected within the joint. There is a limited number of injections that may be performed annually (usually not more than four) due to the increased risk of damaging the joint (Bruyere et al. 184). Another type of injection involves lubricants such as hyaluronic acid that may be used to develop a cushion in the patient’s knee and alleviate the effects of osteoarthritis. While the existing research suggests that lubrication injections could be a placebo, hyaluronic acid is still deemed to be a helpful component in treating osteoarthritis.
The main objective of tendinitis treatment is to make sure that inflammation is reduced together with the amount of pain. Even though rest and application of ice may be enough for certain patients to treat tendinitis in home conditions, there may be cases that require more specific attention and additional medications. The first category of medications is pain relievers that may include (but not be limited to) aspirin, ibuprofen (Motrin IB or Advil), and naproxen sodium (Aleve) (Krey et al. 82). All of these might be expected to dismiss the feeling of discomfort and help patients restore their regular condition. Another potentially effective method is to apply anti-inflammatory topical creams that are currently becoming much more popular across the United States due to their success in terms of relieving pain and the lack of potential side effects.
One more treatment method may be the application of corticosteroid medications that would be used to ease the pain and reduce inflammation in the damaged areas. Corticosteroid injections around the necessary tendons could only be helpful if the condition was not lasting for more than three months. In the case where the patient suffers from chronic tendinitis, repetitive injections could deteriorate the tendon and create premises for tendon rupture (Krey et al. 84). The ultimate tendonitis treatment is the application of platelet-rich plasma that is expected to help the organism separate healing factors and the platelets. The solution is inoculated into the area of irritation to reduce the symptoms of chronic tendonitis. Even though there is not enough evidence regarding the methods of optimal use of platelet-rich plasma, there is a tendency in tendonitis treatment to reduce chronic irritation with the help of platelet injections.
Boros, Katalin, and Tony Freemont. “Physiology of Ageing of the Musculoskeletal System.” Best Practice & Research Clinical Rheumatology , vol. 31, no. 2, 2017, pp. 203-217.
Bruyere, Olivier, et al. “Can We Identify Patients with High Risk of Osteoarthritis Progression Who Will Respond to Treatment? A Focus on Epidemiology and Phenotype of Osteoarthritis.” Drugs & Aging , vol. 32, no. 3, 2015, pp. 179-187.
da Costa, Bruno R., et al. “Effectiveness of Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs for the Treatment of Pain in Knee and Hip Osteoarthritis: A Network Meta-Analysis.” The Lancet , vol. 390, no. 10090, 2017, pp. 21-33.
Griffith, James F. “Functional Imaging of the Musculoskeletal System.” Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery , vol. 5, no. 3, 2015, pp. 323-331.
Kleopa, Kleopas A. “Carpal Tunnel Syndrome.” Annals of Internal Medicine , vol. 163, no. 5, 2015, pp. 1-16.
Krey, David, et al. “Tendon Needling for Treatment of Tendinopathy: A Systematic Review.” The Physician and Sportsmedicine , vol. 43, no. 1, 2015, pp. 80-86.
Padua, Luca, et al. “Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: Clinical Features, Diagnosis, and Management.” The Lancet Neurology , vol. 15, no. 12, 2016, pp. 1273-1284.
Verstraelen, Freek U., et al. “Surgery for Calcifying Tendinitis of the Shoulder: A Systematic Review.” World Journal of Orthopedics , vol. 8, no. 5, 2017, pp. 424-430.
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StudyCorgi. (2022, March 26). The Musculoskeletal System. Retrieved from https://studycorgi.com/the-musculoskeletal-system/
StudyCorgi. (2022, March 26). The Musculoskeletal System. https://studycorgi.com/the-musculoskeletal-system/
"The Musculoskeletal System." StudyCorgi , 26 Mar. 2022, studycorgi.com/the-musculoskeletal-system/.
1. StudyCorgi . "The Musculoskeletal System." March 26, 2022. https://studycorgi.com/the-musculoskeletal-system/.
StudyCorgi . "The Musculoskeletal System." March 26, 2022. https://studycorgi.com/the-musculoskeletal-system/.
StudyCorgi . 2022. "The Musculoskeletal System." March 26, 2022. https://studycorgi.com/the-musculoskeletal-system/.
StudyCorgi . (2022) 'The Musculoskeletal System'. 26 March.
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The Skeletal System Essay
Introduction, axial portion of the skeleton, appendicular portion of the skeleton, functions of the skeleton, relationship between the skeletal system and the muscular system, sexual differences in skeletons, clinical conditions and disorders that affect the skeleton, works cited.
Movement is vital for all of you because it provides you with the opportunity to live your lives to the full. Just as other human beings, you fall and stand up to continue moving forward. But what provides you with this opportunity? It is your skeletal system. It does not only facilitate your physical activity but also supports and protects your bodies. This system consists of hundreds of bones that are full of calcium, which makes them strong enough to carry your weight. Bones are connected with the help of joints that facilitate motion. The majority of you were born with about 300 bones that fuse with the course of time so that now you have only 206 bones. They all are divided into two parts: axial and appendicular skeletons.
Your axial portion of skeleton is composed of “the skull, the vertebral column, and the thoracic cage” ( Skeletal System: Bones and Joints 120). Due to its location, it manages to protect your brain and spinal cord from injuries. In addition to that, it supports the organs in the ventral body cavity so that you do not need to carry them in your hands.
Twenty-two bones that are separated into two parts form the skull. You have 8 bones of the cranial cavity that are known as braincase. They surround your brain so that you do not hurt it when fall or receive a headnut. The rest of the bones (there are 14 of them) form your face. They are tightly connected to one another so that your nose is always in the right place. The only exception is the mandible that makes chewing possible. Otherwise, how would you eat? Minimal movement can also be observed within the middle ears. Each of them includes 3 auditory ossicles that are hidden deep in your head.
The vertebral column, or backbone, usually consists of “7 cervical vertebrae, 12 thoracic vertebrae, 5 lumbar vertebrae, 1 sacral bone, and 1 coccyx bone” ( Skeletal System: Bones and Joints 125). It is the central axis of the skeleton that has four major curvatures. Normally, the cervical and the lumbar regions curve anteriorly. The thoracic, as well as the sacral and coccygeal regions, curves posteriorly. However, considering the way you sit, abnormal curvatures are widespread.
The thoracic or the rib cage protects your organs and supports them. All in all, human beings have 24 ribs that are divided into 12 pairs, but you can recount them to make sure. They are categorized according to their attachment to the sternum. Thus, a direct attachment by costal cartilages is true (1-7); an attachment by a common cartilage is false (8-12); and the absence of attachment resorts to floating ribs (11-12). The sternum, or breastbone, consists of three parts: “the manubrium, the body, and the xiphoid process” ( Skeletal System: Bones and Joints 129).
Your appendicular skeleton consists of the bones of limbs and girdles so that you have:
- “4 bones in the shoulder girdle (clavicle and scapula each side)
- 6 bones in the arm and forearm (humerus, ulna, and radius)
- 58 bones in the hands (carpals 16, metacarpals 10, phalanges 28, and sesamoid 4)
- 2 pelvis bones
- 8 bones in the legs (femur, tibia, patella, and fibula)
- 56 bones in the feet (tarsals, metatarsals, phalanges, and sesamoid)” (“The Axial & Appendicular Skeleton” par. 4).
What would you be without this part of skeleton? Imagine that it is a big 3D puzzle, gathering all these bones together in a right order, you will build your arms and legs with all details. These are all movable parts that allow you to run, dance, write, and even hug your nearest and dearest. Even though the axial skeleton seems to be more important because it is connected with your brain, the appendicular portion of the skeleton contains about 60% of all your bones, which means that its importance should not be undervalued.
As you have already understood, your skeleton maintains a lot of different functions. Some of them, such as movement and support, were already mentioned. But let us discuss them all in detail.
- Support. Your bodies are supported by the skeleton so that you can change your position to vertical one and stand strait. Without it, you would be able only to lie because of the gravitation. This function is provided by many bones but the long ones seem to be the leaders in this competition. For instance, those that are in legs, support the trunk. Similarly, vertebras support one another so that eventually the firs one provides support to the skull. In addition to that, they support the organs and ensure that they do not change their positions.
- Protection. The skeleton also protects you. For example, the skull prevents fatal brain injuries. The rib cage protects such vital organs as the heart and lungs. It also takes care of your abdominal organs ensuring that they develop normally.
- Movement. The function of bodily motion allowed you to come here today. However, it is critical to remember that it is maintained not only due to the bones but also with the help of the muscular system.
- Mineral and energy storage. From the outer side of your bones, there is a tissue that serves as a storage. It gathers calcium and phosphorus and withdraws them to maintain appropriate blood levels. In addition to that, mature bones store yellow marrow. It consists of fat almost totally and provides you with energy for various activities.
- Blood-cell formation. The inner core of your bones takes part in the formation of blood cell and platelet. It is known as bone marrow or red marrow. Platelet is vital for you because it ensures your ability to heal wounds while blood cells spread oxygen and destroy infectious cells (CAERT 3).
Have you ever thought of the way our movement are maintained? Even a simple nod of the head requires the cooperation between the skeletal and muscular systems. Muscles ensure movement of our body through the attachment to the bones. All in all, there are about 700 of them, which is an enormous amount that comprises about 50% of your weight.
So what happens in your body when you moves? When you want to move, your brain sends a message for the body to release energy. In medical terms, it is called adenosine triphosphate. Affecting your muscles, it makes them contract or shorten. Shortened muscles pulls bones at their insertion point. Thus, the angle between the bones connected by a joint shortens. Relaxation is maintained when the opposing muscle extends and pulls a bone to its initial position.
Human skeletons seem to be similar, as they contain the same bones. However, you should remember that their characteristics differ depending on the gender. For example, women have lighter pelvis bones that form a shorter cavity with less dimensions. It has less prominent marking for muscles and more circular pelvic brim. The sacral bones of men are longer and narrower, which makes them more massive. Their femur is also longer and heavier. Its texture is rough unlike women’s smooth.
Muscle marking is more developed and shaft is less oblique. The head of men’s femur is larger and trochanters are more prominent. The femoral neck angle in males is more than 125 and in females is less than 125. Women’s sternum is less than twice the length of manubrium and larger in men. Differences in skull include greater capacity, thicker walls, more marked muscular ridges, prominent air sinuses, smoother upper margin of orbit, less vertical forehead, and heavier cheekbones in males.
Hopefully, it will never affect any of you but the skeleton may be affected by tumours that cause bone defects. People may have skeletal developmental disorders including gigantism, dwarfism, osteogenesis imperfecta, and rickets lead to abnormal body sizes, brittle bones, and growth retardation. Bacterial infections cause inflammation and lead to bone destruction.
Decalcification, including the known to you osteoporosis, reduces bone tissue and softens bones. Joint disorders often deal with inflammation. For instance, arthritis. They are often influenced by age and physical activity. In this way, degradation of joints is observed in the elderly but can be delayed due to regular exercises. The abnormal curvatures of the spine may also cause health issues. That is why you should pay attention to your back posture and avoid kyphosis (a hunchback condition), lordosis (a swayback condition), and scoliosis (an abnormal lateral curvature).
CAERT. Structures and Functions of the Skeletal System . 2014.
Skeletal System: Bones and Joints. 2012.
“ The Axial & Appendicular Skeleton. ” TeachPE , 2017.
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The Skeletal and Muscular System - Essay Example
- Subject: Medical science
- Type: Essay
- Level: Medical School
- Pages: 2 (500 words)
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Extract of sample "The Skeletal and Muscular System"
The slightly more than two hundred bones in the body are grouped into four categories based on their shapes. These groups include long bones like the phalanges, tibia, and fibula, and the radius and ulna, while the short bones include tarsals and carpals (Walker 18). The third category is the flat bones that include the skull, ribs, and the scapulae, while the irregular bones include the hyoid bone, mandible, and sacrum.
The skeletal system has five major functions. The first is offering support to the structure of the body, which includes soft tissues (Walker 18). The skeletal system also houses the bone marrow, allows the body to move by providing mechanical levers for the activity of muscles, and protecting vital organs like the brain from mechanical damage. Finally, the bones are also a body reserve for phosphorous and calcium that are required by the body intermittently.
Cartilage gets the nutrients it requires through diffusion because it lacks blood vessels, instead of relying on capillaries bordering its fibrous outer layer or synovial fluid (Walker 22). For this reason, it is referred to as an avascular tissue.
Joint articulations allow for movement where two bones or more are joined and are divided into two based on their functionality. Diarthroses are joint articulations that allow free movement of the bones against one another, which is enabled by the lack of tissues between the bones (Walker 24). Examples of joints in this type include hinge joints and ball and socket joints. Synarthroses, on the other hand, are joints that have no joint cavity, which leads to the growth of bone tissue in the space between the bones. These joints are immovable and include skull joints.
A motor unit is alone motor nerve fiber that innervates a group of muscles, ensuring that they work as a unit by relaxing and contracting simultaneously (Walker 44).
Since ergonomists are concerned with the human factors necessary to maximize productivity by designing machinery and equipment with the user in mind, they are most likely to be interested the most in muscle systems that involve movement and locomotion. Therefore, they are most interested in skeletal muscle, which voluntarily relaxes and contracts more rapidly than other muscle systems when stimulated (Walker 50).
The major fuels for aerobic glycolysis are fats and carbohydrates with the former having a stored energy potential of 9.1 kcal/g and a stored energy capacity of 50,000 to 75,000 kcal. Carbohydrates, on the other hand, have a stored energy potential of 4.3 kcal/g and a stored energy capacity of 1,200-1500 kcal (Walker 55).
The all-or-none law of physiology contends that on reaching the threshold, a membrane with an action potential will depolarize and re-polarize, continuing to completion (Walker 56). When applied to muscle fibers, it will completely contract when sufficiently stimulated.
As discussed, muscles will contract when adequately stimulated. However, when fatigued, muscles take a long time to contract even after the reception of stimuli (Walker 59). Therefore, the muscle fiber is unable to return to the resting phase fast enough to sustain its optimum force or power.
Force arm refers to the lever segment that spans from the fulcrum to the point at which force is applied. Resistance arm, on the other hand, is the lever segment that lies between the fulcrum and the object being moved or the resistance. The mechanical advantage refers to the efficiency present when the two parts of the lever move.
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