Essay on Traffic Jam for Students and Children
500+ words essay on traffic jam.
Traffic jam is the situation when vehicles are stopped completely for some time period on the roads. Also, vehicles have to wait for a long time to move out of the jam. Sometimes it becomes like congestion in traffic. This happens in transport network due to the increasing vehicles and overuse of roads. Often it is due to slow speed, longer trip time and increased queues of vehicles. Therefore, traffic jam is becoming a major issue mostly in all cities.
Problems arising due to Traffic Jam
Traffic Jam has a tremendous impact on the life of people. It is one of the most serious problems in big cities that people have to deal in daily life. Since most of the people have to deal with it on a daily basis they may get psychologically affected. It also negatively affects work, education and personal life of people and finally to the progress of the country.
Let us discuss some major problems that arise due to high traffic:
- Traffic is one of the major problems in cities and has made the lives of people really difficult. Obviously, it results in non-productive activity.
- People experience delays for their important work. This may even result in personal as well as professional losses.
- It is also the main cause of wastage of fuels and air pollution.
- It increases stress and frustration among motorists and passengers.
- Unsafe driving is the main impact of traffic jam which may lead to road mishaps and hence injuries.
- Traffic jams can also have a negative impact on the mind of a person. The traffic congestion and constant blowing of horns create excessive noise pollution.
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Disadvantages of Traffic Jam:
Let us have a look at some chief disadvantages of traffic jams in detail below:
- Unproductive time is the major disadvantage of traffic jam.
- The other negative effect of much traffic is the emission of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere leading to the issue of global warming .
- Businesses nowadays provide home delivery services. Such time bond businesses are strongly affected by the traffic jam.
- The frequent breaking and accelerating the vehicles in traffic jams burns more fuel. Hence it is the additional loss.
- Road rage is the absurd reaction of commuters that is very common during traffic jams. People often use bad language and drive aggressively that can lead to accidents.
- Emergency vehicles like fire brigade and ambulance get stuck up in traffic jams that cause a delay in reaching the location.
Some suggestions to solve the traffic jam problem are as follows:
- People should use public transport as much as possible.
- The government must increase the facilities of public transport as per the need of the population.
- Everyone should avoid the unnecessary collection of vehicles.
- People should use carpool and vehicle sharing to decrease the vehicles on the road.
- Conditions of the road in India is not good. Authorities must improve this situation.
- Vehicle registration and motor driving license policy must be strictly implemented.
- People must be aware of traffic rules and also be motivated to follow strictly.
- Mixed traffic on the roads is also a big reason for it. So, it must be banned.
Thus, traffic jam is a serious issue in every big city that causes several problems for common people. It consumes so much of time and energy unnecessarily and hence the loss of the nation. Therefore, serious measures have to be taken by the authorities to control traffic and promote the use of public transport. Development of public transport network at economical rates is essential. Implementation of traffic safety rules by traffic police is a must. People should drive more sensibly and responsibly. Hence we all can work in this way to solve the big threat of the current time.
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Traffic Got A Lot Better In The Pandemic. Here's How We Can Make That Permanent
By Sumner La Croix, Justin Tyndall
April 25, 2021 · 8 min read
About the Authors
Sumner La Croix
Many marveled at how easy it was to get around the city. Of course, the light traffic was a by-product of lockdowns and mobility restrictions, but it did raise an important question: Was it really necessary to go back to the jam-packed roads of 2019?
Perhaps there were sensible ways to keep traffic at lower levels? If there were, state and city policymakers and bureaucrats seemed too preoccupied to think about them.
And now: The traffic is slowly returning. That’s because people have decided to venture out more to restaurants, gyms, social gatherings and workplaces. The good news is that traffic is still about 20% below 2019 heights.
Traffic returning is generally a good sign, reflecting more people being vaccinated and residents deciding they can engage in more activities in person.
But there is no reason for traffic to return to pre-pandemic levels. Voluntary actions, simple government programs and direct government intervention all have a role to play.
This graph, created from data collected across the entire state of Hawaii, shows the dramatic decrease in traffic brought on by the pandemic — as well as the gradual increase we are all now witnessing. During normal times, residents pay a huge price for congestion. A recent report on traffic in Hawaii estimated the cost of congestion in the state to be $690 million annually. This cost is mainly paid through lost time and productivity from workers sitting in gridlock. Smarter policy could eliminate this cost and direct the savings to local workers.
At low levels of use, most major roads can handle additional cars without traffic slowing appreciably. But at some level of traffic, just a few additional cars can slow traffic dramatically, which imposes costly delays on other drivers. The result in Hawaii is bumper-to-bumper, slow-moving traffic during rush hours on the H-1 and H-2 highways and other major arteries.
Policies that keep those last few cars off the road during rush hour can generate big social benefits. Fortunately, policymakers have an abundance of options to accomplish this, policies that have already been tested and proven in other cities.
Rush Hour Tolls And Other Ideas
The most direct and efficient way to limit traffic would be to levy an electronically monitored toll on congested roads during rush hour. Properly calibrated tolls could make intense rush hour congestion a relic of the past. To allay concerns that tolls would amount to a new tax, revenue could be rebated directly to local residents and even directed preferentially to lower-income households to allay any concerns that tolls would be regressive.
Looking beyond tolls, policymakers face a menu of measures that could improve traffic. Investments in TheBus or cycling infrastructure would help to get some people out of their cars. Rideshare programs are already in place and have potential to be more broadly applied. Giving incentives to local businesses to allow staggered work hours or more remote work would reduce the demand for rush hour commuting.
Despite the large potential gains from these measures, state and local governments across the United States and in Hawaii have struggled to implement effective policies. For example, workers have resisted schemes to stagger office hours and commuting times due to reasonable concerns that staggered and perhaps unpredictable hours will complicate coordination of drop-off and pick-up times for their schoolchildren.
COVID-19 has shaken up this worldview. By forcing so many people to work from home and change their commuting behavior, the pandemic has changed how employers and employees view the costs and benefits of a central workplace and of gathering workers there for fixed hours, Monday to Friday.
Both employers and employees have realized that some (but not all) workers can be as productive at home as in the office, at least some of the time. This has opened the door for employers to offer some employees the option of working from home one or more days per week. Social gains result from these private bargains, as fewer commuters means less traffic.
The same analysis applies to staggered hours. Moving commuting from traditional rush hours to slightly later in the morning has the potential to decrease rush-hour commuting times without adding much additional inconvenience to people commuting mid-morning.
An alternative is to charge a congestion zone fee to drive within the downtown area or perhaps the downtown-to-Waikiki corridor.
Local and state governments could help residents gain the additional social benefits from traffic control by providing incentives to private firms to stagger hours and/or keep more employees working at home. In fact, governments could take the lead on this by providing additional incentives for their own workforces to continue to work some days at home.
Consider that University of Hawaii campuses might accomplish this by not starting most on-campus classes until 10 a.m. and offering more early morning on-line classes.
Today, work from home arrangements have left Honolulu with less traffic congestion. Whether such arrangements will lead to less traffic congestion in the longer term is unclear and there is some reason to be pessimistic.
This is because of what is known as The Fundamental Law of Traffic Congestion: Once traffic lightens, people who found it too congested to drive to downtown Honolulu or Waikiki or Pearlridge Shopping Center will decide to make the trip. As more drivers take more trips, the roads are likely to once again become highly congested.
How To Move Forward
Is there a way out of this cycle, to reduce traffic to manageable levels permanently? Imposing a toll may be problematic due to federal regulations on tolling federally financed highways such as H-1 and H-2. An alternative is to charge a congestion zone fee to drive within the downtown area or perhaps the downtown-to-Waikiki corridor.
Fees to access congested areas have been widely studied and effectively used in other major cities, with London and Stockholm having perhaps the most effective applications. Administration has been smoothed in both cities by technology that monitors license plates entering the congestion zone.
The central Stockholm area is a group of islands, and this geography facilitates the collection of the congestion zone fee: It is charged, via bridges connecting islands, both when a car enters and leaves. The total daily fee varies by the time of entrance/exit and is capped at 135 krona ($16.20). The fee is not charged on public holidays, the day prior to the holiday or during July when most Stockholm residents are on holiday.
Cars driven within the central London congestion zone (an 8.1-square-mile area) pay a daily charge of £15 ($20.85) from 7 a.m. to 10 p.m. every day but Christmas. Billing is based on technology that recognizes license plate numbers and deducts payment from a bank account; or the congestion charge can be pre-paid via an app or website. Residents living in or near the zone receive a 90% discount on the congestion charge. After the charge was implemented, the volume of traffic fell about 9% within the zone and home values within the zone increased.
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To submit an essay or if you just want to talk over an idea, contact:
IDEAS Editor Julia Steele [email protected]
A congestion zone fee in central Honolulu has been discussed as a complementary policy when the Honolulu rapid transit project reaches downtown, to encourage commuters and day-trippers to use the train. But a well-designed congestion zone fee, set perhaps at $5 to $10 per day, can yield big benefits prior to the train’s arrival in the 2030s.
If the congestion zone fee was in place only during weekday rush hours, workers and firms would have an incentive to allow for more flexible work hours. Workers would also have increased incentives to carpool or take TheBus. And when rush hour traffic improves, the incentives for other drivers to take more trips during rush hour is reduced because they too must also pay the congestion zone fee.
Perhaps the big lesson that we have learned from the pandemic is that we need to rethink the way that we approach certain activities. State and local government leaders have been heavily criticized because they did not take advantage of the downtime to implement better policies to control the costs imposed on the community by tourism.
While the same could be said for traffic, it’s not too late for us to plan for an island with less traffic. There’s no need to wait for the train for that goal to be realized.
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Political Engagement: A New Article Of Lived Faith
By Dawn Morais · May 2, 2021 · 8 min read
Local reporting when you need it most
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Honolulu Civil Beat is a nonprofit organization, and your donation helps us produce local reporting that serves all of Hawaii.
Sumner La Croix is an emeritus professor at the UH Manoa Economics Department and a research fellow at the UH Economic Research Organization.
Justin Tyndall is an assistant professor of economics at UHERO. His research focuses on issues facing cities, particularly transportation and housing.
Latest Comments (0)
Maintaining lessened traffic levels in Honolulu is going to be a challenge because most of us work far from our homes. I like the idea of employees working from home and think this might work to make decreased traffic permanent. I also agree that "just a few additional cars can slow traffic dramatically" and Iâll do my part not to be the driver of one of those "additional cars."
Astral · 2 years ago
The pandemic and lock down brought traffic levels down drastically, so now itâs time to see what we can do to keep it that way. I agree with the authors that some of us should be given the chance to continue to work from home. I also agree with the implementation of toll roads for some of the busiest streets on Oahu. The question is what is going to happen to the minimum wage earners when they have to pay a toll every day just to get to work? What will the state do for those in that situation?
Royce · 2 years ago
Congestion pricing should not be implemented until rail is completed, that is until such time that people who drive have an alternative or a viable option to not having to drive. Both London and Stockholm have well-developed and well used rail which allows for effective zone or congestion pricing.
aleksa · 2 years ago
IDEAS is the place you'll find essays, analysis and opinion on every aspect of life and public affairs in Hawaii. We want to showcase smart ideas about the future of Hawaii, from the state's sharpest thinkers, to stretch our collective thinking about a problem or an issue. Email [email protected] to submit an idea.
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Traffic: Why It’s Getting Worse, What Government Can Do
Subscribe to the brookings metro update, anthony downs anthony downs former brookings expert.
January 1, 2004
- 17 min read
The Real Problem
Coping with the mobility problem, the principle of triple convergence, triple convergence and other proposals, how population growth can swamp transportation capacity, low-density settlements, possible improvements.
Rising traffic congestion is an inescapable condition in large and growing metropolitan areas across the world, from Los Angeles to Tokyo, from Cairo to Sao Paolo. Peak-hour traffic congestion is an inherent result of the way modern societies operate. It stems from the widespread desires of people to pursue certain goals that inevitably overload existing roads and transit systems every day. But everyone hates traffic congestion, and it keeps getting worse, in spite of attempted remedies.
Commuters are often frustrated by policymakers’ inability to do anything about the problem, which poses a significant public policy challenge. Although governments may never be able to eliminate road congestion, there are several ways cities and states can move to curb it.
POLICY BRIEF #128
Traffic congestion is not primarily a problem, but rather the solution to our basic mobility problem, which is that too many people want to move at the same times each day. Why? Because efficient operation of both the economy and school systems requires that people work, go to school, and even run errands during about the same hours so they can interact with each other. That basic requirement cannot be altered without crippling our economy and society. The same problem exists in every major metropolitan area in the world.
In the United States, the vast majority of people seeking to move during rush hours use private automotive vehicles, for two reasons. One is that most Americans reside in low-density areas that public transit cannot efficiently serve. The second is that privately owned vehicles are more comfortable, faster, more private, more convenient in trip timing, and more flexible for doing multiple tasks on one trip than almost any form of public transit. As household incomes rise around the world, more and more people shift from slower, less expensive modes of movement to privately owned cars and trucks.
With 87.9 percent of America’s daily commuters using private vehicles, and millions wanting to move at the same times of day, America’s basic problem is that its road system does not have the capacity to handle peak-hour loads without forcing many people to wait in line for that limited road space. Waiting in line is the definition of congestion, and the same condition is found in all growing major metropolitan regions. In fact, traffic congestion is worse in most other countries because American roads are so much better.
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There are four ways any region can try to cope with the mobility challenge. But three of them are politically impractical or physically and financially impossible in the United States.
Charging peak-hour tolls. Governments can charge people money to enter all the lanes on major commuting roads during peak hours. If tolls were set high enough and collected electronically with “smart cards,” the number of vehicles on each major road during peak hours could be reduced enough so that vehicles could move at high speeds. That would allow more people to travel per lane per hour than under current, heavily congested conditions.
Transportation economists have long been proponents of this tactic, but most Americans reject this solution politically for two reasons. Tolls would favor wealthier or subsidized drivers and harm poor ones, so most Americans would resent them, partly because they believe they would be at a disadvantage.
The second drawback is that people think these tolls would be just another tax, forcing them to pay for something they have already paid for through gasoline taxes. For both these reasons, few politicians in our democracy—and so far, anywhere else in the world—advocate this tactic. Limited road-pricing schemes that have been adopted in Singapore, Norway, and London only affect congestion in crowded downtowns, which is not the kind of congestion on major arteries that most Americans experience.
Greatly expanding road capacity. The second approach would be to build enough road capacity to handle all drivers who want to travel in peak hours at the same time without delays. But this “cure” is totally impractical and prohibitively expensive. Governments would have to widen all major commuting roads by demolishing millions of buildings, cutting down trees, and turning most of every metropolitan region into a giant concrete slab. Those roads would then be grossly underutilized during non-peak hours. There are many occasions when adding more road capacity is a good idea, but no large region can afford to build enough to completely eliminate peak-hour congestion.
Greatly expanding public transit capacity. The third approach would be to expand public transit capacity enough to shift so many people from cars to transit that there would be no more excess demand for roads during peak hours. But in the United States in 2000, only 4.7 percent of all commuters traveled by public transit. (Outside of New York City, only 3.5 percent use transit and 89.3 percent use private vehicles.) A major reason is that most transit commuting is concentrated in a few large, densely settled regions with extensive fixed-rail transit systems. The nine U.S. metropolitan areas with the most daily transit commuters, when taken together, account for 61 percent of all U.S. transit commuting, though they contain only 17 percent of the total population. Within those regions, transit commuters are 17 percent of all commuters, but elsewhere, transit carries only 2.4 percent of all commuters, and less than one percent in many low-density regions.
Even if America’s existing transit capacity were tripled and fully utilized, morning peak-hour transit travel would rise to 11.0 percent of all morning trips. But that would reduce all morning private vehicle trips by only 8.0 percent—certainly progress, but hardly enough to end congestion—and tripling public transit capacity would be extremely costly. There are many good reasons to expand the nation’s public transit systems to aid mobility, but doing so will not notably reduce either existing or future peak-hour traffic congestion.
Living with congestion. This is the sole viable option. The only feasible way to accommodate excess demand for roads during peak periods is to have people wait in line. That means traffic congestion, which is an absolutely essential mechanism for American regions—and most other metropolitan regions throughout the world—to cope with excess demands for road space during peak hours each day.
Although congestion can seem intolerable, the alternatives would be even worse. Peak-hour congestion is the balancing mechanism that makes it possible for Americans to pursue other goals they value, including working or sending their children to school at the same time as their peers, living in low-density settlements, and having a wide choice of places to live and work.
The least understood aspect of peak-hour traffic congestion is the principle of triple convergence, which I discussed in the original version of Stuck in Traffic (Brookings/Lincoln Institute of Land Policy, 1992). This phenomenon occurs because traffic flows in any region’s overall transportation networks form almost automatically self-adjusting relationships among different routes, times, and modes. For example, a major commuting expressway might be so heavily congested each morning that traffic crawls for at least thirty minutes. If that expressway’s capacity were doubled overnight, the next day’s traffic would flow rapidly because the same number of drivers would have twice as much road space. But soon word would spread that this particular highway was no longer congested. Drivers who had once used that road before and after the peak hour to avoid congestion would shift back into the peak period. Other drivers who had been using alternative routes would shift onto this more convenient expressway. Even some commuters who had been using the subway or trains would start driving on this road during peak periods. Within a short time, this triple convergence onto the expanded road during peak hours would make the road as congested as it was before its expansion.
Experience shows that if a road is part of a larger transportation network within a region, peak-hour congestion cannot be eliminated for long on a congested road by expanding that road’s capacity.
The triple convergence principle does not mean that expanding a congested road’s capacity has no benefits. After expansion, the road can carry more vehicles per hour than before, no matter how congested it is, so more people can travel on it during those more desirable periods. Also, the periods of maximum congestion may be shorter, and congestion on alternative routes may be lower. Those are all benefits, but that road will still experience some period of maximum congestion daily.
Triple convergence affects the practicality of other suggested remedies to traffic congestion. An example is staggered work hours. In theory, if a certain number of workers are able to commute during less crowded parts of the day, that will free up space on formerly congested roads. But once traffic moves faster on those roads during peak hours, that will attract other drivers from other routes, other times, and other modes where conditions have not changed to shift onto the improved roads. Soon the removal of the staggered-working-hour drivers will be fully offset by convergence.
The same thing will happen if more workers become telecommuters and work at home, or if public transit capacity is expanded on off-road routes that parallel a congested expressway. This is why building light rail systems or even new subways rarely reduces peak-hour traffic congestion. In Portland, where the light rail system doubled in size in the 1990s, and in Dallas, where a new light rail system opened, congestion did not decline for long after these systems were up and running. Only road pricing or higher gasoline taxes are exempt from the principle of triple convergence.
A ground transportation system’s equilibria can also be affected by big changes in the region’s population or economic activity. If a region’s population is growing rapidly, as in Southern California or Florida, any expansions of major expressway capacity may soon be swamped by more vehicles generated by the added population. This result is strengthened because America’s vehicle population has been increasing even faster than its human population. From 1980 to 2000, 1.2 more automotive vehicles were added to the vehicle population of the United States for every 1.0 person added to the human population (though this ratio declined to 1 to 1 in the 1990s). The nation’s human population is expected to grow by around 60 million by 2020—possibly adding another 60 million vehicles to our national stock. That is why prospects for reducing peak-hour traffic congestion in the future are dim indeed.
Shifts in economic activity also affect regional congestion. During the internet and telecommunications boom of the late 1990s, congestion in the San Francisco Bay Area intensified immensely. After the economic “bubble” burst in 2000, congestion fell markedly without any major change in population. Thus, severe congestion can be a sign of strong regional prosperity, just as reduced congestion can signal an economic downturn.
The most obvious reason traffic congestion has increased everywhere is population growth. In a wealthy nation, more people means more vehicles. But total vehicle mileage traveled has grown much faster than population. From 1980 to 2000, the total population of the United States rose 24 percent, but total vehicle miles traveled grew 80 percent because of more intensive use of each vehicle. The number of vehicles per 1,000 persons rose 14 percent and the number of miles driven per vehicle rose 24 percent. Even without any population gain in those two decades, miles driven would have risen 47 percent.
One reason people drove their vehicles farther is that a combination of declining real gas prices (corrected for inflation) and more miles per gallon caused the real cost of each mile driven to fall 54 percent from 1980 to 2000. That helped raise the fraction of U.S. households owning cars from 86 percent in 1983 to 92 percent in 1995.
Furthermore, American road building lagged far behind increases in vehicle travel. Urban lane-miles rose by 37 percent versus an 80 percent increase in miles traveled. As a result, the amount of daily traffic that was congested in the 75 areas analyzed in studies by the Texas Transportation Institute went from 16 percent in 1982 to 34 percent in 2001.
Another factor in road congestion is accidents and incidents, which some experts believe cause half of all traffic congestion. From 1980 to 2000, the absolute number of accidents each year has remained amazingly constant, and the annual number of traffic deaths in the United States fell 18 percent, in spite of the great rise in vehicle miles traveled. So accidents could only have caused more congestion because roads were more crowded, and each accident may now cause longer back-ups than before.
Incidents are non-accident causes of delay, such as stalled cars, road repairs, overturned vehicles, and bad weather. No one knows how many incidents occur, but it is a much greater number than accidents. And the number of incidents probably rises along with total driving. So that could have added to greater congestion, and will in the future.
Another crucial factor contributing to traffic congestion is the desire of most Americans to live in low-density settlements. In 1999, the National Association of Homebuilders asked 2,000 randomly-selected households whether they would rather buy a $150,000 townhouse in an urban setting that was close to public transportation, work, and shopping or a larger, detached single-family home in an outlying suburban area, where distances to work, public transportation, and shopping were longer. Eighty-three percent of respondents chose the larger, farther-out suburban home. At the same time, new workplaces have been spreading out in low-density areas in most metropolitan regions.
Past studies, including one published in 1977 by Boris S. Pushkarev and Jeffery M. Zupan, have shown that public transit works best where gross residential densities are above 4,200 persons per square mile; relatively dense housing is clustered close to transit stations or stops; and large numbers of jobs are concentrated in relatively compact business districts.
But in 2000, at least two thirds of all residents of U.S. urbanized areas lived in settlements with densities of under 4,000 persons per square mile. Those densities are too low for public transit to be effective. Hence their residents are compelled to rely on private vehicles for almost all of their travel, including trips during peak hours.
Recognizing this situation, many opponents of “sprawl” call for strong urban growth boundaries to constrain future growth into more compact, higher-density patterns, including greater reinvestment and increased densities in existing neighborhoods. But most residents of those neighborhoods vehemently oppose raising densities, and most American regions already have densities far too low to support much public transit. So this strategy would not reduce future traffic congestion much.
While it’s practically impossible to eliminate congestion, there are several ways to slow its future rate of increase:
Create High Occupancy Toll (HOT) lanes. Peak-hour road pricing would not be politically feasible if policymakers put tolls on all major commuter lanes, but HOT lanes can increase traveler choices by adding new toll lanes to existing expressways, or converting underused high-occupancy vehicle (HOV) lanes to HOT lanes, and leaving present conventional lanes without tolls. True, HOT lanes do not eliminate congestion. But they allow anyone who needs to move fast on any given day to do so, without forcing all low-income drivers off those same roads during peak periods. In some regions, whole networks of HOT lanes could both add to overall capacity and make high-speed choices always available to thousands of people in a hurry.
Respond more rapidly to traffic-blocking accidents and incidents. Removing accidents and incidents from major roads faster by using roving service vehicles run by government-run Traffic Management Centers equipped with television and electronic surveillance of road conditions is an excellent tactic for reducing congestion delays.
Build more roads in growing areas. Opponents of building more roads claim that we cannot build our way out of congestion because more highway capacity will simply attract more travelers. Due to triple convergence, that criticism is true for established roads that are already overcrowded. But the large projected growth of the U.S. population surely means that we will need a lot more road and lane mileage in peripheral areas.
Install ramp-metering. This means letting vehicles enter expressways only gradually. It has improved freeway speed during peak hours in both Seattle and the Twin Cities, and could be much more widely used.
Use Intelligent Transportation System devices to speed traffic flows. These devices include electronic coordination of signal lights on local streets, large variable signs informing drivers of traffic conditions ahead, one-way street patterns, Global Positioning System equipment in cars and trucks, and radio broadcasts of current road conditions. These technologies exist now and can be effective on local streets and arteries and informative on expressways.
Create more HOV (High Occupancy Vehicle) lanes. HOV lanes have proven successful in many areas such as Houston. More regions could use HOV lanes effectively if there were more lanes built for that purpose, rather than trying to convert existing ones. Merely converting existing lanes would reduce overall road capacity.
Adopt “parking cash-out” programs. Demonstration programs have shown that if firms offer to pay persons now receiving free employee parking a stipend for shifting to carpooling or transit, significant percentages will do so. That could reduce the number of cars on the road. However, this tactic does not prevent the offsetting consequences of triple convergence.
Restrict very low-density peripheral development. Urban growth boundaries that severely constrain all far-out suburban development will not reduce future congestion much, especially in fast-growing regions. And such boundaries may drive up peripheral housing prices. But requiring at least moderate residential densities—say, 3,500 persons per square mile (4.38 units per net acre)—in new growth areas could greatly reduce peripheral driving, compared to permitting very low densities there, which tend to push growth out ever farther. In 2000, thirty-six urbanized areas had fringe area densities of 3,500 or more. Those thirty-six urbanized areas contained 18.2 percent of all persons living in all 476 U.S. urbanized areas.
Cluster high-density housing around transit stops. Such Transit Oriented Developments (TODs) would permit more residents to commute by walking to transit, thereby decreasing the number of private vehicles on the roads. However, the potential of this tactic is limited. In order to shift a significant percentage of auto commuters to transit, the number of such “transit circles” within each region would have to be very large, the density within each circle would have to be much greater than the average central city density in America’s fifty largest urbanized areas, and the percentage of workers living in the TODs who commuted by transit would have to greatly exceed the 10.5 percent average for central cities in 2000. Even so, developing many of these high-density clusters might make public transit service more feasible to many more parts of large regions.
Give regional transportation authorities more power and resources. Congress has created Metropolitan Planning Organizations to coordinate ground transportation planning over all modes in each region. If these were given more technical assistance and power, more rational systems could be created. Without much more regionally focused planning over land uses as well as transportation, few anti-congestion tactics will work effectively.
Raise gasoline taxes. Raising gas taxes would notably slow the rate of increase of all automotive travel, not just peak-hour commuting. But Congress has refused to consider it because it is politically unpopular and fought by industry lobbyists. Despite Americans’ vocal complaints about congestion, they do not want to pay much to combat it.
Peak-hour traffic congestion in almost all large and growing metropolitan regions around the world is here to stay. In fact, it is almost certain to get worse during at least the next few decades, mainly because of rising populations and wealth. This will be true no matter what public and private policies are adopted to combat congestion.
But this outcome should not be regarded as a mark of social failure or misguided policies. In fact, traffic congestion often results from economic prosperity and other types of success.
Although traffic congestion is inevitable, there are ways to slow the rate at which it intensifies. Several tactics could do that effectively, especially if used in concert, but nothing can eliminate peak-hour traffic congestion from large metropolitan regions here and around the world. Only serious economic recessions—which are hardly desirable—can even forestall an increase.
For the time being, the only relief for traffic-plagued commuters is a comfortable, air-conditioned vehicle with a well-equipped stereo system, a hands-free telephone, and a daily commute with someone they like.
Congestion has become part of commuters’ daily leisure time, and it promises to stay that way.
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No More Traffic Jams
There is nothing worse than being trapped in your car, waiting in the middle of a traffic jam. It is frustrating, knowing that there is nothing you can do and that you are going to be late to work. Traffic jams often occur during rush hour or right after a large event because there are more cars on the road than normal. Traffic jams can also be caused by car accidents or road construction. They usually occur on major roads that many people use to travel to work or school. Traffic jams are a problem because they make people late for work or school, they can cause car accidents, and they are frustrating. How can we reduce the number of traffic jams? Possible solutions include carpooling or using public transportation. The best way to solve traffic jams is by using public transportation because it will be efficient, economical, and reliable.
First, using public transportation is efficient. A bus is a very efficient way to move lots of people from one place to another using only one vehicle. Instead of having one vehicle for each person on the road, busses take many cars off the road as people ride together. Trains are even more efficient at reducing the number of cars on the road. Because trains have their own dedicated rail system to get people around, all of the cars are eliminated without adding any more traffic to the roads. Not only are busses and trains more efficient at carrying passengers, but time spent on a bus or a train is more efficient for the passenger. This encourages more people to use public transportation. It is easy to see how efficient public transportation is and the impact that it has on reducing traffic.
Another reason that public transportation is the best solution to traffic jams is because it is so economical. People want to use public transportation instead of driving their own car because they can save money. Public transportation usually does not cost very much, especially for people who use it often. There are discounts for seniors and students, which makes it an even more economical way for these groups to travel around town. Using public transportation also eliminates the need to pay for parking, car insurance, and car maintenance, not to mention gasoline. All of the expenses related to owning a car are replaced with one simple fare. Because it is so economical, public transportation is a good solution to traffic jams by encouraging more people to travel together and reduce the number of cars on the road.
Finally, public transportation is the best solution because it is reliable. Many people set up carpools to reduce traffic, but this is only a temporary solution. Every time someone has a change in their schedule, the carpool needs to be adjusted. For example, if someone has to go to the doctor or sleeps in, the carpool will not work that day. If someone changes jobs or transfers to a new school, the carpool will need to be adjusted again. Public transportation, on the other hand, is more reliable. The bus and train schedules don’t change every time that one rider needs to go to the doctor. The schedules are set and people can plan on them. People who use public transportation will find that it is reliable and can help limit the number of cars on the road.
Because it is efficient, economical, and reliable, public transportation is the best way to reduce the number of traffic jams. There are other possible ways to address this problem, but using public transportation is clearly the best. Traffic jams during very busy hours on the road can be reduced and more people can get to work on time and avoid the frustration caused by sitting in the middle of a long line of cars. Cities and governments should consider ways to improve their public transportation system and encourage more people to use it. If they do, they will surely see fewer traffic jams on their roads and much happier drivers.
Exercise 1: Analyze an essay
Read one of the two Process Example Essays on the following pages to complete this exercise.
- Label the introduction paragraph, the body paragraphs, and the conclusion paragraph.
- Circle the hook.
- What is the general topic of the essay?
- Underline the thesis.
- Underline each of the topic sentences.
- Do each of the topic sentences support the thesis?
- Does the conclusion paragraph start by restating the thesis?
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The 15 worst cities for rush hour traffic
Plenty of drivers complain about rush hour traffic, but some have more to gripe about than others.
Bangkok has the worst evening rush hour traffic in the world for a second consecutive year, according to GPS manufacturer TomTom.
The results were compiled after TomTom tracked a years-worth of traffic in 390 cities across 48 countries.
Here is the 2017 ranking of cities with the most severe evening rush hour traffic:
- Bangkok, Thailand
- Mexico City, Mexico
- Bucharest, Romania
- Jakarta, Indonesia
- Moscow, Russia
- Chongqing, China
- Istanbul, Turkey
- St. Petersburg, Russia
- Zhuhai, China
- Santiago, Chile
- Guangzhou, China
- Shijiazhuang, China
- Shenzhen, China
- Los Angeles, U.S.
- Beijing, China
TomTom's senior traffic expert Nick Cohn said that Thailand -- and many other big cities at the top of the congestion ranking -- have become victims of their own success. Growing economies and surging populations translate into more traffic and commuters.
"It would be a challenge for any city government [to] keep things moving," he said, noting that as more people have moved to Bangkok's low-density suburbs, commuter traffic has worsened.
While Mexico City has the second worst evening rush hour traffic in the world, TomTom considers the Mexican capital to be the world's worst city for full-day traffic congestion.
"It could be middle of the day or late at night, but it's just really, really congested," said Cohn.
"Mexico City has an extensive subway system but it doesn't extend out to where all the population growth is happening," he said. "People don't have a lot of options for getting to work."
Moscow, which ranks as the fifth worst city for evening rush hour traffic, was higher up the rankings in past years. But congestion has eased a bit since city officials introduced new parking rules.
Cohn said the city now charges for some parking, which "really changed people's behavior."
Istanbul has also seen a modest easing of traffic congestion because authorities have made a point to provide more real-time traffic data to drivers. This helped people plan their drives and avoid severe traffic jams.
"It's still terrible but there is a slight decrease," he said.
The only American city in the top 15 is Los Angeles. Its traffic congestion has worsened, but it's been moving down the ranking over the past few years as other global cities experience more acute traffic problems.
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Calgary driver dies after rush-hour CTrain collision
Man in his late 40s taken to hospital with severe injuries early wednesday.
A collision between a CTrain and a vehicle Wednesday during the morning commute sent a man to hospital, where he was later declared deceased, police say.
Calgary police were called to the Memorial Drive overpass at Deerfoot Trail in the city's southeast at 8:25 a.m.
"It is believed a man in his late 40s was driving a vehicle and collided with a CTrain. As a result, one man was taken to hospital in life-threatening condition," police said.
EMS transported the man to hospital.
He was "very seriously injured," the Calgary Fire Department said.
In a late afternoon statement, police confirm the 48-year-old had died.
Lane closures created traffic delays for several hours.
Emergency responders said there were no injuries on the CTrain.
Police are asking anyone with information to contact them at 403-266-1234 or via Crime Stoppers .
ABOUT THE AUTHOR
David Bell has been a professional, platform-agnostic journalist since he was the first graduate of Mount Royal University’s bachelor of communications in journalism program in 2009. His work regularly receives national exposure. He also teaches journalism and communication at Mount Royal University.
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Deadly accident reduces Turner Turnpike to one lane, may cause rush hour delays
by Alexandra Sharfman
STROUD, OKLA. (KOKH) — Westbound Turner Turnpike is narrowed down to one lane at mile marker 181, just east of Stroud as crews respond to a deadly accident Friday afternoon.
Oklahoma Highway Patrol said a stranded motorist was hit and killed on the side of the highway.
Troopers said the driver stayed on the scene and is cooperating with officials.
The closure could impact the evening commute, according to troopers, and drivers should expect delays and drive carefully through the area.
For more local news delivered straight to your inbox, sign up for our daily newsletter by clicking here.
Surviving DC traffic: A satirical guide to navigating the nation’s capital
Dave Dildine | [email protected]
May 21, 2021, 4:52 AM
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Editor’s note: Making fun of D.C. traffic is nothing new, but as a veteran traffic reporter, WTOP’s Dave Dildine can do it like few others. Remember, everything written here comes from a place of love (and maybe just a smidge from a place of absolute fury).
D.C. morning rush hour starts at 5 a.m. and lasts until 4 p.m. The afternoon rush hour starts at 7 a.m. and lasts until Sunday. Friday rush hour started during the Hoover administration and will last until the end of time and space.
East-west travel through the District of Columbia is impossible, unless you’re on the Southeast-Southwest Freeway where the average speed is 90 mph. No one knows what the freeway is called or numbered though. Some people call it I-695. Some people call it I-395. Some people refer to it as West Side Highway.
Another busy freeway that runs through D.C. is the Potomac River Freeway. No one knows what this freeway is called either, so they simply refer to it as “that road behind the Kennedy Center.” If you need to tell someone what road you’re on, you can refer to it as “that road behind the Kennedy Center” but they might assume you’re talking about the E Street Expressway, which is an entirely different road.
Another freeway in the District is I-295, not to be confused with DC-295. Local authorities always refer to I-295 as DC-295 and DC-295 as I-295, possibly to mess with people or possibly because they genuinely don’t know the difference. The average speed on DC-295 is a relaxed 80 mph. The average is lowered by drivers slamming on their brakes near the speed cameras and hairpin exit ramps. DC-295 is also congested 28 hours a day, 10 days a week.
DC-295 and I-295 are often conflated, even though the whole corridor is named the Anacostia Freeway. Except DC-295 isn’t a freeway. It’s actually an urban expressway. It’s also Kenilworth Avenue. Except technically, only the service road in Northeast is Kenilworth Avenue.
That is, until you get to the Maryland state line where the entire six-lane roadway suddenly becomes Kenilworth Avenue. But only for a quarter of a mile up to U.S. Route 50, where the same stretch of road that just turned from DC-295 to Kenilworth Avenue changes to MD-295. Except MD-295 isn’t signed because that would be too easy. Instead, the road is known as the Baltimore-Washington Parkway until you get past Fort Meade, where the parkway is known as MD-295. Still with me?
The D.C. automated speed enforcement program nets about $800 billion annually, roughly the GDP of Switzerland. And 99.9% of the revenue comes from one camera located on the tunnel-expressway portion of K Street below Washington Circle, where there are no pedestrians and there is no cross-traffic, yet the speed limit is curiously set at 25 mph. The rest of the revenue comes from tickets with doubled fines that were erroneously issued outside of work zones.
The Baltimore-Washington, Clara Barton, George Washington and Rock Creek parkways are scenic byways through bucolic national forestland on which hundreds of thousands of commuters take gentle curves at breakneck speed. There are tens of thousands of crashes on the GW Parkway near Key Bridge annually. There is one there right now.
Whenever it drizzles, eager northbound drivers will line up in excitement on the GW Parkway and take turns spinning out and overturning on the ramp to the Inner Loop of the Capital Beltway. Bonus points are awarded to anyone who manages to snap a yellow chevron sign on their off-road adventure.
There are several spinout leagues around the region. Another popular meetup spot is the ramp from DC-295 to the 11th Street Bridge. Note: The southbound exit number for the bridge is Exit 1, but if you’re northbound, Exit 1 is Pennsylvania Avenue for some reason that transcends comprehension.
On the District’s freeway system, there are roughly a trillion Exit 1s within about three miles of each other. If you’re involved in a crash, make sure to tell the dispatcher that you’re at Exit 1, so dozens of rescue personnel take at least an hour looking for you on the wrong road. If your car becomes disabled on the westbound Southeast-Southwest Freeway’s northbound South Capitol Street ramp, you will never be found.
One of the DMV’s favorite Friday activities is to collectively decide to drive to the Eastern Shore at the exact same time. By the time you approach the Chesapeake Bay Bridge, it will be raining. The weather-closure of the reversible lane will cause shore-bound traffic to backup into Ohio.
On the Friday before Memorial Day, delays usually begin closer to Peoria. Desperate drivers will self-divert onto smaller roads through Annapolis and, for some reason, local authorities think simply telling drivers who have been sitting in traffic for five hours not to detour to other public roads will actually keep them from doing so.
Due to an obscure federal law, all journeys through the capital region require travel on roads named after George Washington. Your route may take you on any of the following: Washington Avenue, Washington Street, Washington Boulevard, George Washington Road, Fort Washington Road, New Washington Road, Old Washington Road, Old Washington Boulevard, Washington Circle, Washington Lane, Washington Way, George Washington Highway, George Washington Parkway, Baltimore-Washington Parkway, or variations thereof.
If you want to take Virginia’s privately-owned express lanes and Maryland’s HOV lanes, you will need to meditate on the rules for decades before even beginning to understand the complex pricing, schedules, occupancy restrictions, reversals, exemptions and exceptions for each facility. Linking your E-ZPass to a hidden offshore shell account will be prudent for your first few years of experimentation.
Driving in Northwest D.C. during rush hour will offer you the unique experience of being on some roads that suddenly change direction at certain times of day, turning everything you’ve learned about driving to the right of the double yellow line upside down.
Twice a day, on portions of Rock Creek Parkway, Clara Barton Parkway and Canal Road, traffic reverses and flows one-way into the path of frightened tourists woefully ill-equipped to deal with local tradition. There are some small white signs with fine print that describe the various restrictions, but you won’t have time to read them because you’ll be too preoccupied with avoiding a head-on collision.
Stay alert for frantic honking and rapid headlight flashing from your fellow drivers; this will serve as a precursor to impending doom. The center lane on Chain Bridge and Canal Road is open to inbound traffic during the morning rush hour, but it’s usually empty because everyone is too terrified to use it.
A winter tradition in D.C. is to wait until it starts snowing heavily and then rush out onto the roads all at once when the snowfall rate reaches whiteout status. It is widely held that all unnecessary travel, such as buying groceries and going to the dog park, is best undertaken during extreme winter weather. The federal and local governments nurture this pastime by waiting until the absolute height of winter storms to issue early dismissals.
After it snows, residents are expected to lambaste the local transportation department for not plowing their small side street within five seconds of the last flake falling. For this reason, over-caffeinated plow operators are obligated to disgorge millions of tons of salt and navigate 40-ton trucks for 18 hours nonstop, creating untold amounts of noise, air and water pollution, even though the 2 inches of slush would have melted by sunrise on its own.
Just as church bells toll and roosters crow, tractor trailers overturn on the Outer Loop at the “Big Curve” in Bethesda to signal the dawning of a new day. The weekly jackknifing of trucks on this portion of the Beltway is also believed to drive out demons and cleanse societal impurities.
Interstate 66 has been under construction since antiquity. Road work is scheduled for completion minutes before the ultimate heat death of the universe. Rest assured, it will be humanity’s greatest legacy.
Many drivers concern themselves more with excoriating others than the act of traveling. License plates and other visible decals are scrutinized rigorously. Maryland drivers and Virginia drivers will take any petty opportunity they can to belittle each other by resorting to a trite, oversimplified inanity relating to what they perceive as their neighboring state’s inferior driving ability.
Meanwhile, D.C. drivers — with license plates that read “taxation without representation” — are happy just to sit on the sidelines and watch.
A native to the Washington area, Dave Dildine is no stranger to the region's complex traffic and weather patterns. Dave joined WTOP in 2010 when the station launched its very own in-house traffic service. You can hear him "on the 8s and when it breaks" from 2 p.m. to 7 p.m. on weekdays.
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GRE Argument Essay 136
The following appeared in a Letter to the Editor of the Shady Village newspaper.
“Commuters are complaining that the rush hour traffic on Blue Highway between Shady Village and Bright City has doubled their commuting time. Some commuters have asked that an additional traffic lane be built, but the recent creation of such a lane on nearby Green Highway apparently attracted more commuters, judging from the fact that rush-hour traffic jams actually increased there this past winter. To reduce rush-hour traffic on Blue Highway, a bicycle lane should be added instead of a traffic lane. This approach will succeed because many citizens of Shady Village are avid bicyclists; 75 percent of respondents to a recent questionnaire distributed there said they would like to bicycle more hours per week than they currently do.”
The writer of the letter to the editor suggests that in order to reduce the commuting time on Blue Highway a bicycle lane should be added instead of another traffic lane. This will help, according to him, because many citizens of Shady Village are keen on bicycling. Moreover, in response to a questionnaire, most of the citizens confirmed that they would like to bicycle more than they do. However, the writer is not able to give a convincing reason for his suggestion. There are many other factors, which need to be considered before taking the decision which point towards a different direction than that suggested by the writer.
The traffic on a highway depends upon the places it connects as well as the convenience it offers. The rush of two different highways cannot be compared since both the highways offer connectivity to different places. The writer says that adding an additional traffic lane on Green Highway increased the traffic on it in the past winters. However, this may not be the case with Blue Highway. Firstly, the traffic experienced by both the highways is different. Therefore, the rush hour traffic on both highways should be treated independently. Adding another traffic lane is one of the good options for solving the problem of too much traffic on the highway and it should definitely be considered. Secondly, increased traffic on Green Highway has been observed only in the past winters. It is likely that this is a temporary change and is due to closure of another highway for some time. There could be some repair work in progress on another route, which has diverted the traffic to Green Highway. It is also likely that in winters other routes become inaccessible due to snow and other such difficulties, due to which the traffic on Green Highway had increase in the last winters. However, Blue Highway may not experience any additional increase in traffic due to an additional traffic lane being built. It is possible that no other routes are closed to divert the traffic towards Blue Highway. Hence, unlike Green Highway the additional traffic lane might prove useful in reducing the rush hour traffic.
Considering that Blue Highway connects the suburbs of Shady Village and Bright City, the traffic on the highway would consist of two-wheelers as well as four-wheelers. The possibility of people using bicycle for commuting through a highway are very bleak. Making a separate bicycle lane would help only if there are too many bicyclists on Blue Highway. However, the argument does not give an idea of the type of traffic that Blue Highway experiences. If there were very few bicyclists commuting through the highway, making a separate bicycle lane would not solve the problem of rush hour traffic. Therefore, before coming to any decision, the composition of traffic on Blue Highway should be studied and accordingly an additional lane should be built.
There is a difference between what people like and what they do. People in Shady Village may be fond of bicycling, however, how often they actually commute using bicycle is the question. It is possible that even if people are enthusiastic about bicycling and they would like to bicycle more hours per week than they currently do, they are not able to do so due to the requirements of their jobs. Bicycles can be used only for short distances. Moreover, it needs time to commute through bicycles, however, if people cannot spare enough time, they will commute through other vehicles. Therefore, forming an additional bicycle lane might be a wrong decision since the circumstances of people might not allow them to use bicycles on Blue Highway, even if they are avid bicyclists.
It is clear by now that the argument is not perceived in the correct light. Therefore, the suggestion it forwards is not practical and a detailed study of the traffic and situation of Blue Highway should be considered before coming to any conclusion.
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The Rush Hour Traffic 5 Pages 1273 Words
When you wake up in the morning feeling refresh and ready to start a new day, you should automatically realize that there is a problem. You roll over in bed and look at the alarm clock and unsurprisingly enough. you"re late! You hop out of bed and run to the bathroom, only to find that there is no hope of you looking presentable and finally give up and throw on some clothes. You run downstairs ready to go and here we go again, you can"t find your keys. You make a mad dash throughout the house searching every drawer and table until you finally find them right where you first looked. You run out of the house, get in your car, and enter the rat race of early morning rush hour traffic. Every traffic light catches you and every ignorant driver seems to be in front of you. You dodge the cars, hopping lanes as quickly as you can. Up ahead you see a light turn yellow. You just know that you can beat the red light and race ahead. Stomping the accelerator you speed through the intersected just in time, only to get caught by a traffic jam on the next block. You just sit there, staring at your watch. You blow the horn and give the finger, but no one seems to care. You are experiencing the full-blown symptom of a classic case of ROAD RAGE. Road rage is any display of aggression by a driver (Joint 1). This has become an epidemic in the United States over the past few years. . Many times the causes of road rage are things that we can fix ourselves. Road rage is a psychological behavioral problem to which most people are susceptible at some time in their life. Even the most levelheaded person can loose their cool while driving. Although there are degrees of road rage, any aggressive act that is directed toward another driver is classified as road rage. The most common causes are things that we do everyday, even though most of the time we do not realize our actions. The leading cause of road rage is tailgating.
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Traffic and congestion - IELTS II: problem and solution
IELTS WRITING TASK II: problem and solution
Lost truck load causes rush hour backup on I-10 near downtown Phoenix
PHOENIX (3TV/CBS 5) — A semi-truck that lost its load caused a traffic headaches for drivers on their morning commutes Thursday.
According to Department of Public Safety troopers, a semi-truck and dump truck sideswiped each other around 5:30 a.m. on Interstate 10, just west of 7th Avenue. The sideswipe caused the tank to fall off the semi-truck, troopers said. No one was hurt.
The tank was blocking two lanes, but crews were able to clear it off the freeway after roughly two and a half hours.
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Brace yourself for traffic after 2024 solar eclipse in Dallas-Fort Worth
Editor’s note: This story is part of The Dallas Morning News’ coverage of the 2024 total solar eclipse. For more, visit dallasnews.com/eclipse .
D-FW residents are no strangers to heavy rush-hour traffic. But the total solar eclipse on Monday, April 8 could cause more significant delays, particularly right after the event.
Millions of Americans will travel to see the eclipse , and many will come to Texas, according to Great American Eclipse . After the 2017 eclipse, traffic delays on interstate highways in the path of totality lasted up to 13 hours .
The Texas Department of Transportation has been coordinating efforts to plan for eclipse traffic. TxDOT spokesman Tony Hartzel said the traffic could be as if several large football games all ended at once.
Will there be traffic before the eclipse?
All together, Texas locations in the path of totality , where the moon will appear to fully block the sun, may receive anywhere from 270,000 to over a million eclipse visitors, according to Great American Eclipse . Many of those visitors will gravitate to big cities such as Dallas, Fort Worth, Austin and San Antonio. Others may choose places off-the-beaten path .
The weekend before the eclipse shouldn’t bring significant traffic changes, said Abraham Benavides, a professor of public administration at the University of Texas at Dallas. Visitors will gradually arrive in the days leading up to April 8.
The eclipse’s path of totality spans most of the D-FW area, including Dallas and most of Fort Worth. Denton is outside the path. Eclipse tourists will be spread out across the region, Benavides said.
On April 8 in Dallas, the moon will begin to cover the sun around 12:23 p.m., with totality beginning around 1:40 p.m. and ending just under 4 minutes later. Exact timing will depend on location in the metro area.
During totality, daylight will dim, and stars may be visible in the midday sky. The main traffic concern during the eclipse will be drivers stopping their cars on highways or pulling onto the shoulder to watch it, Benavides said.
In 2017, some state transportation agencies used road signs to share warning messages such as “No parking on highway for solar eclipse” or “Solar eclipse Monday, delays possible.” Hartzel said TxDOT will post eclipse-focused messages on statewide boards, though the exact wording is being decided.
Arrive early, stay late
When totality ends — and later, when the moon fully moves away from the sun — eclipse watchers will hop in their cars and get on highways, leading to massive delays and stop-and-go traffic, Benavides said.
“The sun’s going to be back out, life is going to continue and so everybody’s going to want to leave,” he said.
At least 5 million people traveled to see the 2017 solar eclipse , according to Transportation Research News magazine. Almost all drove, including those who flew to commercial airports and then drove to the path of totality.
Traffic delays after the eclipse were significant. The drive from Casper, Wyo., to Denver, Colo. — usually a 4-hour trip — took 10 hours or more, according to Transportation Research News.
“The rare eclipse was memorable,” reads a 2017 headline from the Lexington Herald-Leader in Kentucky. “The ride home was something they want to forget.”
TxDOT’s Dallas district will have maintenance crews on standby to help law enforcement or respond to any issues after the eclipse, Hartzel said.
Benavides’ biggest advice is to arrive early and stay late. If traveling to see the eclipse, consider staying an extra day instead of leaving on Monday night, he said, and make sure to fill up your tank before you go.
In Dallas, where the eclipse will end around 3:02 p.m., the traffic can be compounded by rush hour later that day. Area residents might consider working from home or taking the day off, Benavides said.
Dallas was last in a solar eclipse’s path of totality on July 29, 1878, and won’t be again until 2317. With some advanced planning, residents and visitors can ensure the eclipse is more memorable than the drive home.
Adithi Ramakrishnan is a science reporting fellow at The Dallas Morning News. Her fellowship is supported by the University of Texas at Dallas. The News makes all editorial decisions.
©2024 The Dallas Morning News. Visit dallasnews.com. Distributed by Tribune Content Agency, LLC.
1. "Commuters complain that increased rush-hour traffic on Blue Highway between the suburbs and the city center has doubled their commuting time. The favored proposal of the motorists' lobby is to widen the highway, adding an additional lane of
1. "Commuters complain that increased rush-hour traffic on Blue Highway between the suburbs and the city center has doubled their commuting time. The favored proposal of the motorists' lobby is to widen the highway, adding an additional lane of traffic. But last year's addition of a lane to the nearby Green Highway was followed by a worsening of traffic jams on it. A better alternative is to add a bicycle lane to Blue Highway. Many area residents are keen bicyclists. A bicycle lane would encourage them to use bicycles to commute, and so would reduce rush-hour traffic rather than fostering an increase."
The above lines state that the commuters have been complaining that the increased rush hour traffic on Blue Highway between the suburbs and the city center has doubled their commuting time. The favored proposal of the motorists' lobby is to widen the highway, adding an additional lane of traffic. But last year's addition of a lane to the nearby Green Highway was followed by a worsening of traffic jams on it. A better alternative is to add a bicycle lane to Blue Highway. Many area residents are keen bicyclists. A bicycle lane would encourage them to use bicycles to commute, and so would reduce rush-hour traffic rather than fostering an increase. Before analyzing the above argument, certain questions have to be answered.
Firstly, will widening the highway reduce the rush-hour traffic on Blue Highway between the suburbs and the city similar to that of Green Highway? The commuters had already complained that due to the increasing traffic, the daily commute time for the people has been doubled. Proper evidence such as surveys and statistics have to be gathered along with the dimensions of the highway before construction of an additioal lane. Only then the propasal favouring the addition of an extra lane to the already existing highway might hold firm else there is a high chance that the traffic might even get worse on a whole. Since the above claim is quite vague with no proper supporting evidence, the primary conclusion in the above argument is gradually weakened.
Secondly, is it true that the last year's construction of an addtional lane to the Green Highway has worsened the traffic condition? The author states that it has rather worsened than improve the traffic on construction of an extra lane on Green Highway and supports his claim without any evidence such as facts and surveys. A question has to be raised about the analogy between the Blue Highway and Green Highway before coming to conclusion and must be taken further accordingly. Due to lack of such evidence such as statistics and surveys, the aboe argument does not hold firm.
Thirdly, the author argues of adding a bicycle lane to the highway with an intention to curb the rush hour traffic. There has been no proper evidence supporting the fact that the people in the area are keen bicyclists. Morever there might a large chunk of people who might travel to work at farther places where bicycling might not be an option for them and the only way they can commute is using the normal transportation such as cars and buses. In such cases the construction of a bicycle lane would prove to be futile and might not hold the author's claim. Morever there might be a case where the cyclists might cause much traffic than reducing it which can inturn lead to a large traffic conjestion on the Blue Highway. As the author fails to provide further evidence such as statistics to support his claim, the above argument does not hold water.
In conclusion, due to a paucity of evidence such as surveys and numbers, the author's claim might not be right and the above argument presented by him does not stand firm.
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Essay evaluations by e-grader
Grammar and spelling errors: Line 1, column 260, Rule ID: ADD_AN_ADDITIONAL Message: This phrase might be redundant. Use simply 'adding a lane'. Suggestion: adding a lane ...otorists lobby is to widen the highway, adding an additional lane of traffic. But last years addition of ... ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ Line 1, column 307, Rule ID: POSSESIVE_APOSTROPHE Message: Possible typo: apostrophe is missing. Did you mean 'years'' or 'year's'? Suggestion: years'; year's ...an additional lane of traffic. But last years addition of a lane to the nearby Green ... ^^^^^ Line 3, column 15, Rule ID: DID_BASEFORM Message: The verb 'will' requires the base form of the verb: 'widen' Suggestion: widen ...ns have to be answered. Firstly, will widening the highway reduce the rush-hour traffi... ^^^^^^^^ Line 5, column 36, Rule ID: POSSESIVE_APOSTROPHE Message: Possible typo: apostrophe is missing. Did you mean 'years'' or 'year's'? Suggestion: years'; year's ...d. Secondly, is it true that the last years construction of an addtional lane to th... ^^^^^ Line 5, column 150, Rule ID: WHITESPACE_RULE Message: Possible typo: you repeated a whitespace Suggestion: ...the traffic condition? The author states that it has rather worsened than improve... ^^ Line 7, column 461, Rule ID: WHITESPACE_RULE Message: Possible typo: you repeated a whitespace Suggestion: ...on such as cars and buses. In such cases the construction of a bicycle lane would... ^^ Line 7, column 585, Rule ID: WHITESPACE_RULE Message: Possible typo: you repeated a whitespace Suggestion: ... authors claim. Morever there might be a case where the cyclists might cause much... ^^
Transition Words or Phrases used: accordingly, but, first, firstly, second, secondly, so, then, third, thirdly, as to, in conclusion, such as
Attributes: Values AverageValues Percentages(Values/AverageValues)% => Comments
Performance on Part of Speech: To be verbs : 21.0 19.6327345309 107% => OK Auxiliary verbs: 16.0 12.9520958084 124% => OK Conjunction : 15.0 11.1786427146 134% => OK Relative clauses : 12.0 13.6137724551 88% => OK Pronoun: 19.0 28.8173652695 66% => OK Preposition: 70.0 55.5748502994 126% => OK Nominalization: 23.0 16.3942115768 140% => OK
Performance on vocabulary words: No of characters: 2581.0 2260.96107784 114% => OK No of words: 531.0 441.139720559 120% => OK Chars per words: 4.86064030132 5.12650576532 95% => OK Fourth root words length: 4.80035803286 4.56307096286 105% => OK Word Length SD: 2.50264984885 2.78398813304 90% => OK Unique words: 225.0 204.123752495 110% => OK Unique words percentage: 0.423728813559 0.468620217663 90% => More unique words wanted or less content wanted. syllable_count: 795.6 705.55239521 113% => OK avg_syllables_per_word: 1.5 1.59920159681 94% => OK
A sentence (or a clause, phrase) starts by: Pronoun: 0.0 4.96107784431 0% => OK Article: 13.0 8.76447105788 148% => OK Subordination: 3.0 2.70958083832 111% => OK Conjunction: 2.0 1.67365269461 119% => OK Preposition: 4.0 4.22255489022 95% => OK
Performance on sentences: How many sentences: 23.0 19.7664670659 116% => OK Sentence length: 23.0 22.8473053892 101% => OK Sentence length SD: 43.2396933096 57.8364921388 75% => OK Chars per sentence: 112.217391304 119.503703932 94% => OK Words per sentence: 23.0869565217 23.324526521 99% => OK Discourse Markers: 4.65217391304 5.70786347227 82% => OK Paragraphs: 5.0 5.15768463074 97% => OK Language errors: 7.0 5.25449101796 133% => OK Sentences with positive sentiment : 8.0 8.20758483034 97% => OK Sentences with negative sentiment : 10.0 6.88822355289 145% => OK Sentences with neutral sentiment: 5.0 4.67664670659 107% => OK What are sentences with positive/Negative/neutral sentiment?
Coherence and Cohesion: Essay topic to essay body coherence: 0.399025598761 0.218282227539 183% => OK Sentence topic coherence: 0.133581008854 0.0743258471296 180% => OK Sentence topic coherence SD: 0.154036503992 0.0701772020484 219% => The coherence between sentences is low. Paragraph topic coherence: 0.237888636596 0.128457276422 185% => OK Paragraph topic coherence SD: 0.190096807165 0.0628817314937 302% => More connections among paragraphs wanted.
Essay readability: automated_readability_index: 13.0 14.3799401198 90% => Automated_readability_index is low. flesch_reading_ease: 56.59 48.3550499002 117% => OK smog_index: 3.1 7.1628742515 43% => Smog_index is low. flesch_kincaid_grade: 11.1 12.197005988 91% => OK coleman_liau_index: 11.2 12.5979740519 89% => OK dale_chall_readability_score: 7.9 8.32208582834 95% => OK difficult_words: 105.0 98.500998004 107% => OK linsear_write_formula: 7.5 12.3882235529 61% => OK gunning_fog: 11.2 11.1389221557 101% => OK text_standard: 8.0 11.9071856287 67% => The average readability is low. Need to imporve the language. What are above readability scores?
--------------------- Rates: 58.33 out of 100 Scores by essay e-grader: 3.5 Out of 6 --------------------- Note: the e-grader does NOT examine the meaning of words and ideas. VIP users will receive further evaluations by advanced module of e-grader and human graders.
Essay evaluation report
Attribute Value Ideal Final score: 4.0 out of 6 Category: Good Excellent No. of Grammatical Errors: 0 2 No. of Spelling Errors: 0 2 No. of Sentences: 23 15 No. of Words: 531 350 No. of Characters: 2523 1500 No. of Different Words: 217 200 Fourth Root of Number of Words: 4.8 4.7 Average Word Length: 4.751 4.6 Word Length SD: 2.44 2.4 No. of Words greater than 5 chars: 176 100 No. of Words greater than 6 chars: 142 80 No. of Words greater than 7 chars: 77 40 No. of Words greater than 8 chars: 44 20 Use of Passive Voice (%): 0 0 Avg. Sentence Length: 23.087 21.0 Sentence Length SD: 7.874 7.5 Use of Discourse Markers (%): 0.565 0.12 Sentence-Text Coherence: 0.345 0.35 Sentence-Para Coherence: 0.503 0.50 Sentence-Sentence Coherence: 0.096 0.07 Number of Paragraphs: 5 5
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Better Traffic Manners Where an Iron Fist Rules
By Andrew Higgins
- Sept. 29, 2016
MOSCOW — The usually busy Moscow street was empty of cars and also of police officers as a light drizzle turned into a downpour.
Yet, in a city where traffic rules used to be viewed as entirely optional, a dozen pedestrians all stayed rooted on the sidewalk, waiting obediently in the rain as a red light counted down the 160 seconds they needed to wait before crossing.
“I always try to follow the rules. I want to live in a civilized country,” said Aleksei Smirnov, a 22-year-old courier, when asked why he bothered to wait when there was virtually no risk of getting hit by a car or fined for jaywalking.
For anyone who lived in Moscow in the 1990s, a decade-long fiesta of disobedience and bracing liberty, Mr. Smirnov’s reverence for the rituals of good behavior is a jolting reminder of how much Russia, or at least its capital, has changed since President Vladimir V. Putin took power in 1999.
But as with so much of what happens in Russia, working out the direction of that change depends on what you make of Mr. Putin: sinister former K.G.B. officer bent on dragging the country back toward the fearful obedience of the Soviet Union, or simply a tough but modern-minded enforcer intent on bringing some order out of chaos?
For government officials, the growing and once unimaginable respect for bothersome traffic signals is proof that, whatever the complaints of Kremlin critics about creeping dictatorship, the iron rule of Mr. Putin and his handpicked choice as Moscow mayor, Sergei S. Sobyanin, has brought about a long-overdue shift toward a gentler, more law-abiding society.
“It is not because people are afraid but because they are now taught from childhood to follow traffic and other rules,” said Alexander Polyakov, deputy director of the Moscow Traffic Control Center, the headquarters of an elaborate monitoring and control system that features 40,000 traffic lights, 150,000 cameras dotted around the city and a vast data storage facility that holds all the video transmitted from the streets.
Watching street scenes projected onto a big screen in the main control room, Moscow’s traffic controllers monitor the flow of the 3.5 million cars and many more pedestrians moving around the city each day.
Mr. Polyakov said he was dismayed by Russia’s image in the West as a lawless land of brutish oppression. He insisted that, at least with respect to traffic signals, people obey not out of fear of any fines — the maximum is 500 rubles, or about $8 — but because “they now respect themselves and also each other.”
He said that, in contrast to the anything-goes, risk-taking ethos that dominated Moscow in the 1990s, “people don’t want to take risks anymore” at crosswalks because they understand that everyone is better off if rules are respected.
It is a view that chimes with Mr. Putin’s repeated calls for greater discipline and order. Soon after taking power, he vowed to introduce a “dictatorship of law” that he said would apply to everyone and put an end to the disorder that followed the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991.
But many are highly skeptical about whether Mr. Putin has delivered — or even has any real interest in delivering — on that promise. Law enforcement agencies and the courts routinely hound government critics over minor or invented offenses but show little desire to punish the more serious misdeeds of well-connected insiders.
Leon Kosals, a sociologist who teaches in the law department of Moscow’s Higher School of Economics, said Muscovites “know that they cannot get access to justice, that it is not a fair game.” But he said they increasingly try to follow traffic and other rules “because they want to live in a modern country, not because they think the system is now fair.”
Rather than an endorsement of the Kremlin, Mr. Kosals added, such behavior is in some ways a form of silent protest, a defiant display of a desire to enjoy the modernity of the West, a political and cultural zone constantly vilified by state-run news media as a sinkhole of decadent misery rife with Russophobes and homosexuals.
The Moscow city authorities, Mr. Kosals said, deserve credit for curbing the once brazenly corrupt traffic police and investing heavily to beautify the city. But a more important factor in changing pedestrian habits, he said, is the longing of many Muscovites for a different and more civilized life.
The result, he said, is “an unfortunately rare success story for Russia.”
“In this area,” he said, “there is a joint effort between both government and society.”
Moscow still has huge traffic jams at rush hour and, according to TomTom, a Dutch company that compiles an annual survey of global traffic conditions, is now the world’s fifth most congested city.
But this is a big improvement over just a few years ago, when Moscow beat out Mexico City, Bangkok and other notoriously congested cities for the title of the world’s worst traffic.
This progress, said Mr. Polyakov of the city’s Traffic Control Center, is because of new roads, a new automated system for fining motorists and better behavior by drivers and pedestrians, who, thanks to the introduction of new traffic lights, now know exactly how many seconds they have to wait to cross.
“They can see that they will not have to wait forever, that there is hope of getting to the other side,” Mr. Polyakov said.
Where Russia hopes to get to exactly and how long this will take, however, are a muddle. While the Kremlin denounces the United States and Europe as a hostile menace intent on enfeebling Russia, the city of Moscow has at the same time become steadily more European in its tastes, habits and aspirations.
Basic courtesies like holding the door at the entrance to the Metro so it does not slam in the face of the next person are gaining ground, particularly among young urban professionals.
“It is a fantastic phenomenon — this is an urban revolution,” said Sergei Nikitin, a preservation activist and expert on urban planning. “I never thought people in Moscow would be so caring about their city and each other.”
Moscow, he said, is undergoing “real gentrification in the sense that it is becoming more gentle.”
In the vanguard of this are younger Muscovites like Mr. Smirnov who have no memories of the Soviet Union and who have traveled widely outside Russia. But their elders, too, now mostly wait at crosswalks.
Tatiana Markovsova, the wife of a Soviet-era diplomat who was based in London, waited alongside Mr. Smirnov in the rain recently but said respect for traffic signals was not so much a sign of any embrace of European ways but a healthy return to the discipline of the Soviet era.
“Under Yeltsin, everything was in chaos,” she said. “He was drunk all the time, and nobody followed the rules. Now things are getting back to the way they were.”
She added that she thought pedestrians waited for the light to change mainly because they were worried about being fined or being run over.
For Mr. Nikitin, the urban planning expert, however, the growing readiness of many Muscovites to follow pedestrian traffic signals “is the very opposite of Soviet attitudes” of fatalistic patience bred by the need to wait in long lines at shops and fear of punishment.
“A lot of cultural factors are very important here, not just fines,” he said. “It is about being civil, not about discipline.”
Mr. Nikitin applauded the Moscow authorities for sprucing up the city with various programs to refurbish dilapidated buildings, repave roads, widen sidewalks and establish cycle lanes.
Many liberal intellectuals, particularly those active in opposition politics, grumble about the beautification efforts, which went into high gear after mass anti-Putin protests in Moscow in 2011. The physical changes in the city have succeeded in calming, or at least defusing, the discontent of middle-class residents by making Moscow far more friendly for cyclists, pedestrians and young stroller-pushing parents — precisely the upwardly mobile people who took to the streets in protest in 2011.
Mr. Nikitin said that while changing the city’s appearance would not solve Russia’s many deep problems, it had encouraged new and more civil codes of behavior among residents.
“The beautification is real. You cannot deny it,” he said. “This changes the way people think and behave.”
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Published: Friday 25th of January 2013
2018 Primetime Emmy & James Beard Award Winner
In Transit: Notes from the Underground
Jun 06 2018.
Spend some time in one of Moscow’s finest museums.
Subterranean commuting might not be anyone’s idea of a good time, but even in a city packing the war-games treasures and priceless bejeweled eggs of the Kremlin Armoury and the colossal Soviet pavilions of the VDNKh , the Metro holds up as one of Moscow’s finest museums. Just avoid rush hour.
The Metro is stunning and provides an unrivaled insight into the city’s psyche, past and present, but it also happens to be the best way to get around. Moscow has Uber, and the Russian version called Yandex Taxi , but also some nasty traffic. Metro trains come around every 90 seconds or so, at a more than 99 percent on-time rate. It’s also reasonably priced, with a single ride at 55 cents (and cheaper in bulk). From history to tickets to rules — official and not — here’s what you need to know to get started.
A Brief Introduction Buying Tickets Know Before You Go (Down) Rules An Easy Tour
A Brief Introduction
Moscow’s Metro was a long time coming. Plans for rapid transit to relieve the city’s beleaguered tram system date back to the Imperial era, but a couple of wars and a revolution held up its development. Stalin revived it as part of his grand plan to modernize the Soviet Union in the 1920s and 30s. The first lines and tunnels were constructed with help from engineers from the London Underground, although Stalin’s secret police decided that they had learned too much about Moscow’s layout and had them arrested on espionage charges and deported.
The beauty of its stations (if not its trains) is well-documented, and certainly no accident. In its illustrious first phases and particularly after the Second World War, the greatest architects of Soviet era were recruited to create gleaming temples celebrating the Revolution, the USSR, and the war triumph. No two stations are exactly alike, and each of the classic showpieces has a theme. There are world-famous shrines to Futurist architecture, a celebration of electricity, tributes to individuals and regions of the former Soviet Union. Each marble slab, mosaic tile, or light fixture was placed with intent, all in service to a station’s aesthetic; each element, f rom the smallest brass ear of corn to a large blood-spattered sword on a World War II mural, is an essential part of the whole.
The Metro is a monument to the Soviet propaganda project it was intended to be when it opened in 1935 with the slogan “Building a Palace for the People”. It brought the grand interiors of Imperial Russia to ordinary Muscovites, celebrated the Soviet Union’s past achievements while promising its citizens a bright Soviet future, and of course, it was a show-piece for the world to witness the might and sophistication of life in the Soviet Union.
It may be a museum, but it’s no relic. U p to nine million people use it daily, more than the London Underground and New York Subway combined. (Along with, at one time, about 20 stray dogs that learned to commute on the Metro.)
In its 80+ year history, the Metro has expanded in phases and fits and starts, in step with the fortunes of Moscow and Russia. Now, partly in preparation for the World Cup 2018, it’s also modernizing. New trains allow passengers to walk the entire length of the train without having to change carriages. The system is becoming more visitor-friendly. (There are helpful stickers on the floor marking out the best selfie spots .) But there’s a price to modernity: it’s phasing out one of its beloved institutions, the escalator attendants. Often they are middle-aged or elderly women—“ escalator grandmas ” in news accounts—who have held the post for decades, sitting in their tiny kiosks, scolding commuters for bad escalator etiquette or even bad posture, or telling jokes . They are slated to be replaced, when at all, by members of the escalator maintenance staff.
For all its achievements, the Metro lags behind Moscow’s above-ground growth, as Russia’s capital sprawls ever outwards, generating some of the world’s worst traffic jams . But since 2011, the Metro has been in the middle of an ambitious and long-overdue enlargement; 60 new stations are opening by 2020. If all goes to plan, the 2011-2020 period will have brought 125 miles of new tracks and over 100 new stations — a 40 percent increase — the fastest and largest expansion phase in any period in the Metro’s history.
Facts: 14 lines Opening hours: 5 a.m-1 a.m. Rush hour(s): 8-10 a.m, 4-8 p.m. Single ride: 55₽ (about 85 cents) Wi-Fi network-wide
- Ticket machines have a button to switch to English.
- You can buy specific numbers of rides: 1, 2, 5, 11, 20, or 60. Hold up fingers to show how many rides you want to buy.
- There is also a 90-minute ticket , which gets you 1 trip on the metro plus an unlimited number of transfers on other transport (bus, tram, etc) within 90 minutes.
- Or, you can buy day tickets with unlimited rides: one day (218₽/ US$4), three days (415₽/US$7) or seven days (830₽/US$15). Check the rates here to stay up-to-date.
- If you’re going to be using the Metro regularly over a few days, it’s worth getting a Troika card , a contactless, refillable card you can use on all public transport. Using the Metro is cheaper with one of these: a single ride is 36₽, not 55₽. Buy them and refill them in the Metro stations, and they’re valid for 5 years, so you can keep it for next time. Or, if you have a lot of cash left on it when you leave, you can get it refunded at the Metro Service Centers at Ulitsa 1905 Goda, 25 or at Staraya Basmannaya 20, Building 1.
- You can also buy silicone bracelets and keychains with built-in transport chips that you can use as a Troika card. (A Moscow Metro Fitbit!) So far, you can only get these at the Pushkinskaya metro station Live Helpdesk and souvenir shops in the Mayakovskaya and Trubnaya metro stations. The fare is the same as for the Troika card.
- You can also use Apple Pay and Samsung Pay.
Rules, spoken and unspoken
No smoking, no drinking, no filming, no littering. Photography is allowed, although it used to be banned.
Stand to the right on the escalator. Break this rule and you risk the wrath of the legendary escalator attendants. (No shenanigans on the escalators in general.)
Get out of the way. Find an empty corner to hide in when you get off a train and need to stare at your phone. Watch out getting out of the train in general; when your train doors open, people tend to appear from nowhere or from behind ornate marble columns, walking full-speed.
Always offer your seat to elderly ladies (what are you, a monster?).
An Easy Tour
This is no Metro Marathon ( 199 stations in 20 hours ). It’s an easy tour, taking in most—though not all—of the notable stations, the bulk of it going clockwise along the Circle line, with a couple of short detours. These stations are within minutes of one another, and the whole tour should take about 1-2 hours.
Start at Mayakovskaya Metro station , at the corner of Tverskaya and Garden Ring, Triumfalnaya Square, Moskva, Russia, 125047.
1. Mayakovskaya. Named for Russian Futurist Movement poet Vladimir Mayakovsky and an attempt to bring to life the future he imagined in his poems. (The Futurist Movement, natch, was all about a rejecting the past and celebrating all things speed, industry, modern machines, youth, modernity.) The result: an Art Deco masterpiece that won the National Grand Prix for architecture at the New York World’s Fair in 1939. It’s all smooth, rounded shine and light, and gentle arches supported by columns of dark pink marble and stainless aircraft steel. Each of its 34 ceiling niches has a mosaic. During World War II, the station was used as an air-raid shelter and, at one point, a bunker for Stalin. He gave a subdued but rousing speech here in Nov. 6, 1941 as the Nazis bombed the city above.
Take the 3/Green line one station to:
2. Belorusskaya. Opened in 1952, named after the connected Belarussky Rail Terminal, which runs trains between Moscow and Belarus. This is a light marble affair with a white, cake-like ceiling, lined with Belorussian patterns and 12 Florentine ceiling mosaics depicting life in Belarussia when it was built.
Transfer onto the 1/Brown line. Then, one stop (clockwise) t o:
3. Novoslobodskaya. This station was designed around the stained-glass panels, which were made in Latvia, because Alexey Dushkin, the Soviet starchitect who dreamed it up (and also designed Mayakovskaya station) couldn’t find the glass and craft locally. The stained glass is the same used for Riga’s Cathedral, and the panels feature plants, flowers, members of the Soviet intelligentsia (musician, artist, architect) and geometric shapes.
Go two stops east on the 1/Circle line to:
4. Komsomolskaya. Named after the Komsomol, or the Young Communist League, this might just be peak Stalin Metro style. Underneath the hub for three regional railways, it was intended to be a grand gateway to Moscow and is today its busiest station. It has chandeliers; a yellow ceiling with Baroque embellishments; and in the main hall, a colossal red star overlaid on golden, shimmering tiles. Designer Alexey Shchusev designed it as an homage to the speech Stalin gave at Red Square on Nov. 7, 1941, in which he invoked Russia’s illustrious military leaders as a pep talk to Soviet soldiers through the first catastrophic year of the war. The station’s eight large mosaics are of the leaders referenced in the speech, such as Alexander Nevsky, a 13th-century prince and military commander who bested German and Swedish invading armies.
One more stop clockwise to Kurskaya station, and change onto the 3/Blue line, and go one stop to:
5. Baumanskaya. Opened in 1944. Named for the Bolshevik Revolutionary Nikolai Bauman , whose monument and namesake district are aboveground here. Though he seemed like a nasty piece of work (he apparently once publicly mocked a woman he had impregnated, who later hung herself), he became a Revolutionary martyr when he was killed in 1905 in a skirmish with a monarchist, who hit him on the head with part of a steel pipe. The station is in Art Deco style with atmospherically dim lighting, and a series of bronze sculptures of soldiers and homefront heroes during the War. At one end, there is a large mosaic portrait of Lenin.
Stay on that train direction one more east to:
6. Elektrozavodskaya. As you may have guessed from the name, this station is the Metro’s tribute to all thing electrical, built in 1944 and named after a nearby lightbulb factory. It has marble bas-relief sculptures of important figures in electrical engineering, and others illustrating the Soviet Union’s war-time struggles at home. The ceiling’s recurring rows of circular lamps give the station’s main tunnel a comforting glow, and a pleasing visual effect.
Double back two stops to Kurskaya station , and change back to the 1/Circle line. Sit tight for six stations to:
7. Kiyevskaya. This was the last station on the Circle line to be built, in 1954, completed under Nikita Khrushchev’ s guidance, as a tribute to his homeland, Ukraine. Its three large station halls feature images celebrating Ukraine’s contributions to the Soviet Union and Russo-Ukrainian unity, depicting musicians, textile-working, soldiers, farmers. (One hall has frescoes, one mosaics, and the third murals.) Shortly after it was completed, Khrushchev condemned the architectural excesses and unnecessary luxury of the Stalin era, which ushered in an epoch of more austere Metro stations. According to the legend at least, he timed the policy in part to ensure no Metro station built after could outshine Kiyevskaya.
Change to the 3/Blue line and go one stop west.
8. Park Pobedy. This is the deepest station on the Metro, with one of the world’s longest escalators, at 413 feet. If you stand still, the escalator ride to the surface takes about three minutes .) Opened in 2003 at Victory Park, the station celebrates two of Russia’s great military victories. Each end has a mural by Georgian artist Zurab Tsereteli, who also designed the “ Good Defeats Evil ” statue at the UN headquarters in New York. One mural depicts the Russian generals’ victory over the French in 1812 and the other, the German surrender of 1945. The latter is particularly striking; equal parts dramatic, triumphant, and gruesome. To the side, Red Army soldiers trample Nazi flags, and if you look closely there’s some blood spatter among the detail. Still, the biggest impressions here are the marble shine of the chessboard floor pattern and the pleasingly geometric effect if you view from one end to the other.
Keep going one more stop west to:
9. Slavyansky Bulvar. One of the Metro’s youngest stations, it opened in 2008. With far higher ceilings than many other stations—which tend to have covered central tunnels on the platforms—it has an “open-air” feel (or as close to it as you can get, one hundred feet under). It’s an homage to French architect Hector Guimard, he of the Art Nouveau entrances for the Paris M é tro, and that’s precisely what this looks like: A Moscow homage to the Paris M é tro, with an additional forest theme. A Cyrillic twist on Guimard’s Metro-style lettering over the benches, furnished with t rees and branch motifs, including creeping vines as towering lamp-posts.
Stay on the 3/Blue line and double back four stations to:
10. Arbatskaya. Its first iteration, Arbatskaya-Smolenskaya station, was damaged by German bombs in 1941. It was rebuilt in 1953, and designed to double as a bomb shelter in the event of nuclear war, although unusually for stations built in the post-war phase, this one doesn’t have a war theme. It may also be one of the system’s most elegant: Baroque, but toned down a little, with red marble floors and white ceilings with gilded bronze c handeliers.
Jump back on the 3/Blue line in the same direction and take it one more stop:
11. Ploshchad Revolyutsii (Revolution Square). Opened in 1938, and serving Red Square and the Kremlin . Its renowned central hall has marble columns flanked by 76 bronze statues of Soviet heroes: soldiers, students, farmers, athletes, writers, parents. Some of these statues’ appendages have a yellow sheen from decades of Moscow’s commuters rubbing them for good luck. Among the most popular for a superstitious walk-by rub: the snout of a frontier guard’s dog, a soldier’s gun (where the touch of millions of human hands have tapered the gun barrel into a fine, pointy blade), a baby’s foot, and a woman’s knee. (A brass rooster also sports the telltale gold sheen, though I am told that rubbing the rooster is thought to bring bad luck. )
Now take the escalator up, and get some fresh air.
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21 Things to Know Before You Go to Moscow
Featured city guides.