Essay on Nuclear Energy
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100 Words Essay on Nuclear Energy
Nuclear energy is a powerful source of energy generated from atomic reactions. It is created from the splitting of atoms, a process known as nuclear fission.
Production of Nuclear Energy
Nuclear energy is produced in nuclear power plants. These plants use uranium, a mineral, as fuel. The heat generated from nuclear fission is used to create steam, which spins a turbine to generate electricity.
Benefits of Nuclear Energy
Nuclear energy is very efficient. It produces a large amount of energy from a small amount of uranium. It also does not emit harmful greenhouse gases, making it environmentally friendly.
Drawbacks of Nuclear Energy
Despite its benefits, nuclear energy has drawbacks. The most significant is the production of radioactive waste, which is dangerous and hard to dispose of. It also poses a risk of nuclear accidents.
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250 Words Essay on Nuclear Energy
Introduction to nuclear energy.
Nuclear energy, a powerful and complex energy source, is derived from splitting atoms in a process known as nuclear fission. Its significant energy output and low greenhouse gas emissions make it a potential solution to the world’s increasing energy demands.
Production and Efficiency
Nuclear power plants operate by using nuclear fission to generate heat, which then produces steam to turn turbines and generate electricity. The efficiency of nuclear energy is unparalleled, with one kilogram of uranium-235 producing approximately three million times the energy of a kilogram of coal.
Nuclear energy is often considered a clean energy source due to its minimal carbon footprint. However, the production of nuclear energy also results in radioactive waste, the disposal of which poses significant environmental challenges.
Security and Ethical Concerns
The utilization of nuclear energy is not without its risks. Accidents like those at Chernobyl and Fukushima have highlighted the potential for catastrophic damage. Furthermore, the proliferation of nuclear technology raises ethical concerns about its potential misuse for military purposes.
Future of Nuclear Energy
The future of nuclear energy hinges on technological advancements and policy decisions. The development of safer, more efficient reactors and sustainable waste disposal methods could mitigate some of the risks associated with nuclear energy. Additionally, international cooperation is crucial to ensure the peaceful and secure use of nuclear technology.
In conclusion, nuclear energy presents a potent solution to the energy crisis, but it also brings significant challenges. Balancing its benefits against the associated risks requires careful consideration and responsible action.
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500 Words Essay on Nuclear Energy
Nuclear energy, a powerful and complex form of energy, is derived from splitting atoms in a reactor to heat water into steam, turn a turbine, and generate electricity. Ninety-four nuclear reactors in 28 states, approximately 20% of total electricity production in the United States, are powered by this process. Globally, nuclear energy is a significant source of power, contributing to about 10% of the world’s total electricity supply.
The Mechanics of Nuclear Energy
Nuclear energy is produced through a process called nuclear fission. This process involves the splitting of uranium atoms in a nuclear reactor, which releases an immense amount of energy in the form of heat and radiation. The heat generated is then used to boil water, create steam, and power turbines that generate electricity.
The fuel for nuclear reactors, uranium, is abundant and can be found in many parts of the world, making nuclear energy a viable option for countries without significant fossil fuel resources. Moreover, the energy produced by a single uranium atom split is a million times greater than that from burning a single coal or gas molecule, making nuclear power a highly efficient energy source.
Pros and Cons of Nuclear Energy
One of the main advantages of nuclear energy is its low greenhouse gas emission. It emits a fraction of the carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases compared to fossil fuel-based energy sources, making it a potential solution to combat climate change.
Nuclear energy is also reliable. Unlike renewable energy sources like wind and solar, nuclear power plants can operate continuously and are not dependent on weather conditions. They can provide a steady, uninterrupted supply of electricity, which is crucial for the functioning of modern societies.
However, nuclear energy also has significant drawbacks. The risk of nuclear accidents, while statistically low, can have devastating and long-lasting impacts, as seen in Chernobyl and Fukushima. Additionally, the disposal of nuclear waste poses a serious challenge due to its long-term radioactivity.
The Future of Nuclear Energy
The future of nuclear energy is uncertain. On one hand, the demand for low-carbon energy sources to combat climate change could lead to an increase in the use of nuclear energy. On the other hand, concerns about nuclear safety, waste disposal, and the high costs of building new nuclear power plants could hinder its growth.
Advancements in nuclear technology, such as the development of small modular reactors and fourth-generation reactors, could address some of these concerns. These technologies promise to be safer, more efficient, and produce less nuclear waste, potentially paving the way for a nuclear renaissance.
In conclusion, nuclear energy presents a compelling paradox. It offers a high-energy, low-carbon alternative to fossil fuels, yet it carries significant risks and challenges. As we move towards a more sustainable future, it is crucial to weigh these factors and make informed decisions about the role of nuclear energy in our global energy mix.
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Nuclear energy is the energy in the nucleus, or core, of an atom. Nuclear energy can be used to create electricity, but it must first be released from the atom.
Nuclear energy is the energy in the nucleus , or core, of an atom . Atoms are tiny units that make up all matter in the universe , and energy is what holds the nucleus together. There is a huge amount of energy in an atom 's dense nucleus . In fact, the power that holds the nucleus together is officially called the " strong force ." Nuclear energy can be used to create electricity , but it must first be released from the atom . In the process of nuclear fission , atoms are split to release that energy. A nuclear reactor , or power plant , is a series of machines that can control nuclear fission to produce electricity . The fuel that nuclear reactors use to produce nuclear fission is pellets of the element uranium . In a nuclear reactor , atoms of uranium are forced to break apart. As they split, the atoms release tiny particles called fission products. Fission products cause other uranium atoms to split, starting a chain reaction . The energy released from this chain reaction creates heat. The heat created by nuclear fission warms the reactor's cooling agent . A cooling agent is usually water, but some nuclear reactors use liquid metal or molten salt . The cooling agent , heated by nuclear fission , produces steam . The steam turns turbines , or wheels turned by a flowing current . The turbines drive generators , or engines that create electricity . Rods of material called nuclear poison can adjust how much electricity is produced. Nuclear poisons are materials, such as a type of the element xenon , that absorb some of the fission products created by nuclear fission . The more rods of nuclear poison that are present during the chain reaction , the slower and more controlled the reaction will be. Removing the rods will allow a stronger chain reaction and create more electricity . As of 2011, about 15 percent of the world's electricity is generated by nuclear power plants . The United States has more than 100 reactors, although it creates most of its electricity from fossil fuels and hydroelectric energy . Nations such as Lithuania, France, and Slovakia create almost all of their electricity from nuclear power plants . Nuclear Food: Uranium Uranium is the fuel most widely used to produce nuclear energy . That's because uranium atoms split apart relatively easily. Uranium is also a very common element, found in rocks all over the world. However, the specific type of uranium used to produce nuclear energy , called U-235 , is rare. U-235 makes up less than one percent of the uranium in the world.
Although some of the uranium the United States uses is mined in this country, most is imported . The U.S. gets uranium from Australia, Canada, Kazakhstan, Russia, and Uzbekistan. Once uranium is mined, it must be extracted from other minerals . It must also be processed before it can be used. Because nuclear fuel can be used to create nuclear weapons as well as nuclear reactors , only nations that are part of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) are allowed to import uranium or plutonium , another nuclear fuel . The treaty promotes the peaceful use of nuclear fuel , as well as limiting the spread of nuclear weapons . A typical nuclear reactor uses about 200 tons of uranium every year. Complex processes allow some uranium and plutonium to be re-enriched or recycled . This reduces the amount of mining , extracting , and processing that needs to be done. Nuclear Energy and People Nuclear energy produces electricity that can be used to power homes, schools, businesses, and hospitals. The first nuclear reactor to produce electricity was located near Arco, Idaho. The Experimental Breeder Reactor began powering itself in 1951. The first nuclear power plant designed to provide energy to a community was established in Obninsk, Russia, in 1954. Building nuclear reactors requires a high level of technology , and only the countries that have signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty can get the uranium or plutonium that is required. For these reasons, most nuclear power plants are located in the developed world. Nuclear power plants produce renewable, clean energy . They do not pollute the air or release greenhouse gases . They can be built in urban or rural areas , and do not radically alter the environment around them. The steam powering the turbines and generators is ultimately recycled . It is cooled down in a separate structure called a cooling tower . The steam turns back into water and can be used again to produce more electricity . Excess steam is simply recycled into the atmosphere , where it does little harm as clean water vapor . However, the byproduct of nuclear energy is radioactive material. Radioactive material is a collection of unstable atomic nuclei . These nuclei lose their energy and can affect many materials around them, including organisms and the environment. Radioactive material can be extremely toxic , causing burns and increasing the risk for cancers , blood diseases, and bone decay .
Radioactive waste is what is left over from the operation of a nuclear reactor . Radioactive waste is mostly protective clothing worn by workers, tools, and any other material that have been in contact with radioactive dust. Radioactive waste is long-lasting. Materials like clothes and tools can stay radioactive for thousands of years. The government regulates how these materials are disposed of so they don't contaminate anything else. Used fuel and rods of nuclear poison are extremely radioactive . The used uranium pellets must be stored in special containers that look like large swimming pools. Water cools the fuel and insulates the outside from contact with the radioactivity. Some nuclear plants store their used fuel in dry storage tanks above ground. The storage sites for radioactive waste have become very controversial in the United States. For years, the government planned to construct an enormous nuclear waste facility near Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for instance. Environmental groups and local citizens protested the plan. They worried about radioactive waste leaking into the water supply and the Yucca Mountain environment, about 130 kilometers (80 miles) from the large urban area of Las Vegas, Nevada. Although the government began investigating the site in 1978, it stopped planning for a nuclear waste facility in Yucca Mountain in 2009. Chernobyl Critics of nuclear energy worry that the storage facilities for radioactive waste will leak, crack, or erode . Radioactive material could then contaminate the soil and groundwater near the facility . This could lead to serious health problems for the people and organisms in the area. All communities would have to be evacuated . This is what happened in Chernobyl, Ukraine, in 1986. A steam explosion at one of the power plants four nuclear reactors caused a fire, called a plume . This plume was highly radioactive , creating a cloud of radioactive particles that fell to the ground, called fallout . The fallout spread over the Chernobyl facility , as well as the surrounding area. The fallout drifted with the wind, and the particles entered the water cycle as rain. Radioactivity traced to Chernobyl fell as rain over Scotland and Ireland. Most of the radioactive fallout fell in Belarus.
The environmental impact of the Chernobyl disaster was immediate . For kilometers around the facility , the pine forest dried up and died. The red color of the dead pines earned this area the nickname the Red Forest . Fish from the nearby Pripyat River had so much radioactivity that people could no longer eat them. Cattle and horses in the area died. More than 100,000 people were relocated after the disaster , but the number of human victims of Chernobyl is difficult to determine . The effects of radiation poisoning only appear after many years. Cancers and other diseases can be very difficult to trace to a single source. Future of Nuclear Energy Nuclear reactors use fission, or the splitting of atoms , to produce energy. Nuclear energy can also be produced through fusion, or joining (fusing) atoms together. The sun, for instance, is constantly undergoing nuclear fusion as hydrogen atoms fuse to form helium . Because all life on our planet depends on the sun, you could say that nuclear fusion makes life on Earth possible. Nuclear power plants do not have the capability to safely and reliably produce energy from nuclear fusion . It's not clear whether the process will ever be an option for producing electricity . Nuclear engineers are researching nuclear fusion , however, because the process will likely be safe and cost-effective.
Nuclear Tectonics The decay of uranium deep inside the Earth is responsible for most of the planet's geothermal energy, causing plate tectonics and continental drift.
Three Mile Island The worst nuclear accident in the United States happened at the Three Mile Island facility near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, in 1979. The cooling system in one of the two reactors malfunctioned, leading to an emission of radioactive fallout. No deaths or injuries were directly linked to the accident.
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Nuclear energy: essay on nuclear energy (548 words).
Nuclear Energy: Essay on Nuclear Energy!
Nuclear power is the power that is released by manipulating atoms, by splitting them apart (fission) or fusing them together, (fusion) (Fig. 3.6). Finally, there are some minerals included as energy sources in the non-renewable category.
A mineral such as uranium can be used to create heat and even electricity by means of nuclear fission (the splitting of its atoms).
Nuclear power accounts for about 20 per cent of the total electricity generated in the United States. Nuclear power plant operates basically the same way as a fossil fuel plant, with one difference: the source of heat. The process that produces the heat in a nuclear plant is the fissioning or splitting of uranium atoms. That heat boils water to make the steam that turns the turbine-generator, just as in a fossil fuel plant. The part of the plant where the heat is produced is called the reactor core.
Most power plants burn fuel to produce electricity but not nuclear power plants. Instead, nuclear plants use the heat given off during fission as fuel. Fission takes place inside the reactor of a nuclear power plant. At the center of the reactor is the core, which contains the uranium fuel.
The uranium fuel is formed into ceramic pellets. The pellets are about the size of your fingertip, but each one produces the same amount of energy as 150 gallons of oil. These energy-rich pellets are stacked end-to-end in 12-foot metal fuel rods. A bundle of fuel rods is called a fuel assembly.
Fission generates heat in a reactor just as coal generates heat in a boiler. The heat is used to boil water into steam. The steam turns huge turbine blades. As they turn, they drive generators that make electricity. Afterwards, the steam is changed back into water and cooled in a separate structure at the power plant called a cooling tower. The water can be used again and again.
In the BWR, the water heated by the reactor core turns directly into steam in the reactor vessel and is then used to power the turbine-generator. In a PWR, the water passing through the reactor core is kept under pressure so that it does not turn to steam at all — it remains liquid. Steam to drive the turbine is generated in a separate piece of equipment called a steam generator.
A steam generator is a giant cylinder with thousands of tubes in it through which the hot radioactive water can flow. Outside the tubes in the steam generator, non-radioactive water (or clean water) boils and eventually turns to steam.
The clean water may come from one of several sources: oceans, lakes or rivers. The radioactive water flows back to the reactor core, where it is reheated, only to flow back to the steam generator. Roughly seventy percent of the reactors operating in the U.S. are PWR.
Nuclear reactors are basically machines that contain and control chain reactions, while releasing heat at a controlled rate. In electric power plants, the reactors supply the heat to turn water into steam, which drives the turbine- generators. The electricity travels through high voltage transmission lines and low voltage distribution lines to homes, schools, hospitals, factories, office buildings, rail systems and other users.
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Nuclear Energy is a Better Choice for Meeting Increasing Demand – IELTS Writing Task 2
Updated On Oct 04, 2023
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- 1.1 Essay Type: Opinion Essay (Agree or Disagree)
- 2 Sample Essay
- 3 Band 9 Sample Essay
It is usually important to agree or disagree with a certain fact or piece of information in opinion essays. Your argument must support one of two opposing views in the essay.
Given below is an example of an IELTS Writing task 2 opinion essay. Let’s understand how to frame the essay from the ideas we have.
Nuclear energy is a better choice for meeting increasing demand. Do you agree or disagree?
Essay Type: Opinion Essay (Agree or Disagree)
Sentence 1: Introduction of nuclear energy.
Sentence 2: State whether nuclear energy is a better choice for meeting increasing demand.
Paragraph 1: One of the best substitutes for fossil fuels is Nuclear energy. It generates a lot of energy from a very small amount of fuel and emits very little Co2 and other harmful pollutants.
Paragraph 2: One of the major risks of using nuclear power is the creation of radioactive wastes that might be an environmental issue.
Restate your opinion with a clear and direct sentence (totally agree).
Nuclear energy is the all-powerful alternative to fossil fuels, and it is the finest choice to satisfy the rapidly increasing demand across the world. In my opinion, I completely agree with the fact that Nuclear energy is a pretty appropriate choice and a good replacement for fossil fuels. I will explain my views on why nuclear energy is a superior option in the subsequent paragraphs.
One of the best substitutes for fossil fuels is Nuclear energy. It generates a lot of energy from a very small amount of fuel and emits very little Co2 and other harmful pollutants. It also has a very good safety record as hundreds of nuclear power plants worldwide have been operating for more than fifty years without any serious accidents. Moreover, several nations are using nuclear energy as an alternative source to generate electricity as they don’t emit harmful gases that lead to acid rain or global warming. In fact, nuclear energy has saved many lives in the past, which may have been lost if we had built fossil-fuel plants instead of nuclear reactors.
One of the major threats of using nuclear power is the creation of radioactive wastes that might be an environmental issue. The radioactive materials might also be fatal. However, these nuclear power plants are built very carefully to prevent such releases. As a result, even the two worst nuclear accidents in history (Chernobyl and Fukushima) have harmed very few people in number compared to fossil fuel pollution.
Although nuclear fuel is not renewable like fossil fuels, they have high productivity with no geographical limitations. The sustainability of nuclear power is a very big concern as it will be an environmental tragedy if a dangerous crash occurs.
To reiterate, nuclear energy is a reliable and powerful source of electricity with zero emissions. Besides, nuclear energy is still more viable than fossil fuels and is relatively safe.
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Band 9 Sample Essay
There is no denying the fact that nuclear power comes with massive potential that can be used positively to improve mankind. Nuclear technology has become one of the potent resources and fulfills the demands of people accordingly. In my opinion, nuclear power has demonstrated more benefits for constructive purposes for varying factors of life. I shall illustrate my perspective in the below paragraphs.
To begin with, there are plenty of advantages that can be gained by developing more nuclear stations. First and foremost, nuclear technology is extensively used in the fields of science and medicine, such as X-rays, to diagnose significant internal fractures and injuries. Another noteworthy example is radiotherapy that is universally used to cure patients suffering from deadly diseases, such as malignant cancerous tumours, and more.
In addition to this, the green power stations, being eco-friendly, do not have any contribution to air pollution. Moreover, it can be used to produce electricity without wasting any restricted natural resources, be it gas or coal. To represent it better, everybody knows that nuclear gas is a renewable resource and that it cannot go extinct; hence, it can be effortlessly used in diverse major sectors. With this gas, there will be no issues of carbon emission. Furthermore, this way, there will be no issues of climate change, or the air quality will not further deteriorate. Consequently, a lot of countries are comprehending to integrate nuclear power as the solution to high demands of gas, oil, electricity and decrease the issues with climate changes as well as pollution.
While it is true nuclear power is being used for negative factors too, such as nuclear bombs, the benefits it offers evidently surpass the drawbacks.
Conclusively, nuclear technology definitely has a lot of positive uses and provides a promising future. From my point of view, it would be better if this power is used for its true benefits and the betterment of the world.
Meaning : having a complete or sole power
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Posted on Nov 10, 2021
One of the most popular way to produce energy are the nuclear power stations and some people think that, considering the high request of energy, is better than other sources. I disagree with this idea because I believe there are greenest solutions. There are several reasons why nuclear energy is not the best possibility to cover the demand. While it is true that the amount of energy produced is higher compared to other sources, it is also true that nuclear power stations cause different problems. Residues are radioactive, this means that they are toxic and it is very difficult to dispose of them. If something goes wrong while disposing of toxic waste serious and dangerous consequences will verify. The other huge issue is the possible explosion of a nuclear reactor. It is still stick in our mind the disaster of cernobyl and what it caused, the radioactivity was spread in all Europe and a vast quantity of people died in that occasion. There are other ways to provide the right amount of energy sufficient for the entire world. The scientific progress went so far that now we can produce energy from sea plants. Now with the renewable sources we can have the energy we need, however politicians should do more about it. It is possible to produce energy with the waves of the oceans for example. Another way is using the wind or the solar energy absorbed by solar panels around the world, also geothermal stations can provide energy. In conclusion, my view is that with the combined use of these green sources of energy we would see a sustainable planet without the risk of others explosion of nuclear power stations.
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Home — Essay Samples — Environment — Human Impact — Nuclear Energy
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Free Nuclear Energy Essay Example
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Topic: Disaster , Atomic Bomb , Energy , World , Power , Fossil Fuels , Nuclear Power , Nuclear Energy
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There are two main reasons why nuclear energy has been attractive in the discussions of global energy supply. One major reason is the problem of global warming which is the major cause of climate change. For the past 100 years, the earth’s temperature has been increasing due to the gradual increase of heat waves which were trapped in the atmosphere because of the large amounts of greenhouse gases (Cravens 8). There are many problems and treats that are associated with global warming such as societal, economic and environmental problems. Another main reason is the reduced dependency on fossil fuels. Fossil fuels are non-renewable which means its supply is decreasing every time (New Mexico Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources np). If the nuclear marine propulsion systems are not included, the nuclear power plants provide about 13 percent of the world’s energy supply in 2012. According to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), there are about 437 operating nuclear power plants which are located in 31 countries (Baek 134). The developed countries are investing large amounts of their resources on the development and improvement of nuclear power harnessing technology. Due to the increasing population and increasing environmental problems, the world needs a reliable energy supply which could provide carbon-free electricity. Nuclear energy is one of the major sustainable energy supplies nowadays. However, there are serious problems that are associated with the nuclear power technology such as radiation as well as toxic wastes (World Nuclear Association np). The objective of this essay is to argue that nuclear power will play a vital role in the sustainable development of the world’s major cities as well as the development of some rural areas. The government should invest more on the research and development of safer nuclear power technologies in order to reduce the problems that are associated with it. People should also reduce their dependency on non-renewable fossil fuels and rely more on the sustainable energy supplies such as nuclear power. In the modern times, the consumption of fossil fuels is still larger than the consumption of nuclear fuels. It could be problematic since the use of fossil fuels in the generation of electricity produces large amounts of greenhouse gasses (Rashad & Hammad 211). According to the energy Information Administration, 80% of the energy consumption of the world comes from fossil fuels (Baek & Pride 6). The most common fossil fuels used in the power generation plants include petroleum, coal and natural gas. The electricity generation from fossil fuels is accompanied by the emission of greenhouse gases which could result to serious environmental problems. Each year, the electricity generation from fossil fuels emits about 21.3 billion tons of carbon dioxide which is one of the greenhouse gases (Baek & Pride 7). In the United States, 90 percent of the carbon dioxide gas emission came from burning fossil fuels for energy generation (Cravens 8). High amounts of greenhouse gas emission came from the urban areas such as large cities in developed countries. Due to the trend of increasing population in these urban areas, the emission could also increase since the demand for energy will also become larger. The world needs sustainable energy supply that could provide electricity to large cities in the future. The world also needs to reduce its dependency on fossil fuels since the environment could not afford large emissions of greenhouse gases (New Mexico Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources np). One major solution to the problem given by the production of electricity from fossil fuels is the sustainable energy source such as nuclear energy (World Nuclear Association np). Unlike the fossil fuels, the use of nuclear energy for electricity generation does not emit greenhouse gases. Nuclear fuel is one of the major sustainable sources of energy which is clean and safer for the environment. According to most economic and environmental studies about power generation, the shift in nuclear power from fossil fuels could greatly reduce the carbon emission. It could result to reduction of the greenhouse effects and mitigation of the problem of global warming (New Mexico Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources np). There are many advantages and benefits that the nuclear energy could provide from the electricity dependent society such as urban areas and large cities. Aside from the less carbon emission, nuclear energy is also a more efficient energy source than the traditional fossil fuels. Only a small amount of nuclear fuel is needed to produce large amounts of electricity unlike fossil fuels. According to the IAEA, only a single pellet of nuclear fuel such as uranium which is as large as a coin is needed to generate electricity that could be produced by almost 150 gallons of petroleum (Baek & Pride 6). Nuclear energy could be very useful in space explorations, marine transportation and generation of electricity for large energy consumers such as urban areas or large cities of developed countries. Another main advantage of nuclear energy source is its economic potential. Even if the investment or the construction costs of the nuclear power plant is higher than the traditional plants using fossil fuels, the conversion efficiency of nuclear fuels could compensate the cost (Baek 133). Raw materials are the main source of costs of energy production in power plants. Unlike, very low amounts of nuclear fuels are needed to produce large amounts of electricity. The economic potential of nuclear power generation could be advantageous to the energy consumption of high population density areas. The economic potential of nuclear power generation could also benefit the progress and development of transportation sector due to its very high fuel-to-energy conversion efficiency (Rashad & Hammad 211). Most of the arguments against the use of nuclear energy are focused on the potential danger to people living near the nuclear power plants (Baek 134). Accidents could happen anywhere and nuclear power plant is not an exemption. Leaks as well as damages to the equipment used in the power generation using nuclear fuels could result to serious damages such as what happened in the Chernobyl. Radioactive wastes are also problems to the nuclear energy production since it could cause potential public health problems (World Nuclear Association np). However, these problems could be reduced by developing more advanced and more sophisticated nuclear plant technologies. People should invest on developing or improving the technology of energy generation from nuclear fuels. The population of the earth is increasing while the fuel sources are decreasing. The world could not afford anymore reliance on traditional fossil fuels due to the increasing effect of global warming. The world needs to shift to sustainable energy source and one potential alternative is the nuclear power. All of the fuel sources have their own disadvantages even with the nuclear energy generation. However, it could always be mitigated or reduce just by focusing on the improvement of the technology. Nuclear energy is very clean and very reliable due to its efficiency in energy conversion. It could help in cleaning the earth from other pollution created by the harnessing energy from the traditional fossil fuels. It could also be the key for the energy demand for future generations.
Baek, Jungho. A Panel Cointegration Analysis of CO2 Emissions, Nuclear Energy and Income in Major Nuclear Generating Countries. Applied Energy. 2015. Print. Baek, J., & Pride, D. On the income-nuclear energy-CO2 emission nexus revisited. Energy Economics. 2014. Cravens, G. Power to Save the World: the Truth about Nuclear Energy. New York: Knopf. 2007. Print New Mexico Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources. The Basics of Nuclear Energy – Why Nuclear Power. Nd. Web. https://geoinfo.nmt.edu/resources/uranium/why.html. Rashad, S., & Hammad, F. Nuclear power and the environment: Comparative assessment of environmental and health impacts of electricity-generating systems. Applied Energy. 2010. Print. World Nuclear Association. World Energy Needs and Nuclear Power. 2015. Web. http://www.world-nuclear.org/info/Current-and-Future-Generation/World-Energy-Needs-and-Nuclear-Power/.
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Nuclear Power: Technical and Institutional Options for the Future (1992)
Chapter: 5 conclusions and recommendations, conclusions and recommendations.
The Committee was requested to analyze the technological and institutional alternatives to retain an option for future U.S. nuclear power deployment.
A premise of the Senate report directing this study is “that nuclear fission remains an important option for meeting our electric energy requirements and maintaining a balanced national energy policy.” The Committee was not asked to examine this premise, and it did not do so. The Committee consisted of members with widely ranging views on the desirability of nuclear power. Nevertheless, all members approached the Committee's charge from the perspective of what would be necessary if we are to retain nuclear power as an option for meeting U.S. electric energy requirements, without attempting to achieve consensus on whether or not it should be retained. The Committee's conclusions and recommendations should be read in this context.
The Committee's review and analyses have been presented in previous chapters. Here the Committee consolidates the conclusions and recommendations found in the previous chapters and adds some additional conclusions and recommendations based upon some of the previous statements. The Committee also includes some conclusions and recommendations that are not explicitly based upon the earlier chapters but stem from the considerable experience of the Committee members.
Most of the following discussion contains conclusions. There also are a few recommendations. Where the recommendations appear they are identified as such by bold italicized type.
In 1989, nuclear plants produced about 19 percent of the United States ' electricity, 77 percent of France's electricity, 26 percent of Japan's electricity, and 33 percent of West Germany's electricity. However, expansion of commercial nuclear energy has virtually halted in the United States. In other countries, too, growth of nuclear generation has slowed or stopped. The reasons in the United States include reduced growth in demand for electricity, high costs, regulatory uncertainty, and public opinion. In the United States, concern for safety, the economics of nuclear power, and waste disposal issues adversely affect the general acceptance of nuclear power.
Estimated growth in summer peak demand for electricity in the United States has fallen from the 1974 projection of more than 7 percent per year to a relatively steady level of about 2 percent per year. Plant orders based on the projections resulted in cancellations, extended construction schedules, and excess capacity during much of the 1970s and 1980s. The excess capacity has diminished in the past five years, and ten year projections (at approximately 2 percent per year) suggest a need for new capacity in the 1990s and beyond. To meet near-term anticipated demand, bidding by non-utility generators and energy efficiency providers is establishing a trend for utilities acquiring a substantial portion of this new generating capacity from others. Reliance on non-utility generators does not now favor large scale baseload technologies.
Nuclear power plants emit neither precursors to acid rain nor gases that contribute to global warming, like carbon dioxide. Both of these environmental issues are currently of great concern. New regulations to address these issues will lead to increases in the costs of electricity produced by combustion of coal, one of nuclear power's main competitors. Increased costs for coal-generated electricity will also benefit alternate energy sources that do not emit these pollutants.
Major deterrents for new U.S. nuclear plant orders include high capital carrying charges, driven by high construction costs and extended construction times, as well as the risk of not recovering all construction costs.
Construction costs are hard to establish, with no central source, and inconsistent data from several sources. Available data show a wide range of costs for U.S. nuclear plants, with the most expensive costing three times more (in dollars per kilowatt electric) than the least expensive in the same year of commercial operation. In the post-Three Mile Island era, the cost increases have been much larger. Considerable design modification and retrofitting to meet new regulations contributed to cost increases. From 1971 to 1980, the most expensive nuclear plant (in constant dollars) increased by 30 percent. The highest cost for a nuclear plant beginning commercial operation in the United States was twice as expensive (in constant dollars) from 1981 to 1984 as it was from 1977 to 1980.
Although plant size also increased, the average time to construct a U.S. nuclear plant went from about 5 years prior to 1975 to about 12 years from 1985 to 1989. U.S. construction times are much longer than those in other major nuclear countries, except for the United Kingdom. Over the period 1978 to 1989, the U.S. average construction time was nearly twice that of France and more than twice that of Japan.
Billions of dollars in disallowances of recovery of costs from utility ratepayers have made utilities and the financial community leery of further investments in nuclear power plants. During the 1980s, rate base disallowances by state regulators totaled about $14 billion for nuclear plants, but only about $0.7 billion for non-nuclear plants.
Operation and maintenance (O&M) costs for U.S. nuclear plants have increased faster than for coal plants. Over the decade of the 1980s, U.S. nuclear O&M-plus-fuel costs grew from nearly half to about the same as those for fossil fueled plants, a significant shift in relative advantage.
On average, U.S. nuclear plants have poorer capacity factors compared to those of plants in other Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries. On a lifetime basis, the United States is barely above 60 percent capacity factor, while France and Japan are at 68 percent, and West Germany is at 74 percent. Moreover, through 1988 12 U.S. plants were in the bottom 22. However, some U.S. plants do very well: 3 of the top 22 OECD plants through 1988 were U.S. U.S. plants averaged 65 percent in 1988, 63 percent in 1989, and 68 percent in 1990.
Except for capacity factors, the performance indicators of U.S. nuclear plants have improved significantly over the past several years. If the industry is to achieve parity with the operating performance in other countries, it must carefully examine its failure to achieve its own goal in this area and develop improved strategies, including better management practices. Such practices are important if the generators are to develop confidence that the new generation of plants can achieve the higher load factors estimated by the vendors.
There has been substantial opposition to new plants. The failure to solve the high-level radioactive waste disposal problem has harmed nuclear power's public image. It is the Committee's opinion, based upon our experience, that, more recently, an inability of states, that are members of regional compact commissions, to site low-level radioactive waste facilities has also harmed nuclear power's public image.
Several factors seem to influence the public to have a less than positive attitude toward new nuclear plants:
no perceived urgency for new capacity;
nuclear power is believed to be more costly than alternatives;
concerns that nuclear power is not safe enough;
little trust in government or industry advocates of nuclear power;
concerns about the health effects of low-level radiation;
concerns that there is no safe way to dispose of high-level waste; and
concerns about proliferation of nuclear weapons.
The Committee concludes that the following would improve public opinion of nuclear power:
a recognized need for a greater electrical supply that can best be met by large plants;
economic sanctions or public policies imposed to reduce fossil fuel burning;
maintaining the safe operation of existing nuclear plants and informing the public;
providing the opportunity for meaningful public participation in nuclear power issues, including generation planning, siting, and oversight;
better communication on the risk of low-level radiation;
resolving the high-level waste disposal issue; and
assurance that a revival of nuclear power would not increase proliferation of nuclear weapons.
As a result of operating experience, improved O&M training programs, safety research, better inspections, and productive use of probabilistic risk analysis, safety is continually improved. The Committee concludes that the risk to the health of the public from the operation of current reactors in the United States is very small. In this fundamental sense, current reactors are safe. However, a significant segment of the public has a different perception and also believes that the level of safety can and should be increased. The
development of advanced reactors is in part an attempt to respond to this public attitude.
The Committee believes that large-scale deployment of new nuclear power plants will require significant changes by both industry and government.
One of the most important factors affecting the future of nuclear power in the United States is its cost in relation to alternatives and the recovery of these capital and operating charges through rates that are charged for the electricity produced. Chapter 2 of this report deals with these issues in some detail. As stated there, the industry must develop better methods for managing the design and construction of nuclear plants. Arrangements among the participants that would assure timely, economical, and high-quality construction of new nuclear plants, the Committee believes, will be prerequisites to an adequate degree of assurance of capital cost recovery from state regulatory authorities in advance of construction. The development of state prudency laws also can provide a positive response to this issue.
The Committee and others are well aware of the increases in nuclear plant construction and operating costs over the last 20 years and the extension of plant construction schedules over this same period. 1 The Committee believes there are many reasons for these increases but is unable to disaggregate the cost effect among these reasons with any meaningful precision.
Like others, the Committee believes that the financial community and the generators must both be satisfied that significant improvements can be achieved before new plants can be ordered. In addition, the Committee believes that greater confidence in the control of costs can be realized with plant designs that are more nearly complete before construction begins, plants that are easier to construct, use of better construction and management methods, and business arrangements among the participants that provide stronger incentives for cost-effective, timely completion of projects.
It is the Committee's opinion, based upon our experience, that the principal participants in the nuclear industry--utilities, architect-engineers, and suppliers –should begin now to work out the full range of contractual arrangements for advanced nuclear power plants. Such arrangements would
increase the confidence of state regulatory bodies and others that the principal participants in advanced nuclear power plant projects will be financially accountable for the quality, timeliness, and economy of their products and services.
Inadequate management practices have been identified at some U.S. utilities, large and small public and private. Because of the high visibility of nuclear power and the responsibility for public safety, a consistently higher level of demonstrated utility management practices is essential before the U.S. public's attitude about nuclear power is likely to improve.
Over the past decade, utilities have steadily strengthened their ability to be responsible for the safety of their plants. Their actions include the formation and support of industry institutions, including the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO). Self-assessment and peer oversight through INPO are acknowledged to be strong and effective means of improving the performance of U.S. nuclear power plants. The Committee believes that such industry self-improvement, accountability, and self-regulation efforts improve the ability to retain nuclear power as an option for meeting U.S. electric energy requirements. The Committee encourages industry efforts to reduce reliance on the adversarial approach to issue resolution.
It is the Committee's opinion, based upon our experience, that the nuclear industry should continue to take the initiative to bring the standards of every American nuclear plant up to those of the best plants in the United States and the world. Chronic poor performers should be identified publicly and should face the threat of insurance cancellations. Every U.S. nuclear utility should continue its full-fledged participation in INPO; any new operators should be required to become members through insurance prerequisites or other institutional mechanisms.
Standardization. The Committee views a high degree of standardization as very important for the retention of nuclear power as an option for meeting U.S. electric energy requirements. There is not a uniformly accepted definition of standardization. The industry, under the auspices of the Nuclear Power Oversight Committee, has developed a position paper on standardization that provides definitions of the various phases of standardization and expresses an industry commitment to standardization. The Committee believes that a strong and sustained commitment by the principal participants will be required to realize the potential benefits of standardization (of families of plants) in the diverse U.S. economy. It is the Committee's opinion, based upon our experience, that the following will be necessary:
Families of standardized plants will be important for ensuring the highest levels of safety and for realizing the potential economic benefits of new nuclear plants. Families of standardized plants will allow standardized approaches to plant modification, maintenance, operation, and training.
Customers, whether utilities or other entities, must insist on standardization before an order is placed, during construction, and throughout the life of the plant.
Suppliers must take standardization into account early in planning and marketing. Any supplier of standardized units will need the experience and resources for a long-term commitment.
Antitrust considerations will have to be properly taken into account to develop standardized plants.
Nuclear Regulatory Commission
An obstacle to continued nuclear power development has been the uncertainties in the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) licensing process. Because the current regulatory framework was mainly intended for light water reactors (LWR) with active safety systems and because regulatory standards were developed piecemeal over many years, without review and consolidation, the regulations should be critically reviewed and modified (or replaced with a more coherent body of regulations) for advanced reactors of other types. The Committee recommends that NRC comprehensively review its regulations to prepare for advance reactors, in particular. LWRs with passive safety features. The review should proceed from first principles to develop a coherent, consistent set of regulations.
The Committee concludes that NRC should improve the quality of its regulation of existing and future nuclear power plants, including tighter management controls over all of its interactions with licensees and consistency of regional activities. Industry has proposed such to NRC.
The Committee encourages efforts by NRC to reduce reliance on the adversarial approach to issue resolution. The Committee recommends that NRC encourage industry self-improvement, accountability, and self-regulation initia tives . While federal regulation plays an important safety role, it must not be allowed to detract from or undermine the accountability of utilities and their line management organizations for the safety of their plants.
It is the Committee's expectation that economic incentive programs instituted by state regulatory bodies will continue for nuclear power plant operators. Properly formulated and administered, these programs should improve the economic performance of nuclear plants, and they may also enhance safety. However, they do have the potential to provide incentives counter to safety. The Committee believes that such programs should focus
on economic incentives and avoid incentives that can directly affect plant safety. On July 18, 1991 NRC issued a Nuclear Regulatory Commission Policy Statement which expressed concern that such incentive programs may adversely affect safety and commits NRC to monitoring such programs. A joint industry/state study of economic incentive programs could help assure that such programs do not interfere with the safe operation of nuclear power plants.
It is the Committee's opinion, based upon our experience, that NRC should continue to exercise its federally mandated preemptive authority over the regulation of commercial nuclear power plant safety if the activities of state government agencies (or other public or private agencies) run counter to nuclear safety. Such activities would include those that individually or in the aggregate interfere with the ability of the organization with direct responsibility for nuclear plant safety (the organization licensed by the Commission to operate the plant) to meet this responsibility. The Committee urges close industry-state cooperation in the safety area.
It is also the Committee's opinion, based upon our experience, that the industry must have confidence in the stability of NRC's licensing process. Suppliers and utilities need assurance that licensing has become and will remain a manageable process that appropriately limits the late introduction of new issues.
It is likely that, if the possibility of a second hearing before a nuclear plant can be authorized to operate is to be reduced or eliminated, legislation will be necessary. The nuclear industry is convinced that such legislation will be required to increase utility and investor confidence to retain nuclear power as an option for meeting U.S. electric energy requirements. The Committee concurs.
It is the Committee's opinion, based upon our experience, that potential nuclear power plant sponsors must not face large unanticipated cost increases as a result of mid-course regulatory changes, such as backfits. NRC 's new licensing rule, 10 CFR Part 52, provides needed incentives for standardized designs.
Industry and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission
The U.S. system of nuclear regulation is inherently adversarial, but mitigation of unnecessary tension in the relations between NRC and its nuclear power licensees would, in the Committee's opinion, improve the regulatory environment and enhance public health and safety. Thus, the Committee commends the efforts by both NRC and the industry to work
more cooperatively together and encourages both to continue and strengthen these efforts.
Department of Energy
Lack of resolution of the high-level waste problem jeopardizes future nuclear power development. The Committee believes that the legal status of the Yucca Mountain site for a geologic repository should be resolved soon, and that the Department of Energy's (DOE) program to investigate this site should be continued. In addition, a contingency plan must be developed to store high-level radioactive waste in surface storage facilities pending the availability of the geologic repository.
Environmental Protection Agency
The problems associated with establishing a high-level waste site at Yucca Mountain are exacerbated by the requirement that, before operation of a repository begins, DOE must demonstrate to NRC that the repository will perform to standards established by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). NRC's staff has strongly questioned the workability of these quantitative requirements, as have the National Research Council's Radioactive Waste Management Board and others. The Committee concludes that the EPA standard for disposal of high-level waste will have to be reevaluated to ensure that a standard that is both adequate and feasible is applied to the geologic waste repository.
Administration and Congress
The Price-Anderson Act will expire in 2002. The Committee sought to discover whether or not such protection would be required for advanced reactors. The clear impression the Committee received from industry representatives was that some such protection would continue to be needed, although some Committee members believe that this was an expression of desire rather than of need. At the very least, renewal of Price-Anderson in 2002 would be viewed by the industry as a supportive action by Congress and would eliminate the potential disruptive effect of developing alternative liability arrangements with the insurance industry. Failure to renew Price-Anderson in 2002 would raise a new impediment to nuclear power plant orders as well as possibly reduce an assured source of funds to accident victims.
The Committee believes that the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) approach to safety investigations, as a substitute for the present NRC approach, has merit. In view of the infrequent nature of the activities of such a committee, it may be feasible for it to be established on an ad hoc basis and report directly to the NRC chairman. Therefore, the Committee recommends that such a small safety review entity be established. Before the establishment of such an activity, its charter should be carefully defined, along with a clear delineation of the classes of accidents it would investigate. Its location in the government and its reporting channels should also be specified. The function of this group would parallel those of NTSB. Specifically, the group would conduct independent public investigations of serious incidents and accidents at nuclear power plants and would publish reports evaluating the causes of these events. This group would have only a small administrative structure and would bring in independent experts, including those from both industry and government, to conduct its investigations.
It is the Committee's opinion, based upon our experience, that responsible arrangements must be negotiated between sponsors and economic regulators to provide reasonable assurances of complete cost recovery for nuclear power plant sponsors. Without such assurances, private investment capital is not likely to flow to this technology.
In Chapter 2 , the Committee addressed the non-recovery of utility costs in rate proceedings and concluded that better methods of dealing with this issue must be established. The Committee was impressed with proposals for periodic reviews of construction progress and costs--“rolling prudency” determinations--as one method for managing the risks of cost recovery. The Committee believes that enactment of such legislation could remove much of the investor risk and uncertainty currently associated with state regulatory treatment of new power plant construction, and could therefore help retain nuclear power as an option for meeting U.S. electric energy requirements.
On balance, however, unless many states adopt this or similar legislation, it is the Committee's view that substantial assurances probably cannot be given, especially in advance of plant construction, that all costs incurred in building nuclear plants will be allowed into rate bases.
The Committee notes the current trend toward economic deregulation of electric power generation. It is presently unclear whether this trend is compatible with substantial additions of large-scale, utility-owned, baseload generating capacity, and with nuclear power plants in particular.
It is the Committee's opinion, based upon our experience, that regional low-level radioactive waste compact commissions must continue to establish disposal sites.
The institutional challenges are clearly substantial. If they are to be met, the Committee believes that the Federal government must decide, as a matter of national policy, whether a strong and growing nuclear power program is vital to the economic, environmental, and strategic interests of the American people. Only with such a clearly stated policy, enunciated by the President and backed by the Congress through appropriate statutory changes and appropriations, will it be possible to effect the institutional changes necessary to return the flow of capital and human resources required to properly employ this technology.
Alternative Reactor Technologies
Advanced reactors are now in design or development. They are being designed to be simpler, and, if design goals are realized, these plants will be safer than existing reactors. The design requirements for the advanced reactors are more stringent than the NRC safety goal policy. If final safety designs of advanced reactors, and especially those with passive safety features, are as indicated to this Committee, an attractive feature of them should be the significant reduction in system complexity and corresponding improvement in operability. While difficult to quantify, the benefit of improvements in the operator 's ability to monitor the plant and respond to system degradations may well equal or exceed that of other proposed safety improvements.
The reactor concepts assessed by the Committee were the large evolutionary LWRs, the mid-sized LWRs with passive safety features, 2 the Canadian deuterium uranium (CANDU) heavy water reactor, the modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (MHTGR), the safe integral reactor (SIR), the process inherent ultimate safety (PIUS) reactor, and the liquid metal reactor (LMR). The Committee developed the following criteria for comparing these reactor concepts:
safety in operation;
economy of construction and operation;
suitability for future deployment in the U.S. market;
fuel cycle and environmental considerations;
safeguards for resistance to diversion and sabotage;
technology risk and development schedule; and
amenability to efficient and predictable licensing.
With regard to advanced designs, the Committee reached the following conclusions.
Large Evolutionary Light Water Reactors
The large evolutionary LWRs offer the most mature technology. The first standardized design to be certified in the United States is likely to be an evolutionary LWR. The Committee sees no need for federal research and development (R&D) funding for these concepts, although federal funding could accelerate the certification process.
Mid-sized Light Water Reactors with Passive Safety Features
The mid-sized LWRs with passive safety features are designed to be simpler, with modular construction to reduce construction times and costs, and to improve operations. They are likely the next to be certified.
Because there is no experience in building such plants, cost projections for the first plant are clearly uncertain. To reduce the economic uncertainties it will be necessary to demonstrate the construction technology and improved operating performance. These reactors differ from current reactors in construction approach, plant configuration, and safety features. These differences do not appear so great as to require that a first plant be built for NRC certification. While a prototype in the traditional sense will not be required, the Committee concludes that no first-plant mid-sized LWR with passive safety features is likely to be certified and built without government incentives, in the form of shared funding or financial guarantees.
CANDU Heavy Water Reactor
The Committee judges that the CANDU ranks below the advanced mid-sized LWRs in market potential. The CANDU-3 reactor is farther along in design than the mid-sized LWRs with passive safety features. However, it has not entered NRC's design certification process. Commission requirements are complex and different from those in Canada so that U.S. certification
could be a lengthy process. However, the CANDU reactor can probably be licensed in this century.
The heavy water reactor is a mature design, and Canadian entry into the U.S. marketplace would give added insurance of adequate nuclear capacity if it is needed in the future. But the CANDU does not offer advantages sufficient to justify U.S. government assistance to initiate and conduct its licensing review.
Modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor
The MHTGR posed a difficult set of questions for the Committee. U.S. and foreign experience with commercial gas-cooled reactors has not been good. A consortium of industry and utility people continue to promote federal funding and to express interest in the concept, while none has committed to an order.
The reactor, as presently configured, is located below ground level and does not have a conventional containment. The basic rationale of the designers is that a containment is not needed because of the safety features inherent in the properties of the fuel.
However, the Committee was not convinced by the presentations that the core damage frequency for the MHTGR has been demonstrated to be low enough to make a containment structure unnecessary. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory estimates that data to confirm fuel performance will not be available before 1994. The Committee believes that reliance on the defense-in-depth concept must be retained, and accurate evaluation of safety will require evaluation of a detailed design.
A demonstration plant for the MHTGR could be licensed slightly after the turn of the century, with certification following demonstration of successful operation. The MHTGR needs an extensive R&D program to achieve commercial readiness in the early part of the next century. The construction and operation of a first plant would likely be required before design certification. Recognizing the opposite conclusion of the MHTGR proponents, the Committee was not convinced that a foreseeable commercial market exists for MHTGR-produced process heat, which is the unique strategic capability of the MHTGR. Based on the Committee 's view on containment requirements, and the economics and technology issues, the Committee judged the market potential for the MHTGR to be low.
The Committee believes that no funds should be allocated for development of high-temperature gas-cooled reactor technology within the commercial nuclear power development budget of DOE.
Safe Integral Reactor and Process Inherent Ultimate Safety Reactor
The other advanced light water designs the Committee examined were the United Kingdom and U.S. SIR and the Swedish PIUS reactor.
The Committee believes there is no near-term U.S. market for SIR and PIUS. The development risks for SIR and PIUS are greater than for the other LWRs and CANDU-3. The lack of operational and regulatory experience for these two is expected to significantly delay their acceptance by utilities. SIR and PIUS need much R&D, and a first plant will probably be required before design certification is approved.
The Committee concluded that no Federal funds should be allocated for R&D on SIR or PIUS.
Liquid Metal Reactor
LMRs offer advantages because of their potential ability to provide a long-term energy supply through a nearly complete use of uranium resources. Were the nuclear option to be chosen, and large scale deployment follow, at some point uranium supplies at competitive prices might be exhausted. Breeder reactors offer the possibility of extending fissionable fuel supplies well past the next century. In addition, actinides, including those from LWR spent fuel, can undergo fission without significantly affecting performance of an advanced LMR, transmuting the actinides to fission products, most of which, except for technetium, carbon, and some others of little import, have half-lives very much shorter than the actinides. (Actinides are among the materials of greatest concern in nuclear waste disposal beyond about 300 years.) However, substantial further research is required to establish (1) the technical and the economic feasibility of recycling in LMRs actinides recovered from LWR spent fuel, and (2) whether high-recovery recycling of transuranics and their transmutation can, in fact, benefit waste disposal. Assuming success, it would still be necessary to dispose of high-level waste, although the waste would largely consist of significantly shorter-lived fission products. Special attention will be necessary to ensure that the LMR's reprocessing facilities are not vulnerable to sabotage or to theft of plutonium.
The unique property of the LMR, fuel breeding, might lead to a U.S. market, but only in the long term. From the viewpoint of commercial licensing, it is far behind the evolutionary and mid-sized LWRs with passive safety features in having a commercial design available for review. A federally funded program, including one or more first plants, will be required before any LMR concept would be accepted by U.S. utilities.
The Committee could not make any meaningful quantitative comparison of the relative safety of the various advanced reactor designs. The Committee believes that each of the concepts considered can be designed and operated to meet or closely approach the safety objectives currently proposed for future, advanced LWRs. The different advanced reactor designs employ different mixes of active and passive safety features. The Committee believes that there currently is no single optimal approach to improved safety. Dependence on passive safety features does not, of itself, ensure greater safety. The Committee believes that a prudent design course retains the historical defense-in-depth approach.
The economic projections are highly uncertain, first, because past experience suggests higher costs, longer construction times, and lower availabilities than projected and, second, because of different assumptions and levels of maturity among the designs. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) data, which the Committee believes to be more reliable than that of the vendors, indicate that the large evolutionary LWRs are likely to be the least costly to build and operate on a cost per kilowatt electric or kilowatt hour basis, while the high-temperature gas-cooled reactors and LMRs are likely to be the most expensive. EPRI puts the mid-sized LWRs with passive safety features between the two extremes.
Although there are definite differences in the fuel cycle characteristics of the advanced reactors, fuel cycle considerations did not offer much in the way of discrimination among reactors, nor did safeguards and security considerations, particularly for deployment in the United States. However, the CANDU (with on-line refueling and heavy water) and the LMR (with reprocessing) will require special attention to safeguards.
SIR, MHTGR, PIUS, and LMR are not likely to be deployed for commercial use in the United States, at least within the next 20 years. The development required for commercialization of any of these concepts is substantial.
It is the Committee's overall assessment that the large evolutionary LWRs and the mid-sized LWRs with passive safety features rank highest relative to the Committee 's evaluation criteria. The evolutionary reactors could be ready for deployment by 2000, and the mid-sized could be ready for initial plant construction soon after 2000. The Committee's evaluations and overall assessment are summarized in Figure 5-1 .
FIGURE 5.1 Assessment of advanced reactor technologies.
This table is an attempt to summarize the Committee's qualitative rankings of selected reactor types against each other , without reference either to an absolute standard or to the performance of any other energy resource options, This evaluation was based on the Committee's professional judgment.
The Committee has concluded the following:
Safety and cost are the most important characteristics for future nuclear power plants.
LWRs of the large evolutionary and the mid-sized advanced designs offer the best potential for competitive costs (in that order).
Safety benefits among all reactor types appear to be about equal at this stage in the design process. Safety must be achieved by attention to all failure modes and levels of design by a multiplicity of safety barriers and features. Consequently, in the absence of detailed engineering design and because of the lack of construction and operating experience with the actual concepts, vendor claims of safety superiority among conceptual designs cannot be substantiated.
LWRs can be deployed to meet electricity production needs for the first quarter of the next century:
The evolutionary LWRs are further developed and, because of international projects, are most complete in design. They are likely to be the first plants certified by NRC. They are expected to be the first of the advanced reactors available for commercial use and could operate in the 2000 to 2005 time frame. Compared to current reactors, significant improvements in safety appear likely. Compared to recently completed high-cost reactors, significant improvements also appear possible in cost if institutional barriers are resolved. While little or no federal funding is deemed necessary to complete the process, such funding could accelerate the process.
Because of the large size and capital investment of evolutionary reactors, utilities that might order nuclear plants may be reluctant to do so. If nuclear power plants are to be available to a broader range of potential U.S. generators, the development of the mid-sized plants with passive safety features is important. These reactors are progressing in their designs, through DOE and industry funding, toward certification in the 1995 to 2000 time frame. The Committee believes such funding will be necessary to complete the process. While a prototype in the traditional sense will not be required, federal funding will likely be required for the first mid-sized LWR with passive safety features to be ordered.
Government incentives, in the form of shared funding or financial guarantees, would likely accelerate the next order for a light water plant. The Committee has not addressed what type of government assistance should be provided nor whether the first advanced light water plant should be a large evolutionary LWR or a mid-sized passive LWR.
The CANDU-3 reactor is relatively advanced in design but represents technology that has not been licensed in the United States. The Committee did not find compelling reasons for federal funding to the vendor to support the licensing.
SIR and PIUS, while offering potentially attractive safety features, are unlikely to be ready for commercial use until after 2010. This alone may limit their market potential. Funding priority for research on these reactor systems is considered by the Committee to be low.
MHTGRs also offer potential safety features and possible process heat applications that could be attractive in the market place. However, based on the extensive experience base with light water technology in the United States, the lack of success with commercial use of gas technology, the likely higher costs of this technology compared with the alternatives, and the substantial development costs that are still required before certification, 3 the Committee concluded that the MHTGR had a low market potential. The Committee considered the possibility that the MHTGR might be selected as the new tritium production reactor for defense purposes and noted the vendor association's estimated reduction in development costs for a commercial version of the MHTGR. However, the Committee concluded, for the reasons summarized above, that the commercial MHTGR should be given low priority for federal funding.
LMR technology also provides enhanced safety features, but its uniqueness lies in the potential for extending fuel resources through breeding. While the market potential is low in the near term (before the second quarter of the next century), it could be an important long-term technology, especially if it can be demonstrated to be economic. The Committee believes that the LMR should have the highest priority for long-term nuclear technology development.
The problems of proliferation and physical security posed by the various technologies are different and require continued attention. Special attention will need to be paid to the LMR.
Alternative Research and Development Programs
The Committee developed three alternative R&D programs, each of which contains three common research elements: (1) reactor research using federal facilities. The experimental breeder reactor-II, hot fuel examination facility/south, and fuel manufacturing facility are retained for the LMR; (2) university research programs; and (3) improved performance and life extension programs for existing U.S. nuclear power plants.
The Committee concluded that federal support for development of a commercial version of the MHTGR should be a low priority. However, the fundamental design strategy of the MHTGR is based upon the integrity of the fuel (=1600°C) under operation and accident conditions. There are other potentially significant uses for such fuel, in particular, space propulsion. Consequently, the Committee believes that DOE should consider maintaining a coated fuel particle research program within that part of DOE focused on space reactors.
Alternative 1 adds funding to assist development of the mid-sized LWRs with passive safety features. Alternative 2 adds a LMR development program and associated facilities--the transient reactor test facility, the zero power physics reactor, the Energy Technology Engineering Center, and either the hot fuel examination facility/north in Idaho or the Hanford hot fuel examination facility. This alternative would also include limited research to examine the feasibility of recycling actinides from LWR spent fuel, utilizing the LMR. Finally, Alternative 3 adds the fast flux test facility and increases LMR funding to accelerate reactor and integral fast reactor fuel cycle development and examination of actinide recycle of LWR spent fuel.
None of the three alternatives contain funding for development of the MHTGR, SIR, PIUS, or CANDU-3.
Significant analysis and research is required to assess both the technical and economic feasibility of recycling actinides from LWR spent fuel. The Committee notes that a study of separations technology and transmutation systems was initiated in 1991 by DOE through the National Research Council's Board on Radioactive Waste Management.
It is the Committee's judgment that Alternative 2 should be followed because it:
provides adequate support for the most promising near-term reactor technologies;
provides sufficient support for LMR development to maintain the technical capabilities of the LMR R&D community;
would support deployment of LMRs to breed fuel by the second quarter of the next century should that be needed; and
would maintain a research program in support of both existing and advanced reactors.
The construction of nuclear power plants in the United States is stopping, as regulators, reactor manufacturers, and operators sort out a host of technical and institutional problems.
This volume summarizes the status of nuclear power, analyzes the obstacles to resumption of construction of nuclear plants, and describes and evaluates the technological alternatives for safer, more economical reactors. Topics covered include:
- Institutional issues—including regulatory practices at the federal and state levels, the growing trends toward greater competition in the generation of electricity, and nuclear and nonnuclear generation options.
- Critical evaluation of advanced reactors—covering attributes such as cost, construction time, safety, development status, and fuel cycles.
Finally, three alternative federal research and development programs are presented.
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Nuclear Energy Essays
Nuclear energy: a dangerous game.
A field of wheat flows gracefully in the wind, deer frolicking on the outskirts. Birds fly playfully overhead, scouting their next meal. Children run through the wheat, tracing their hands across the stalks. Underneath, millions of worms slither through the mud, while moles scurry along in their tunnels, nibbling at the roots. Ecosystems, similar to this one, struggle in a battle against human interaction and intervention. Representative of human interaction, nuclear power plants can cause great harm to the environment […]
Nuclear Energy and its Status in the US
Introduction Nuclear energy is energy used in making of military weapons and generation of electricity. This form of energy is generated from either nuclear fission or fusion. Today, the United States is one of the industrialized countries with a highly developed nuclear energy sector. Initially, the country used nuclear energy to make military weapons. However, today, a significant proportion of electricity used in the country is generated from nuclear energy. Nevertheless, the kind of energy has its benefits and its […]
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Nuclear Energy: a Beneficial Solution for the Future
When I first hear the words Nuclear Energy or Nuclear Power I immediately think of bombs, weapons, radiation, and danger. I associate the word nuclear with a negative connotation and a sense of fear. In school, I had learned about the war and how the United States had used nuclear weapons to bomb other countries to prevail to victory. However, this was all I had learned regarding this vast, complex topic of nuclear power. I now realize that nuclear energy […]
Nuclear Energy for Tomorrow
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Nuclear Energy in Different Spheres of Life
Nuclear energy is the energy that is released from an atom. This release of energy can be acquired through either the process of fission or fusion. During the process of fission, an atom is split releasing heat energy. In the process of fusion, two or more atoms are merged together at a very high speed. This action causes a release of energy. Since nuclear fusion is a challenging process, Nuclear fission is what scientist have developed in order to produce […]
Question of Nuclear Energy
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Benefit of Nuclear Energy
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Use of Nuclear Energy in Today Society
Energy sources like oil,coal,solar,wind, or nuclear; they have become a necessity of modern society and has been a really popular topic that has been debated on. Since energy holds such a important role in the world, it affects political decisions, relationships between countries, the economy, and the environment. Nuclear energy has become such a important resource in our society since the supply of this resource is limitless. Congress is debating on whether or not they should be funding on this […]
Use of Nuclear Energy in Modern World
Nuclear energy is form energy produced when Uranium nucelli are combined or fused to form one large atom that when its split into smaller atoms, produces energy that when harnessed is used in multiple sectors. The process of splitting the Uranium atoms is known as fission or fusion, and in the process, heat produced is used to create steam that is used to generate electricity. However, radioisotopes in non-stationary power reactors have been used in different sectors such as industries, […]
Development of Nuclear Energy Industry
The demand for energy is ever increasing, as countries continue to develop and modernize, the need for power increases. Around the globe, the most common source of energy is mainly generated through the burning of fossil fuels such as coal and oil. A smaller percentage of this includes hydroelectric power from rivers and dams, and nuclear power. In the United States alone, 20% of electrical energy is being produced by nuclear reactors . As of right now, the US has […]
How does Nuclear Energy Affect the Environment?
Renewable resources have the ability to be replenished in a remarkably short period of time while nonrenewable sources take many years to be recreated. The sun, water, wind, and biomass are common sources of renewable energy. Coal, oil, and natural gas are sources of nonrenewable energy. Another source of energy is nuclear energy. Although nuclear energy itself is a renewable energy source, the material used in nuclear power plants is not. Nuclear energy is the energy in the nucleus of […]
Clarifying Doubts about Nuclear Energy
Clarifying Doubts about Nuclear Energy Introduction Thesis Statement: This research paper seeks to highlight the history, dynamics of technology development of nuclear energy, and strategies contributing to the economic growth of countries that utilize nuclear power as a source of energy. MAYBE:people’s attitude towards History of Nuclear Energy The story behind the discovery of nuclear energy began with passionate scientists, who started studying and investigating the composition of atoms and its ability to produce energy. Atom, which is a Greek […]
My Reflections on Nuclear Energy
If I were given 10 billion dollars, I would look into developing fusion reactors as energy sources for the future. It would be nice to come up with new ideas of inventions in the future with fusion reactors. Like trying to invent something collaborated with technology that we can use that can help us with things we are unable to do with our own way of figuring things out. Things such as agriculture, medications, and ways that can help […]
Possible Future of Nuclear Energy
The Future of Nuclear Energy Abstract Climate change is a threat to the entire planet. The increase in global temperature is significantly altering our planet’s climate, resulting in more extreme and unpredictable weather. Greenhouses gases, such as carbon dioxide, trap heat in the atmosphere and regulate our climate. These gases exist naturally, but humans add more carbon dioxide by burning fossil fuels for energy and by clearing forests. Humans have sped the climate change process by relying on fossil fuels […]
Nuclear Energy: a Sufficient Way of Producing Energy
Nuclear energy, also known as atomic energy, is the powerful energy released by changes in the nucleus of atoms. A huge amount of energy is concentrated in the nucleus due to the extremely strong force that holds the nucleus together (Nuclear Energy 2017). The releasing of that energy stored in the nucleus creates large amount of heat which people have found many uses for, such as creating electricity, powering machinery, and advancing warfare. Nuclear Power Plants and Operations Within Them […]
Advantages and Disadvantages of Nuclear Energy
Abstract In our world and particularly in the United States of America, we face many environmental issues that put us at risk for years to come. These issues range vastly from pollution, climate change, ozone depletion, and natural resource depletion. In the United States we consume fossil fuels to power our homes, factories, and cars. The rate at which we consume fossil fuels has drastically increased and the question of sustainability has been addressed many times with various responses. These […]
The Overall Impact of Nuclear Energy
The use of nuclear energy has continued to grow over the years despite all of the divided opinions across the globe. Nuclear energy technology started making advances after the discovery of the atom, a feat credited to the Greeks and the follow up work of scientists who furthered this research in the 18th and 19th century, as they were able to build on the idea having concluded that atoms had large quantities of energy in them. Renewed interest in nuclear […]
Thorium as an Alternative Form of Nuclear Energy
Nuclear Energy has been a source of power for many years. When it was first revealed as a source of energy, the people became excited to think of a new energy source to counter energy issues, though nuclear energy has become more infamous than nostalgic. Thoughts of nuclear power from uranium and plutonium are crowded by its usage in nuclear weapons and the incidents with plant meltdowns like the Chernobyl incident, which was caused by a faulty reactor design that […]
Nuclear Power Development
Since the dawn of humanity, energy has been the driving force towards survival, continuation of society, as well as development. All sectors of modern economy are highly dependent on energy sources. The constantly expanding human needs require every day a greater amount of energy supplies. Nutritional needs, medicine, transportation, manufacture and construction are just a sample of sectors admitting huge energy requirements. Historical data has shown, that since the very early stages of production and development, the energy source being […]
Nuclear Power Plants in U.S.
Nuclear Energy is produced when Uranium atoms are split in a process called nuclear fission. ( Ballish 2015) Vast amounts of energy is released and generates heat. Nuclear Power Plants harness this energy and create electricity.Nuclear Power plants heat water to produce steam. The steam is used to spin large turbines that generate electricity (eia.gov 2018). There are two types of Nuclear Plants in the United States.One is called the Pressurized Water Reactor and the other is called the Boiling […]
Nuclear Power and its Problems
Nuclear power occurs from a series of reactions that causes the build-up and release of energy which in turn generates heat. This heat is then used as steam to power turbines which helps produce the electricity. The production of this electricity is used to power many things including but not limited to homes, schools, business etc. (“What Is Nuclear Power And Energy? | GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy”) Nuclear power is considered safe when compared with some other energy sources such […]
Nuclear Weapons in the World
Nuclear weapons should be entirely removed from all countries because it doesn’t help anybody in anyway. The only outcome of using nuclear power is death and destruction. The negative effects of nuclear weapons go on and on. The death toll of this power would be in the millions and everyone that was involved in the war would be almost completely wiped out. The countries that have these weapons are North Korea, Israel, India, Pakistan, the United Kingdom, China, France, the […]
About Nuclear Weapons
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Eliminate Nuclear Weapons
Face it. The world is not perfect. Never has been, never will be. Then there were nuclear weapons, and it just got worse. The U.S nuclear weapons policy should be to get rid of nuclear weapons entirely because they create tension between countries, they are expensive, and they are way too destructive. For starters, having nuclear weapons causes tension between countries. In 1962 during the Cold War, President Kennedy found out that nuclear missiles had been placed in Cuba by […]
Definition of Nuclear Weapon
Atomic Bomb How can you define a Nuclear Weapon? What consequences can a nuclear weapon cause to the humanity? What can be done to prevent a nuclear War? How does nuclear weapon work? According to International campaign to abolish nuclear weapons, nine countries in the world possess a total of 15,000 nuclear weapons. The United States and Russia maintain roughly 1,800 of their nuclear weapons on high-alert status (ICAN). In recent years, a lot has been talked about […]
A Research for Nuclear Fusion
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The Threat of Nuclear Power
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My Attitude to Nuclear Power Isses
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The Myths of Nuclear Power Safety
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Advantages to Using Nuclear Power
MegaWatt Electrical Company has requested to the city councils of South St Paul and Inver Grove Heights to build a nuclear power plant near their borders. There are some advantages however a lot more disadvantages to building this nuclear power plant that this essay will address. I think that this nuclear power plant should not be built for many reasons. Have you ever heard that Nuclear Power Plants are a clean energy source and don’t release carbon dioxide? This is […]
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Nuclear Power Essay IELTS 2023: Writing Task 2 Latest Samples
- Updated On April 13, 2023
- Published In IELTS Preparation 💻
The IELTS exam tests how well-versed you are in the English language. It consists of 4 papers: reading, writing, listening, and speaking. Essay writing can be daunting if you’re not conversant in its framework and concept. This blog will assist you in writing Nuclear Power Essay IELTS and guide you on how to crack IELTS writing task 2.
Table of Contents
We’ll focus more on the nuclear power essay during this blog and walk you through the process. For guidance and reference on other topics and any other help regarding the IELTS exam , you can look through our website’s collection of blogs and obtain the assistance you need.
Nuclear Power Essay IELTS Sample Answer
Nuclear power is a very debated topic in every convention and has always been questioned for the bad it does rather than its good. In my opinion, nuclear power needs to be used, and the user should also be controlled and hedged with renewable energy sources as they are the only viable solution. Nuclear plants currently provide 11% of the world’s electricity. With an ever-increasing demand for electricity being seen everywhere and the fossil fuels reducing each day, it is now more important than ever that major decisions should be made. In the upcoming decades, energy consumption will only increase and meet the rising demand; nuclear power plants will be required as they are the best source of traditional energy-producing sources. Although nuclear power plants are required, it is also necessary to gradually push renewable energy sources and promote them to create a sustainable future for future generations. Nuclear power plants’ waste disposal and radioactivity are the concerning factors that have been the hot topic of most debates at conventions and meetings. In addition to that, a single misuse of this tremendous power can result in the disruption of life for all mankind. Striking a balance between the two will be crucial in the coming time as global warming and the energy crisis are on a constant rise. If nothing is done in the near time, countries could get submerged underwater within the coming decades, and the entire world will have to fight for survival.
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Writing Task 2
The writing section of the IELTS exam consists of two sections. Writing task 2 is an essay writing task that requires deep thinking and coherence. This task will be our focus for this blog, as the rules and guidelines of the IELTS exam can be confusing for students appearing for the first time. Writing task 2 has the subsequent guidelines:
- The essay should have a minimum of 250 words. An essay written in less than 250 words will be penalised and negatively marked. There is no penalty for writing a longer essay, but it will cause you to stray off-topic and waste time.
- 40 minutes is a good enough time to complete this task and will leave you with time to recheck your answer.
- The essay’s contents should be written with perfect grammar and solely focused on the topic.
- You can be penalised if you stray off-topic while writing your essay. All the sentences must be related and formed to provide a clear view and information.
- The content must be well structured to fetch the best results and have proper cohesion between the sentences.
- The tone of your answer must be academic or semi-formal and should discuss the given topic at length and focus on proper and sophisticated language.
- Using bullet points and notes is not allowed in the IELTS exam . The real answer must be written together and broken into paragraphs to better examine your writing style and structure.
Structure of Essay in Writing Task 2
The structure of the essay in writing task 2 is the base of your essay, and a clear idea of the structure will make it much easier for you to finish the essay on time. The structure of the essay can be broken down in the following way:
- First Paragraph
- Second Paragraph
- Third Paragraph
- Fourth Paragraph
The first paragraph of your essay should provide a small introduction to the topic and provide an opinion of yours about what side you are on about the topic. The first paragraph should be minimal and to the point. A clear and concise introduction leaves a good impression on the examiner. The second paragraph should begin with your stance on the topic. The first sentence should provide clarity on your stance. The second sentence should build on that idea and delve deeper into the specifics. The next sentences are suitable for providing an example and developing it in detail. You can make up research studies and quote them in your essay to support your point. At the end of the paragraph, end with a statement that sums up the overall idea of the paragraph and supports the idea you started with. The third paragraph is very similar in structure to the second paragraph. The main objective of this paragraph is to provide either the opposite view of the topic or discuss new ideas that touch on a different perspective of the topic but ultimately support your opinion. The structuring is the same as in the second paragraph, with minute changes. The fourth paragraph is the conclusion of your essay and, just like the introduction, should be minimal. Summing up your essay with a statement supporting your opinion and overall idea is best advised.
Score well on IELTS Nuclear Essay by understanding the Writing task 2 structure above. Add Brownie points for writing answers with facts, examples and evidence. For more related content, head on to LeapScholar blogs. Avail of one-on-one guidance from India’s top IELTS educators from the Leap Scholar Premium course .
Frequently Asked Questions
1. what are the pros and cons of nuclear power.
Ans: Nuclear energy is a widely used method of production of electricity. The benefits of nuclear technology and the main advantages of nuclear power are: a. No production of harmful gases that cause air pollution b. Clean source of energy c. Low cost of fuel d. Long-life once constructed e. A massive amount of energy produced f. Unlike most energy production methods, nuclear energy does not contribute to the increase in global warming
Disadvantages: a. Very high cost of construction of the facility. b. Waste produced is very toxic and requires proper and safe disposal, which is costly. c. If any accident happens, it can have a major impact on everyone and can be devastating. d. Mining of uranium 235, which is nuclear fuel, is very expensive.
2. Does Japan have a plan for dealing with its own nuclear waste problem?
Ans: As per the latest news and research, Japan does not have a proper nuclear waste dumping structure even after the Fukushima disaster in 2011. The Fukushima disaster was caused by the Tohoku earthquake and tsunami that hit Japan in 2011 and caused meltdowns and hydrogen explosions at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Reactor. It was the worst recorded nuclear disaster since Chernobyl. Japan is said to have enough nuclear waste to create nuclear arsenals. In April 2021, Japan declared they would be dumping 1.2 million tonnes of nuclear waste into the sea. This is the same Japan that called the 1993 ocean dumping by Russia “extremely regrettable.” The discharges are bound to begin by 2023, and various legal proceedings and protests have been going on inside Japan against this inhuman decision that would destroy marine life.
3. How many countries have nuclear power plants?
Ans : Currently, 32 countries in the world possess nuclear power plants within their boundaries.
4. Why do people oppose nuclear power?
Ans: Opposition to nuclear power has been a long-standing issue. It is backed by a variety of reasons which are as follows:Nuclear waste is hard to dispose of, and improper disposal affects the radioactivity levels and can disrupt the normal life of people as well as animals. Nuclear technology is another concern of people as the usage of nuclear power plants leads to deeper research into the nuclear field. In today’s world, anything can be weaponised, and the threat of nuclear weapons is one of the drawbacks of nuclear power. This brings the threat of nuclear war and disruption of world peace. Any attack on nuclear power plants by terrorist organisations can result in a massive explosion that can disrupt and destroy human life and increase radioactivity to alarming levels around the site of the explosion.
5. What is the best way to dispose of nuclear waste?
Ans: Nuclear waste needs to be disposed of properly to prevent radioactive issues in the environment. The best methods to dispose of nuclear waste are as follows: a. Incineration : Radioactive waste can be incinerated in large scale incinerators with low production of waste. b. Deep burial: Nuclear waste can be buried deep into the ground as the radioactivity of nuclear waste wears off over time. This method is used for waste that is highly radioactive and will take a longer time to lose its radioactivity. c. Storage: Nuclear waste with low radioactivity is stored by some countries in storage. This is because their radioactive decay takes lesser time and can be disposed of safely once the radiation wears off.
6. Is it possible to produce electricity without using fossil fuels?
Ans: At the moment, 11% of the world’s electricity is produced by nuclear power plants alone. Replacing fossil fuel-based energy with renewable needs to be done gradually and properly. Renewable energy sources such as solar, hydro, and wind will have to be promoted and pushed to create a sustainable future. Renewable energy sources provide cheap energy, do not use up natural resources and fossil fuels and are much cheaper to construct than a nuclear power station.
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Nuclear Power Essay Example
The vast array of technical gadgets and equipment make it very possible to generate nuclear power with the help of nuclear reactors and other equipment. This nuclear energy can be utilized in positive as well as negative ways to destruct human lives. Those who are doing their studies in this field have to understand the applications, uses, and harmful effects of such reactions. That is why essays on nuclear power are given to the students by their professors. The sample essay on nuclear power to graduates which is written here by the experienced and top-rated essayist of the Students Assignment Help is very crucial to understand the concept of nuclear power for college students.
- Essay Sample on Nuclear Power
- Thesis Statement of Nuclear Power Essay
- Introduction of Nuclear Power Essay
- Why different countries are in a hoard to become the dominating nuclear power today?
- The threat of nuclear power to common people of the world
- What are the benefits of nuclear power for mankind?
- How we can utilize nuclear power in a positive way for development?
Essay Sample on Nuclear Power
Thesis Statement of Nuclear Power Essay Nuclear power which is generated with the reaction of two nuclear atoms in required conditions can be used for the welfare of the people at the same time it can also result in massive mass destruction. Introduction of Nuclear Power Essay In the past couple of decades, the scenario of nuclear power is getting more and more prominent. It is catching every eye with the new and latest discoveries and inventions, a nuclear test that is being conducted by multiple countries, and much more. Those who are having the best nuclear power and weapon with them are trying to subjugate the others and vice –versa. But no attention is being given to using this energy for the welfare of society. Here in this essay, we are going to highlight the consequences of excessive use of nuclear weapons and how to control them. A brief account of using this nuclear power as a source of energy will also be included in the essay to make the readers aware of the benefits of nuclear power if used in a correct manner. Main Body of Nuclear Power Essay Why different countries are in a hoard to become the dominating nuclear power today? One of the major fractions that each nation is paying can be considered for the nuclear power and defense system. Today, when everyone wants to be on the top of the vertical line for getting the hegemony over nuclear resources world, is being pushed towards the threatening zone. But still, people are heading towards their success of becoming the top nuclear power. The main goal is to keep others in subjugation by the threat of their nuclear weapons. But if we will not give proper attention to this movement towards the destruction of human life it can be dangerous in the later part. Get Non-Plagiarized Custom Essay on Nuclear Power in USA Order Now The threat of nuclear power to common people of the world Every time whenever there is a war be that civil war or world war or for that matter war between two nations, only common masses are at the serious and highest loss. Nuclear power and its development in the negative way to control the world do not involve the common masses but when it comes to confronting its consequences these are people who become victims at the primary step. This must be stopped and only those should be the deserving people for the punishment who are involved in practicing these nuclear tests and creating different weapons. We cannot establish harmony if people are getting away from humanity and involved in the pursuit of warfare. What are the benefits of nuclear power for mankind? As we all are aware of the fact that there are only limited numbers of resources for crude oil and it is almost impossible to rely on the crude oil for every future generation. The limited resources are going to shrink or extinguish one day from the world and at that time we would have nothing in the name of energy. But nuclear power which is generated at a high level from a single reaction because of the chain reactions can replace the need for crude oil for energy. The reason why we are not able to use it today is because of the multiple drawbacks that are associated with the use of this nuclear power. When these drawbacks will be settled, only then it can be possible to utilize nuclear energy in a purposeful manner for the fulfillment of the needs of people. Technology is of no use if it is becoming the cause of mass destruction and not able to improve the life of human beings. Buy Customized Essay on Nuclear Power At Cheapest Price Order Now How we can utilize nuclear power in a positive way for development? In order to reduce the pressure on our natural resources of crude oil, it is very important to have a supplement source of energy. Most of the other forms of energy like wind energy, solar energy, and other resources are being used in modern times for this purpose. But the rate of success for meeting the needs of the people is very low as they are based on the possibility of sunlight and wind availability. The knowledge of the utilization of this energy from the fission of nuclear atoms is very important as scientists are not able to convert this energy to usable form to date. Although some success has been managed in the arena still there are miles to go further. The enhancement of energy and nuclear power in this field can be useful to save the world from the threat of the finish of oil resources.
Conclusion We can give a conclusion from the above essay that nuclear power although a very crucial invention of technology but at the same time it is also an aspect of the topic that where it is being used. The correct use of the power significantly can give a better life to the human being but at the same time if it is utilized in the opposite direction with the purpose of setting hegemony over other nations and societies then this is sure that we are going to be in a state of chaos and mass destruction. Hire USA Experts for Nuclear Power Essay Order Now
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In this essay sample, we have explored some reasons why people may be against nuclear energy as well as how it can help better our society for years to come. The above essay is written on research-based facts and can be used for developing your mentality and perspective to a great level.
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76 Nuclear Energy Essay Topic Ideas & Examples
🏆 best nuclear energy topic ideas & essay examples, 📌 simple & easy nuclear energy essay titles, 👍 good essay topics on nuclear energy, 💯 free nuclear energy essay topic generator.
- Nuclear Power Provides Cheap and Clean Energy The production of nuclear power is relatively cheap when compared to coal and petroleum. The cost of nuclear fuel for nuclear power generation is much lower compared to coal, oil and gas fired plants.
- Nuclear Energy Benefits One of the factors why nuclear energy is an effective source of energy is that it is cost effective. The other factor that makes nuclear energy cost effective is that the risks associated with this […]
- Nuclear Energy Effectiveness Although water is used to cool nuclear plants, we can conclude that nuclear energy is the most cost effective method of producing electricity.
- Why Nuclear Energy is Not Good? Even those who say net production is cost effective for unit of nuclear energy produced may not be saying the truth because most of these estimate forget that nuclear energy is recipient of many government […]
- Impact of Nuclear Energy in France Through the process, heat energy is released from the bombardment of the nucleus and the neutrons. The need to manage the nuclear waste affected the economic parameters attached to nuclear energy.
- Nuclear Energy in Australia The irony of the matter is that Australia does not use these reserves to produce nuclear energy; two main reasons that has contributed to the un-exploitation are availability of rich coal deposits in the country, […]
- Corporate Governance Strategy for Emirates Energy Nuclear Corporation To establish the difference privatization will bring to the company in terms of resources and manpower To establish the feasibility of this undertaking in comparison to other companies that manage nuclear transmission such as Exelon […]
- Sources of Energy: Nuclear Power and Hydroelectric Power The main source of power in the world is the Sun. The Sun is the sole source of energy that plants use in the process of photosynthesis in order to manufacture their food.
- The Environmental Impact of Nuclear Energy The country has the opportunity to enhance its capacity to generate electricity from nuclear following the approval of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to build and operate between three to four units of the Vogtle […]
- Balanced Treatment of the Pros and Cons of Nuclear Energy Thus, the use of nuclear power presupposes a number of positive short-term and log-term consequences for the economy of the country and the environment of the planet.
- Nuclear Energy Benefits and Demerits The aim of the research is to provide substantial proof that nuclear energy is not efficient and sustainable. It is also argued that the whole process and the impacts of nuclear energy production make the […]
- The Emirates Nuclear Energy Corporation The Emirates Nuclear Energy Corporation, ENEC, brought together six UAE member states, the International Atomic Energy Agency and other countries such as the United States of America. The assertions made above indicate that UAE relies […]
- The Effect of Nuclear Energy on the Environment In response to the concerns, this paper proposes the use of thorium reactors to produce nuclear energy because the safety issues of uranium.
- Nuclear Energy Usage and Recycling The resulting energy is used to power machinery and generate heat for processing purposes. The biggest problem though is that of energy storage, which is considered to be the most crucial requirement for building a […]
- Nuclear Energy Fusion and Harnessing Physicists use the equation E=MC2 to calculate the amount of energy that is generated as a result of the fusion of nucleus.
- A Cost Benefit Analysis of the Environmental and Economic Effects of Nuclear Energy in the United States The nature of damage posed to the environment depends on the nature of the nuclear plant being used and also the extraction process of fossil fuel themselves.
- Sustainable Energy Source – Nuclear Energy One of the groups led by World Nuclear Association, believes that nuclear energy is a reliable and efficient source of energy.
- Energy Disruption: Causes and Effects of the Fukushima Nuclear Reactors Leak The Fukushima nuclear disaster that occurred in March, 2011in Japan as the result of the earthquake and tsunami led to a number of the serious problems and energy disruption.
- Harmful Health Effects of Nuclear Energy The risk of developing thyroid cancer following exposure to nuclear radiations increased with a decrease in the age of the subject.
- Emirates Nuclear Energy Corporation Managerial Accounting The flagship project and the construction of the first reactor of the four scheduled reactors began in 2011. In the execution of the role of management accountants, ENEC encounters challenges due to the use of […]
- Emirates Nuclear Energy Corporation’s Employee Training Program The problem is the need to incorporate training and development as part of the human resource management policies of the Emirates Nuclear Energy Corporation.
- Fossil fuel, nuclear energy, and alternative power sources It is important to keep in mind that the amount of coal is decreasing and there is no guarantee that people will be able to discover more.
- Nuclear Energy and Its Risks The situation became difficult when the power in the reactors reduced and could not be enough to be used by the operators.
- Nuclear Power as a Primary Energy Source The energy crisis the world faces currently is one of the most urgent and disturbing questions countries have to deal with.
- Emirates Nuclear Energy Corporation: Business Principles The first 3 are enablers of the system of management while the fourth component is process-oriented, which helps in the development, production, and delivery of services coupled with products of an organization to the market […]
- Nuclear Energy: Safe, Economical, Reliable Thus, nuclear energy is viable and safe in meeting the current and future demand for energy across the world. Nuclear energy has significant implications for the environment and population health in case of an accident […]
- Nuclear Energy and The Danger of Environment Nuclear energy can be a benefit in the medium and long term perspective, but the communal and public awareness of nuclear energy breeds anxieties about nuclear technology that must be directed to attain the public […]
- Nuclear Energy: Impact of Science & Technology on Society In spite of the fact that hopes of adherents of the use of atomic energy substantially were not justified, the majority of the governments of the countries of the world do not wish to refuse […]
- Nuclear Energy: High-Entropy Alloy One of the tools for reducing the level of greenhouse gas emissions is the development of nuclear energy, which is characterized by a high degree of environmental efficiency and the absence of a significant impact […]
- Metropolitan Edison Company vs. People Against Nuclear Energy In addition, the commission published a hearing notice which entailed an invitation to parties that were interested to submit their briefs explaining the impacts of the accident to the psychological harm or any other indirect […]
- Understanding the Significance of Nuclear Energy
- The Nuclear Energy and Its Impact on the Environment and Economic Growth
- The Use of Nuclear Energy as an Alternative to Global Energy Crisis
- The Impact of Nuclear Energy in the Environment and Economic Growth
- The Economic Consequences of Shifting Away From Nuclear Energy
- The Issue of Climate Change and Nuclear Energy
- The Importance of Controlling the Use of Nuclear Energy
- The Environmental Benefits Of Utilizing Nuclear Energy Rather Than Fossil Fuel Energy
- The Problem Of Nuclear Energy
- Understanding How Nuclear Energy Is Produced from the Atom Level
- The Process Of Producing Nuclear Energy From Thorium
- The Dangers of Atomic Weapons and Nuclear Energy
- The Theory of Nuclear Energy and Its Applications in the Industry
- The Tommyknockers and Nuclear Energy
- The Future of the U. S. Nuclear Energy Industry
- The Nuclear Energy Advantage Of The United States
- The Controversy Regarding The Utilization Of Nuclear Energy
- The Future Industry In Energy: Dropping The Concept Of Nuclear Energy
- The Hope For Nuclear Energy As A Source Of Power
- The Role of Nuclear Energy in Our Lives Today
- The Environmental Benefits of Utilizing Nuclear Energy
- The Argument For Nuclear Energy
- The Ethical and Philosophical Implications of Harnessing Nuclear Energy
- The United States Should Use Nuclear Energy
- Why Do We Still Have Nuclear Energy And Fossil Energy
- The Phenomenon Of Decreased Usage Of Nuclear Energy
- The Politics of Nuclear Energy in Western Europe
- The Negative Issues Surrounding the Use of Nuclear Energy as an Alternative Source of Renewable Energy
- Thorium As An Alternative Form Of Nuclear Energy
- The Advantages of Using Nuclear Energy as a Source of Power
- The Complicated, Expensive, and Dangerous Use of Nuclear Energy
- Why European Countries Are Holding Off On Nuclear Energy
- The Socio-Political Economy of Nuclear Energy in China and India
- The Development of Nuclear Energy and It Importance in the World Today
- Should Nuclear Energy Developed Thailand
- Why the United States Should Stop Using Nuclear Energy
- The History, Advancements and Modern Uses of Nuclear Energy
- Transparency and View Regarding Nuclear Energy Before and After the Fukushima Accident: Evidence on Micro-data
- The Hazards in the Coal Mines and the Benefits of Nuclear Energy
- Use Of Nuclear Energy In Modern World
- The Scientific Discoveries on the Nuclear Energy During the 19th Century
- The Pros and Cons When Discussing the Use of Nuclear Energy
- The Potential Benefits and Risks of Using Nuclear Energy to Produce Electricity
- The Manhattan Project Was a Top Secret Nuclear Energy
- The Nuclear Energy Controversy: Finding a Place for the Nuclear Waste
- The Effects Of Nuclear Energy On The Environment
- Chicago (A-D)
- Chicago (N-B)
IvyPanda. (2023, January 24). 76 Nuclear Energy Essay Topic Ideas & Examples. https://ivypanda.com/essays/topic/nuclear-energy-essay-topics/
"76 Nuclear Energy Essay Topic Ideas & Examples." IvyPanda , 24 Jan. 2023, ivypanda.com/essays/topic/nuclear-energy-essay-topics/.
IvyPanda . (2023) '76 Nuclear Energy Essay Topic Ideas & Examples'. 24 January.
IvyPanda . 2023. "76 Nuclear Energy Essay Topic Ideas & Examples." January 24, 2023. https://ivypanda.com/essays/topic/nuclear-energy-essay-topics/.
1. IvyPanda . "76 Nuclear Energy Essay Topic Ideas & Examples." January 24, 2023. https://ivypanda.com/essays/topic/nuclear-energy-essay-topics/.
IvyPanda . "76 Nuclear Energy Essay Topic Ideas & Examples." January 24, 2023. https://ivypanda.com/essays/topic/nuclear-energy-essay-topics/.
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