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प्रवास पर निबंध - Essay on Migration in Hindi

प्रवास पर निबंध - व्यक्तियों के एक स्थान से दूसरे स्थान में जाकर बसने की क्रिया को प्रवास कहते हैं। इसके कई प्रकार हो सकते हैं। किसी दूसरे स्थान में आ

प्रवास पर निबंध - Essay on Migration in Hindi

प्रवास पर निबंध.

व्यक्तियों के एक स्थान से दूसरे स्थान में जाकर बसने की क्रिया को प्रवास कहते हैं। इसके कई प्रकार हो सकते हैं। किसी दूसरे स्थान में आकर बसावट की प्रकृति के आधार पर इस प्रवास को (1) स्थाई अथवा (2) अस्थाई कह सकते हैं। स्थाई प्रवास में आए हुए व्यक्ति बसावट करने के बाद वापस अपने मूल स्थान नहीं जाते हैं। इसका सबसे सुन्दर एवं सरल उदाहरण ग्रामीण जनसंख्या का अपने-अपने गांवों से रोजगार की तलाश में पलायन करके शहरों में आकर स्थाई रूप से बसना। अस्थाई प्रवास के अन्तर्गत वे लोग आते हैं जो कुछ समय रोजगार धंधा इत्यादि करके अपने मूल निवास स्थान को लौट जाते हैं। उदाहरण के लिए मौसमी प्रवास को लिया जा सकता है। फसल कटाई के समय बिहार के खेतिहर मजदूरों का पंजाब एवं हरियाणा प्रदेश में आकर रहना अस्थाई प्रवास है क्योंकि ये सब फिर से अपने अपने गांवों को वापस लौट जाते हैं। बड़े-बड़े शहरों जैसे कोलकाता, चेन्नई, मुम्बई तथा अन्य बड़े शहरी क्षेत्रों में लोग सुबह आकर काम काज करके सायंकाल में वापस अपने घर चले जाते हैं। इस प्रकार के जनसंख्या के आवागमन को दैनिक प्रवास कहा जाता है। पर्वतीय क्षेत्रों में सामान्यतः लोग ग्रीष्मकाल में अपने पशुओं के साथ घाटी इलाके से चलकर ऊँची पहाड़ियों पर पहु¡च जाते हैं। जैसे ही शीत ॠतु का आगमन होता है, ये लोग अपने मवेशियों के साथ उतरकर पुनः अपने घाटी के इलाके में लौट आते हैं। इन लोगों का मूल स्थायी आवास घाटी में होता है तथा पर्वतीय ढलानों पर पशुओं को चराने के लिए चले जाते हैं। जब सर्दी में उच्च पर्वतीय ढाल ठंडे होने लगते हैं, वे लोग निम्न भागों की ओर घाटी में लौट आते हैं। आमतौर पर वार्षिक आवागमन के रास्ते तथा चारागाह भी वस्तुतः तय एवं निश्चित होते हैं। इस प्रकार, ऊँचाई के अनुसार प्रवास को ॠतु प्रवास कहते हैं। हिमाचल प्रदेश की गद्दी जनजाति तथा जम्मू-कश्मीर राज्य की बकरवाल जनजाति प्रतिवर्ष ऐसा प्रवास करते हैं। प्रवासी लोगों के मूलस्थान तथा निर्दिष्ट स्थान के आधार पर प्रवास को चार भागों में बा¡टा जा सकता है-

(क) ग्रामीण क्षेत्रों से ग्रामीण क्षेत्रों में

(ख) ग्रामीण क्षेत्रों से नगरीय क्षेत्रों में

(ग) नगरीय क्षेत्रों से नगरीय क्षेत्रों में

(घ) नगरीय क्षेत्रों से ग्रामीण क्षेत्रों में

भारत में प्रवास की प्रवृत्तियां 

हमारे देश के एक अरब 2 करोड़ लोगों में से करीब 30 प्रतिशत यानी 30 करोड़ 70 लाख लोगों के नाम प्रवासी (जन्मस्थान के आधार पर) के रूप में दर्ज हैं। जनगणना के समय लोगों की गिनती उनके जन्मस्थान के अतिरिक्त अन्य जगहों पर होती है तो उन्हें प्रवासी की श्रेणी में रखा जाता है। सन् 2001 की जनगणना में 30 प्रतिशत का आंकड़ा (जम्मू-कश्मीर को छोड़कर), 1991 की जनगणना के 27.4 प्रतिशत से अधिक है। वास्तव में पिछले कई दशकों से इन प्रवासी लोगों की संख्या में लगातार वृद्धि हो रही है। यदि 1961 तथा 2001 की जनगणना की तुलना करें तो प्रवासी लोग 1961 में 14 करोड़ 40 लाख थे जबकि 2001 में इनकी संख्या 30 करोड़ 70 लाख हो गई है।

प्रवास के कारण

प्रवास अनेकों कारकों के मिले-जुले एवं पारस्परिक क्रियाओं का प्रतिफल होता है। सामान्य रूप से प्रवास को प्रभावित करने वाले कारकों को दो समूहों में  बाँट सकते हैं- (1) अपकर्ष तथा (2) प्रतिकर्ष कारक। मूल स्थान पर निवास करने वाले व्यक्तियों को प्रतिकर्ष कारक वहाँ से प्रवास करने के लिए मजबूर करता है, जबकि अपकर्ष कारक किसी भी क्षेत्रा विशेष में व्यक्तियों को आकर्षित करता है। जब तक दोनों समूहों के कारक एक साथ क्रियाशील होकर प्रभावित नहीं करेंगे तब तक जनसंख्या में प्रवास करने की न तो मजबूरी रहेगी और न ही आकर्षण। दोनों समूहों को प्रभावित करने वाले कारक आर्थिक, सामाजिक तथा राजनैतिक घटकों को शामिल करते हैं। 

(1) आर्थिक कारक - सामान्यतः लोगों की प्रवृत्ति उसी स्थान में निवास करने की होती हैं जहाँ उन्हें आजीविका प्राप्ति के अवसर होते हैं। इसलिए उस क्षेत्रा से जहाँ की मृदा अनुपजाऊ, आवागमन के साधन कम विकसित, निम्न औद्योगिक विकास एवं रोजगार की कम संभावनाएं हों वहाँ से लोग पलायन कर जाते हैं। ये कारक प्रवास के लिए प्रतिकर्षित करते हैं। दूसरी तरफ वे क्षेत्रा जहाँ पर रोजगार की गुंजाइश हो तथा जीवनस्तर भी अपेक्षाकृत ऊ¡चा हो, लोगों को उत्प्रवास के लिए आकर्षित करता है। अतः इन कारकों को आकर्षणकारी समूह कहते हैं। 

(2) सामाजिक-राजनैतिक कारक- मनुष्य एक सामाजिक प्राणी है अतः वह चाहता है कि वह अपने निकटतम संबंधियों के साथ रहे। साधारणतः एक ही धर्म, भाषा तथा समान सामाजिक रीति-रिवाज़ों को मानने वाले लोग एक साथ रहना पसन्द करते हैं। इसके ठीक विपरीत यदि कोई व्यक्ति ऐसे स्थान में रह रहा हो जहा¡ लोगों का रहन-सहन, सामाजिक रीति-रिवाज अलग हो तो वह अन्यत्रा प्रवास करना चाहेगा। बहुत से लोग धार्मिक महत्व के स्थानों पर जाना पसन्द करते हैं भले ही वह अस्थाई रूप में ही हो जैसे बद्रीनाथ, तिरूपति, वाराणसी आदि। इन्हीं सब कारणों से प्रेरित होकर शहरों के विभिन्न भागों में खास समुदाय के लोगों का संकेन्द्रण हो जाता है।

(3) जनांकिकीय कारक- जनांकिकी में उम्र की अहम भूमिका होती है। युवा व्यक्तियों में प्रवास ज्यादा मिलता है जबकि बच्चों एवं वद्धों में कम। ऐसा इसलिए होता है क्योंकि युवा व्यक्ति कार्य की तलाश या बेहतर संभावनाओं की खोज में अन्यत्र प्रवास करते हैं।

जनसंख्या प्रवास के परिणाम

जनसंख्या प्रवास के कारणों की तरह ही परिणाम भी विविध होते हैं। प्रवास के परिणाम दोनों स्थानों में, अर्थात जहा¡ से लोग निकलते हैं तथा जहाँ पर लोग उत्प्रवास कर बसते हैं, दिखाई पड़ते हैं। परिणामों को तीन प्रकार के वर्गों में रखा जा सकता है- आर्थिक, सामाजिक तथा जनसांख्यिकीय।

(1) आर्थिक परिणाम- प्रवास के आर्थिक परिणामों में से सबसे महत्वपूर्ण परिणाम, जनसंख्या तथा संसाधनों के बीच के अनुपात पर प्रभाव है। प्रवास के उद्गम स्थान में तथा प्रवास के बसावट, दोनों स्थानों पर इस अनुपात में बदलाव आता है। इनमें से एक स्थान तो कम जनसंख्या वाला हो जाता है तो दूसरा स्थान अधिक जनसंख्या वाला या फिर उचित या आदर्श जनसंख्या वाला। कम जनसंख्या के क्षेत्रा में लोगों की संख्या तथा मौजूद संसाधन में असंतुलन होता है, नतीजतन संसाधन का उचित उपभोग एवं विकास दोनों अवरूद्ध होते हैं।  ठीक इसके विपरीत अधिक जनसंख्या वाले क्षेत्रा में लोगों की बहुलता होती है, फलस्वरूप संसाधनों पर दबाव बढ़ जाता है। इस तरह लोगों का जीवनस्तर गिरने लगता है। 

(2) सामाजिक परिणाम - प्रवास के कारण विभिन्न संस्कृतियों के साथ पारस्परिक क्रिया होती हैं। प्रवास क्षेत्रों में भिन्न संस्कृतियों वाले व्यक्तियों के आने से इन क्षेत्रों की संस्कृति अधिक समृद्ध हो जाती हैं। भारत की आधुनिक संस्कृति अनेक संस्कृतियों की पारस्परिक क्रिया के फलस्वरूप प्रस्फुटित एवं पल्लवित हुई है। कभी कभी विभिन्न संस्कृतियों का मिलन सांस्कृतिक संघर्ष को भी जन्म देता है। बहुत से प्रवासी (विशेष कर पुरूष वर्ग) जो शहरों में अकेले रहते हैं, उन लोगों को विवाहेत्तर एवं असुरक्षित यौन संबंधों में लिप्त पाया जाता है। इनमें से कुछ लोग एचआई. वी. जैसी संक्रामक बीमारियों से ग्रसित पाए गए। 

(3) जनांकिकीय परिणाम - प्रवास के कारण दोनों स्थानों की जनसंख्या में गुणात्मक परिवर्तन आता हैं, खासकर जनसंख्या के आयुवर्ग तथा लैंगिक वर्ग के अनुपात में। इस कारण जनसंख्या की वृद्धि दर भी प्रभावित होती है। आमतौर पर जहाँ से युवा वर्ग उत्प्रवासित होकर अन्यत्रा चले जाते हैं वृद्धों, बच्चों एवं महिलाओं की संख्या बढ़ती है। दूसरा स्थान, जहाँ पर युवा वर्ग के प्रवासी आकर बस जाते हैं वहाँ की जनसंख्या की संरचना में वृद्धों, बच्चों की एवं महिलाओं की संख्या अपेक्षाकृत कम हो जाती है। यही कारण है कि जहाँ से युवा वर्ग बाहर निकला है वहा¡ लिंगानुपात ज्यादा होता है तथा जहाँ आकर युवा वर्ग प्रवासित होता है वहाँ लिंगानुपात कम हो जाता है। इसका कारण युवा पुरूषों का ज्यादा प्रवास होना है। इस प्रकार दोनों स्थानो की जनसंख्या में बदलाव तो होता ही है जनसंख्या की संरचना में भी परिवर्तन हो जाता है। इसके कारण दोनों ही क्षेत्रों में जन्मदर, मृत्युदर एवं इसके परिणामस्वरूप वृद्धि दर में परिवर्तन होता है। जिस क्षेत्रा से युवा वर्ग प्रवास में बाहर चले जाते हैं वहा¡ की जन्मदर घट जाता है, अतः जनसंख्या में वृद्धि दर का कम पाया जाना स्वाभाविक परिणाम है। ठीक इसका उल्टा प्रभाव एवं परिणाम उस क्षेत्रा की जनसंख्या में जन्मदर एवं वृद्धि दर पर पड़ता है जहा¡ पर अधिक युवा प्रवासी आकर बस जाते हैं।

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Migration of Students from India: An Overview

migration hindi essay

By Dr. Amba Pande

India is the world’s second largest student sending country after China with the number of Indian students abroad having increased four times in the last 14 years. Students’ migration of such magnitude has become a major source of capital and brain drain for India while hugely benefitting the economies of the advanced countries. Ninety percent of student movement from India is concentrated in five countries of which the United States is by far the largest recipient, receiving more than half of the expatriate Indian students, followed by Australia and the United Kingdom.

Several factors appear to be at work propelling the massive flow of students beyond the Indian borders. These can be largely divided into two broad groups:

International Developments: include factors such asthetechnological revolution; globalization of education; global demographic trend; and most importantly policy changes to aggressively recruit foreign students who are preferred over the immigration of already skilled labor force because the additional revenue earned in terms of fees that significantly contributes to the cross-subsidization of education of domestic students in the developed countries.

Domestic Conditions: include factors such as widening gap in the demand for and supply of higher education; regulatory framework of the country; rising income levels; availability of education loans, the desire of the Indian middle class to migrate to developed countries; the desperation to gain access to quality education to climb up the socio-ladder.

The Government of India, although a bit late, has awakened to the problem of massive exodus of students.  It has been highlighted in the Eleventh Five-Year Plan (2007–2012) and the Twelfth Five-Year Plan (2012–17) which states that: ‘Higher education in India is passing through a phase of unprecedented expansion, marked by an explosion in the volume of students, a substantial expansion in the number of institutions and a quantum jump in the level of public funding’(Government of India, 2012).Of late, some state governments such as Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, and Haryana have also got into fray of edu-business. These states are putting efforts toward setting up of ‘Educational Cities’ and ‘Special Education Zones.’ The government has also encouraged Private participation in the education sector in India in a big way.

The private sector, now accounts for over one-third of the overall enrolment in general and about four-fifths of the enrolments in professional education. In the case of engineering colleges and business schools the private sector accounts for about 90 per cent of the seats. In medical education, the proportion of private sector seats has risen to about 55 per cent in 2013. Private deemed universities have grown more than 100 per cent since 2002, though now the government has ceased to accord any institution the status of a deemed university.In addition, private universities established under state (provinces) legislation have witnessed a phenomenal growth from nil to 200 in 2014. During the past decade it appears Indian states have permitted the establishing of some 20 universities per year on an average (See UGC 2015).

The Indian universities are also being encouraged by the government to solicit entry of foreign students. The universities have responded by tailoring their courses to international requirements and appointing agents abroad and publicizing the offers widely in the media (Kaul, 2006). It has resulted in a slow but steady rise in the trickle of foreign students in India with receiving only about 7000 foreign students in 2002 to about 12,000 in 2008.

International students in India: 2000-2011 (numbers)

Source: MHRD 2014

However, India still has to go a long way in terms of net earnings from the foreign students to be able to cross-subsidize the domestic students. None of the Indian Universities find a place in the top 200 Universities of the world (QS 2012–13), and unless adequate attention is paid on the improvement of the quality of education and infrastructure, it will be difficult to exploit the opportunities that internalization of higher education brings. India has multiple challenges of improving literacy, universalizing access to quality basic and secondary education and at the same time to meet the rising demands for education through appropriate reforms, quality control, and creating opportunities for research, innovation, and entrepreneurship at home.As Pawan Agarwal ( 2009) argues, ‘the country would not be able to sustain its growth momentum and maintain competitiveness unless problems of higher education are fixed’.

In this regard, the role of India diaspora (which is already active in the education sector) can prove to be extremely significant

There appears to be a complex interplay of factors at the international and domestic levels which have opened the floodgates of the student migration from India. However, a right mix of policies and initiatives can not only curtail the flow of students but also transform India into an education hub attracting foreign students. Opening up of the education sector and thereby making it more competitive had encouraging trends across the world. The new approach towards education has led to a regular review of education policies and revamping of the curricula providing choices and innovative subject combinations. Even if the idea of profit making is contested, cost recovery, without doubt, seems to be a pragmatic approach to improve the quality and keep pace with the growing demands. Higher fees extracted from the foreign students and also making at least better-off domestic students to pay at the market rate has resulted in substantial surplus to cross-subsidize the education of domestic students to a large extent. Entry of foreign institutes, faculty, and students also sets high benchmarks improving the overall quality of education. However , this has to come with strict regulation especially on ‘for profit’ institutions to ensure that the incoming institutions reinvest all surpluses in the institution and do not repatriate profits, maintain quality and offer adequate facilities. As Nick Clark (2010) states ‘The government has to find the right balance between regulating the sector to ensure unscrupulous providers do not dominate, and deregulation so that foreign universities will actually be interested in the opportunities  in India.India has immense potential to tap the trillion dollar industry worldwide given its history, demographic advantage, growing knowledge economy, and rich heritage. It will not be surprising if India emerges as a success story in higher education as it has done in some other sectors such as IT and health. All it calls for is the adoption of an outward-looking approach to expand the education sector.

Agarwal, Pawan (2009) Indian Higher Education: Envisioning the Future.New Delhi, India: Sage.

Government of India. 2011. Mid-term Appraisal, Eleventh Five Year Plan, Planning Commission, http://planningcommission.gov.in/plans/mta/11th_mta/MTA.html

Kaul, Sanat (2006) Higher Education in India: Seizing the Opportunity. Working Paper No. 179, ICRIER. Available at http://www.icrier.org/pdf/WP_179.pdf (last accessed 15/11/2011).

Nick, Clark (2010) Branch Campuses in India: Will They Come? World Education News and Reviews, Vol.23, Issue3, available at www.wes.org (last accessed 30/8/2012)

QS World Universities Rankings 2015-16, http://www.topuniversities.com/university-rankings/world-university-rankings.

UGC. University Grants Commission. Government of India, http://www.ugc.ac.in/

----------------------------

Dr. Amba Pande, School of International Studies , JNU

Indian Diaspora has made immense contribution in growth and development of East Africa

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  • Migration and Its Effects

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Migration is a way to move from one place to another in order to live and work. Movement of people from their home to another city, state or country for a job, shelter or some other reasons is called migration. Migration from rural areas to urban areas has increased in past few years in India.

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migration hindi essay

Causes of Migration

Migration and Its Effects

Movement of people from one place to another in search of work  (Source: eiu)

Nowadays, many people decide to migrate to have a better life. Employment opportunities are the most common reason due to which people migrate. Except this, lack of opportunities, better education , construction of dams, globalization , natural disaster (flood and drought) and sometimes crop failure forced villagers to migrate to cities.

People who move from one place to another in search of work or shelter are called migrants .  Most of the times migrants people are not skilled or educated therefore they usually employed as daily wagers ( workers who are paid at the end of each day, for their services ). Daily wagers do not get enough money for the survival of their families and suffering from many problems such as they do not have enough food to eat, sanitation, hygiene , a proper place to live etc.

Read about Effects of Blowing Air

Impacts of Migration

Migration is becoming a very important subject for the life of cities . Many opportunities and attraction of big cities pull large numbers of people to big cities. Migration can have positive as well as negative effects on the life of the migrants.

Positive Impact

  • Unemployment is reduced and people get better job opportunities.
  • Migration helps in improving the quality of life of people.
  • It helps to improve social life of people as they learn about new culture, customs , and languages which helps to improve brotherhood among people.
  • Migration of skilled workers leads to a greater economic growth of the region.
  • Children get better opportunities for higher education .
  • The population density is reduced and the birth rate decreases.

Read about Seeds here in detail .

Negative Impact

  • The loss of a person from rural areas, impact on the level of output and development of rural areas.
  • The influx of workers in urban areas increases competition for the job, houses, school facilities etc.
  • Having large population puts too much pressure on natural resources , amenities and services .
  • It is difficult for a villager to survive in urban areas because in urban areas there is no natural environment and pure air. They have to pay for each and everything.
  • Migration changes the population of a place, therefore, the distribution of the population is uneven in India.
  • Many migrants are completely illiterate and uneducated, therefore, they are not only unfit for most jobs, but also lack basic knowledge and life skills.
  • Poverty makes them unable to live a normal and healthy life.
  • Children growing up in poverty have no access to proper nutrition, education or health.
  • Migration increased the slum areas in cities which increase many problems such as unhygienic conditions, crime, pollution etc.
  • Sometimes migrants are exploited.
  • Migration is one of the main causes of increasing nuclear family where children grow up without a wider family circle.

Read about Moon and Starts in Sky here

Solved Example

Q1. What are the benefits of living in the villages?

Sol: In villages, people live in a natural environment . There are so many soothing sounds. Like the gurgle of the flowing river, the murmur of trees and the chirping of birds. People here live together like a big family and help each other, in good and bad times. The elders settle quarrels among them.

Q2. What are the demerits of village life?

  Sol: There are less earning opportunities in villages. There are hospitals with lack of facilities. People are not aware of new technological advancements. Quality of education is poor as compared to a city.

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India and Migration - Facts for UPSC Prelims and Mains GS-II & Essay

According to the World Economic Forum (WEF), India is the top source of international migrants. It terms India as a migration superpower. Migration from India occurs due to social, economic and political reasons. As an important national issue, Migration makes an important part of IAS Exam from the perspective of Mains GS-II and Essay.

This article will provide you with relevant facts about Migration in India, assuming its significance for  UPSC 2023 .

Aspirants reading the topic ‘Migration in India’ can also check the below-mentioned links which are similar:

What is Migration?

  • When a person or a group of the community move from one place to another, majorly across political and administrative borders; it gives rise to migration.
  • The term migration refers to the movement of people from one area to the other or from one country to another.
  • The rate of migration affects the growth of the population of a region by increasing or decreasing the number of people living there.
  • Migration can be called permanent, temporary and daily.

Types of Migration

Migration can be of various types:

Technically, it is also categorized into the following:

  • Counter-urbanization
  • Immigration
  • Internal migration
  • International migration and
  • Rural-urban migration

Features of Migration

The features of migration are mentioned in the table below:

Migration & the Census of India

In the Indian Census, migration is signified by two types:

  • Migration by birthplace
  • Migration by place of last residence

The census also covers the reasons for migration which are:

  • Work/Employment
  • Moved after birth
  • Moved with household

As per 2001 census:

  • 5.3 crore migrants were recorded who moved from one village to another
  • 2.1 crores migrants moved from the villages to towns
  • 62 lakhs migrants from moved from towns to villages
  • 1.4 crore migrants moved from one town to another
  • Maharashtra topped the list of the states w.r.t the number of net migrants (23.8 lakh)
  • Uttar Pradesh (-26.9 lakh) and Bihar (- 17.2 lakh) were the two states with the largest number of persons migrating out of the two states.

Causes of Migration

  • Push factors , these cause people to leave their place of residence or origin; and
  • Pull factors , which attract people from different places.
  • In India, people migrate from rural to urban areas mainly due to poverty, high population pressure on the land, lack of basic infrastructural facilities like health care, education, etc.
  • Apart from these factors, natural disasters such as floods, drought, cyclonic storms, earthquakes, tsunamis, wars and local conflicts also give an extra push to migrate.
  • On the other hand, there are pull factors that attract people from rural areas to cities.
  • The most important pull factor for the majority of the rural migrants to urban areas is the better opportunities, availability of regular work and relatively higher wages.
  • Better opportunities for education, better health facilities and sources of entertainment, etc., are also quite significant pull factors.

The problem of International Migration in India

The facts about the migration problems in India are given below:

  • The International Organization for Migration (IOM) had reported in 2010 that Globalisation has been a major factor influencing the international movement of people and for the growth of transnational communities. It is estimated that 215 million people, constituting about 3 per cent of the world’s population, live outside their native countries.
  • Organisation for Economic Cooperation & Development (OECD) had in 2010 reported that the top 20 countries of migrant origin accounted for over half of all international migration flows in 2008, with China, Poland, India and Mexico at the top of the list
  • The growing mobility of labour in a globalising economy,
  • Emerging population and demographic dynamics
  • Integration issues
  • Enhanced security concerns.
  • The challenge is to maximise the benefits from migration and transform it into a win-all process for the countries of origin, destination and the migrants themselves.
  • In India, the migratory flows of the skilled and the unskilled, both have undergone changes due to the pervasive economic restructuring under globalisation that creates opportunities as well as challenges.
  • In the case of unskilled migrants, the policy responses from public administration, both in the countries of origin and destination, towards safe and adequate legal protection to the migrants continue to maintain its salience.
  • Within the country itself, the mainstreaming of Diaspora policies remains an issue which engages us.
  • At a moderate level, it takes up the issue of integration of the overseas community with the host society.

Advantage of Migration (Indian Scenario Globally)

  • Migrants of all skill levels considerably contribute to societies. They spawn creativity, nourish the human spirit and spur economic growth. They bring diversity, provide innovation and bring about economic development and growth in the host societies.
  • The primary motivation for migration is economic and at the heart of migration, management is imperative to maximize the development impact of international migration for all.
  • India exemplifies the strengths of a large, tolerant, secular, live democracy with a pluralistic society in which people of different faiths, languages, ethnicity and political persuasions co-exist and thrive. Indeed, this milieu is the ‘sine qua non’ of any society that can create conditions for positive migratory movements and labour mobility for the benefit of all.
  • This places India in a position to help contribute to the international community’s efforts to develop an appropriate world migration strategy.

Consequences of Migration

Migration is a response to the uneven distribution of opportunities over space. People tend to move from places of low opportunity and low safety to places of higher opportunity and better safety. This, in turn, creates both benefits and problems for the areas, people migrate from and migrate to. Consequences can be observed in economic, social, cultural, political and demographic terms.

  • Economic Consequences – A major benefit for the source region is the remittance sent by migrants. Remittances from international migrants are one of the major sources of foreign exchange.
  • Demographic Consequences – Migration leads to the redistribution of the population within a country. Rural-urban migration is one of the important factors contributing to the population growth of cities. Age and skill selective out-migration from the rural area have an adverse effect on the rural demographic structure.
  • Social Consequences – Migrants act as agents of social change. The new ideas related to new technologies, family planning, girls’ education, etc. get diffused from urban to rural areas through them. Migration leads to intermixing of people from diverse cultures. It has positive contributions such as the evolution of composite culture and breaking through the narrow considerations and widening up the mental horizon of the people at large.
  • Environmental Consequences – Overcrowding of people due to rural-urban migration has put pressure on the existing social and physical infrastructure in the urban areas. This ultimately leads to the unplanned growth of urban settlement and the formation of slums shanty colonies.

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