Essay on India For Students and Children


500+ Words Essay on India

India is a great country where people speak different languages but the national language is Hindi. India is full of different castes, creeds, religion, and cultures but they live together. That’s the reasons India is famous for the common saying of “ unity in diversity “. India is the seventh-largest country in the whole world.

Geography and Culture

India has the second-largest population in the world. India is also knowns as Bharat, Hindustan and sometimes Aryavart. It is surrounded by oceans from three sides which are Bay Of Bengal in the east, the Arabian Sea in the west and Indian oceans in the south. Tiger is the national animal of India. Peacock is the national bird of India. Mango is the national fruit of India. “ Jana Gana Mana ” is the national anthem of India . “Vande Mataram” is the national song of India. Hockey is the national sport of India. People of different religions such as Hinduism, Buddhism , Jainism, Sikhism, Islam, Christianity and Judaism lives together from ancient times. India is also rich in monuments, tombs, churches, historical buildings, temples, museums, scenic beauty, wildlife sanctuaries , places of architecture and many more. The great leaders and freedom fighters are from India.

F lag of India

The indian flag has tricolors.

The first color that is uppermost color in the flag which is the saffron color, stands for purity. The second color i.e. the middle color in the flag is the white color and it stands for peace. The third color that is the lowest color in the flag is the green color and it stands for fertility. The white color has an Ashoka Chakra of blue color on it. Ashoka Chakra contains twenty-four spokes which are equally divided. India has 29 states and 7 union territories.

essay on india map

Follow this link to get a Physical and state-wise Map of India

My Favorite States from India are as follows –

Rajasthan itself has a glorious history. It is famous for many brave kings, their deeds, and their art and architecture. It has a sandy track that’s why the nuclear test was held here. Rajasthan is full of desert, mountain range, lakes, dense forest, attractive oases, and temples, etc. Rajasthan is also known as “Land Of Sacrifice”. In Rajasthan, you can see heritage things of all the kings who ruled over there and for that, you can visit Udaipur, Jodhpur, Jaisalmer, Chittaurgarh, etc.

Madhya Pradesh

Madhya Pradesh is bigger than a foreign (Italy) country and smaller than Oman. It also has tourists attractions for its places. In Madhya Pradesh, you can see temples, lakes, fort, art and architecture, rivers, jungles, and many things. You can visit in Indore, Jabalpur, Ujjain, Bhopal, Gwalior and many cities. Khajuraho, Sanchi Stupa, Pachmarhi, Kanha national park, Mandu, etc. are the places must visit.

Jammu and Kashmir

Jammu and Kashmir are known as heaven on earth . We can also call Jammu and Kashmir as Tourists Paradise. There are many places to visit Jammu and Kashmir because they have an undisturbed landscape, motorable road, beauty, lying on the banks of river Jhelum, harmony, romance, sceneries, temples and many more.

In Jammu and Kashmir, u can enjoy boating, skiing, skating, mountaineering, horse riding, fishing, snowfall, etc. In Jammu and Kashmir, you can see a variety of places such as Srinagar, Vaishnav Devi, Gulmarg, Amarnath, Patnitop, Pahalgam, Sonamarg, Lamayuru, Nubra Valley, Hemis, Sanasar,  Anantnag,  Kargil, Dachigam National Park, Pulwama, Khilanmarg, Dras, Baltal, Bhaderwah, Pangong Lake, Magnetic Hill, Tso Moriri, Khardung La, Aru Valley, Suru Basin,Chadar Trek, Zanskar Valley, Alchi Monastery, Darcha Padum Trek, Kishtwar National Park, Changthang Wildlife Sanctuary, Nyoma, Dha Hanu, Uleytokpo, Yusmarg, Tarsar Marsar Trek and many more.

It is known as the ‘God’s Own Country’, Kerala is a state in India, situated in the southwest region, it is bordered by a number of beaches; covered by hills of Western Ghats and filled with backwaters, it is a tourist destination attracting people by its natural beauty. The most important destinations which you can see in Kerela are the museum, sanctuary, temples, backwaters, and beaches. Munnar, Kovalam, Kumarakom, and Alappad.

India is a great country having different cultures, castes, creed, religions but still, they live together. India is known for its heritage, spices, and of course, for people who live here. That’s the reasons India is famous for the common saying of “unity in diversity”. India is also well known as the land of spirituality , philosophy, science, and technology.


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Indian Geography Essay

Essay on indian geography for class 10, 12, mains exam (upsc, psc, ssc).

Indian Geography Essay

Indian Geography Essay for Class 10, 12 (Board) and Mains Exam

Indian Geography Essay : India is located in the southern part of the Asian continent whereby it shares borders with seven countries such as Afghanistan, Bhutan, China, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Myanmar. In other words, it occupies a greater portion of South Asia having its capital at New Delhi. It is bounded by the Arabian Sea in the southwest and the Bay of Bengal in the southeast. India has a federal parliamentary democratic republic government and it is also popular for being one of the largest democracies in the world. Furthermore, it is also the second most populous country. India has a diverse geography ranging from snow-covered mountains to forests, deserts, plains, hills and plateaus. It has a coastline of 7000 km, it acquires a palace in southern Asia.

India is categorised into seven geographical locations. These are the Indo-Gangetic plains, East coast, West coast, Thar desert, seas and islands, Central highlands and Deccan plateau. India has a range of arc-shaped mountains such as the Patkai ranges, the Himalayas and the Hindu Kush ranges. These mountain ranges were composed due to the plate tectonic collision of the Eurasian with the Indian plate. One advantage the mountains bring to our nation is that protect the country from the cold polar winds. Moreover it also protects the country from invaders. Various rivers originate from the mountains which irrigate the Indo-Gangetic plains. The nation holds its pride in the fact that the Himalayas is the youngest and the highest mountain ranges in the world. The Indo-Gangetic plains comprise the flood plains of the Brahmaputra and the Indus river systems. It also runs parallel to the mountains extending from Jammu and Kashmir in the west to Assam in the east. Furthermore, the various states such as West Bengal, Bihar, Jharkhand, Uttar Pradesh, Haryana and Punjab are drained by the Indo-Gangetic plains. All these plains cover an area of 700,000 sq km. A large number of rivers such as Beas, Chambal, Ganga, Yamuna, Satluj, Ravi and Gomti occupy a major portion of the Indo-Gangetic plains.

Also known as the Great Indian Desert, the Thar desert forms a major portion of western India. It disseminates over four states such as Rajasthan, Gujarat, Punjab and Haryana, almost occupying an area of 208110 sq km. Furthermore, this desert also extends its area into the Cholistan desert of Pakistan. 61 per cent of the Thar Desert occupies the geographic area of the Thar desert.

The Central Highlands includes the Deccan plateau, Malwa Plateau and the Chota Nagpur Plateau which is very rich in minerals and stones. Moreover, the eastern coastal plain lying between the Bay of Bengal and the Eastern Ghats drains the Mahanadi, Godavari and Krishana rivers. An important feature along the eastern coast is Chilka lake. Andaman and Nicobar islands and the Lakshwadeep islands protect the SLOCs and the chokepoints, thereby impeding pirate attacks. Wetlands are also present, of which the Sundarban Delta represents the largest mangrove in the world.

It is evident from the above discussion that India occupies an important position in the globe. The central location of India is important as it allowed to maintain trade relations with Werst Asia, Africa and Europe. In addition, the majority of the air routes between Africa and Europe have found its ways through India. Thus, India owns a strategic location in terms of trade and social and cultural interactions.

Frequently Asked Questions

1.) State the location of India.

India is located in the southern part of the Asian continent.

2.) Mention the geographical locations of India.

Indo-Gangetic plains, East coast, West coast, Thar desert, seas and islands, Central highlands and Deccan plateau.

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Essay on india.

india geography essay


In this essay we will learn about India. After reading this essay you will learn about:- 1. Origin of India 2. Physical Features of India 3. Geographical Divisions 4. Climate 5. Natural Vegetation 6. Soil 7. Distribution of Forest Cover 8. Forest Policy 9. Animal Resources 10. Agriculture 11. Major Food Crops 12. Crop Regions 13. Irrigation 14. Development of Irrigation and Others.

Essay on India:

  • Essay on the Impact of Races on Culture of India

1. Essay on the Origin of India:

The sub-continent of India which extends from the Himalayas to the sea is known as Bharatavarsa or the land of Bharata. According to the Puranic legend Bharatavarsa was named after the legendary emperor, Bharata.

The ancient Indian also called it Jambudvipa, which was considered to be the innermost of the seven concentric island-continents into which the earth had been divided. Thus the name of the Jambudvipa means the continent of the Jumbo trees.

According to the Buddhist evidence this name actually came to be used only during the third century B. C. and was applied to that part of Asia over which the great imperial of the Mauryas ruled.

The country acquired new name India or Hindustan after the early invasion of the Persian and the Greeks. Usually these invaders could not go beyond the Indus river or Sindhu. But as the Persians pronounced the word‘s’ as ‘h’ it began to be pronounced as Hindu.

Similarly, the word ‘India’ was drawn from the word ‘Indus’. During the Medieval times the Muslim rulers started designating the country as ‘Hind’ or Hindus­tan and its inhabitants came to be known as Hindus. Thus the present name ‘Hindustan’ is an Indo-Iranian hybrid.

The sub-continent of India is a very vast peninsula with the shape of an irregular quadrilateral. It has an area of 32, 76, 141 sq. km. Its length is 3,119 km. and breadth is 2,977 km. Its population according to 1971 census stands at 54, 79, 49,809 and it is the second biggest country in the world.

Isolation from Other Countries:

The Geographical location of the country is such that it has been isolated from the other countries of the world. In the North the Himalayan ranges separate India from Tibet, China and ‘the rest of Asia; : while in the East, the West and South it is surrounded by the Bay of Bengal, Arabian Sea and the Indian Ocean respectively.

These seas separate India from the Africa, Malaysia and Islands of Indonesian Archipe­lago. Due to this isolated location, from the inception of her history, India has evolved her own pattern of civilisation and culture.

The peculiar characteristics of the Indian civilisation and culture distinguish her from other countries. The Indian people evolved their own dress, habits, religion, etc. because of this isolation. No doubt, traces of foreign influence particularly in the field of learning and art, are noticeable but this influence is rather very limited.

Due to vast dimension, variety of races, difference of climate and different physical characteristics India has been able to evolve a colorful civilisation. But it should not give us the impres­sion that India has been completely cut off from the rest of the world.

The passes in the West and East of the mountain ranges have served as gates for establishing a communication with the out­side world. Not only a number of invaders came to India through these passes but a number of Indian missionaries, merchants and leaders of the culture also went to other countries.

2. Essay on the Physical Features of India:

India is a vast country. Total geographical area of the country is about 32, 87,782 sq kms measuring nearly 3,214 kms from north to south and about 2,933 kms from east to west. In India, total border area is about 15,200 kms and total coastal area of the country is to the extent of 6,083 kms. India is the seventh largest country in respect of land area and is the second most populous country of the world after China.

(ii) Natural Regions:

On geographical basis, India possesses mainly three different natural regions:

(a) Himalayan region, comprising of three Himalayan ranges and the Kashmir and Kullu valleys lying within the region. The three major Indian rivers—Ganga, Sindhu and Brahmaputra and their tributaries are originated from the Himalayan ranges. Moreover typical dense forests comprising various types of valuable trees also exist in this region.

(b) Indus-Gangetic Valley, composed of plain regions connecting three major rivers—Ganga, Sindhu and Brahmaputra and their tributaries. The alluvial soils of this region help to produce a huge quantity of different crops every year.

(c) Deccan plateau is composed of rocky plains. Two different sides of this plateau are covered by Eastern ghat and Western Ghat Mountains. The average height of this region is 2,000 feet above mean sea level. This Deccan plateau is also well known for its various types of deposits of minerals.

(iii) Climate:

In India climate is full of variety. Some regions of the country are experiencing too hot climate and the other remaining regions are experiencing too cold climate. The Meteorological Department of India has classified the seasons of the country into four different types, i.e., winter, summer, rainy season and autumn season.

(iv) Rainfall:

In India the rainfall is not well balanced in all the different regions resulting in regional disparities in respect of rainfall distribution. Rainfall is widespread in the regions covering Assam, Meghalaya and other north eastern states, West Bengal and Western ghat regions whereas the rainfall is scanty in the states like Rajasthan and Haryana. In India the annual average rainfall is to the extent of 4.2 inches.

(v) Soil Conditions:

Considering its peculiarity, Indian soil can be classified into four different types. These are alluvial soil, black soil, red soil and laterite soil. The fertility of alluvial soil is quite rich and thus it is very much suitable for cultivation.

This alluvial soil is available at Deccan Valley; red soil is available in the Deccan-Peninsula region and the laterite soil is mostly found in Assam, Madhya Pradesh and Eastern ghat-Western ghat region.

3. Essay on Geographical Divisions of India:

(i) mountainous ranges in the north:.

On the North of the country are located the Himalayan mountains, which spread out both to the east as well as west. These mountains are roughly 1500 miles in length and stretch from Kashmir in the West to Assam in the east.

The hills like Hindukush, Suleiman, Safedkoh and Kirthar lie in the north-western region while the hills like Khasi, Jaintya, Patkoi, Lushai, etc. are located in the eastern part. It may be noted that the mountains located in the North are comparatively high.

The eastern ranges though not quite high are covered with dense forests. This is mainly due to the excessive rains in these regions. Till very recent times these ranges were considered as inaccessible. Dr. R.C.

Majumdar observes:

“The Himalaya is the most inaccessible frontier that nature has designed for any country, but even here there are roads from Tibet to Nepal that have carried for ages not merely peaceful missionaries of culture and religion, but on are occasions even formidable hosts of soldiers as well.” This myth was exploded only when the Chinese attacked India from this side in 1962.

In the north-west mountainous ranges certain passes across the Hindukush served as channels of commercial and cultural exchange between India and countries on the ether side. The most prominent passes are Khyber, Tochi, Kara, Kurram, Gomals, Bolan. It was through these passes that almost all the invaders right from the times of the Aryans came to India.

Some of the prominent invaders who entered India through these passes included Persians, Macedonians, Scythians, Parthians, Sakas, Kushans, Hunas, Turks, Mongols, Mughals, Afghans, etc.

Though these invaders came to this country mainly with a view to plunder the riches but they left a deep impact on the culture and institutions of the country. Some of the Indian missionaries, travellers also left through these passes to spread the Indian culture and civilization abroad.

In short we can say that the Himalayans have not only cut off India from the outside world but have also .constituted India into a world by itself. Some of the prominent rivers which have made our lands fertile also originates from the Himalayans.

In the words of Dr. Ray Chaudhry, “The stupendous mountain chain which fences this country from the rest of Asia, while it constituted India a world by itself favoured the growth of a distinct type of civilisation.”

(ii) Indo-Gangetic Plain:

The Indo-Gangetic Plain is spread from Bay of Bengal to the Arabian Sea and is roughly 200 miles long and 200 miles in breadth. This Plain embraces the valleys of the Indus and its tributaries, the deserts of Sindh and Rajputana as well as regions watered by the Ganges, the Jamuna and the Brahmaputra.

This plain was formed as a result of the deposits of rich soil washed down the Himalayas and other hills of the South for a number of centuries. It is mainly because of these rivers and their tributaries that this plain became a very fertile and prosperous region.

This richness and fertility of the land resulted in the establishment of a number of big towns, centres of trade and capitals during all the periods of Indian history. Most of the important events worth recording took place in these plains. Its enormous wealth and resources were the sources of temptation for foreign invaders.

Most of the mighty kingdoms of ancient times like those of Chandra Gupta Maurya, Ashoka, Samudra Gupta, Chandra Gupta Vikramaditya, Harsh Vardhan, Ala-ud-Din and Akbar, flourished in these regions. This region was also a centre for the great religious movements like Jainism and Buddhism.

Due to the richness and the easy accessibility of the daily needs, the people of this region had enough time at their disposal, which they fruitfully utilised for the development of art and literature. This explains the reason why the people from this region were able to create some of the highest specimens of art and literature right from the earliest times.

The prosperity of this region has also been responsible for the misery and sufferings of the inhabitants. A number of Muslim invaders like Mahmud Ghaznavi and Mohammad Ghori made repeat­ed invasions on India only with a view to amass and plunder the rich booty which they could expect. But for the riches available in these plains these invaders would not have attacked India.

Some of the destructive wars since the earliest times of history were also fought in this region. Some of the important battles which took place in this region include the battle of Mahabharta, Tarain, Karnal and Panipat. After the settlement of the Muslims in this region a cultural assimilation took place. It greatly enriched the Indian culture and civilization and exercised tremendous influence on the course of our history.

(iii) The Deccan Plateau:

The Deccan Plateau lies to the south of the Gangetic plain and is separated by the Vindhyas and Satpuras. This area stretches from Vindhyas to Cape Camorin. On its west are situated the Western Ghats and in the east the Eastern Ghats.

The important rivers running in this region are Mahanadi, Kaveri, Krishna, Godavari, Narbada and Tapti. With the exception of Narbada and Tapti all other important rivers flow eastward into the Bay of Bengal. The rivers of the south are not as much useful as means of communication, as the rivers of the north.

The Deccan Peninsula is a triangular table-land rising abruptly in the west sloping way towards the east. This area is considered to be the oldest part of India. The area lying to the south of Krishna and Tungabhadra is known as Far-South.

The present territories of Mysore and Tamil Nadu constitute this region. This natural division of the north and the south by the Vindhyas has completely kept the two regions apart and two separate cultures, which have no connection with each other, flourished in these two regions.

On the northern side of the Deccan Plateau, the Vindhyas and the Satpura ranges exist. These areas are covered with dense forests which are very difficult to cross. The un-accessibility of these regions led to the conception of two different countries in India— Aryabrata and Dakshinapath in the ancient times. Most of the Indian rulers never made any attempt to combine these two regions into one political unit.

Only some of the prominent rulers like Ashoka, Samudragupta, Allauddin Khilji, Muhammad Tughlaq and Aurangzeb tried to bring both these regions under their control. But they found it difficult to retain this control for long. As a result South India remained mostly cut off from the northern India and developed a culture and history of its own. This was in a way a blessing in disguise.

One of the advantage of this separa­tion according to one historian has been that, “In difficult and troublesome times the culture of the north could always seek refuse in the Deccan. When Buddhism became dominant in the north, Brahmanical religion and culture made their way to the south, and thus were enabled to survive and later to regain power.”

Similarly the Jains sought refuse in the south. The ‘refugee’ northern literature and culture were welcomed by the great Andhra, Chola, Chalukya, Yadaya and Hoysala rulers scientific inventions these barriers have broken down and the two regions have been politically knit-together.

(iv) The Eastern and the Western Ghats:

The plains of the south extend from the eastern sea-coast to the western sea-coast and contains some of the rich ports like Konkan and Malabar. The fertile deltas of Godawari, the Krishna and the Kaveri are also loca­ted here.

Along with Deccan table-land a high mountainous – wail runs parallel to the shores of the Arabian Sea which are popularly known as Western Ghats. Their length is roughly 700 miles. Simi­larly in the east, the region is known as Eastern Ghats.

The Western Ghats are 3,000 to 8,000 feet above sea-level and possess a number of flat-topped peaks. The Marathas build fortresses on these peaks and played an important role in the history of the country. The area between coast and the foot of the Ghats is highly productive and produces large quantity of rice and coconut.

These regions are not easily accessible and therefore remained isolated from the rest of the Deccan for a long time. As a result certain practices and cus­toms developed in this region which are not found elsewhere in India.

The Eastern Ghats, however, are much broader and are easily accessible to communication. This resulted in the growth of number of important cities and kingdoms in those regions. The contact with the outside countries like Jawa, Sumatra, Burma, Siam and Indo-China was also maintained through the ports of the Eastern Ghats.

4. Essay on the Climate of India:

India is perhaps the only country in the world where such a wide variation of climates occur in close proximity. Almost every type of climate is prevailing in India simultaneously. Extreme dryness on one end, high precipitation on the other and scorching, sultry heat in one extremity while moist dampness in the other region.

Large latitudinal extent and unique physiographic variations bring such differences of climate from one region to another.

(i) Precipitation:

Benevolent activities of monsoon and particular geographical locations were highly beneficial for annual Indian water-budget condition and balanced spatial distri­bution of rainfall. The western part of India remains dry throughout the year. Here, the annual rainfall is one of the lowest, i.e. less than 30 cm per year. Rainfall increases towards East and South.

In the extreme north-east, rainfall even exceeds one thousand cm. India receives most of its rainfall from outbursts of monsoon. As these outbursts are entirely controlled by exter­nal forces, distribution of rainfall is uneven. The volume of rainfall is also not certain.

(ii) Humidity:

In north-western India, evaporation is greater than precipitation. This region is often classed as a water-deficit zone. Humidity obviously increases in rainy season. For the remaining part of the year, a dry condition prevails in the region.

Apart from this region, humidity picks up in all directions. Winter is the driest period throughout the country, though in early summer, in some parts, humidity is even greater than the rainy season.

(iii) Temperature:

Due to proximity to tropical region, south India experiences highest tem­perature average. Temperature varies very little in this region. Further North, pronounced cold is experienced. In extreme North, the winter becomes chilly and severe.

From March to May the temperature gradually goes up but June onwards, due to the outburst of south-west monsoon, moderating effect of rainfall brings down the temperature considerably. Compared to coastal areas, the interior regions have to face severe heat.

5. Essay on Natural Vegetation of India:

There is a positive co-relation existing in India between the diverse nature of physiogra­phy, climate and vegetation. Numerous factors are responsible for the changing nature of vegetation from place to place.

Among the various factors responsible for spatial differences of vegetation, pedological and climatic factors are by far the most important. Biotic, edaphic and climatic climax group dominates in vegetation growth. Due to the high degree of human interference, climatic cli­max vegetation has already vanished.

Several attempts were made to classify Indian Vegetation. Earlier attempts were either incomplete or unscientific. Champion’s classification is perhaps the first complete classifica­tion and regarded as a pioneer attempt as it considered all related aspects of vegetation.

Tem­perature, water budget and evaporation were the basis of his classification. In spite of having several merits, this classification was incomplete and not self-explanatory. To avoid certain demerits, Professor G. S. Puri later modified Champion’s scheme.

Champion and Puri both has considered temperature as the main determinant of vegetation type. The variation of tem­perature is directly related with the variation of latitude. This variation is the basis of Champi­on’s classification.

According to temperature variation, he divided vegetation zone into fol­lowing types:

india geography essay

6. Essay on the Soil of India:

Total arable land in India is greater than any other country in the world of similar size. Though at least six other countries are bigger than India, barring CIS, no other country in the world equals the amount of cultivable land that India possesses.

Diversity, the key word to describe all aspects of Indian Geography, is too applicable in describing complex nature of origin, distribution and composition of major soil groups. Since the dawn of Indian civilization, which dates back to five thousand years, the people of Indus civilization and other agrarian civilizations had laid down due emphasis on the importance of soil resources.

In the post-independence era, agriculture derives bulk of the Indian G.N.P. With the growing importance of agriculture, quality of soil is also gaining importance day by day.

Soils of India may be broadly divided into two groups:

(i) Residual soil and

(ii) Drift soil.

(i) Residual Soil:

These soils are generally found in areas where transportation of weath­ered mantle has not taken place. After the washing away of soluble minerals, decomposed organic matter has altered the original fragmented rocks to soil. This type of soil is mostly found in peninsula region.

(ii) Drift Soil:

This is another variety, mainly laid down by flowing water. Sedimentation of regular interval is responsible for this type of soil formation. Obviously, North Indian plain is the classic example of this type of soil formation.

Considering vast areas, regional variation of colour, depth, structure and texture, it is quite astonishing that Indian soil types lack pronounced regional variation. It has been said that homogeneity of geological structure and their relative stability is the main reason behind this impaired variation.

7. Essay on the Distribution of Forest Cover in India:

Forest plays a pivotal role in the maintenance of environmental quality and sustainable economic development of the country. According to Indian government publication, about 63.34 million hectares of Indian landmass can be classified as forest. This forest land comprises 19.27 percentage of total geographical area of the country. 

According to U.N. recommendation, at least 33% of the geographical area of a country should have forest cover. But India fails to satisfy this recommendation as it has only less than 20% area under forest cover. Geographically, North-Eastern states and South India is perhaps in better position compared to its northern & western counter-part.

Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram, Nagaland, Tripura is having more than 60% of the land mass under forest cover while this amount varies between 15-25% in states like Himachal, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. The rest of India is having lesser amount of forest cover.

Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram, Nagaland = > 80 % of forest cover

Manipur, Meghalaya, Sikkim, Tripura = 40-80 % of forest cover

Assam, Himachal Pradesh, Kerala, M.P = 20-40 % of forest cover

Bihar, W.B, Gujarat, Haryana & Rest of India = < 20 % of forest cover

Area under Forests in India :

In India forests are neither abundant nor very rich in content. In 1990-91, total area under forests was 68 million hectares which constitutes nearly 22 per cent of the total geographical area of the country. Again as per 1993 State of Forest Report of Forest Survey of India, about 19.5 per cent of the total geographical area of the country is covered by forest. Table 5.2 shows the results of these surveys.

india geography essay

Short essay on Indian Geography

india geography essay

India is a Sovereign, Socialist, Secular, Democratic Repute

India is a country of south Asia. To the north of India are China Nepal and Bhutan. Sri Lanka and Indian Ocean are in the south East to India are Bangladesh, Myanmar and Bay of Bengal to the west and north-west are Arabian Ocean, Pakistan and Afghanistan. It lies completely in the Northern Hemisphere.

Tropic of Cancer runs about midway through the country.

Indian longitudinal stretches from west to east –


68 7 E to 97°25′ E.

Indian latitudinal stretches from south to north

8 4 N to 37°6’N.

Area –

32,87,263 square kilometers.

Position in the world –

Seventh position in area.

Percentage of India’s land-

2.2% of the world.

Total states- 28.

No. of Union Territories- 7.

Physical Divisions-

(i) The northern mountains (ii) The northern plains (iii) The Peninsular Plateau (iv) Coastal plains (v) That desert (vi) Islands.

Indian Standard Time (1ST)-

The local time of 82° 30′ E longitude at Allahabad is taken as the Indian Standard Time. The 1ST is five and a half hours ahead of Greenwich Mean Time (GMT).

The distance between the equator and the southernmost tip of India –

876 kilometer.

India from north to south-

3214 kilometer.

India from east to west-

2933 kilometer.

6100 kilometer.

-7516.5 kilometer (including islands).

Land frontier-

15,200 kilometer.

Shape of India-


Shapes of Peninsular India-

The Southernmost tip on the mainland-

Kanya Kumari.

Largest state (Area)-

Smallest state (Area)-

Largest state (Population)-

Uttar Pradesh.

Smallest state (Population)-

Largest Union Territory (Area)-

Andaman & Nicobar.

Smallest Union Territory (Area)-


Largest Union Territory (Population)-

Smallest Union Territory (Population)-

Largest Plateau state-

Madhya Pradesh.

Largest Desert state-

Largest Plain state-

Largest Forest state-

Indian Islands-

(i) Andaman & Nicobar Islands in the Bay of Bengal (ii) Lakshadeep in the Arabian sea.

Total Indian Islands- 247.

Islands in the Bay of Bengal- 204.

Islands in the Arabian sea- 43.

The m ost important island in the Arabian sea- Minicoy.

Newmoor island- Near Kolkata in the Bay of Bengal.

Ten degree channel- In Andaman & Nicobar islands.

Southernmost tip of India- Indira Point (Pygmalion Point). In Andaman & Nicobar islands.

Gulf of Mannar- Between India and Sri Lanka.

Elephanta Pass- It separates northern Sri Lanka from southern Sri Lanka.

Gulf of Khambat- At the coastal area of Gujarat in the Arabian sea.

Gulf of Kutch- At the coastal area of Gujarat in the Arabian sea.

Duncan Pass- It is between south Andaman and minor Andaman in the Bay of Bengal.

Asian Bowl of eggs- Andhra Pradesh.

Rice Bowl of India- Andhra Pradesh.

The Indian city of weavers- Panipat.

Soya Region of India- Madhya Pradesh.

That Desert -In the state of Rajasthan.

Eastern coast- remanded coast.

Western coast- Malaba Coast.

The highest waterfall- Gorsoppa on the Sharavati river in Karnataka.

Tropic of cancer passes through- Gujarat, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, West Bengal, Tripura and Mizoram.

Indian Capital- New Delhi.

State with highest population density- West Bengal (904 persons/ square kilometer).

State with least population density- Arunachal Pradesh (13 persons/square kilometer).

Union Territory with highest population density- Delhi’

Union Territory with lowest population density -Andaman & Nicobar.

Population- 1,02,70,15,247 (According to 2001 census).

Position in the world- Second largest populated country in the world.

Percentage in the world’s population- 16.7%

Population density of India- 324 persons/square kilometer

National language- Hindi.

Literacy rate- 65.38%.

Male literacy rate- 75.85%.

Female literacy rate- 54.16%.

State with highest literacy rate- Kerala (90.92%).

State with lowest literacy rate- Bihar (47.53%).

Union Territory with highest literacy rate- Lakshadeep (87.52%).

Union Territory with lowest literacy rate- Dadar and Nagar Havel (60.03%).

Percentage increase in population (1991-2001)- 21.34%. Sex Ratio-933/1000.

State with highest sex ratio- Kerala (1058/1000).

State with lowest sex ratio -Haryana.

Union Territory with highest sex ratio -Pondicherry (1001/ 1000).

Union Territory with lowest sex ratio -Daman and Diu.

Population increase annually -1.95%.

Currency -Rupee.

Nationalised Banks -20.

Important industries –

Iron and steel, Textile, Sugar, Rail engines, Rail coaches, Paper industries, Cement, Leather, Chemical industries, Rubber industries, Ship building, Automobile industries.

Important Seaports-

Mumbai, Kolkata, Haldia, Goa, Cochin, Kandla, Chennai, Tuticorin, Vishakhapatnam, Manglore, Bhatkal, Bhavanagar, Calicut, Kakinada, Paradeep.

Important Hill stations –

Nainital, Darjeeling, Srinagar, Gulmarg, Kullu valley, Dalhousie, Shimla, Ranchi, Shilong, Ooty, Mussoorie, Almora, Mahabaleshwar, Panchmarhi, Mount Abu.

Major Cities –

Mumbai, Kolkata, Delhi, Chennai, Bangalore, Hydrabad, Kanpur, Ahmadabad, Jaipur, Amritsar, Chandigarh, Patna, Agra.

Major mountains –

Himalayas, Karakoram, Western Ghat, Eastern Ghat, Vindhyachal, Satpura, Aravali, Khasi, Maikal.

Major rivers –

Ganga, Brahmaputra, Yamuna, Satluj, Godavari, Narmada, Tapti, Mahanadi, Kaveri, Krishna, Gomti, Ramganga Chambal.

Important mountain peaks –

Gaudvin Austin (K 2 ), Kanchanjanga, Nanga Parvat, Nandadevi, Annapurnadevi, Badrinath, Kedarnath, Anaimudi.

Important lakes –

Dal, Wular, Nainital, Chilka, Sambhar, Husain Sagar.

Climate- Monsoon.

Forest area – 750 lacs hectare (22.7%). I

Important soils- Alluvial soil, Black soil, Red soil, Laterite soil, Mountain soil, Desert soil.

Sources of irrigation -Canals (40%), Wells (37.8%), Tanks (14.5%).

Major food crops -Rice, wheat, millets, maize, ragi.

Important cash crops -Cotton, jute, tobacco, tea, coffee, rubber, coconut.

Chief minerals- Iron ores, coal, manganese, mica, bauxite, uranium etc.

Major exporters of -Engineering goods, spices, tobacco, leather products, tea, iron ores, jewellery etc.

Major importers of -Chemicals, Machineries, Fertilisers, Petroleum etc.

Total number of towns- 3,696.

The most urbanised state -Maharashtra (40%).

State with maximum towns- Uttar Pradesh.

State with minimum towns- Meghalaya.

Important marine fishes- Mackerel, Sardine, Salmon, Tuna, Herring Percentage in world fishing-2.7%.

Most important fishing areas- Western Ghat 75%, Eastern Ghat 25o/o.

The largest district- Laddakh.

The smallest district -Thadbal (Manipur).

Number of national parks- 70.

Number of animal Sanctuaries -35.

Total lengths of roads -33,19644 kilometers.

Number of national highways -98.

The longest national highway- NH-7 which goes from Banaras to Kanya Kumari covering a distance of 2369 kilometers.

The shortest national highway -47A.

Total railway route length- 62,367 kilometers.

Total number of railway stations -7,000.

Number of Railway zones- 15.

Largest Railway zone- Northern (11,023 kilometers).

Smallest Railway zone -North east frontier.

First Monsoon shower -Thiruvananthapuram and Cochin (Kerala).

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Effects of India’s Geography on International Business Essay


India is the seventh-largest country in the world by area, the fourth-largest by gross domestic product, and the second-largest by population. With its mixed population, languages and cultures, climate and topography varying vastly throughout its territory, a drastic gap in the development of rural and urban districts, India truly is a country of contrasts.

There is an enormous number of factors affecting the development of international business. Among them, one can schematically draw up two blocks – economic and noneconomic environment in the country. Speaking about the economic environment, it includes socioeconomic, financial, competitive, distributive and labor environments in the country. What sometimes can be even more important than the economic environment is the noneconomic environment covering demographic, geographic, ecologic, socio-cultural, physical and other types of the environment having nothing to do with economic performance as such.

In speaking of India, the noneconomic environment is the one affecting the development of international business ties the most. Being the second-most populous country in the world with more than 1.25 billion people (“The World Factbook: India” par. 26), India can provide a larger supply of workforce. It can be a good motivator for foreign investors because the greater the supply of labor force, the lower the labor costs are and the more competitive the labor market is. Moreover, being a country of various cultural, religious and ethnic backgrounds, India’s international business ties can be strongly affected. Ethnic and religious conflicts can play a negative role in strengthening international business relations, deepening a country’s integration into the global economy, and inflow of foreign investments into the domestic economy (As-Saber 13). Cultural and social issues may affect the long-run development of business. As customs and habits of society change, the demand changes as well, and so has to improve the business. That is to say, if society gets used to eating semi-processed food or wearing readymade clothes, the business has to satisfy this demand, so it evolves in response to the evolution of society’s habits and customs (Nagashwini par. 17).

Among all non-economic factors affecting the development of international business, the geographic environment is the one having the strongest impact. Speaking about the geographic environment, one should bear in mind not only climate and topography but also the availability of natural resources. Being an agricultural country, the economy of India is deeply affected by the difference in climate and topography throughout the country’s territory. So does the development of international business ties. For example, the moderate climate in hilly northern parts of the country is beneficial for tea and coffee producers, while the tropical climate in the plains is suitable for growing rice. While more than half of land is used for agricultural purposes, only slightly more than 4 percent is suitable for growing permanent crops (“The World Factbook: India” par. 14).

What is also of significant importance is the availability of natural resources. India is rich with coal, ores, rare earth elements, natural gas, diamonds, petroleum and other resources, arable land being one of the most precious of them (“The World Factbook: India” par. 13). Having raw materials available also affects the development of international business. The key point of view is that it is more beneficial to invest in building plants close to deposits of natural resources rather than transport them over long distances and transporting finished products is always cheaper than transporting raw materials. When it comes to producing goods close to raw materials deposits, one speaks about agriculture-based industries (“Geography (316) Syllabus” 199). In speaking of India, such agriculture-based industries are textile, sugar, iron and steel industry, etc.

Speaking about the textile industry, it is represented by the cotton industry. Due to suitable climate and topography, cotton plantations together with cotton mills are located in Mumbai which is even called the Cottonopolis of India. Choosing this location was a sober decision for the following reasons: the climate and soils are suitable for growing cotton; the proximity of rivers is beneficial for processing cotton; Mumbai is close to ports, so it is easy to transport finished goods together with the nearness of cotton markets; availability of cheap and skilled workforce (“Location Factors: Why Cotton & Textile Industry Developed in Osaka, Manchester, Lancashire, Mumbai, Ahmedabad” par. 8).

When it comes to the sugar industry, it is also one of the biggest agriculture-based industries of the Indian economy. It is located in the southern states of the country that is also affected by the fact that it is cheaper to build sugar mills close to sugarcane-producing territories. What is even more important is that the climate of southern states is more suitable for growing sugarcane than in the northern states of the country, not to speak about availability of cheap workforce and nearness of the market (“Geography (316) Syllabus” 203). Another agriculture-based industry is the iron and steel industry. As it was already said, India is rich with ores and coal. Most of the plants and mines are located near Chhota Nagpur plateau endowed with deposits of these raw materials.

Being rich with natural resources, India is an active participant in international trade. Key exports items are petroleum products, textiles, jewelry and gems, agriculture products, and engineering goods. Among key import items, there are silver, gold, precious stones, and electronic goods. India’s major trade partners are the United States of America, the United Arab Emirates, China and Singapore, some African and Latin American Countries. That said, there is no direct correlation between geographic location and trade, with the USA being the biggest trade partner of India (“General Trade Performance: India” chart 3).

Being a country with a large population base and excellent opportunities to grow business, India is among top attractive destinations for foreign investments. Except low labor costs, foreign companies investing in India enjoy special investment privileges (for example, tax exemptions) and favorable policy regime set by the Indian government. Because foreign capital is a necessary resource for the sustainable economic development of India, the Indian government has started many initiatives to encourage investment. Among them, one can name facilitating investment rules in fields such as defense, stock exchanges, oil refineries, telecom, power exchanges, etc. (“Foreign Direct Investment” par. 2). In 2015, there was an increase in FDI in telecom, mining, infrastructure, oil and gas, and infrastructure.

So, India is a country of contrasts which is one of the factors influencing the development of not only domestic but also international business ties. Many business decisions are made in compliance with the geographic environment of the country, i.e. topography, climate and availability of natural resources because it is cheaper to invest in building plants near plantations and deposits rather than transport raw materials while a cheap workforce is not a crucial factor because of its availability all over the country.

As-Saber, Sharif. Geopolitics and its Impacts on International Business Decisions: A Framework for a Geopolitical Paradigm of International Business. Jan. 2001. Web.

Foreign Direct Investment. 2015. Web.

General Trade Performance: India. 2014. Web.

Geography (316) Syllabus. 2013. Web.

Location Factors: Why Cotton & Textile Industry Developed in Osaka, Manchester, Lancashire, Mumbai, Ahmedabad. 2013. Web.

Nagashwini, Nagaraja. Business Environment – Economic and Non Economic, Macro and Micro Environment. 2013. Web.

The World Factbook: India. 2015. Web.

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IvyPanda. (2022, January 27). Effects of India's Geography on International Business.

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IvyPanda . "Effects of India's Geography on International Business." January 27, 2022.

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