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One of the most common questions we receive at the Writing Center is “what am I supposed to do in my conclusion?” This is a difficult question to answer because there’s no one right answer to what belongs in a conclusion. How you conclude your paper will depend on where you started—and where you traveled. It will also depend on the conventions and expectations of the discipline in which you are writing. For example, while the conclusion to a STEM paper could focus on questions for further study, the conclusion of a literature paper could include a quotation from your central text that can now be understood differently in light of what has been discussed in the paper. You should consult your instructor about expectations for conclusions in a particular discipline.
With that in mind, here are some general guidelines you might find helpful to use as you think about your conclusion.
Begin with the “what”
In a short paper—even a research paper—you don’t need to provide an exhaustive summary as part of your conclusion. But you do need to make some kind of transition between your final body paragraph and your concluding paragraph. This may come in the form of a few sentences of summary. Or it may come in the form of a sentence that brings your readers back to your thesis or main idea and reminds your readers where you began and how far you have traveled.
So, for example, in a paper about the relationship between ADHD and rejection sensitivity, Vanessa Roser begins by introducing readers to the fact that researchers have studied the relationship between the two conditions and then provides her explanation of that relationship. Here’s her thesis: “While socialization may indeed be an important factor in RS, I argue that individuals with ADHD may also possess a neurological predisposition to RS that is exacerbated by the differing executive and emotional regulation characteristic of ADHD.”
In her final paragraph, Roser reminds us of where she started by echoing her thesis: “This literature demonstrates that, as with many other conditions, ADHD and RS share a delicately intertwined pattern of neurological similarities that is rooted in the innate biology of an individual’s mind, a connection that cannot be explained in full by the behavioral mediation hypothesis.”
Highlight the “so what”
At the beginning of your paper, you explain to your readers what’s at stake—why they should care about the argument you’re making. In your conclusion, you can bring readers back to those stakes by reminding them why your argument is important in the first place. You can also draft a few sentences that put those stakes into a new or broader context.
In the conclusion to her paper about ADHD and RS, Roser echoes the stakes she established in her introduction—that research into connections between ADHD and RS has led to contradictory results, raising questions about the “behavioral mediation hypothesis.”
She writes, “as with many other conditions, ADHD and RS share a delicately intertwined pattern of neurological similarities that is rooted in the innate biology of an individual’s mind, a connection that cannot be explained in full by the behavioral mediation hypothesis.”
Leave your readers with the “now what”
After the “what” and the “so what,” you should leave your reader with some final thoughts. If you have written a strong introduction, your readers will know why you have been arguing what you have been arguing—and why they should care. And if you’ve made a good case for your thesis, then your readers should be in a position to see things in a new way, understand new questions, or be ready for something that they weren’t ready for before they read your paper.
In her conclusion, Roser offers two “now what” statements. First, she explains that it is important to recognize that the flawed behavioral mediation hypothesis “seems to place a degree of fault on the individual. It implies that individuals with ADHD must have elicited such frequent or intense rejection by virtue of their inadequate social skills, erasing the possibility that they may simply possess a natural sensitivity to emotion.” She then highlights the broader implications for treatment of people with ADHD, noting that recognizing the actual connection between rejection sensitivity and ADHD “has profound implications for understanding how individuals with ADHD might best be treated in educational settings, by counselors, family, peers, or even society as a whole.”
To find your own “now what” for your essay’s conclusion, try asking yourself these questions:
- What can my readers now understand, see in a new light, or grapple with that they would not have understood in the same way before reading my paper? Are we a step closer to understanding a larger phenomenon or to understanding why what was at stake is so important?
- What questions can I now raise that would not have made sense at the beginning of my paper? Questions for further research? Other ways that this topic could be approached?
- Are there other applications for my research? Could my questions be asked about different data in a different context? Could I use my methods to answer a different question?
- What action should be taken in light of this argument? What action do I predict will be taken or could lead to a solution?
- What larger context might my argument be a part of?
What to avoid in your conclusion
- a complete restatement of all that you have said in your paper.
- a substantial counterargument that you do not have space to refute; you should introduce counterarguments before your conclusion.
- an apology for what you have not said. If you need to explain the scope of your paper, you should do this sooner—but don’t apologize for what you have not discussed in your paper.
- fake transitions like “in conclusion” that are followed by sentences that aren’t actually conclusions. (“In conclusion, I have now demonstrated that my thesis is correct.”)
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How to write an essay: Conclusion
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The last section of an academic essay is the conclusion . The conclusion should reaffirm your answer to the question, and briefly summarise key arguments. It does not include any new points or new information. A conclusion has three sections. First, repeat the thesis statement. It won’t use the exact same words as in your introduction, but it will repeat the point: your overall answer to the question. Then set out your general conclusions , and a short explanation of why they are important.
Finally, draw together the question , the evidence in the essay body, and the conclusion. This way the reader knows that you have understood and answered the question. This part needs to be clear and concise.
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“Pay adequate attention to the conclusion.” Kathleen McMillan & Jonathan Weyers, How to Write Essays & Assignments
Conclusions are often overlooked, cursory and written last minute. If this sounds familiar then it's time to change and give your conclusions some much needed attention. Your conclusion is the whole point of your essay. All the other parts of the essay should have been leading your reader on an inevitable journey towards your conclusion. So make it count and finish your essay in style.
Know where you are going
Too many students focus their essays on content rather than argument. This means they pay too much attention to the main body without considering where it is leading. It can be a good idea to write a draft conclusion before you write your main body. It is a lot easier to plan a journey when you know your destination!
It should only be a draft however, as quite often the writing process itself can help you develop your argument and you may feel your conclusion needs adapting accordingly.
What it should include
A great conclusion should include:
A clear link back to the question . This is usually the first thing you do in a conclusion and it shows that you have (hopefully) answered it.
A sentence or two that summarise(s) your main argument but in a bit more detail than you gave in your introduction.
A series of supporting sentences that basically reiterate the main point of each of your paragraphs but show how they relate to each other and lead you to the position you have taken. Constantly ask yourself "So what?" "Why should anyone care?" and answer these questions for each of the points you make in your conclusion.
A final sentence that states why your ideas are important to the wider subject area . Where the introduction goes from general to specific, the conclusion needs to go from specific back out to general.
What it should not include
Try to avoid including the following in your conclusion. Remember your conclusion should be entirely predictable. The reader wants no surprises.
Any new ideas . If an idea is worth including, put it in the main body. You do not need to include citations in your conclusion if you have already used them earlier and are just reiterating your point.
A change of style i.e. being more emotional or sentimental than the rest of the essay. Keep it straightforward, explanatory and clear.
Overused phrases like: “in conclusion”; “in summary”; “as shown in this essay”. Consign these to the rubbish bin!
Here are some alternatives, there are many more:
- The x main points presented here emphasise the importance of...
- The [insert something relevant] outlined above indicate that ...
- By showing the connections between x, y and z, it has been argued here that ...
Remember, your conclusion is the last thing your reader (marker!) will read. Spending a little care on it will leave her/him absolutely sure that you have answered the question and you will definitely receive a higher mark than if your conclusion was a quickly written afterthought.
Your conclusion should be around 10% of your word count. There is never a situation where sacrificing words in your conclusion will benefit your essay.
The 5Cs conclusion method: (spot the typo on this video)
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This resource outlines the generally accepted structure for introductions, body paragraphs, and conclusions in an academic argument paper. Keep in mind that this resource contains guidelines and not strict rules about organization. Your structure needs to be flexible enough to meet the requirements of your purpose and audience.
Conclusions wrap up what you have been discussing in your paper. After moving from general to specific information in the introduction and body paragraphs, your conclusion should begin pulling back into more general information that restates the main points of your argument. Conclusions may also call for action or overview future possible research. The following outline may help you conclude your paper:
In a general way,
- Restate your topic and why it is important,
- Restate your thesis/claim,
- Address opposing viewpoints and explain why readers should align with your position,
- Call for action or overview future research possibilities.
Remember that once you accomplish these tasks, unless otherwise directed by your instructor, you are finished. Done. Complete. Don't try to bring in new points or end with a whiz bang(!) conclusion or try to solve world hunger in the final sentence of your conclusion. Simplicity is best for a clear, convincing message.
The preacher's maxim is one of the most effective formulas to follow for argument papers:
Tell what you're going to tell them (introduction).
Tell them (body).
Tell them what you told them (conclusion).
What this handout is about.
This handout will explain the functions of conclusions, offer strategies for writing effective ones, help you evaluate conclusions you’ve drafted, and suggest approaches to avoid.
Introductions and conclusions can be difficult to write, but they’re worth investing time in. They can have a significant influence on a reader’s experience of your paper.
Just as your introduction acts as a bridge that transports your readers from their own lives into the “place” of your analysis, your conclusion can provide a bridge to help your readers make the transition back to their daily lives. Such a conclusion will help them see why all your analysis and information should matter to them after they put the paper down.
Your conclusion is your chance to have the last word on the subject. The conclusion allows you to have the final say on the issues you have raised in your paper, to synthesize your thoughts, to demonstrate the importance of your ideas, and to propel your reader to a new view of the subject. It is also your opportunity to make a good final impression and to end on a positive note.
Your conclusion can go beyond the confines of the assignment. The conclusion pushes beyond the boundaries of the prompt and allows you to consider broader issues, make new connections, and elaborate on the significance of your findings.
Your conclusion should make your readers glad they read your paper. Your conclusion gives your reader something to take away that will help them see things differently or appreciate your topic in personally relevant ways. It can suggest broader implications that will not only interest your reader, but also enrich your reader’s life in some way. It is your gift to the reader.
Strategies for writing an effective conclusion
One or more of the following strategies may help you write an effective conclusion:
- Play the “So What” Game. If you’re stuck and feel like your conclusion isn’t saying anything new or interesting, ask a friend to read it with you. Whenever you make a statement from your conclusion, ask the friend to say, “So what?” or “Why should anybody care?” Then ponder that question and answer it. Here’s how it might go: You: Basically, I’m just saying that education was important to Douglass. Friend: So what? You: Well, it was important because it was a key to him feeling like a free and equal citizen. Friend: Why should anybody care? You: That’s important because plantation owners tried to keep slaves from being educated so that they could maintain control. When Douglass obtained an education, he undermined that control personally. You can also use this strategy on your own, asking yourself “So What?” as you develop your ideas or your draft.
- Return to the theme or themes in the introduction. This strategy brings the reader full circle. For example, if you begin by describing a scenario, you can end with the same scenario as proof that your essay is helpful in creating a new understanding. You may also refer to the introductory paragraph by using key words or parallel concepts and images that you also used in the introduction.
- Synthesize, don’t summarize. Include a brief summary of the paper’s main points, but don’t simply repeat things that were in your paper. Instead, show your reader how the points you made and the support and examples you used fit together. Pull it all together.
- Include a provocative insight or quotation from the research or reading you did for your paper.
- Propose a course of action, a solution to an issue, or questions for further study. This can redirect your reader’s thought process and help her to apply your info and ideas to her own life or to see the broader implications.
- Point to broader implications. For example, if your paper examines the Greensboro sit-ins or another event in the Civil Rights Movement, you could point out its impact on the Civil Rights Movement as a whole. A paper about the style of writer Virginia Woolf could point to her influence on other writers or on later feminists.
Strategies to avoid
- Beginning with an unnecessary, overused phrase such as “in conclusion,” “in summary,” or “in closing.” Although these phrases can work in speeches, they come across as wooden and trite in writing.
- Stating the thesis for the very first time in the conclusion.
- Introducing a new idea or subtopic in your conclusion.
- Ending with a rephrased thesis statement without any substantive changes.
- Making sentimental, emotional appeals that are out of character with the rest of an analytical paper.
- Including evidence (quotations, statistics, etc.) that should be in the body of the paper.
Four kinds of ineffective conclusions
- The “That’s My Story and I’m Sticking to It” Conclusion. This conclusion just restates the thesis and is usually painfully short. It does not push the ideas forward. People write this kind of conclusion when they can’t think of anything else to say. Example: In conclusion, Frederick Douglass was, as we have seen, a pioneer in American education, proving that education was a major force for social change with regard to slavery.
- The “Sherlock Holmes” Conclusion. Sometimes writers will state the thesis for the very first time in the conclusion. You might be tempted to use this strategy if you don’t want to give everything away too early in your paper. You may think it would be more dramatic to keep the reader in the dark until the end and then “wow” him with your main idea, as in a Sherlock Holmes mystery. The reader, however, does not expect a mystery, but an analytical discussion of your topic in an academic style, with the main argument (thesis) stated up front. Example: (After a paper that lists numerous incidents from the book but never says what these incidents reveal about Douglass and his views on education): So, as the evidence above demonstrates, Douglass saw education as a way to undermine the slaveholders’ power and also an important step toward freedom.
- The “America the Beautiful”/”I Am Woman”/”We Shall Overcome” Conclusion. This kind of conclusion usually draws on emotion to make its appeal, but while this emotion and even sentimentality may be very heartfelt, it is usually out of character with the rest of an analytical paper. A more sophisticated commentary, rather than emotional praise, would be a more fitting tribute to the topic. Example: Because of the efforts of fine Americans like Frederick Douglass, countless others have seen the shining beacon of light that is education. His example was a torch that lit the way for others. Frederick Douglass was truly an American hero.
- The “Grab Bag” Conclusion. This kind of conclusion includes extra information that the writer found or thought of but couldn’t integrate into the main paper. You may find it hard to leave out details that you discovered after hours of research and thought, but adding random facts and bits of evidence at the end of an otherwise-well-organized essay can just create confusion. Example: In addition to being an educational pioneer, Frederick Douglass provides an interesting case study for masculinity in the American South. He also offers historians an interesting glimpse into slave resistance when he confronts Covey, the overseer. His relationships with female relatives reveal the importance of family in the slave community.
We consulted these works while writing this handout. This is not a comprehensive list of resources on the handout’s topic, and we encourage you to do your own research to find additional publications. Please do not use this list as a model for the format of your own reference list, as it may not match the citation style you are using. For guidance on formatting citations, please see the UNC Libraries citation tutorial . We revise these tips periodically and welcome feedback.
Douglass, Frederick. 1995. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave, Written by Himself. New York: Dover.
Hamilton College. n.d. “Conclusions.” Writing Center. Accessed June 14, 2019. https://www.hamilton.edu//academics/centers/writing/writing-resources/conclusions .
Holewa, Randa. 2004. “Strategies for Writing a Conclusion.” LEO: Literacy Education Online. Last updated February 19, 2004. https://leo.stcloudstate.edu/acadwrite/conclude.html.
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Writing a Conclusion
The conclusion unifies.
The conclusion serves to unify the entire paper, pulling together the ideas contained in it and pointing out their larger significance. When writing a conclusion, consider what you have written thus far, about the substance of each section, and summarize what it all means.
The effective conclusion to an essay stimulates the reader to think more about the topic; a conclusion should not just reiterate the introduction. You should review your main points and re-examine your thesis in light of all that you have argued in your essay. Try to point toward the larger significance of your ideas.
While your conclusion should not be a replica of your introduction, presenting the two as a pair can be effective if, in concluding, you go beyond what you have said in the introduction. You might wish to “book-end” your essay with a pair of quotations, anecdotes, or events that seem to capture the essence of the way you see the topic. Symmetry can provide a satisfying sense of having come full circle.
The box below suggests ideas to include in your conclusion. Not all of the suggestions should be included in the same conclusion.
Good Ideas For Conclusions
- Review and tie together your main points using new language.
- Point toward the larger significance of what you have argued. If everything you claim is true, so what?
- Use a significant quotation that supports the thesis. This quotation could, but need not, relate to a quotation used in the introduction.
- Use an anecdote that supports the thesis.
- If your essay has pointed out a problem or a number of problems, use the last paragraph to suggest solutions. These problems do not have to be solved completely. Complex problems rarely are.
- Widen the perspective in the concluding paragraph: show how your thesis has implications beyond the immediate scope of the essay. But Be careful not to jump tracks into a whole new topic, or to introduce ideas that you ought to have considered in the essay.
What To Avoid in Your Conclusion
- “In conclusion (or in summary) I have proved that . . . .” The reader’s natural response will be “Oh, have you?”
- Minor details or afterthoughts. Do not be anticlimactic.
- Simply recopying your introduction or topic sentences.
- Apologizing for your opinions.
- Obvious expressions, fan-mail about literature, writers, historical figures. Revealing excellence is admirable, but try not to rave about it adoringly instead of relating it usefully to your thesis.
Worksheet: Writing Better Introductions and Conclusions
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A conclusion is often separated into three key parts: A thesis, a summary of main ideas and a future focus (recommendation, prediction, solution).
A short 6-minute video on how to write an academic conclusion. A basic 3-part conclusion structure and example paragraph.
The basic structure of a conclusion
An example: a model conclusion
This image highlights the three parts of a conclusion: the thesis, the summary and a future prediction.
These phrases will help you to construct your paragraph clearly.
In conclusion,, to conclude,, recommendation / suggestion:, the evidence suggests that …, therefore, it is recommended that … /, governments should…., the findings of this study suggest that …, prediction: , one prediction is that…, if this continues, it could lead to…, an implication of this is the possibility that …, there is, therefore, a definite need for ……, there are a number of important changes which need to be made…, another important practical implication is that …, m ore conclusion phrases : click here, conclusion lesson, terms & conditions of use, conclusions – the basics.
This is a great lesson to introduce and practice writing conclusions. It begins with identifying key components of a conclusion, then offers valuable writing practice of summarising key points, restating a thesis and creating ideas for a future focus. It finishes with using an essay outline to write a whole conclusion. ( Example ) Time: 180mins Level *** ** [ B1/B2/C1] TEACHER MEMBERSHIP / INSTITUTIONAL MEMBERSHIP
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Introductions: how to write an academic introduction, this lesson / worksheet presents the key sections to an academic introduction. it then focuses on highlighting those key sections in three model introductions with particular attention to the thesis (question / topics / stance) and finally finishes with writing an introduction using a range of titles. example level: ** *** [b1/b2/c1] teacher membership / institutional membership.
Webpage link: Introductions
Thesis Statements: How to write a thesis statement [updated 2021]
This lesson / worksheet presents the key sections to an academic introduction. It focuses on different writing structures using words like however, although, despite and then includes a writing task. Students write three thesis statements using the introduction models. Example Level: ** *** [B1/B2/C1] / TEACHER MEMBERSHIP / INSTITUTIONAL MEMBERSHIP
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Basic Paragraph analysis: corporate social responsibility (CSR)
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Topic Sentences – academic
This lesson takes students through ‘noticing’ how a topic sentence links to development. This is followed by writing topic sentences from the content of four academic paragraphs and then writing the paragraph from a topic sentence. ( Example ) Time: 60mins Level *** ** [ B1/B2/C1] TEACHER MEMBERSHIP / INSTITUTIONAL MEMBERSHIP
Webpage link: Topic sentences
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Essay and dissertation writing skills
Planning your essay
Writing your introduction
Structuring your essay
- Writing essays in science subjects
- Brief video guides to support essay planning and writing
- Writing extended essays and dissertations
- Planning your dissertation writing time
Structuring your dissertation
- Top tips for writing longer pieces of work
Advice on planning and writing essays and dissertations
University essays differ from school essays in that they are less concerned with what you know and more concerned with how you construct an argument to answer the question. This means that the starting point for writing a strong essay is to first unpick the question and to then use this to plan your essay before you start putting pen to paper (or finger to keyboard).
A really good starting point for you are these short, downloadable Tips for Successful Essay Writing and Answering the Question resources. Both resources will help you to plan your essay, as well as giving you guidance on how to distinguish between different sorts of essay questions.
You may find it helpful to watch this seven-minute video on six tips for essay writing which outlines how to interpret essay questions, as well as giving advice on planning and structuring your writing:
Different disciplines will have different expectations for essay structure and you should always refer to your Faculty or Department student handbook or course Canvas site for more specific guidance.
However, broadly speaking, all essays share the following features:
Essays need an introduction to establish and focus the parameters of the discussion that will follow. You may find it helpful to divide the introduction into areas to demonstrate your breadth and engagement with the essay question. You might define specific terms in the introduction to show your engagement with the essay question; for example, ‘This is a large topic which has been variously discussed by many scientists and commentators. The principle tension is between the views of X and Y who define the main issues as…’ Breadth might be demonstrated by showing the range of viewpoints from which the essay question could be considered; for example, ‘A variety of factors including economic, social and political, influence A and B. This essay will focus on the social and economic aspects, with particular emphasis on…..’
Watch this two-minute video to learn more about how to plan and structure an introduction:
The main body of the essay should elaborate on the issues raised in the introduction and develop an argument(s) that answers the question. It should consist of a number of self-contained paragraphs each of which makes a specific point and provides some form of evidence to support the argument being made. Remember that a clear argument requires that each paragraph explicitly relates back to the essay question or the developing argument.
- Conclusion: An essay should end with a conclusion that reiterates the argument in light of the evidence you have provided; you shouldn’t use the conclusion to introduce new information.
- References: You need to include references to the materials you’ve used to write your essay. These might be in the form of footnotes, in-text citations, or a bibliography at the end. Different systems exist for citing references and different disciplines will use various approaches to citation. Ask your tutor which method(s) you should be using for your essay and also consult your Department or Faculty webpages for specific guidance in your discipline.
Essay writing in science subjects
If you are writing an essay for a science subject you may need to consider additional areas, such as how to present data or diagrams. This five-minute video gives you some advice on how to approach your reading list, planning which information to include in your answer and how to write for your scientific audience – the video is available here:
A PDF providing further guidance on writing science essays for tutorials is available to download.
Short videos to support your essay writing skills
There are many other resources at Oxford that can help support your essay writing skills and if you are short on time, the Oxford Study Skills Centre has produced a number of short (2-minute) videos covering different aspects of essay writing, including:
- Approaching different types of essay questions
- Structuring your essay
- Writing an introduction
- Making use of evidence in your essay writing
- Writing your conclusion
Extended essays and dissertations
Longer pieces of writing like extended essays and dissertations may seem like quite a challenge from your regular essay writing. The important point is to start with a plan and to focus on what the question is asking. A PDF providing further guidance on planning Humanities and Social Science dissertations is available to download.
Planning your time effectively
Try not to leave the writing until close to your deadline, instead start as soon as you have some ideas to put down onto paper. Your early drafts may never end up in the final work, but the work of committing your ideas to paper helps to formulate not only your ideas, but the method of structuring your writing to read well and conclude firmly.
Although many students and tutors will say that the introduction is often written last, it is a good idea to begin to think about what will go into it early on. For example, the first draft of your introduction should set out your argument, the information you have, and your methods, and it should give a structure to the chapters and sections you will write. Your introduction will probably change as time goes on but it will stand as a guide to your entire extended essay or dissertation and it will help you to keep focused.
The structure of extended essays or dissertations will vary depending on the question and discipline, but may include some or all of the following:
- The background information to - and context for - your research. This often takes the form of a literature review.
- Explanation of the focus of your work.
- Explanation of the value of this work to scholarship on the topic.
- List of the aims and objectives of the work and also the issues which will not be covered because they are outside its scope.
The main body of your extended essay or dissertation will probably include your methodology, the results of research, and your argument(s) based on your findings.
The conclusion is to summarise the value your research has added to the topic, and any further lines of research you would undertake given more time or resources.
Tips on writing longer pieces of work
Approaching each chapter of a dissertation as a shorter essay can make the task of writing a dissertation seem less overwhelming. Each chapter will have an introduction, a main body where the argument is developed and substantiated with evidence, and a conclusion to tie things together. Unlike in a regular essay, chapter conclusions may also introduce the chapter that will follow, indicating how the chapters are connected to one another and how the argument will develop through your dissertation.
For further guidance, watch this two-minute video on writing longer pieces of work .
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Read a text summary on how to write introductions and conclusions.
- Newcastle University
- Academic Skills Kit
- Academic Writing
Introductions and conclusions can be tricky to write. They do not contain the main substance of your assignment, but they do play a key role in helping the reader navigate your writing. The usual advice is
- Introduction: say what you're going to say
- Main body: say it
- Conclusion: say that you've said it
However, this approach can feel repetitive and is not very rewarding to write or read.
A more engaging approach is to think about the perspective of the reader and what they need to know in order to make sense of your writing. In academic writing, it is the writer’s job to make their meaning clear (unlike in literature and fiction, where it is the reader’s job to interpret the meaning) so that the reader can concentrate on deciding what they think of your work and marking it. Introductions and conclusions play an important role in explaining your aims and approach, so to help you write them well, you could think about what questions the reader has for you as they pick up your work for the first time, and when they have finished reading it.
The introductions are the first part of your assignment that the reader encounters, so it needs to make a good impression and set the scene for what follows. Your introduction is about 10% of the total word count. It can be difficult to think what that first opening sentence should be, or what an introduction should include.
From your reader’s perspective, they have three questions when they first pick up your assignment.
What are you doing?
You could approach this question in a number of ways:
- Although your lecturer knows the assignment questions they’ve set, they don’t know how you have understood and interpreted it. To demonstrate that you’ve read it accurately, you can echo back the question to your reader, paraphrased in your own words so they know you have really understood it rather than just copying and pasting it.
- There might also be different ways to interpret the assignment, and clarifying for the reader how you’ve interpreted it would be helpful. Perhaps different angles on it are possible, there is more than one definition you could be working to, or you have been given a range of options within the assessment brief, and you need to tell the reader which approach you are taking.
- It’s also common to give a brief overview of a topic in the introduction, providing the reader with some context so they can understand what is to follow. Of course, your lecturer is already likely to know this basic information, so you could think of it as giving the reader confidence that you also share that foundational knowledge and have got your facts right. This aspect needs to be as brief as possible, as it can be very descriptive (which will not get you higher marks) and if it extends too far, can take up too much space in your essay which would be better used for analysis, interpretation or argumentation. A rough guide is to ask yourself which information is built on later in your assignment and cut anything that doesn’t get ‘used’ later on.
Why are you doing this?
The obvious answer to this question is "because you told me to write this assignment”! A more interesting response, though, is to show that you've really understood why your lecturer has set that question and why it’s worth asking. None of the questions you are set at University will be simple or straightforward, but will be complex and problematic, and many have no single clear answer or approach. In responding thoughtfully to the question “why are you doing this”, you are reflecting on why it is significant, complex and worth doing, that you've understood the complexity of the assignment you’ve been set and recognise the lecturer’s aims in setting it.
How will you do this?
Every student who answers a particular assignment will produce a different answer, with a different structure, making different points and drawing on different information. Your reader wants to know what your own particular approach to the assignment will be.
- You might answer this question in terms of what your structure is going to be, signalling how many sections you use and what order they appear in, signposting how you have broken the assignment down and organised it, so the reader knows what to expect.
- You might also explain to the reader which choices and decisions you have made to narrow it down to a manageable, focussed assignment. You might have chosen to set yourself particular limits on the scope of your assignment (for example, a focussing on a particular context, timespan, or type), or which examples and case studies you’ve chosen to illustrate your answer with, and why they are appropriate for this assignment.
- If relevant, you might also tell the reader about your methodology, the theories, models, definitions or approaches you have applied in order to answer the assignment question.
Your introduction may not include all these elements, or include them in the same balance or in this order, but if you address the reader’s three questions, your introduction will fulfil its purpose. Make sure you’re not jumping into your argument too early. Your introduction should introduce your argument but not actually do the work of making it yet; that is the job of the main body of the assignment.
Conclusions can feel a bit repetitive, as you need to revisit the points you’ve already made, but not include any new material. Again, the conclusion is usually about 10% of your total word count. The challenge is to make them engaging to read for your marker, but also interesting for you to write, so they feel purposeful. You cannot include any new material as conclusions should close a discussion down, not open up new avenues or leave points unresolved. If a point is important, it should be dealt with in the main body rather than as an afterthought.
As they read, your marker is focussing on each paragraph in detail, identifying the point you’re making, analysing and evaluating the evidence you’re using, and the way you explain, interpret and argue, to see if it makes sense. They’re also thinking about the quality of your work and what mark they’re going to give it, looking to see that you’ve met the marking criteria. University assignments are long enough that the reader will find it hard to give each point this kind of detailed scrutiny and keep the whole assignment in their mind at the same time. The job of the conclusion is to help them move from that close-up reading and zoom out to give them a sense of the whole.
Again, a good approach is to think of the questions that your reader has when they reach the end of your assignment.
Where are we?
Your conclusion is the overall answer to the original assignment question you were set. See if you can summarise your overall answer in one sentence. This might be the first line of your conclusion. Make sure that your concluding answer does match the question you were set in the assessment.
How did we get here?
Having told the reader where they've got to, you will need to remind them of how you got there. To strengthen their confidence in your overall answer, you can remind them of the points you made and how together they build your conclusion.
Where does that leave us?
Although you cannot include new information in your conclusion, you can show your thinking in a new light. One question your reader may have is “where does that leave me’? or “so what?”. You could therefore briefly discuss the significance of your conclusion. Now that you’ve demonstrated your answer to the question, how does that add to our overall understanding of this topic? What do we know, what can we do now, that we couldn’t before? If we hadn’t explored this topic, where would we be? Why is this conclusion important? This might resolve the issues you raised in the introduction when you answered the question ‘why am I doing this?’
A possible follow-on to this question is to examine what work might come next, if you didn’t have time constraints or word limits. This is particularly relevant in second and third year and masters level assignments, especially dissertations. This is a good way to show awareness of how your own thinking fits in the wider context of scholarship and research and how it might be developed. It might be a way to touch on aspects you had to cut out, or areas you couldn’t cover.
When to write the introduction and conclusion
You don’t have to write your assignment in order. If you find that the introduction is hard to start, then you could write it at the end of the process, which will ensure that it matches the assignment you’ve actually written. However, it might be a useful approach to at least begin by thinking about the introduction questions above, as it will help you in the planning process. Likewise, you could start with writing the conclusion if you have done extensive thinking and planning, as formulating your end goal might help to keep you on track (although be open to your overall answer changing a little in the process). Again, thinking about the conclusion questions above at the start of the process is a useful planning tool to clarify your thinking, even if you don’t write it until the end.
Download this guide as a PDF
Writing introductions and conclusions.
Read a text summary on how to write introductions and conclusions. **PDF Download**
- Library Catalogue
Academic Writing: "In Conclusion"...How Not to End Your Paper
Having trouble finding the right words to finish your paper? Are your conclusions bland? This handout covers basic techniques for writing stronger endings, including
- Diagnosing and improving paragraph cohesion
- Avoiding 7 common errors when drafting and revising conclusions
- Answering the reader’s unspoken question—“So what?”
Improve paragraph cohesion
A. make your sentences conform to a “given/new” contract.
“Given” information (familiar to your reader) should come first in the sentence. For example, you could reiterate a main idea in the sentence or two beforehand, or something apparent within the context of the sentence, or an idea that taps into readers’ general knowledge of a topic. “New” information (additional, unfamiliar, and/or more complex) should comprise the second half of your sentence.
The “new” info of one sentence then becomes the “given” or familiar info of the next, improving overall flow and coherence.
B. Use “topic-strings”
Each sentence needs a topic or main idea, which should be in the “given” part of the sentence. Shift “given” info closer to the beginnings of your sentences when you can, so that the topic is clear. As well, each paragraph needs an overall topic, usually established in the first or second sentences. To check paragraph coherence, see whether your sentence topics (“givens”) connect consistently from sentence to sentence. Can you find a consistent topic throughout the paragraph, almost as if you were tracing a single colored thread? A set of sentences with clear topics creates a “topic thread.” This, along with appropriate use of transitions, helps to ensure a coherent paragraph.
- If your topic thread is not apparent or seems to get lost, revise your sentences according to a “given/new” information pattern.
- Use transitions where needed to indicate opposition, agreement or linkage, cause & effect, exemplification or illustration, degree, comparison, etc. For more on transitions, see “ Making Connections: Choosing Transition Words ”.
C. Reiterate without being repetitious
Readers appreciate some consistency and won’t usually find a reasonable amount of repetition boring or monotonous. But avoid repeating the same subjects/topics using exactly the same words each time, and don’t repeat your thesis word-for-word in your conclusion. Instead…reiterate, using key concepts within slightly different sentence structures and arguments. Key concepts are often expressed in introductions, thesis statements, and near the beginnings of paragraphs; they act as a governing “topic thread” for your entire paper.
Avoid these 7 common errors in your conclusions
- Opening with an empty phrase, the equivalent of “throat-clearing.
Draft: “And, therefore, it is important to keep in mind that ...” “In conclusion…”
Revision: Omit these phrases. “In conclusion” or “To conclude” may be appropriate for an oral presentation, but in writing are considered redundant or overly mechanical.
Draft: “However, it is important in arriving at such a conclusion to recognize...”
Revision: Just say what we should recognize.
- Stuffing too much information into one paragraph or not developing the paragraph sufficiently.
- Not including a clear topic sentence: i.e. one that expresses the key concept governing this paragraph (i.e. “What is this paragraph about?”). It’s usually best to express your governing concept in the first or second sentence.
- Not checking for cohesion or flow (see “given and new” above). As a result, the sentences aren’t logically organized, or there is a sudden switch in topic, or sentences do not clearly connect to each other.
- Using transitions too frequently or too mechanically.
- Ending the paragraph with a different topic. HINT: Use a key word or phrase from the last sentence of the previous paragraph in the first sentence of the new paragraph. This technique helps the reader make connections.
- Finishing your piece with entirely new information or a quote that isn’t relevant.
Remember to answer the question "So what?”
Readers need to understand why your argument or research is significant. So consider the single more important idea (key concept) you want your readers to take away with them after reading your paper. It’s not enough merely to repeat your thesis or summarize your main findings in your conclusion; you need to answer the question: “So what”? Options include outlining further areas of inquiry and/or suggesting a sense of significance: e.g. why does what you’ve written matter? What should your reader take away?
For more about writing effective conclusions, visit the following:
“Strategies for Writing a Conclusion” from Literacy Education Online “Conclusions” from the Writing Center at the University of North Carolina
Source for paragraph cohesion strategies: Williams, J. M., & Nadel, I. B. (2005). Style: 10 Lessons in Clarity and Grace (Cdn. ed.). Toronto: Longman.
17 Essay Conclusion Examples (Copy and Paste)
Essay conclusions are not just extra filler. They are important because they tie together your arguments, then give you the chance to forcefully drive your point home.
In an argumentative essay, it’s important to restate the thesis statement and key for and against arguments. For a descriptive essay, restate your key points to demonstrate your depth of knowledge and understanding, and capacity to deeply analyze a topic.
Below are a range of copy-and-paste essay conclusions with gaps for you to fill-in your topic and key arguments. Browse through for one you like (there are 17 for argumentative, expository, compare and contrast, and critical essays). Once you’ve found one you like, copy it and add-in the key points to make it your own.
P.S If you don’t know the difference between the types of essays, start with my article on the differences between argumentative and expository essays .
Video: How to Write a Conclusion
I’ve previously produced this video (below) on how to write a conclusion. It follows the 5 C’s method ( you can read about it in this post ), which doesn’t perfectly match each of the below copy-and-paste conclusion examples, but the principles are similar, and can help you to write your own strong conclusion:
Essay Conclusion Examples
1. argumentative essay conclusions.
The arguments presented in this essay demonstrate the significant importance of _____________. While there are some strong counterarguments, such as ____________, it remains clear that the benefits/merits of _____________ far outweigh the potential downsides. The evidence presented throughout the essay strongly support _____________. In the coming years, _____________ will be increasingly important. Therefore, continual advocacy for the position presented in this essay will be necessary, especially due to its significant implications for _____________.
Version 1 Filled-In
The arguments presented in this essay demonstrate the significant importance of fighting climate change. While there are some strong counterarguments, such as the claim that it is too late to stop catastrophic change, it remains clear that the merits of taking drastic action far outweigh the potential downsides. The evidence presented throughout the essay strongly support the claim that we can at least mitigate the worst effects. In the coming years, intergovernmental worldwide agreements will be increasingly important. Therefore, continual advocacy for the position presented in this essay will be necessary, especially due to its significant implications for humankind.
As this essay has shown, it is clear that the debate surrounding _____________ is multifaceted and highly complex. While there are strong arguments opposing the position that _____________, there remains overwhelming evidence to support the claim that _____________. A careful analysis of the empirical evidence suggests that _____________ not only leads to ____________, but it may also be a necessity for _____________. Moving forward, _____________ should be a priority for all stakeholders involved, as it promises a better future for _____________. The focus should now shift towards how best to integrate _____________ more effectively into society.
Version 2 Filled-In
As this essay has shown, it is clear that the debate surrounding climate change is multifaceted and highly complex. While there are strong arguments opposing the position that we should fight climate change, there remains overwhelming evidence to support the claim that action can mitigate the worst effects. A careful analysis of the empirical evidence suggests that strong action not only leads to better economic outcomes in the long term, but it may also be a necessity for preventing climate-related deaths. Moving forward, carbon emission mitigation should be a priority for all stakeholders involved, as it promises a better future for all. The focus should now shift towards how best to integrate smart climate policies more effectively into society.
Based upon the preponderance of evidence, it is evident that _____________ holds the potential to significantly alter/improve _____________. The counterarguments, while noteworthy, fail to diminish the compelling case for _____________. Following an examination of both sides of the argument, it has become clear that _____________ presents the most effective solution/approach to _____________. Consequently, it is imperative that society acknowledge the value of _____________ for developing a better _____________. Failing to address this topic could lead to negative outcomes, including _____________.
Version 3 Filled-In
Based upon the preponderance of evidence, it is evident that addressing climate change holds the potential to significantly improve the future of society. The counterarguments, while noteworthy, fail to diminish the compelling case for immediate climate action. Following an examination of both sides of the argument, it has become clear that widespread and urgent social action presents the most effective solution to this pressing problem. Consequently, it is imperative that society acknowledge the value of taking immediate action for developing a better environment for future generations. Failing to address this topic could lead to negative outcomes, including more extreme climate events and greater economic externalities.
See Also: Examples of Counterarguments
On the balance of evidence, there is an overwhelming case for _____________. While the counterarguments offer valid points that are worth examining, they do not outweigh or overcome the argument that _____________. An evaluation of both perspectives on this topic concludes that _____________ is the most sufficient option for _____________. The implications of embracing _____________ do not only have immediate benefits, but they also pave the way for a more _____________. Therefore, the solution of _____________ should be actively pursued by _____________.
Version 4 Filled-In
On the balance of evidence, there is an overwhelming case for immediate tax-based action to mitigate the effects of climate change. While the counterarguments offer valid points that are worth examining, they do not outweigh or overcome the argument that action is urgently necessary. An evaluation of both perspectives on this topic concludes that taking societal-wide action is the most sufficient option for achieving the best results. The implications of embracing a society-wide approach like a carbon tax do not only have immediate benefits, but they also pave the way for a more healthy future. Therefore, the solution of a carbon tax or equivalent policy should be actively pursued by governments.
2. Expository Essay Conclusions
Overall, it is evident that _____________ plays a crucial role in _____________. The analysis presented in this essay demonstrates the clear impact of _____________ on _____________. By understanding the key facts about _____________, practitioners/society are better equipped to navigate _____________. Moving forward, further exploration of _____________ will yield additional insights and information about _____________. As such, _____________ should remain a focal point for further discussions and studies on _____________.
Overall, it is evident that social media plays a crucial role in harming teenagers’ mental health. The analysis presented in this essay demonstrates the clear impact of social media on young people. By understanding the key facts about the ways social media cause young people to experience body dysmorphia, teachers and parents are better equipped to help young people navigate online spaces. Moving forward, further exploration of the ways social media cause harm will yield additional insights and information about how it can be more sufficiently regulated. As such, the effects of social media on youth should remain a focal point for further discussions and studies on youth mental health.
To conclude, this essay has explored the multi-faceted aspects of _____________. Through a careful examination of _____________, this essay has illuminated its significant influence on _____________. This understanding allows society to appreciate the idea that _____________. As research continues to emerge, the importance of _____________ will only continue to grow. Therefore, an understanding of _____________ is not merely desirable, but imperative for _____________.
To conclude, this essay has explored the multi-faceted aspects of globalization. Through a careful examination of globalization, this essay has illuminated its significant influence on the economy, cultures, and society. This understanding allows society to appreciate the idea that globalization has both positive and negative effects. As research continues to emerge, the importance of studying globalization will only continue to grow. Therefore, an understanding of globalization’s effects is not merely desirable, but imperative for judging whether it is good or bad.
Reflecting on the discussion, it is clear that _____________ serves a pivotal role in _____________. By delving into the intricacies of _____________, we have gained valuable insights into its impact and significance. This knowledge will undoubtedly serve as a guiding principle in _____________. Moving forward, it is paramount to remain open to further explorations and studies on _____________. In this way, our understanding and appreciation of _____________ can only deepen and expand.
Reflecting on the discussion, it is clear that mass media serves a pivotal role in shaping public opinion. By delving into the intricacies of mass media, we have gained valuable insights into its impact and significance. This knowledge will undoubtedly serve as a guiding principle in shaping the media landscape. Moving forward, it is paramount to remain open to further explorations and studies on how mass media impacts society. In this way, our understanding and appreciation of mass media’s impacts can only deepen and expand.
In conclusion, this essay has shed light on the importance of _____________ in the context of _____________. The evidence and analysis provided underscore the profound effect _____________ has on _____________. The knowledge gained from exploring _____________ will undoubtedly contribute to more informed and effective decisions in _____________. As we continue to progress, the significance of understanding _____________ will remain paramount. Hence, we should strive to deepen our knowledge of _____________ to better navigate and influence _____________.
In conclusion, this essay has shed light on the importance of bedside manner in the context of nursing. The evidence and analysis provided underscore the profound effect compassionate bedside manner has on patient outcome. The knowledge gained from exploring nurses’ bedside manner will undoubtedly contribute to more informed and effective decisions in nursing practice. As we continue to progress, the significance of understanding nurses’ bedside manner will remain paramount. Hence, we should strive to deepen our knowledge of this topic to better navigate and influence patient outcomes.
3. Compare and Contrast Essay Conclusion
While both _____________ and _____________ have similarities such as _____________, they also have some very important differences in areas like _____________. Through this comparative analysis, a broader understanding of _____________ and _____________ has been attained. The choice between the two will largely depend on _____________. For example, as highlighted in the essay, ____________. Despite their differences, both _____________ and _____________ have value in different situations.
While both macrosociology and microsociology have similarities such as their foci on how society is structured, they also have some very important differences in areas like their differing approaches to research methodologies. Through this comparative analysis, a broader understanding of macrosociology and microsociology has been attained. The choice between the two will largely depend on the researcher’s perspective on how society works. For example, as highlighted in the essay, microsociology is much more concerned with individuals’ experiences while macrosociology is more concerned with social structures. Despite their differences, both macrosociology and microsociology have value in different situations.
It is clear that _____________ and _____________, while seeming to be different, have shared characteristics in _____________. On the other hand, their contrasts in _____________ shed light on their unique features. The analysis provides a more nuanced comprehension of these subjects. In choosing between the two, consideration should be given to _____________. Despite their disparities, it’s crucial to acknowledge the importance of both when it comes to _____________.
It is clear that behaviorism and consructivism, while seeming to be different, have shared characteristics in their foci on knowledge acquisition over time. On the other hand, their contrasts in ideas about the role of experience in learning shed light on their unique features. The analysis provides a more nuanced comprehension of these subjects. In choosing between the two, consideration should be given to which approach works best in which situation. Despite their disparities, it’s crucial to acknowledge the importance of both when it comes to student education.
Reflecting on the points discussed, it’s evident that _____________ and _____________ share similarities such as _____________, while also demonstrating unique differences, particularly in _____________. The preference for one over the other would typically depend on factors such as _____________. Yet, regardless of their distinctions, both _____________ and _____________ play integral roles in their respective areas, significantly contributing to _____________.
Reflecting on the points discussed, it’s evident that red and orange share similarities such as the fact they are both ‘hot colors’, while also demonstrating unique differences, particularly in their social meaning (red meaning danger and orange warmth). The preference for one over the other would typically depend on factors such as personal taste. Yet, regardless of their distinctions, both red and orange play integral roles in their respective areas, significantly contributing to color theory.
Ultimately, the comparison and contrast of _____________ and _____________ have revealed intriguing similarities and notable differences. Differences such as _____________ give deeper insights into their unique and shared qualities. When it comes to choosing between them, _____________ will likely be a deciding factor. Despite these differences, it is important to remember that both _____________ and _____________ hold significant value within the context of _____________, and each contributes to _____________ in its own unique way.
Ultimately, the comparison and contrast of driving and flying have revealed intriguing similarities and notable differences. Differences such as their differing speed to destination give deeper insights into their unique and shared qualities. When it comes to choosing between them, urgency to arrive at the destination will likely be a deciding factor. Despite these differences, it is important to remember that both driving and flying hold significant value within the context of air transit, and each contributes to facilitating movement in its own unique way.
See Here for More Compare and Contrast Essay Examples
4. Critical Essay Conclusion
In conclusion, the analysis of _____________ has unveiled critical aspects related to _____________. While there are strengths in _____________, its limitations are equally telling. This critique provides a more informed perspective on _____________, revealing that there is much more beneath the surface. Moving forward, the understanding of _____________ should evolve, considering both its merits and flaws.
In conclusion, the analysis of flow theory has unveiled critical aspects related to motivation and focus. While there are strengths in achieving a flow state, its limitations are equally telling. This critique provides a more informed perspective on how humans achieve motivation, revealing that there is much more beneath the surface. Moving forward, the understanding of flow theory of motivation should evolve, considering both its merits and flaws.
To conclude, this critical examination of _____________ sheds light on its multi-dimensional nature. While _____________ presents notable advantages, it is not without its drawbacks. This in-depth critique offers a comprehensive understanding of _____________. Therefore, future engagements with _____________ should involve a balanced consideration of its strengths and weaknesses.
To conclude, this critical examination of postmodern art sheds light on its multi-dimensional nature. While postmodernism presents notable advantages, it is not without its drawbacks. This in-depth critique offers a comprehensive understanding of how it has contributed to the arts over the past 50 years. Therefore, future engagements with postmodern art should involve a balanced consideration of its strengths and weaknesses.
Upon reflection, the critique of _____________ uncovers profound insights into its underlying intricacies. Despite its positive aspects such as ________, it’s impossible to overlook its shortcomings. This analysis provides a nuanced understanding of _____________, highlighting the necessity for a balanced approach in future interactions. Indeed, both the strengths and weaknesses of _____________ should be taken into account when considering ____________.
Upon reflection, the critique of marxism uncovers profound insights into its underlying intricacies. Despite its positive aspects such as its ability to critique exploitation of labor, it’s impossible to overlook its shortcomings. This analysis provides a nuanced understanding of marxism’s harmful effects when used as an economic theory, highlighting the necessity for a balanced approach in future interactions. Indeed, both the strengths and weaknesses of marxism should be taken into account when considering the use of its ideas in real life.
Ultimately, this critique of _____________ offers a detailed look into its advantages and disadvantages. The strengths of _____________ such as __________ are significant, yet its limitations such as _________ are not insignificant. This balanced analysis not only offers a deeper understanding of _____________ but also underscores the importance of critical evaluation. Hence, it’s crucial that future discussions around _____________ continue to embrace this balanced approach.
Ultimately, this critique of artificial intelligence offers a detailed look into its advantages and disadvantages. The strengths of artificial intelligence, such as its ability to improve productivity are significant, yet its limitations such as the possibility of mass job losses are not insignificant. This balanced analysis not only offers a deeper understanding of artificial intelligence but also underscores the importance of critical evaluation. Hence, it’s crucial that future discussions around the regulation of artificial intelligence continue to embrace this balanced approach.
This article promised 17 essay conclusions, and this one you are reading now is the twenty-first. This last conclusion demonstrates that the very best essay conclusions are written uniquely, from scratch, in order to perfectly cater the conclusion to the topic. A good conclusion will tie together all the key points you made in your essay and forcefully drive home the importance or relevance of your argument, thesis statement, or simply your topic so the reader is left with one strong final point to ponder.
Chris Drew (PhD)
Dr. Chris Drew is the founder of the Helpful Professor. He holds a PhD in education and has published over 20 articles in scholarly journals. He is the former editor of the Journal of Learning Development in Higher Education. [Image Descriptor: Photo of Chris]
- Chris Drew (PhD) https://helpfulprofessor.com/author/admin/ 13 Secondary Data Examples
- Chris Drew (PhD) https://helpfulprofessor.com/author/admin/ 31 Instinct Examples (In Humans and Animals)
- Chris Drew (PhD) https://helpfulprofessor.com/author/admin/ Montessori vs Reggio Emilia vs Steiner-Waldorf vs Froebel
- Chris Drew (PhD) https://helpfulprofessor.com/author/admin/ 15 Meritocracy Examples
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- College essay
How to End a College Admissions Essay | 4 Winning Strategies
Published on October 16, 2021 by Meredith Testa . Revised on May 31, 2023.
The ending of your college essay should leave your reader with a sense of closure and a strong final impression.
Table of contents
Endings to avoid, option 1: return to the beginning, option 2: look forward, option 3: reveal your main point, option 4: end on an action, other interesting articles, frequently asked questions about college application essays.
A bad conclusion can bring your whole essay down, so make sure to avoid these common mistakes.
Unlike an academic essay, an admissions essay shouldn’t restate your points. Avoid ending with a summary; there’s no need to repeat what you’ve already written.
Phrases like “in conclusion,” “overall,” or “to sum it up” signal that you have nothing to add to what you’ve already written, so an admissions officer may stop reading.
Stating the obvious
Instead of stating the obvious, let your work speak for itself and allow readers to draw their own conclusions. If your essay details various times that you worked tirelessly to go above and beyond, don’t finish it by stating “I’m hardworking.” Admissions officers are smart enough to figure that out on their own.
You should also avoid talking about how you hope to be accepted. Admissions officers know you want to be accepted—that’s why you applied! It’s okay to connect what you discuss in the essay to your potential future career or college experience, but don’t beg for admission. Stay focused on your essay’s core topic.
Prevent plagiarism. Run a free check.
Many successful essays follow a “sandwich,” or full-circle, structure , meaning that they start with some image or idea, veer away from it in the middle, and then return to it at the end.
This structure is clean, self-contained, and satisfying for readers, so it’s a great choice if it works with the topic you’ve chosen.
In the “sandwich” essay outlined below, a student discusses his passion for musical theater. Instead of simply stating that interest, his essay starts with a funny anecdote about a minor fire that erupted on set. At the end, it returns to this anecdote, creating a sense of closure.
- Intro: I may be the world’s worst firefighter.
- Flashback to working on the school musical
- Demonstrate my passion for theatre
- Detail the story of the theater set catching fire
- Show how I made the most of the situation
- Conclusion: I proved my value as a director, an actor, and a writer that week一even if I was a terrible firefighter.
Many successful essays end by looking forward to the future. These endings are generally hopeful and positive—always great qualities in an admissions essay—and often connect the student to the college or their academic goals.
Although these endings can be highly effective, it can be challenging to keep them from sounding cliché. Keep your ending specific to you, and don’t default to generalities, which can make your essay seem bland and unoriginal.
Below are a good and a bad example of how you could write a “looking forward” ending for the musical theater “firefighter” essay.
Sometimes, holding back your main point can be a good strategy. If your essay recounts several experiences, you could save your main message for the conclusion, only explaining what ties all the stories together at the very end.
When done well, this ending leaves the reader thinking about the main point you want them to take from your essay. It’s also a memorable structure that can stand out.
However, if you choose this approach, it can be challenging to keep the essay interesting enough that the reader pays attention throughout.
In the essay outlined below, a student gives us snapshots of her experience of gymnastics at different stages in her life. In the conclusion, she ties the stories together and shares the insight that they taught her about different aspects of her character and values.
- Passionate, excited
- Sister born that day—began to consider people beyond myself
- Realizing that no matter how much I love gymnastics, there are more important things
- I’d been working especially hard to qualify for that level
- It came after many setbacks and failures
- I had to give up time with friends, first homecoming dance of high school, and other activities, and I considered quitting
- Conclusion: I’m still all of those selves: the passionate 7-year-old, the caring 11-year-old, and the determined 15-year-old. Gymnastics has been a constant throughout my life, but beyond the balance beam, it has also shown me how to change and grow.
Ending on an action can be a strong way to wrap up your essay. That might mean including a literal action, dialogue, or continuation of the story.
These endings leave the reader wanting more rather than wishing the essay had ended sooner. They’re interesting and can help you avoid boring your reader.
Here’s an example of how this ending could work for the gymnastics essay.
If you want to know more about academic writing , effective communication , or parts of speech , make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples.
- Writing process
- Transition words
- Passive voice
- How to end an email
- Ms, mrs, miss
- How to start an email
- I hope this email finds you well
- Hope you are doing well
Parts of speech
- Personal pronouns
There are a few strategies you can use for a memorable ending to your college essay :
- Return to the beginning with a “full circle” structure
- Reveal the main point or insight in your story
- Look to the future
- End on an action
The best technique will depend on your topic choice, essay outline, and writing style. You can write several endings using different techniques to see which works best.
Unlike a five-paragraph essay, your admissions essay should not end by summarizing the points you’ve already made. It’s better to be creative and aim for a strong final impression.
You should also avoid stating the obvious (for example, saying that you hope to be accepted).
There are no set rules for how to structure a college application essay , but these are two common structures that work:
- A montage structure, a series of vignettes with a common theme.
- A narrative structure, a single story that shows your personal growth or how you overcame a challenge.
Avoid the five-paragraph essay structure that you learned in high school.
When revising your college essay , first check for big-picture issues regarding message, flow, tone, style , and clarity. Then, focus on eliminating grammar and punctuation errors.
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How to Write a Conclusion for an Argumentative Essay: All Tips
17 Apr 2022
✍️What to Write a Conclusion?
🗒️How to Format a Conclusion?
❓How to Start a Conclusion?
📄Essay Conclusion Examples
✏️How to Finish a Conclusion?
Want to write a perfect conclusion for your paper but don't know how? Everyone has been there, and it's never easy. It is the final part of your writing, so by the time you reach it, you have no energy and can't focus.
Still, the conclusion part is crucial for the success of every paper. You have to give the final answer to the audience by restating your thesis and noting your claims and findings. If you think you can't write one, you'd better buy an argumentative essay online and solve your problems.
In this article, you will find everything you need to know about a conclusion to an argumentative essay and how to write it.
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What to Write in the Conclusion for an Argumentative Essay
To write a conclusion argumentative essay, you first need to recall all the key points of your writing. The college argumentative essay outline you have written can significantly assist you in this. After you have noted these points, you should restate your rephrased thesis and findings.
Except for those basic points, knowing how to conclude an argumentative essay also requires a few more things:
The first thing to pay attention to is your tone of writing. Make sure it is authoritative yet calm and informative. This way, you will assure readers that your work is essential for the case.
Next is your first sentence. How you start your conclusion does matter. You need to state what you did and why. That will remind the readers once again about what they have read.
After you write it, you will need to point out the key findings of your writing. You must note the important evidence you have written about in your paper. Keep it brief and connect them to your text conclusion.
The last step is to finish the conclusion of your argumentative essay in a meaningful way. Ensure a positive final sentence to make the reader reflect on your work and make them act.
Thus, writing a conclusion for an argumentative essay is a complex process. It can be not easy to come up with a good conclusion on your own, so don't hesitate to seek essay assistance if you need it. Once again, no matter what kind of conclusion you write, it is crucial to have a good one. That goes even for argumentative essays, where you can write everything straight as it is. You can be assertive and direct without considering whether the reader will like your argument. Still, you must keep a good transition between the sections and stick to the basic structure and rules.
Author Note: Make sure not to present any new arguments or claims in the conclusion. This section of your paper is your final opinion. Writing further details, ideas, or irrelevant findings can ruin the text.
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How to Format the Conclusion of an Argumentative Essay?
To format a conclusion, you have to follow a well-established standard. The best argumentative essay conclusion example includes a "lead" (opening statement). Then point out one vital factor from your paragraph. Usually, one point per paragraph, no more, or it will get too bulky. Finally, add an appropriate finale that will serve as a smooth exit of the whole paper, the final sentence.
By using the standard format, you will have an easier time when you have to write an argumentative essay conclusion. You can focus on the facts and tailor them to appeal to readers. That will re-convince them about your point for the case.
Here we can add that the final sentence should not always be smooth and friendly. When your conclusion tone is assertive, write the final part of the finale as a call to action—an attempt to affect the reader and make them want to research. To find out more about the matter or even take a stand with their own opinion.
Know how to structure your paper
- 12-point Times New Roman
- 0" between paragraphs
- 1" margin all around
- double-spaced (275 words/page) / single-spaced (550 words/page)
- 0.5" first line of a paragraph
Knowing the exact way to structure a conclusion in an argumentative essay is crucial. Someone may say that it is not important. But this is one of the first things people pay attention to. So, you have to format the paper and its main points properly. In any assignment, the style of the text adheres to strict requirements. Usually, you can find them by asking your professor or checking the educational institution's website.
In that sense, you must stick to proper formatting when writing a perfect argumentative essay . To get the best grade, you have to use the recommended formatting style , which can be APA, AP, or other. So remember, following the proper structure and formatting can make the critical points of your work stand out. As a result, your paper will look better, and your paper results will score higher.
Writing a perfect conclusion for your paper can be difficult, especially when you have no energy and can't focus. Fortunately, PapersOwl.com is here to help. Our experienced writers can provide you with an excellent conclusion for your paper so that you can confidently submit it.
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How to Start the Conclusion of an Essay?
A conclusion to an argumentative essay must go through various steps. The foremost will be the entry sentence. Then, restate your main idea and critical points from your writing. You can add a question or two, but it depends on the flow of your text. Note how it reads and make sure everything sounds smooth, and the transition is flawless.
Note: You should check your outline for significant findings or arguments. Do that before starting with the first sentence of your conclusion. Make sure not to miss important facts or add new ones by mistake.
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Essay Conclusion Examples
If you are still trying to figure out what your conclusion should look like, check below. We have prepared how-to-end argumentative essay examples . These can give you an idea about the structure and format of your paper's final point.
In this particular sample, the case is about global warming. So, the essay's conclusion has to give a compelling reason why the reader and the public should act and prevent the issue. You must remember that what you write depends on the type of paper and should be unique.
"Throughout our text, we pointed out findings about the impact of global warming. Nature cannot sustain itself in the ever-changing climate. The ice caps melt, and the shorelines deteriorate, thus causing the extinction of both flora and fauna. Due to the persisting crisis, we must take action and use the best methods to protect the future of our planet."
Some papers involve public policies and morals. In such cases, you must write in a tone that will feel morally right but will support and justify your arguments. Usually, you write such papers when your topic is pointing towards persuasion. Below, you can see an argumentative essay conclusion example for such texts.
"As time goes on, technology has changed how we, as a society, receive and use information. Media's influence has been increasing throughout the social applications we use daily. The said impacts public opinion, as we can see from the participants in our study group. Most have stated that their primary information source is social media. These media get large funds from private entities to filter your content. This way, you see their ideas and become part of their audience. If you like your news free of filtering and want truthful information, you must act now and ensure your rights."
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At one point or another, you will get an assignment to help with your career objectives. Usually, it is connected to your writing as you have to research specific matters. For example, bring out your point of view and make conclusions. You can quickly implement such tasks in essays like the argumentative one. Thus, you have to be ready to write a conclusion of an argumentative essay that can fit well and is decisive.
"Often, when you get the opportunity to launch a new business, you must grab it. Plan business meetings, solve the x, y, and z obstacles, and speed up the process. Business is about profit, producing more revenue, and creating an easily manageable structure. If you choose to act on a different undertaking, there will be risks a or b, which can lead to overstepping the estimated budgets."
Examples 4, 5
As seen, the conclusion of an argumentative essay can depend on your moral choices. In other cases, on a figure of speech and even sensitivity towards an issue. So, some good argumentative essay topics need an emotional appeal to the reader.
Good conclusion paragraph examples for an argumentative essay can be about any topic. They can be something like whether abortion is a fundamental right for women. In such essay cases, your moral perspective plays a considerable role. But, no matter your point, it is crucial to state your ideas without offending anyone else.
"The right to give birth or not is fundamental for women. They must have it ensured. Otherwise, they have no control or option in their social relationships. The analysis showcases how an unwanted pregnancy can influence and determine the life of a young woman and her child. So without guaranteed rights, women are forced to use dangerous methods to retake ownership of their body, and that must change." "Life is not a choice given by someone. It is a fundamental right guaranteed by the law. In that sense, denying an unborn child's right to life is identical to denying any other person's rights. Furthermore, studies have long proven that life begins with its inception. Therefore, carrying out policies of pro-choice is like murder. With that in mind, saving the unborn by speaking out for them is like giving their rights a voice."
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How to Finish an Argumentative Project Conclusion Paragraph
How to end an argumentative essay? The answer is a strong finishing line. The final sentence is what will leave a deep impression on your reader. Usually, we finish it smoothly in a cordial tone. It must be in a way that will make the reader think about the case or take some action. In other cases, the call to action is intense. It could be smoother, but its main goal is to influence the audience to contemplate and act.
Taking into consideration the importance of the last sentence, you must write it correctly. Remember that its point is to move the reader, but at the same time to explain why. It should look like, " If we don't do it now, we won't be able to act in the future. " If your sentence cuts the flow of the whole text, it will not appeal to your reader. If you are having trouble crafting the perfect conclusion for your argumentative essay, you can always pay for essay help from a professional writer to get the job done right.
Now you understand how to write a conclusion for an argumentative essay, but remember to catch up on the whole paper flow and finish it in the same tone. Use the call to action sentence and exit your essay smoothly while giving the readers ideas and making them think about the case. If you can't, please check our argumentative essay writing services , which can easily tackle the task. Note that by getting it done by a professional, you can learn from examples. Besides, the text can get done in a few hours.
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I am a proficient writer from the United States with over five years of experience in academic writing. I comfortably complete given assignments within stipulated deadlines and at the same time deliver high-quality work, which follows the guidelines provided.
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Top Essay Writing Services: Unveiled and Unmasked in This Explosive Comparison!
Posted: November 23, 2023 | Last updated: November 23, 2023
Writing essays and academic papers is a familiar task for students, often fraught with challenges like tight deadlines and complex topics. This stress can tempt students to hire essay writers, raising ethical questions and affecting academic integrity. The rise of these essay services, offering to craft essays for a fee, has sparked debates about their legitimacy and impact on education. This article compares prominent services like 99papers, EssayBox, and others, discussing their features, pricing, quality promises, and broader implications in academia.
Overview and Comparison TOP 5 Essay Writing Services
Reviewed by essay expert Michael Adwell
99papers is an essay writing service that positions itself as a go-to solution for students facing academic writing challenges. It is noteworthy for its competitive pricing and professional writing team. Here are some key features of 99papers:
- Affordable Pricing : The service starts at $12.46 per page , making it a relatively budget-friendly option for students. This pricing strategy is particularly appealing to those who need quality writing assistance without breaking the bank.
- Qualified Writers : 99papers employs native English writers who hold degrees, ensuring that the essays and papers are written to a high standard. This focus on hiring qualified writers is crucial for maintaining the quality and accuracy of academic writing.
- Quick Turnaround Times : Understanding the time-sensitive nature of academic assignments, 99papers offers quick turnaround times. This feature is particularly beneficial for students who need their papers completed within a tight deadline.
- Plagiarism-Free Guarantee : The service promises plagiarism-free content, a critical aspect of academic writing. This guarantee ensures that the work provided is original and meets academic standards for authenticity.
In summary, 99papers presents itself as an affordable, reliable, and accessible option for students needing assistance with academic writing, backed by a team of qualified writers and a commitment to originality.
Reviewed by essay expert Jacob Ausley
EssayBox is another notable player in the field of essay writing services, catering to students who require assistance with their academic writing tasks. Here’s an overview of its key features:
- Competitive Pricing : EssayBox offers its services starting from $12.95 per page . This pricing is in line with the market standards and is designed to be affordable for students, particularly considering the level of expertise provided.
- Highly Qualified Writers : One of the standout features of EssayBox is its employment of English as a Native Language (ENL) writers who hold Master’s or PhD degrees. This high level of academic qualification ensures that the papers are written with a deep understanding of the subject matter and adhere to academic standards.
- Round-the-Clock Customer Support : EssayBox provides 24/7 customer support, a crucial feature for students who may need assistance or have queries at any time of the day or night. This continuous availability enhances the reliability and responsiveness of the service.
- Free Revisions and Editing : Understanding the need for perfection in academic papers, EssayBox offers free revisions and editing. This ensures that the final product meets the exact requirements and expectations of the student.
- Discount for First-Time Users : To attract new customers, EssayBox provides a discount for first-time users. This incentive makes the service more appealing to students trying it out for the first time, reducing the financial barrier to entry.
In summary, EssayBox differentiates itself with its team of highly qualified ENL writers, comprehensive customer support, and commitment to customer satisfaction through free revisions and editing, along with an introductory discount for new users.
Reviewed by essay expert Valerie Banford
BookwormLab is another service in the realm of academic essay writing, offering tailored solutions to students. It distinguishes itself with several key features:
- Pricing Structure : BookwormLab’s services start at $14.59 per page, positioning it slightly higher in the pricing spectrum compared to some competitors. This pricing reflects the quality and expertise they claim to provide in their writing services.
- Professional Writers with Verified Diplomas : A significant selling point for BookwormLab is its team of professional writers, each possessing verified academic diplomas. This verification process adds a layer of trust and assurance for students about the qualifications and expertise of the writers handling their academic work.
- Timely Delivery Guarantee : Recognizing the importance of meeting academic deadlines, BookwormLab guarantees timely delivery of their work. This commitment is crucial for students who cannot afford any delays in their academic submissions.
- Confidentiality Assurance : BookwormLab ensures the confidentiality of its service, which is a vital consideration for students concerned about privacy and academic integrity. This assurance protects the identity and information of students using their service.
- Availability of Free Samples : To help potential customers gauge the quality of their work, BookwormLab offers free samples. This transparency allows students to make more informed decisions about whether the service meets their specific needs and quality expectations.
Overall, BookwormLab presents itself as a reliable and professional option for students, backed by a team of qualified writers, a commitment to timely delivery, and a focus on confidentiality and transparency.
EssayFactory stands out in the essay writing service market, particularly catering to students in the United Kingdom. Here are the key features that define their service:
- Pricing in British Pounds : EssayFactory’s pricing starts at £14.87 per page . This pricing, listed in British Pounds, indicates a focus on the UK student market. The rate is competitive, considering the specialized service they offer.
- Qualified British Writers : A significant aspect of EssayFactory is its team of qualified British writers. This focus ensures that the essays and papers are not only of high quality but also align with the specific academic standards and linguistic nuances of the UK education system.
- Guarantee of On-Time Delivery : Understanding the critical nature of deadlines in the academic world, EssayFactory promises on-time delivery of assignments. This guarantee is essential for students who cannot afford any delays in their academic submissions.
- Direct Contact with Writers : EssayFactory allows direct communication between clients and writers. This feature facilitates a more personalized service, enabling students to have more control over the writing process and to directly convey their specific requirements and feedback.
- Money-Back Guarantee : Offering a money-back guarantee, EssayFactory provides an assurance of satisfaction and quality. This policy demonstrates their confidence in the quality of their service and offers peace of mind to students who may be apprehensive about using such services.
In summary, EssayFactory distinguishes itself with its focus on the UK market, employing qualified British writers, and emphasizing timely delivery, direct writer communication, and customer satisfaction guarantees.
Reviewed by essay-expert Oliver Wicks
Essays.io is another service in the competitive field of academic essay writing with a big base of free written college papers, catering to students seeking assistance with their writing tasks. It offers several notable features:
- Affordable Pricing : Essays.io sets its starting price at $11.31 per page , making it one of the more affordable options in the market. This pricing strategy is particularly appealing to students on a tight budget who are seeking quality writing assistance.
- Experienced Academic Writers : The service boasts a team of experienced academic writers. This experience is crucial in ensuring that the essays and papers are not only well-written but also meet the specific requirements and standards of academic writing.
- Availability of Quick Turnarounds : Recognizing the often urgent nature of academic assignments, Essays.io offers quick turnaround options. This feature is beneficial for students who are working against tight deadlines and need prompt service.
- User-Friendly Website : A user-friendly website is a significant plus for Essays.io, as it simplifies the process of placing orders, making inquiries, and communicating with writers. This ease of use enhances the overall customer experience.
- Plagiarism Detection : Essays.io includes plagiarism detection in its services, ensuring that the work provided is original and adheres to academic integrity standards. This feature is essential in maintaining the credibility and authenticity of the academic work produced.
Overall, Essays.io presents itself as an accessible, affordable, and reliable option for students, with a focus on experienced writers, fast service, ease of use, and a commitment to producing original, plagiarism-free academic work.
Comparing Features of Essay Writing Services
When considering hiring an essay writing service, it’s important to compare various aspects such as pricing, writer qualifications, quality assurances, customer service, and delivery times. Here’s a summary based on the provided information:
- 99papers : Initially noted for a starting price of $12.46 per page, this service offers a balance between affordability and quality, considering its range of features.
- EssayBox : Initially, prices were mentioned as starting from $12.95 per page. This service is known for its qualified ENL writers and comprehensive customer support.
- BookwormLab : This service was previously stated to have prices starting from $14.59 per page. BookwormLab is distinguished for its professional writers with verified diplomas and a focus on timely delivery.
- EssayFactory : The starting price for EssayFactory was indicated as £14.87 per page, catering specifically to the UK market with qualified British writers and a promise of on-time delivery.
- Essays.io : Initially, the service was noted for a starting price of $11.31 per page, making it a competitive option with experienced academic writers and quick turnaround times.
- All Services : Employ college-educated, native English writers, ensuring a high standard of language proficiency.
- BookwormLab and EssayFactory : Stand out by having writers with verified diplomas, adding an extra layer of credibility.
- 99papers, EssayBox, and Essays.io : Also boast writers with degrees, ensuring a baseline of academic proficiency.
- General Promise : Most services promise high-quality writing, which is a basic expectation in this market.
- Plagiarism-Free Guarantee : Both EssayFactory and 99papers assure plagiarism-free papers, a crucial aspect for maintaining academic integrity.
- Free Revisions : Essays.io, 99papers, and EssayBox offer free revisions, allowing for adjustments based on client feedback.
- 24/7 Support : Available at EssayBox and 99papers, providing round-the-clock assistance for global customers.
- Direct Writer Contact : Offered by EssayFactory, enhancing personalized service and direct communication.
- User-Friendly Website : Noted for Essays.io, making the process more seamless and accessible for users.
- On-Time Delivery : Guaranteed by EssayFactory and BookwormLab, crucial for meeting academic deadlines.
- Fast Turnaround : Available with 99papers and Essays.io, catering to urgent needs.
- Rush Orders : Offered by several services for those with the shortest deadlines.
In summary, while all these services provide a range of benefits, the choice depends on specific needs like budget constraints, required expertise level, urgency, and additional services like plagiarism checks or revisions. Each service has its unique strengths, so it’s important to choose one that aligns best with your requirements when looking to hire an essay writing service.
FAQ about Hiring Essay Writers
Is it worth it to pay someone to write your essay.
Paying for an essay can be beneficial in terms of convenience, potentially high-quality writing, and securing a good grade, especially if you choose a reputable service. However, it’s important to consider that it can be expensive and poses significant risks. If discovered, it could lead to serious academic consequences.
Can you hire someone to write an essay?
Yes, numerous online essay writing services exist where you can hire or pay writers to create custom essays. However, it’s crucial to note that most educational institutions consider this practice unethical and it may violate academic integrity policies.
How much should I get paid to write an essay?
Compensation for writing essays varies. Typically, experienced essay writers earn between $12 and $20 per page. This rate depends on several factors, including the urgency of the deadline, the academic level of the essay, and the depth of research required.
Can you pay people to do essays?
While it is technically possible to pay individuals or services to write essays, this practice is generally viewed as cheating and is ethically frowned upon in academic settings. Schools often impose strict penalties for such actions, which can include failing grades or more severe academic sanctions.
In conclusion, the decision to hire essay writers carries a mix of pros and cons. On the positive side, such services can provide convenience, potentially high-quality writing, and a route to securing better grades, especially when deadlines are tight, or the subject matter is challenging. The availability of experienced, degree-holding writers across various platforms like 99papers, EssayBox, BookwormLab, EssayFactory, and Essays.io, each with their unique features and pricing models, offers a wide range of options for students seeking such assistance.
However, these benefits are significantly overshadowed by the drawbacks. The primary concern is academic dishonesty. Most educational institutions have strict policies against this practice, and getting caught can lead to severe penalties, including failure in the course or more serious academic sanctions. The ethical implications of presenting someone else’s work as your own cannot be understated, as it undermines the principles of academic integrity and personal growth.
Moreover, the financial cost of hiring these services can be substantial, especially for students on a limited budget. The potential risk of receiving work that does not meet the expected standards or is not delivered on time adds another layer of uncertainty.
Given these considerations, it is advisable to invest effort into doing your own work. The learning and personal development that come from engaging directly with academic tasks are invaluable. Therefore, it’s generally best to avoid using essay writing services. Instead, seek other forms of assistance such as tutoring, collaborating with peers, or consulting with instructors, which can provide the support needed while maintaining academic integrity and personal development.
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