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- How to conclude an essay | Interactive example
How to Conclude an Essay | Interactive Example
Published on January 24, 2019 by Shona McCombes . Revised on July 23, 2023.
The conclusion is the final paragraph of your essay . A strong conclusion aims to:
- Tie together the essay’s main points
- Show why your argument matters
- Leave the reader with a strong impression
Your conclusion should give a sense of closure and completion to your argument, but also show what new questions or possibilities it has opened up.
This conclusion is taken from our annotated essay example , which discusses the history of the Braille system. Hover over each part to see why it’s effective.
Braille paved the way for dramatic cultural changes in the way blind people were treated and the opportunities available to them. Louis Braille’s innovation was to reimagine existing reading systems from a blind perspective, and the success of this invention required sighted teachers to adapt to their students’ reality instead of the other way around. In this sense, Braille helped drive broader social changes in the status of blindness. New accessibility tools provide practical advantages to those who need them, but they can also change the perspectives and attitudes of those who do not.
Table of contents
Step 1: return to your thesis, step 2: review your main points, step 3: show why it matters, what shouldn’t go in the conclusion, more examples of essay conclusions, other interesting articles, frequently asked questions about writing an essay conclusion.
To begin your conclusion, signal that the essay is coming to an end by returning to your overall argument.
Don’t just repeat your thesis statement —instead, try to rephrase your argument in a way that shows how it has been developed since the introduction.
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Next, remind the reader of the main points that you used to support your argument.
Avoid simply summarizing each paragraph or repeating each point in order; try to bring your points together in a way that makes the connections between them clear. The conclusion is your final chance to show how all the paragraphs of your essay add up to a coherent whole.
To wrap up your conclusion, zoom out to a broader view of the topic and consider the implications of your argument. For example:
- Does it contribute a new understanding of your topic?
- Does it raise new questions for future study?
- Does it lead to practical suggestions or predictions?
- Can it be applied to different contexts?
- Can it be connected to a broader debate or theme?
Whatever your essay is about, the conclusion should aim to emphasize the significance of your argument, whether that’s within your academic subject or in the wider world.
Try to end with a strong, decisive sentence, leaving the reader with a lingering sense of interest in your topic.
The easiest way to improve your conclusion is to eliminate these common mistakes.
Don’t include new evidence
Any evidence or analysis that is essential to supporting your thesis statement should appear in the main body of the essay.
The conclusion might include minor pieces of new information—for example, a sentence or two discussing broader implications, or a quotation that nicely summarizes your central point. But it shouldn’t introduce any major new sources or ideas that need further explanation to understand.
Don’t use “concluding phrases”
Avoid using obvious stock phrases to tell the reader what you’re doing:
- “In conclusion…”
- “To sum up…”
These phrases aren’t forbidden, but they can make your writing sound weak. By returning to your main argument, it will quickly become clear that you are concluding the essay—you shouldn’t have to spell it out.
Don’t undermine your argument
Avoid using apologetic phrases that sound uncertain or confused:
- “This is just one approach among many.”
- “There are good arguments on both sides of this issue.”
- “There is no clear answer to this problem.”
Even if your essay has explored different points of view, your own position should be clear. There may be many possible approaches to the topic, but you want to leave the reader convinced that yours is the best one!
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- Literary analysis
This conclusion is taken from an argumentative essay about the internet’s impact on education. It acknowledges the opposing arguments while taking a clear, decisive position.
The internet has had a major positive impact on the world of education; occasional pitfalls aside, its value is evident in numerous applications. The future of teaching lies in the possibilities the internet opens up for communication, research, and interactivity. As the popularity of distance learning shows, students value the flexibility and accessibility offered by digital education, and educators should fully embrace these advantages. The internet’s dangers, real and imaginary, have been documented exhaustively by skeptics, but the internet is here to stay; it is time to focus seriously on its potential for good.
This conclusion is taken from a short expository essay that explains the invention of the printing press and its effects on European society. It focuses on giving a clear, concise overview of what was covered in the essay.
The invention of the printing press was important not only in terms of its immediate cultural and economic effects, but also in terms of its major impact on politics and religion across Europe. In the century following the invention of the printing press, the relatively stationary intellectual atmosphere of the Middle Ages gave way to the social upheavals of the Reformation and the Renaissance. A single technological innovation had contributed to the total reshaping of the continent.
This conclusion is taken from a literary analysis essay about Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein . It summarizes what the essay’s analysis achieved and emphasizes its originality.
By tracing the depiction of Frankenstein through the novel’s three volumes, I have demonstrated how the narrative structure shifts our perception of the character. While the Frankenstein of the first volume is depicted as having innocent intentions, the second and third volumes—first in the creature’s accusatory voice, and then in his own voice—increasingly undermine him, causing him to appear alternately ridiculous and vindictive. Far from the one-dimensional villain he is often taken to be, the character of Frankenstein is compelling because of the dynamic narrative frame in which he is placed. In this frame, Frankenstein’s narrative self-presentation responds to the images of him we see from others’ perspectives. This conclusion sheds new light on the novel, foregrounding Shelley’s unique layering of narrative perspectives and its importance for the depiction of character.
If you want to know more about AI tools , college essays , or fallacies make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples or go directly to our tools!
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Your essay’s conclusion should contain:
- A rephrased version of your overall thesis
- A brief review of the key points you made in the main body
- An indication of why your argument matters
The conclusion may also reflect on the broader implications of your argument, showing how your ideas could applied to other contexts or debates.
For a stronger conclusion paragraph, avoid including:
- Important evidence or analysis that wasn’t mentioned in the main body
- Generic concluding phrases (e.g. “In conclusion…”)
- Weak statements that undermine your argument (e.g. “There are good points on both sides of this issue.”)
Your conclusion should leave the reader with a strong, decisive impression of your work.
The conclusion paragraph of an essay is usually shorter than the introduction . As a rule, it shouldn’t take up more than 10–15% of the text.
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How to write an essay: Conclusion
- What's in this guide
- Essay structure
- Additional resources
The last section of an academic essay is the conclusion . The conclusion should reaffirm your answer to the question, and briefly summarise key arguments. It does not include any new points or new information. A conclusion has three sections. First, repeat the thesis statement. It won’t use the exact same words as in your introduction, but it will repeat the point: your overall answer to the question. Then set out your general conclusions , and a short explanation of why they are important.
Finally, draw together the question , the evidence in the essay body, and the conclusion. This way the reader knows that you have understood and answered the question. This part needs to be clear and concise.
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How to Write a Conclusion Paragraph for an Essay
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- An effective conclusion paragraph is vital to writing a successful college essay.
- A strong conclusion restates the thesis, offers new insight, and forms a personal connection.
- Be sure the conclusion doesn't introduce new arguments or analyze points you didn't discuss.
The first steps for writing any college essay are coming up with a strong thesis statement and composing a rough introduction . Once you've done that, you can collect information that supports your thesis, outline your essay's main points, and start writing your body paragraphs . Before you can submit the essay, though, you'll also need to write a compelling conclusion paragraph.
Conclusions aren't especially difficult to write and can even be fun, but you still need to put in effort to make them work. Ultimately, a strong conclusion is just as important as an effective introduction for a successful paper.
Here, we explain the purpose of a conclusion and how to write a conclusion paragraph using a simple three-step process.
The Purpose of a Conclusion Paragraph
A conclusion paragraph does :
- Check Circle Summarize the essay's thesis and evidence to further convince the reader
- Check Circle Elevate your essay by adding new insight or something extra to impress the reader
- Check Circle Leave a personal impression that connects you more closely to the reader
A conclusion paragraph does not :
- X Circle Summarize something the paper does not discuss
- X Circle Introduce a new argument
How to Write a Conclusion in 3 Easy Steps
Step 1: restate your thesis claim and evidence.
The conclusion's primary role is to convince the reader that your argument is valid. Whereas the introduction paragraph says, "Here's what I'll prove and how," the conclusion paragraph says, "Here's what I proved and how." In that sense, these two paragraphs should closely mirror each other, with the conclusion restating the thesis introduced at the beginning of the essay.
In order to restate your thesis effectively, you'll need to do the following:
- Check Circle Reread your introduction carefully to identify your paper's main claim
- Check Circle Pay attention to the evidence you used to support your thesis throughout the essay
- Check Circle In your conclusion, reword the thesis and summarize the supporting evidence
- Check Circle Use phrases in the past tense, like "as demonstrated" and "this paper established"
Here's an example of an introduction and a conclusion paragraph, with the conclusion restating the paper's primary claim and evidence:
It is a known fact that archaic civilizations with clearly defined social classes often survived longer than those without. One anomaly is seventh-century Civilization X. Close analysis of the cultural artifacts of the Civilization X region reveals that a social system that operates on exploitation, rather than sharing, will always fail. This lack of inclusion actually leads to a society's downfall. Excavated military objects, remnants of tapestries and clay pots, and the poetry of the era all demonstrate the clash between exploitation and sharing, with the former leading to loss and the latter leading to success.
In the 600s C.E., Civilization X survived because it believed in inclusion and sharing rather than exploitation. As demonstrated, the civilization was often aware of the choice between sharing with others and taking from them. The cultural artifacts from the era, namely military items, household objects, and verbal art, all indicate that Civilization X believed sharing ensured survival for all, while taking allowed only a few to survive for a shorter time.
Step 2: Provide New and Interesting Insight
In addition to restating the thesis, a conclusion should emphasize the importance of the essay's argument by building upon it. In other words, you want to push your ideas one step beyond your thesis. One intriguing insight at the end can leave your professor pondering your paper well after they finish reading it — and that's a good sign you turned in a well-written essay.
Note that the conclusion paragraph must only mention that this new idea exists and deserves some focus in the future; it shouldn't discuss the idea in detail or try to propose a new argument.
The new insight you raise in your conclusion should ideally come from the research you already conducted. Should a new idea come to you while writing the body paragraphs, go ahead and make a note to remind you to allude to it in your conclusion.
Here are some typical starting points for these new insights:
- Check Circle A new idea that would have prompted you to redesign your thesis if you had the time
- Check Circle A new angle that would further prove your thesis
- Check Circle Evidence you found that refutes your claim but that you can justify anyway
- Check Circle A different topic to which you can apply the same thesis and/or angles
Step 3: Form a Personal Connection With the Reader
The final step when writing a conclusion paragraph is to include a small detail about yourself. This information will help you build a more intimate bond with your reader and help them remember you better. Think of this step as an opportunity to connect the academic research to your and your reader's personal lives — to forge a human bond between the lines.
Formal essay-writing typically avoids first- and second-person pronouns such as "I" and "you." There are, however, two exceptions to this rule, and these are the introduction and conclusion paragraphs.
In the conclusion, you may use first-person pronouns to attempt to establish an emotional connection with the reader.
In the introduction, you may use the words "I" or "me" just once to clarify that the essay's claim is your own. In the conclusion, you may use first-person pronouns to attempt to establish an emotional connection with the reader, as long as this connection is related in some way to the overarching claim.
Here's an example of a conclusion paragraph that uses both first- and second-person pronouns to connect the thesis statement (provided above) to the student's own perspective on stealing:
Civilization X believed that invading Civilization Y would help them survive long, hunger-inducing winters. But all people go through moments when they crave security, especially in times of scarcity. I would certainly never consider taking the belongings of a neighbor, nor, I expect, would you. Yet we must consider the Civilization X artifacts that justify "taking" as signs of more than simple bloodthirst — they are also revelations of the basic human need for security. Perhaps if we had lived during the 600s C.E., you and I would have also taken from others, even while commanding others not to take from us.
Feature Image: Ziga Plahutar / E+ / Getty Images
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How to Write a Conclusion for an Essay
You’ve done it. You’ve refined your introduction and your thesis. You’ve spent time researching and proving all of your supporting arguments. You’re slowly approaching the finish line of your essay and suddenly freeze up because—that’s right—it’s time to write the conclusion.
How to write a conclusion
Before we dive into the details, here’s a basic outline of how to write a conclusion:
- Restate your thesis: remind readers of your main point
- Reiterate your supporting points: remind readers of your evidence or arguments
- Wrap everything up by tying it all together
- Write a clincher: with the last sentence, leave your reader with something to think about
For many, the conclusion is the most dreaded part of essay writing . Condensing all the points you’ve analyzed in a tidy little package is certainly easier said than done. How can you make a good final impression while emphasizing the significance of your findings?
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Learning how to write a conclusion for an essay doesn’t need to feel like climbing Everest. It is wholly possible to tie everything together while considering the broader issues and implications of your argument. You just need the right strategy.
What do you want to leave your readers with? Perhaps you want to end with a quotation that adds texture to your discussion. Or, perhaps you want to set your argument into a different, perhaps larger context.
An effective conclusion paragraph should ultimately suggest to your reader that you’ve accomplished what you set out to prove.
5 key details for writing a conclusion
1 restate your thesis.
As you set out to write your conclusion and end your essay on an insightful note, you’ll want to start by restating your thesis. Since the thesis is the central idea of your entire essay, it’s wise to remind the reader of the purpose of your paper.
Once you’ve restated your thesis (in a way that’s paraphrased , of course, and offers a fresh understanding), the next step is to reiterate your supporting points.
2 Reiterate supporting points
Extract all of the “main points” from each of your supporting paragraphs or individual arguments in the essay . Then, find a way to wrap up these points in a way that demonstrates the importance of the ideas.
Depending on the length of your essay, knowing how to write a good conclusion is somewhat intuitive—you don’t want to simply summarize what you wrote. Rather, the conclusion should convey a sense of closure alongside the larger meaning and lingering possibilities of the topic.
3 Ask yourself: “So what?”
At some point in your life, a teacher has probably told you that the end of an essay should answer the question “So what?” or “Why does it matter?” This advice holds true. It’s helpful to ask yourself this question at the start of drafting your thesis and come back to it throughout, as it can keep you in tune with the essay’s purpose. Then, at your conclusion, you won’t be left searching for something to say.
4 Add perspective
If you’ve come across a fantastic quote in your research that didn’t quite make it into the essay, the conclusion is a great spot for it. Including a quote from one of your primary or secondary sources can frame your thesis or final thoughts in a different light. This can add specificity and texture to your overall argument.
For example, if you’ve written an essay about J.D. Salinger’s Catcher in the Rye, you can think about using a quote from the book itself or from a critic or scholar who complicates your main point. If your thesis is about Salinger’s desire to preserve childhood innocence, ending with a biographer’s statement about Salinger’s attitude toward his own youth might be illuminating for readers. If you decide to amplify your conclusion paragraph in this way, make sure the secondary material adds (and not detracts) from the points you already made. After all, you want to have the last word!
5 Consider the clincher
At the very end of the essay comes your closing sentence or clincher. As you think about how to write a good conclusion, the clincher must be top of mind. What can you say to propel the reader to a new view on the subject? This final sentence needs to help readers feel a sense of closure. It should also end on a positive note, so your audience feels glad they read your paper and that they learned something worthwhile.
What your conclusion should not include
There are a few things that you should definitely strive to avoid when writing your conclusion paragraph. These elements will only cheapen your overall argument and belabor the obvious.
Here are several conclusion mishaps to consider:
- Avoid phrases like “in summary,” “in conclusion,” or “to sum up.” Readers know they’re at the end of the essay and don’t need a signpost.
- Don’t simply summarize what’s come before. For a short essay, you certainly don’t need to reiterate all of your supporting arguments. Readers will know if you just copied and pasted from elsewhere.
- Avoid introducing brand new ideas or evidence. This will only confuse readers and sap force from your arguments. If there’s a really profound point that you’ve reached in your conclusion and want to include, try moving it to one of your supporting paragraphs.
Whereas your introduction acts as a bridge that transfers your readers from their own lives into the “space” of your argument or analysis, your conclusion should help readers transition back to their daily lives.
By following this useful roadmap, you can feel confident that you know how to write a good conclusion that leaves readers with a solution, a call to action, or a powerful insight for further study.
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How to Start a Conclusion
Last Updated: June 8, 2023 References
This article was co-authored by Diane Stubbs . Diane Stubbs is a Secondary English Teacher with over 22 years of experience teaching all high school grade levels and AP courses. She specializes in secondary education, classroom management, and educational technology. Diane earned a Bachelor of Arts in English from the University of Delaware and a Master of Education from Wesley College. This article has been viewed 158,293 times.
A persuasive essay, literary analysis, or research paper should include a thoughtful introduction and conclusion. The conclusion, when written correctly, gives the reader a summary and insights into the reasons for the subject's importance. You may also need to deliver a speech or presentation which needs a good conclusion. Many of the same principles apply, but you should tailor your conclusion carefully.
Things You Should Know
- For an essay, start with a transition sentence that references the original question, avoiding phrases like "in conclusion."
- Go beyond a simple summary, exploring how every point in your essay connects and the significance of your essay question.
- In a presentation, indicate that you’re finishing up and return to the initial question, giving a summary with enthusiasm and conviction.
Writing Template and Sample Conclusion
Writing a Conclusion for an Essay or Paper
- To help you achieve this fluency, you should start with a sentence that links the conclusion to the main body of the text.  X Research source
- This might be a statement that reflects the content of your essay but connects your essay to the wider points that your conclusion will then go on to briefly discuss.
- The sentence "A sense of the impermanence of human achievement permeates this poem", indicates a transition to the conclusion by articulating the key argument in one sentence.
- For example, what if the essay question asks you "to what extent did the Battle of Monte Casino change the course of the Second World War"?
- Here, you could begin with a sentence such as "The Battle of Monte Casino was a crucial moment that reflected the shifting dynamic of WWII, but did not in itself turn the tide of the war".
- A short summary can be useful in a longer essay, but do not simply restate what you have said in the same terms.  X Research source
- Rather, indicate your key points while situating them within a larger context, which displays a deeper understanding and potentially opens up new lines of inquiry.
- In your conclusion structure, this discussion of the broader implications should follow the transition sentences and the explanation of how the different elements of your argument fit together.  X Research source
- This could include universalizing the topic of essay, making a connection to a contemporary issue, or providing a call to action.
Concluding a Presentation or Speech
- Phrases such as "in conclusion", and "to summarise", which you wouldn't use in a written essay, can be useful for a spoken presentation.
- Indicating that you are about to conclude will encourage your listeners to focus on what you are about to say.  X Research source
- For example, you could ask yourself the main question at the start of the conclusion. "So, how do I suggest we improve our sales in the Mid-West?" before going on provide a summary of your key points.
- Generally, listening to a presentation will be more passive than reading an essay, so it is more beneficial to summarise your key points in the conclusion of a spoken presentation.
- The last things your audience hear will most likely be what they take away with them, so be sure all your key points are covered in the conclusion.
- You might also include a short anecdote that supports your argument and acts as a call to action to the other people in the room.
- A strong ending can make a personal connection with the audience, by demonstrating how you can resolve a problem for the audience member.  X Research source
- Using an action verb in your final sentence can highlight exactly how you want your audience to respond.
- For example, when John F. Kennedy said, "Ask not what your country can do for you, ask what you can do or your country," he was encouraging action from the audience.  X Research source
- Finishing this way both demonstrates your personal conviction and indicates that you think your ideas should be followed up.
You Might Also Like
- ↑ http://www.writing.ucsb.edu/faculty/donelan/concl.html
- ↑ http://writingcenter.fas.harvard.edu/pages/ending-essay-conclusions
- ↑ http://leo.stcloudstate.edu/acadwrite/conclude.html
- ↑ http://www.businessinsider.com/worst-ways-to-end-a-presentation-2014-7
- ↑ http://www.ethos3.com/2014/12/the-best-way-to-end-a-professional-presentation/
About This Article
To start a conclusion for an essay, begin with a reference to the original question. If, for example, the essay question asks “How did the Battle of Monte Casino change the course of WWII?”, start with “The Battle of Monte Casino was a crucial moment that reflected the shifting dynamic of WWII.” Additionally, start your conclusion in a natural way, without obvious transitions like "In conclusion." For example, begin with "A sense of the impermanence of human achievement..." instead of, "In conclusion, a sense of the impermanence.." For more advice from our English reviewer, including how to write a conclusion for a presentation or speech, keep reading. Did this summary help you? Yes No
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Concluding an Essay: 100+ Good Ways to Start a Conclusion Sentence
Table of contents
You must be aware that the introduction of a write-up is pivotal for it to be engaging, and interesting.
But did you know that the way you end or conclude an academic writing assignment is as important as how you begin writing the content?
This is where concluding sentences come in.
In this article, we will share some good ways to start a conclusion sentence but before that, why are concluding paragraphs so important?
Why is it Important to Start a Conclusion Well
Conclusion starters for any type of academic writing are essentially used to grab the attention of its readers. These conclusion sentences let your professor or peers know that your writing assignment, be it an essay, speech, or research paper, is coming to an end and it's time to wrap up all the important points in one brief summation.
Without concluding sentences in your conclusion paragraph, the flow of your assignment could go wrong, and would eventually lead to an abrupt and confusing closure.
As a college student, you will be given a variety of writing assignments including research papers, essay assignments, speech writings, and even professional emails to test your subject-wise knowledge, creative thinking, and writing skills .
When you’re writing your paper and it’s time to conclude your writing assignment, you must use professional, appropriate, and assignment-wise concluding sentences for your conclusion paragraph.
Here are the important characteristics for effective conclusion starters:
- Sum up all relevant information, ideas, and examples, without adding any new information;
- Effectively link the rest of the body to the conclusion paragraph;
- Few words that introduce the first sentence of the concluding paragraph;
- Set the reader's expectation by clarifying how the assignment will be wrapping up and coming to a closure;
- Make readers aware that they have reached the final paragraph of the writing assignment;
- Portray that the conclusion paragraph is a summary of your entire write-up with a possible call-to-action or quotes (if necessary).
100+ Good Ways to Start a Conclusion Sentence
We now know the importance and characteristics of a grade-A conclusion. So, let's look at some good ways to start a conclusion sentence for common writing tasks such as essays, speeches, research papers, opinion writing, presentations and emails.
Conclusion words for essays
For concluding an essay , it is crucial to use sentences that convey a sense of completeness – a summary of the entire essay – leaving room for a little bit of possibility to comprehend the essay topic.
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Here are a few you can consider:
- To wrap it all up
- The study concluded
- The broader conclusion is that
- Coming to a conclusion
- All things considered
- For the most part
- As a final point
- According to the final analysis
- The summative conclusion is that
- The weight of the evidence suggests
- At the core of the issue
- Given the above information
- In lieu of this
- I think I have shown that
- As you can see
- For these reasons
- In layman’s terms
- To briefly paraphrase
- Weighing up the facts, this essay finds
Conclusion words for research papers
Including a strong conclusion for research papers will not only remind the readers about the impact and significance of the arguments but also refocuses their attention to the credible evidence and other crucial points presented to support your arguments and ideas.
- Based on the results
- It can/cannot be conclusively stated that
- The results of this study indicate
- In the final analysis
- In the light of these results
- What this study reveals is
- While additional research is needed
- Upon analyzing the data
- As expected, the results signify
- Based on the evidence presented
- In the context of the concept
- The result of this research showcases
- Unexpectedly the data reveals
- Due to the result
- On reviewing these findings, it can be stated
- The significant revelations made by this study
- To assume from the data
- Based on the results of this study, it seems
- The data clearly indicate
- What we know now is
- In the context of x, it seems that
- Through this research, we learned that
- As this paper demonstrates
- The facts support the argument that
Conclusion words for emails
Each email you send out to your professors creates an impression on them. They represent your personality and thoughts. That’s why it is important to be thoughtful, professional and appropriate while writing, or even, ending your emails.
Here are a few conclusion words you can consider:
- Looking forward to hearing from you
- With appreciation
- Eager to work around your schedule
- I sincerely appreciate your help
- Looking forward to your reply
- Speak with you soon
- Let me know if you have any questions
- Happy to help if you want to know more
- Thanks again for…
- Have a great day/week/weekend
- Hope your weekend is going well
- Thank you for your hard work
- Thanks for your consideration
- Appreciate your time and consideration
- Keep up the great work
- Please let me know if that's okay/sounds okay/acceptable to you
- Please let me know what you think/when might be a good time
- Please reach out to me for any help/information
- If you have any (more) questions, please let me know
- If anything isn't clear, let me know
- I hope we have the opportunity to meet again/soon
- I look forward to doing business with you again/soon
- Thank you (in advance)
- Any help you can offer me, I’d greatly appreciate it
- Thank you in advance for your assistance
- Thank you for your corporation
- Have a good morning/day/evening/break/holiday
- I hope that answers all your questions
- Please let me know your thoughts on this matter
Conclusion words for speeches
Having the right words to end your speech will get you positive quality scores, will leave a great lasting impression on your readers, a concluding thought to remind them what they’ve learned through the speech, and will also help in ending your write-up on a creative and appropriate note.
Here are a few words you can consider:
- I look forward to
- I recommend that
- Now you know why
- Looking back
- I hope you can now learn that
- In the future
- You should now consider
- The time has come to
- Last but not the least
- I agree that
- With all these in mind
- Considering all perspectives
- As I’ve observed
- To make a long story short
- As the time comes to wrap up
- To summarise
- In drawing to a close
- In light of this information
- Given these points
- In a nutshell
- I leave you with
- Finally today
- On a final note
- I would like to say finally
- I conclude with
Here’s an interesting video by Mary Daphne on how to end speeches and create a lasting impact.
Conclusion words for presentations
People usually focus more on a strong introduction for their presentation and end up neglecting to find good conclusion words for the end.
A good presentation conclusion will end with an effective and thorough summary, a creative call-to-action , an invitation for your audience to ask any questions regarding your topic, and lastly, to signal that the presentation is coming to a closure.
- This brings me to the end of my presentation, I’d like to summarize
- I’ve now come to the end of my presentation
- This is what I have for you today
- To close, I’d like to ask you all one thing
- Finally, I would like you to pay attention to
- Before leaving the presentation today, please take 2 minutes
- And on that final note, that concludes my presentation
- To quickly recap, please keep in mind these key points
- I’d like to bring this presentation to a close
- To end, I’d like to highlight
- If anyone has any questions, please feel free to ask me now
- If you’d like any more information, please reach out to me
- Here’s a list of additional reading materials on this topic
- I appreciate the opportunity to speak with you today
- Thank you for your time and patience
Conclusion words for opinion writing
To make your opinion writing an excellent piece of content, choosing to use the right concluding methods is a game-changer. In this, you can conclude your opinion essay by asking a question, suggesting consequences of actions, or even signalling a warning, to grasp your reader's attention.
Here are a few words you can consider while writing opinion pieces:
- To sum it up
- To conclude
- It is clear that
- In conclusion
- I have to say that
- It seems to me
- As previously stated
- I hope you’ll agree that
- You might want to try
- In my opinion
- That's why I think
- As per my perspective
Just as the first impression matters, so does the last.
The conclusion you write for your writing assessments is an opportunity for you to express the closure of the topic in a professional, tidy and engaging manner. Irrespective of what kind of writing assignment it is, it is of utmost importance to leave a lasting impression on your reader's mind as you conclude your topic.
Our exhaustive list of some good ways to start a conclusion sentence would be effective in making your writing or sharing your speech a memorable experience with your readers (or listeners).
Last edit at Jul 27 2023
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Your conclusion paragraph should logically conclude your essay, just like your concluding sentences logically conclude your body paragraphs. The conclusion paragraph should begin by restating your thesis, and then you should broaden back out to a general topic. End with a closing statement. This paragraph looks like the reverse of your introduction paragraph, going from specific to general.
Restate your thesis
The first sentence of your conclusion paragraph should restate your thesis. A restated thesis expresses the same idea, but the words are different. Remember that the meaning of your thesis should not change. Compare the thesis with the restatement below.
Thesis: Exercise is essential because it improves overall physical and mental health. Restated: Due to the mental and physical health benefits of exercise, it is absolutely crucial for our bodies.
You can restate your thesis by
- changing the order of the phrases
- using synonyms (e.g., essential > crucial)
- stating main points direcly instead of implying them (or vice versa)
- using different word forms (e.g., adjective > noun)
Apply your thesis to general contexts
Connect your thesis back to the general topics you mentioned in your introduction.
Give a closing statement
Your closing statement is very similar to the concluding sentence of a body paragraph except that you will not restate your main idea at the very end of your paper. Your last sentences can be a prediction, suggestion, opinion, or question.
Exercise 1: Identify effective restated thesis statements
Read the thesis statement. Choose the best restated thesis from the options below.
Thesis: Apartment complexes should provide quiet study rooms for residents so they can study without distractions.
- Study rooms are important for students to study in.
- Apartment managers should build quiet places to study for residents.
- Now we can see that study rooms are valuable for students who live in apartments.
- It is important for apartments to provide their residents with quiet study areas.
Exercise 2: Restate a thesis
On a piece of paper, rewrite each thesis statement as you would at the beginning of a conclusion paragraph.
- In order for students to manage stress better, they need to prioritize their tasks, eat well, and get enough sleep.
- Even though Salt Lake City and Madrid may seem similar based on climate, their major religions, language, and food are distinct.
- Business owners need to make decisions that satisfy employees, customers, and investors.
- Increasing your vocabulary is easy if you try to notice new words in context, review them often, and use them as much as you can.
Exercise 3: Write a conclusion paragraph
Read the introduction paragraph and then finish writing the conclusion paragraph on a piece of paper.
Prompt: Describe how to write an essay.
Many writers feel overwhelmed when they write an essay. They are unsure of where to start or how to be successful. However, the process is very basic. There are simple steps that can simplify the process and make writing a good essay possible for anyone. In order to write an impactful essay, it is essential that writers plan, draft, and share their writing.
Exercise 4: Identify types of paragraphs.
Identify whether each paragraph is an introduction, body, or conclusion paragraph.
1. T ype of paragraph: __________________________
Touchscreen technology, wireless charging, and a better camera are the best features on the new iPhone. These qualities all encourage customers to consider buying this phone because it is easier to use, more convenient, and more useful than other models. When you start looking for your upgrade, you should ask yourself if your new phone should have these features. The new iPhone does. What are you waiting for? You won’t regret upgrading to the new iPhone.
2. Type of paragraph: __________________________
A successful restaurant requires many workers, each with specific jobs that help things run smoothly. Cooks in the kitchen skillfully prepare the food. Servers take orders, deliver meals, and ensure the customers are satisfied. The hostess greets the customers as they enter the restaurant and sets the tone for the customer’s experience. All of these people are necessary to make a restaurant successful.
3. Type of paragraph: __________________________
All year long, the scenery in Utah Valley is amazing. In the winter, the valley is covered with a blanket of snow. In the spring, the trees blossom with flowers. The summer weather beckons hikers to discover the stunning vistas in the canyons. The Rocky Mountains then take on beautiful shades of red, orange, and yellow in the fall. As each season changes, the beauty of the area is evident. While all of the seasons are stunning, the most beautiful season in Utah is the autumn.
Exercise 5: Analyze an essay
Read one of the following example essays on the following pages to complete this exercise.
- Label the introduction paragraph, the body paragraphs, and the conclusion paragraph.
- Circle the hook.
- What is the general topic of the essay?
- Underline the thesis.
- Underline each of the topic sentences.
- Do each of the topic sentences support the thesis?
- Does the conclusion paragraph start by restating the thesis?
This content is provided to you freely by EdTech Books.
Access it online or download it at https://edtechbooks.org/academic_a_writing/conclusion_paragraph .