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APA 7th Edition Guide
- Citing Sources in PowerPoint Presentations
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Citing Sources in PowerPoint Slides
- PowerPoint - In-text Citations
- PowerPoint - References List
Note: APA does not have specific rules about the format of PowerPoint slides. Rasmussen University does have recommended guidelines outlined below and in the attached PPT presentation.
PowerPoint slides may need citations, depending on what type of information is included on the slide.
If the text on a slide is a quote (someone else's words, verbatim) or someone else's ideas in the presenter's own words, then a citation is needed.
If the text placed on a slide is simply a word or phrase that represents a topic that the presenter will be discussing in greater detail, then a citation is not needed.
The table below includes two PowerPoint slides (left side). The column on the right tells whether or not the information would need to be cited and why.
Speaker Notes: Some assignments require text in the Speaker Notes area of the PowerPoint slide. If information from a source is quoted, summarized, or paraphrased in that area, an in-text citation and reference will likely be required. Ask your instructor for clarification.
- Presentations & APA Citation Style at Rasmussen University Great resource to share with students if they are having struggles with APA in PPTs.
PowerPoint Slides - References
There are two ways to include the Reference list in your presentation:
- Coordinating reference lists are typically handed out during or after the presentation either in print if presenting in person, or electronically if presenting online. This is the preferred method of including a Reference list of the sources cited in your slide deck.
- Include a Reference list in the last slide of the presentation. This is an acceptable method if there are not many resources to include. Avoid adding so many resources to the list that the type is not legible to those attending the presentation
Creating the Reference List Slide
- If you use outside sources in your presentation (noted in your in-text citations), you must cite those sources on a References page/slide.
- Your Reference page can be created in NoodleTools, exported to Microsoft Word, and distributed or submitted with your slides to those who attend your presentation. Ask your instructor if they would like a Reference slide as the last slide of your presentation. Note that you may need more than one slide depending on how many references are needed.
See the slide deck below for more information.
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- URL: https://guides.rasmussen.edu/apa
Citing Sources: Citing Orally in Speeches
- Citing Sources Overview
- Citing in the Sciences & Engineering
- APA Citation Examples
- Chicago Citation Examples
- Biologists: Council of Science Editors (CSE) Examples
- MLA Citation Examples
- Bluebook - Legal Citation
Citing Orally in Speeches
- Citation Managers
- Oral Source Citations - James Madison University Communication Center
- Using Citations and Avoiding Plagiarism in Oral Presentations - Hamilton College, Dept. of Rhetoric and Communication
- Referencing: Citing in Orals - James Cook University
Tell the audience your source before you use the information (the opposite of in-text citations).
Do not say, “quote, unquote” when you offer a direct quotation. Use brief pauses instead.
Provide enough information about each source so that your audience could, with a little effort, find them. This should include the author(s) name, a brief explanation of their credentials, the title of the work, and publication date.
“In the 1979 edition of The Elements of Style, renowned grammarians and composition stylists Strunk and White encourage writers to ‘make every word tell.’”
If your source is unknown to your audience, provide enough information about your source for the audience to perceive them as credible. Typically we provide this credentialing of the source by stating the source’s qualifications to discuss the topic.
“Dr. Derek Bok, the President Emeritus of Harvard University and the author of The Politics of Happiness argues that the American government should design policies to enhance the happiness of its citizens.”
Provide a caption citation for all direct quotations and /or relevant images on your PowerPoint slides.
These should be acknowledged in your speech or presentation either as “And I quote…” or “As [the source] put it…”
Include title and author: “According to April Jones, author of Readings on Gender…”
Include title and date: “Time, March 28, 2005, explains…” or “The New York Times, June 5, 2006, explained it this way…”
Include journal title, date, and author: “Morgan Smith writes in the Fall 2005 issue of Science…”
For organizational or long-standing website, include title: “The center for Disease Control web site includes information…” For news or magazine websites, include title and date: “CNN.com, on March 28, 2005, states…” (Note: CNN is an exception to the “don’t use the address” rule because the site is known by that name.)
Interviews, lecture notes, or personal communication:
Include name and credentials of source: “Alice Smith, professor of Economics at USM, had this to say about the growth plan…” or “According to junior Speech Communication major, Susan Wallace…”
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- Last Updated: Aug 23, 2023 1:53 PM
- URL: https://libguides.wpi.edu/citingsources
How can we help?
- [email protected]
- Library Instruction
Research Guide: Citations
- APA Verbal/Speech Citations Example
- Citing Sources
- Quick Overview
- Plagiarism & Academic Honesty This link opens in a new window
- APA Citation Style Overview
- In-Text Citations - APA
- ARTICLES - APA Reference List
- BOOKS - APA Reference List
- ONLINE SOURCES - APA Reference List
- OTHER SOURCES - APA Reference List
- APA Formatted Paper Example
- APA Annotated Bibliography Example
- APA Images and Visual Presentations Citations Example
- MLA Citation Style Overview
- In-Text Citations - MLA
- ARTICLES - MLA Works Cited
- BOOKS - MLA Works Cited
- ONLINE SOURCES - MLA Works Cited
- OTHER SOURCES - MLA Works Cited
- MLA Formatted Paper Example
- MLA Annotated Bibliography Example
- MLA Verbal/Speech Citation Example
- MLA Images and Visual Presentations Citations Example
- Other Citation Styles
- Citation Generator (NoodleTools)
- Synthesizing Sources
- Get Help & Citation Workshops
Verbal Citations in Speeches and Presentations
What should you include in a verbal citation, when you give a speech....
(click on image to enlarge)
Why cite sources verbally?
- to c onvince your audience that you are a credible speaker. Building on the work of others lends authority to your presentation
- to prove that your information comes from solid, reliable sources that your audience can trust.
- to give credit to others for their ideas, data, images (even on PowerPoint slides), and words to avoid plagiarism.
- to leave a path for your audience so they can locate your sources.
What are tips for effective verbal citations?
When citing books:
- Ineffective : “ Margaret Brownwell writes in her book Dieting Sensibly that fad diets telling you ‘eat all you want’ are dangerous and misguided.” (Although the speaker cites and author and book title, who is Margaret Brownwell? No information is presented to establish her authority on the topic.)
- Better : “Margaret Brownwell, professor of nutrition at the Univeristy of New Mexico , writes in her book, Dieting Sensibly, that …” (The author’s credentials are clearly described.)
When citing Magazine, Journal, or Newspaper articles
- Ineffective : “An article titled ‘Biofuels Boom’ from the ProQuest database notes that midwestern energy companies are building new factories to convert corn to ethanol.” (Although ProQuest is the database tool used to retrieve the information, the name of the newspaper or journal and publication date should be cited as the source.)
- Better : “An article titled ‘Biofuels Boom’ in a September 2010 issue of Journal of Environment and Development” notes that midwestern energy companies…” (Name and date of the source provides credibility and currency of the information as well as giving the audience better information to track down the source.)
When citing websites
- Ineffective : “According to generationrescue.org, possible recovery from autism includes dietary interventions.” (No indication of the credibility or sponsoring organization or author of the website is given)
- Better : “According to pediatrician Jerry Kartzinel, consultant for generationrescue.org, an organization that provides information about autism treatment options, possibly recovery from autism includes dietary interventions.” (author and purpose of the website is clearly stated.)
Note: some of the above examples are quoted from: Metcalfe, Sheldon. Building a Speech. 7th ed. Boston: Wadsworth, 2010. Google Books. Web. 17 Mar. 2012.
Video: Oral Citations
Source: "Oral Citations" by COMMpadres Media , is licensed under a Standard YouTube License.
Example of a Verbal Citation
Example of a verbal citation from a CMST 238 class at Green River College, Auburn, WA, February 2019
What to Include in a Verbal Citation
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APA Citation Guide (7th edition) : Powerpoint Presentations
- What Kind of Source Is This?
- Books & eBooks
- Book Reviews
- Class Handouts, Presentations, and Readings
- Encyclopedias & Dictionaries
- Government Documents
- Images, Charts, Graphs, Maps & Tables
- Journal Articles
- Magazine Articles
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- Social Media
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- Works Cited in Another Source
- No Author, No Date etc.
- Sample Paper, Reference List & Annotated Bibliography
- Powerpoint Presentations
On this Page
Powerpoint presentations - what do i need to cite, powerpoint presentations - where do my citations go, other digital assignments - where do my citations go, quick rules for an apa reference list.
Your research paper ends with a list of all the sources cited in the text of the paper. Here are nine quick rules for this Reference list.
- Start a new page for your Reference list. Centre the title, References, at the top of the page.
- Double-space the list.
- Start the first line of each reference at the left margin; indent each subsequent line five spaces (a hanging indent).
- Put your list in alphabetical order. Alphabetize the list by the first word in the reference. In most cases, the first word will be the author’s last name. Where the author is unknown, alphabetize by the first word in the title, ignoring the words a, an, the.
- For each author, give the last name followed by a comma and the first (and middle, if listed) initials followed by periods.
- Italicize the titles of these works: books, audiovisual material, internet documents and newspapers, and the title and volume number of journals and magazines.
- Do not italicize titles of most parts of works, such as: articles from newspapers, magazines, or journals / essays, poems, short stories or chapter titles from a book / chapters or sections of an Internet document.
- In titles of non-periodicals (books, videotapes, websites, reports, poems, essays, chapters, etc), capitalize only the first letter of the first word of a title and subtitle, and all proper nouns (names of people, places, organizations, nationalities).
- If a web source (not from the library) is not a stable archived version, or you are unsure whether it is stable, include a statement of the accessed date before the link.
What am I legally required to cite in my digital assignment?
According to the Copyright Act, you must cite the sources (images, videos, books, websites, etc.) that you used in your digital assignment ( 29.21(1)(b) ). You must cite the source (where you got the information from) and the creator of the content (if available). You must also make sure that any copyrighted materials you used in your assignment meet the conditions set out in section 29.21 of the Copyright Act. For a list of conditions and more information, please visit: http://studentcopyright.wordpress.com/mashups/
What citation style do I use for the sources in my digital assignment?
There is no one required citation style, so please defer to your instructor's directions and citation style preference.
List your sources in a slide at the end of the Powerpoint presentation, with footnotes throughout your presentation as applicable.
You could also provide a print copy of the sources you used to those attending your presentation.
Seneca Libraries has the following recommendations for how to organize your list of sources for digital assignments. Please check with your instructor first:
Videos you create:
List your sources in a credits screen at the end of the video.
Websites you create:
- For images, include a citation under each image using this format “From: XXXX” and then make the image a link back to the original image ( example - picture of little girl). Or list the citation at the bottom of the web page.
- For quotes or material from other sources, include an in-text citation that links back to the original material ( example – second paragraph).
Images you create:
If possible list your sources at the bottom or side of the image ( example ). Otherwise, include a list of citations alongside the image wherever it’s uploaded (e.g. Flickr, Blackboard).
**Please note that the above are recommendations only and your instructor may have a preference and directions for how and where you list your sources for your assignment.**
If you don't receive specific instructions from your instructor, try to include your citations in a way that doesn't impact the design of your digital assignment.
For more information please contact Seneca Libraries copyright team at [email protected]
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- Research Guides
External Analysis Research
Citing sources in presentations.
- 1. The Intelligence Cycle
- 2. Visualizing External Factors
- 3. The Macro Environment
- 4. The Operating / Industry Environment
- 5. Evaluating Sources
Using Reference Lists in Presentations
Apa style powerpoint help.
- 7. Competitive Intelligence Certification & Resources
- 8. Get Help / Book a Consultation
- The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA Style) was designed to assist writers in preparing research papers (such as journal articles) and therefore does not actually contain any guidelines on preparing powerpoint presentations according to APA Style.
- Some guidance can be found in Chapter 14 of Displaying your findings as well as on the APA Style Blog .
- Typically, if you are required to create a presentation according to APA Style, you should clarify with your professor if he/she actually just expects you to put your in-text citations and references in APA Style.
In-text citations in Presentations
- You can cite references within the text of your presentation slide using the same APA format for in-text citations (Author, Date) as in a written essay.
- Remember to cite sources for direct quotations, paraphrased materials, and sources of facts (such as market share data in the example slide).
- Your list References must include the sources cited on your presentation slides.
Using Images on Slides
If you use images, such as photographs or clipart, on your slides, you should also credit the source of the image. Do not reproduce images without permission. There are sources for clipart and images that are "public use" according to Creative Commons licensing such as Flickr: http://www.flickr.com/creativecommons/
Photographs are treated as figures in APA Style. Therefore, the citation for the source of the image is included as a footnote in the figure caption underneath the photograph which includes the figure number and a description. The source of the image obtained is attributed using the following model:
Figure 1. Blah blah blah. From Title of Image , by Author, Year. Retrieved from URL.
Figure 1. Photograph of a sculpture in Cupertino, California. From Infinite Loop II by Kurafire (2007, January 3). Retrieved from http://www.flickr.com/photos/kurafire/343629962/.
Another option for citing image sources is to create a separate slide titled "Photo credits" or "Image Sources". For more assistance on the various ways to cite images in presentations (but not necessarily in APA format), see:
- Image Citation Guide (UBC Copyright Office)
- How to credit photos (Photoshare.org) [PDF]. A guide which provides examples of various ways to credit image sources in Powerpoint, on webpages, and in print materials.
For more assistance in creating figures in APA Style, see the following sections & pages of the Publication Manual, 6th edition:
- 2.12 Footnotes (pages 37 -38)
- 5.20 - 5.25 Figures (pages 150 - 167)
Option 1: Create a References handout (recommended)
Option 2: Create a References slide (if you only have a few items in your list)
- use a large enough font (e.g., 24 points)
- limit to 12 lines of text on each slide
- Powerful PowerPoint Presentations: Displaying your finding the APA Way (Bennet College) A slide show on preparing a presentation in APA style from the Thomas F. Holgate Library, Bennett College for Women.
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- URL: https://researchguides.library.brocku.ca/external-analysis
Harvard Referencing Guide: PowerPoint Presentations
- Introduction to the Guide
- The Harvard Referencing Method
- Cite Them Right Style
- Referencing Example
- Cite-Them-Right Text Book
- Online Tutorials
- Reference List / Bibliography
- Short Quotations
- Long Quotations
- Single Author
- Two Authors
- Three Authors
- Four or More Authors
- 2nd Edition
- Chapter in an Edited Book
- Journal Article - Online
- Journal Article - Printed
- Newspaper Article - Online
- Newspaper Article - Printed
- Webpage - Introduction
- Webpage - Individual Authors
- Webpage - Corporate Authors
- Webpage - No Author - No Date
- Film / Movie
- TV Programme
- PowerPoint Presentations
- YouTube Video
- Images - Introduction
- Images - Figure from a book
- Images - Online Figure
- Images - Online Table
- Twitter Tweet
- Personal Communication
- Email message in a Public Domain
- Course notes on the VLE
- Computer Games
- Computer Program
- General Referencing Guide >>>
- APA Referencing Guide >>>
- Research Guide >>>
- PowerPoint Presentation
Audiovisual Media - Powerpoint Presentation
PowerPoint Pr esentation
E xample - Presentation available online and accessible by anyone
The full reference should generally include
- Year (in round brackets)
- Title of the presentation (in italics)
- [PowerPoint presentation] in square brackets
- Available at: URL
- (Accessed: date)
Full reference for the Reference List
Example: PowerPoint presentation from a learning management system such as the VLE
- Author or tutor
- Year of publication (in round brackets)
- Title of the presentation (in single quotation marks)
- Module code: module title (in italics)
- Available at: URL of the VLE
Example : Full reference for the Reference List
Film / movie
Harvard Referencing Guide: A - Z
- APA Referencing Guide >>>
- Books / eBooks - 2 Authors
- Books / eBooks - 2nd Edition
- Books / eBooks - 3 Authors
- Books / eBooks - Individual Chapter
- Books / eBooks - Introduction
- Books / eBooks - More than 3 Authors
- Books / eBooks - Single Author
- Chapter in an edited book
- Cite Them Right - Style
- Cite Them Right - Text book
- Conversation - Personal
- Direct Quotations - Introduction
- Direct Quotations - Long
- Direct Quotations - Short
- Emails - In a Public Domain
- Emails - Personal
- Fax message
- General Referencing Guide >>>
- Harvard Referencing Method
- Reference List
- Skype Conversation - Personal
- Support - 'Cite Them Right' textbook
- Support - Online tutorials
- Text Message
- Webpage - Corporate Author
- Webpage - Individual Author
- << Previous: TV Programme
- Next: TED Talk >>
- Last Updated: Nov 25, 2022 2:24 PM
- URL: https://libguides.wigan-leigh.ac.uk/HarvardReferencing
Home / Guides / Citation Guides / How to Cite Sources / How to Cite a PowerPoint Presentation in APA, MLA or Chicago
How to Cite a PowerPoint Presentation in APA, MLA or Chicago
Let’s be honest: Sometimes the best information for a paper comes straight from a professor’s PowerPoint presentation. But did you know that source needs to be cited?
Whether you’re making use of your instructor’s lecture materials or pulling information from a Powerpoint found online, you need to make sure to cite your sources if you use information from it in a project or paper.
Here’s a run -t hrough of everything this page includes:
- Cite a PowerPoint Presentation in MLA format
- Cite a PowerPoint Presentation in APA format
- Cite a PowerPoint Presentation in Chicago Style
By now, you’re probably familiar with how to cite websites, books or journal articles, but not as knowledgeable about how to cite a Powerpoint presentation. In actuality, citing PowerPoint presentations aren’t all that different from citing written materials, so don’t let yourself be phased! It’s not too hard and compiling an MLA works cited or APA reference page doesn’t take too long—each one should take just a few minutes to create.
To help you with the process, we’ve put together a handy guide demonstrating how to cite a PowerPoint presentation in three commonly used citation styles: MLA, APA and Chicago.
Let’s start by looking for basic information you’ll need for the citation.
Information you may need to cite a PowerPoint Presentation:
- Author or authors of the presentation
- Presentation title
- Date of publication/presentation
- Place of publication/where the presentation was given
- URL (if used to locate the presentation)
Cite a PowerPoint Presentation in MLA format:
MLA format citation structure:
Author Last Name, First Name. Presentation Title. Month Year, URL. PowerPoint Presentation.
Example citation :
Park, Lisa. Effective Working Teams . Jan. 2011, https://www.company.meetings/teams. PowerPoint Presentation.
In-text citation structure:
Example in-text citation:
Cite a PowerPoint Presentation in APA format:
APA reference structure:
Author or Presenter Last Name, Middle Initial. First Initial. (Date of publication). Title of presentation [PowerPoint presentation]. Conference Name, Location. URL
Park, L. (2011, March 24-28). Effective working teams [PowerPoint presentation]. Regional Dairy Workers National Conference, New York, NY, United States. https://www.company.meetings/teams
Cite a PowerPoint Presentation in Chicago Style:
Chicago citation structure:
Author Last Name, First Name. “Presentation Title.” Lecture, Location of Lecture, Month Day, Year.
Park, Lisa. “Effective Working Teams.” Lecture, The Plaza Hotel, New York, NY, January 11, 2011.
Solution #1: how to cite a powerpoint that has multiple authors..
For a presentation with multiple authors, list the authors alphabetically by last name for the full reference citation. The citation will list each author by Last Name, First Initial.
If the PowerPoint has just two authors, separate them with a comma and an ampersand (&). If the PowerPoint has more than two authors, list the authors separated by commas.
Felner, D., & Nguy, A. (2021 April 10-12). The history of Claymation [Slideshow]. Animation Now, Los Angeles, CA, United States.
Felner, D., Nguy, A., Becham, G. (2021 April 10-12). The history of Claymation [Slideshow]. Animation Now, Los Angeles, CA, United States.
For an in-text citation for two authors, give both surnames separated by an ampersand (&) followed by a comma and the year of publication or presentation.
For an in-text citation for three or more authors, list the first author’s surname followed by “et al.” followed by a comma and the year of publication or presentation.
In-text citation examples:
(Felner & Nguy, 2021)
(Felner et al., 2021)
For a PowerPoint with two presenters or authors, include both names in the full works-cited citation. The names need to be written as follows: First presenter’s Last Name, First Name, and then the second presenter’s First Name and Last Name.
For an in-text citation, simply list the surnames of both presenters.
In-text citation example:
(Nguy and Felner)
Work-cited entry example:
Nguy, Anna and Dominic Felner. The History of Claymation. Apr. 2021. PowerPoint Presentation.
For a PowerPoint with three or more presenters, only list one presenter’s name followed by a comma and “et al.”
For an in-text citation for three or more authors or presenters , list the surname given in the full works-cited citation followed by “et al.”
(Nguy et al.)
Nguy, Anna et al. The History of Claymation. Apr. 2021. PowerPoint Presentation.
Solution #2 How to cite a slideshow that wasn’t made with PowerPoint
If making a full works-cited citation for a slideshow that was made with another program other than PowerPoint, include the medium in brackets instead of PowerPoint.
If the presentation is not in PowerPoint, and you can’t determine what software was used, include the word “slideshow” in brackets in place of PowerPoint.
Nguy, A. (2021 April 10-12). The history of Claymation [Prezi presentation]. Animation Now, Los Angeles, CA, United States.
Nguy, A. (2021 April 10-12). The history of Claymation [Slideshow]. Animation Now, Los Angeles, CA, United States.
The in-text citation will be formatted like any other APA in-text citation (author last name, year).
At the end of your full works-cited citation, include the program the slideshow was made with, formatted as: ______ Presentation.
If you are uncertain of the program used, end your citation with “slideshow” followed by a period. Nguy, Anna. The history of Claymation. Apr. 2021. Prezi Presentation. Nguy, Anna. The history of Claymation . Apr. 2021. Slideshow.
The in-text citation will be formatted like any other MLA in-text citation (author last name).
Hello all paper writers! Take a moment to try our spell checker , or refresh your knowledge on English basics with our EasyBib grammar guides ! Discover a determiner definition , learn what is an adverb , review an interjection list , and more.
Updated April 26, 2021.
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To cite PowerPoint presentation slides, include the author name, year/date of presentation, the title, the source description, the website and/or university name, and the URL where the source can be found.
If the PowerPoint presentation is not accessible to the reader, cite the slides as personal communication.
If you want to cite a PowerPoint in MLA or APA style, you need to have basic information including the name of the author(s), title of the presentation, date and place of publication, and URL. For in-text citations, you need to include only the author name(s) in MLA style and author name(s) and year in APA style.
APA in-text citations
(Author Surname, publication year)
MLA in-text citations
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Purdue Online Writing Lab Purdue OWL® College of Liberal Arts
In-Text Citations: The Basics
Welcome to the Purdue OWL
This page is brought to you by the OWL at Purdue University. When printing this page, you must include the entire legal notice.
Copyright ©1995-2018 by The Writing Lab & The OWL at Purdue and Purdue University. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, reproduced, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed without permission. Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our terms and conditions of fair use.
Note: This page reflects the latest version of the APA Publication Manual (i.e., APA 7), which released in October 2019. The equivalent resource for the older APA 6 style can be found here .
Reference citations in text are covered on pages 261-268 of the Publication Manual. What follows are some general guidelines for referring to the works of others in your essay.
Note: On pages 117-118, the Publication Manual suggests that authors of research papers should use the past tense or present perfect tense for signal phrases that occur in the literature review and procedure descriptions (for example, Jones (1998) found or Jones (1998) has found ...). Contexts other than traditionally-structured research writing may permit the simple present tense (for example, Jones (1998) finds ).
APA Citation Basics
When using APA format, follow the author-date method of in-text citation. This means that the author's last name and the year of publication for the source should appear in the text, like, for example, (Jones, 1998). One complete reference for each source should appear in the reference list at the end of the paper.
If you are referring to an idea from another work but NOT directly quoting the material, or making reference to an entire book, article or other work, you only have to make reference to the author and year of publication and not the page number in your in-text reference.
On the other hand, if you are directly quoting or borrowing from another work, you should include the page number at the end of the parenthetical citation. Use the abbreviation “p.” (for one page) or “pp.” (for multiple pages) before listing the page number(s). Use an en dash for page ranges. For example, you might write (Jones, 1998, p. 199) or (Jones, 1998, pp. 199–201). This information is reiterated below.
Regardless of how they are referenced, all sources that are cited in the text must appear in the reference list at the end of the paper.
In-text citation capitalization, quotes, and italics/underlining
- Always capitalize proper nouns, including author names and initials: D. Jones.
- If you refer to the title of a source within your paper, capitalize all words that are four letters long or greater within the title of a source: Permanence and Change . Exceptions apply to short words that are verbs, nouns, pronouns, adjectives, and adverbs: Writing New Media , There Is Nothing Left to Lose .
( Note: in your References list, only the first word of a title will be capitalized: Writing new media .)
- When capitalizing titles, capitalize both words in a hyphenated compound word: Natural-Born Cyborgs .
- Capitalize the first word after a dash or colon: "Defining Film Rhetoric: The Case of Hitchcock's Vertigo ."
- If the title of the work is italicized in your reference list, italicize it and use title case capitalization in the text: The Closing of the American Mind ; The Wizard of Oz ; Friends .
- If the title of the work is not italicized in your reference list, use double quotation marks and title case capitalization (even though the reference list uses sentence case): "Multimedia Narration: Constructing Possible Worlds;" "The One Where Chandler Can't Cry."
If you are directly quoting from a work, you will need to include the author, year of publication, and page number for the reference (preceded by "p." for a single page and “pp.” for a span of multiple pages, with the page numbers separated by an en dash).
You can introduce the quotation with a signal phrase that includes the author's last name followed by the date of publication in parentheses.
If you do not include the author’s name in the text of the sentence, place the author's last name, the year of publication, and the page number in parentheses after the quotation.
Place direct quotations that are 40 words or longer in a free-standing block of typewritten lines and omit quotation marks. Start the quotation on a new line, indented 1/2 inch from the left margin, i.e., in the same place you would begin a new paragraph. Type the entire quotation on the new margin, and indent the first line of any subsequent paragraph within the quotation 1/2 inch from the new margin. Maintain double-spacing throughout, but do not add an extra blank line before or after it. The parenthetical citation should come after the closing punctuation mark.
Because block quotation formatting is difficult for us to replicate in the OWL's content management system, we have simply provided a screenshot of a generic example below.
Formatting example for block quotations in APA 7 style.
Quotations from sources without pages
Direct quotations from sources that do not contain pages should not reference a page number. Instead, you may reference another logical identifying element: a paragraph, a chapter number, a section number, a table number, or something else. Older works (like religious texts) can also incorporate special location identifiers like verse numbers. In short: pick a substitute for page numbers that makes sense for your source.
Summary or paraphrase
If you are paraphrasing an idea from another work, you only have to make reference to the author and year of publication in your in-text reference and may omit the page numbers. APA guidelines, however, do encourage including a page range for a summary or paraphrase when it will help the reader find the information in a longer work.
Citing Sources in an Oral Presentation
Citing your sources just means telling where you got particular ideas or bits of information that did not originate in your own head. Sometimes this is called giving credit , attributing , or referencing .
When you cite sources in an oral presentation, there are 3 basic parts
- Orally cite sources of what you say
- Adapt a citation format to cite the sources of what is written on your visuals
- Have a full reference list handy for answering questions
What Makes Citing Orally Special
In an oral presentation, your audience can’t flip back and forth between in-text citations and a reference list, nor can they look for a footnote or an endnote: you need to tell them where the information, idea, or words come from as you say it . Since listening to a live presentation is a linear process (you can’t skim or jump around and hear it out of chronological order), it’s best to introduce the source before you present the information, so your audience members are ready to evaluate the information with the source (and your view of it) in mind when they hear the material from the source. The citation needs to be brief, because it’s hard to digest the citation while evaluating the information, both of which are given within a few seconds’ time.
- According to Joseph X, a professor of Yada Yada at Blah Blah University,…
- Farooq Y, author of the well-researched 2010 study, Early American Nutrition and Politics , argues that…
- Katherine Z, a journalist writing for the prestigious New York Times , offers this example….
- Give your audience just enough detail to help them understand who provided the idea or information and how credible the source is.
- If your source is original research (e.g. you conducted a survey, interview, experiment, or observation), just simply tell your audience what you did.
- You might choose give your audience a brief (a couple of sentences) overview of how you did your research, much like the “methodology” part of a scientific study or the “literature review” in a scholarly article in the social sciences and humanities. This can work well when you combine original research and published resources, when you work with different fields (e.g. both popular press articles and scholarly articles), or when you rely heavily on one or two sources that you present up front.
- Pause slightly after the introductory phrase, then read the quote expressively so that the quote sounds like a second voice. Pause slightly again after the quote to indicate switching back to your own voice. This is the best method, but not easy to master quickly. The two methods below, while not preferable, are also acceptable.
- Say “Quote” immediately before you start reading the quote, and then say “Endquote” immediately after the last words of the quote.
- If people can see you clearly, you can use “air quotes” by holding up one or both of your hands and moving your pointer and index fingers up and down, as if you were drawing quotation marks in the air.
Citing on Visuals
What Makes Citing on Visuals Special
In the same way that you cite the source of everything in your paper that did not originate in your own head, you must also cite the sources of the text and images that appear on your visuals. You need to cite-as-you-go on your visuals too, because your audience can’t page back and forth in your PowerPoint. Again, keep in mind how much information your audience can handle at once. Remember the public speaking maxim: your visuals should guide your audience’s attention and support what you’re saying, not distract from what you’re saying.
- Use a smaller font
- Use italics for the source (and then use underlining, not italics, for book titles)
- Use a different color
- Make the citation big enough so people can see it from anywhere in the room.
- Don’t make your slides too busy. It’s okay if you don’t have enough space for all the information you would put on a formally formatted reference list. If trimming your citation, leave in the most important information: e.g. the author’s name, the title of the book or article, the sponsor and title of a website, the title of any book or journal the work is in (in the case of an article), and the date.
- If your visual is a mashup, you still need to cite the sources of information, quotes, and images: in short, credit everything that someone else made that appears in your mashup. Use the same brief methods in the mashup that you use for other visual aids—sort of like the names and descriptions that flash on the screen when people are interviewed in a documentary or in a newscast. Make sure that you leave the citations showing long enough that someone can read them. If you add a source list and/or a set of credits at the end (don’t forget to credit the music!), make sure they scroll slowly enough that the average person can read them.
The Full and Formal Source List
Why Have a Formal Source List Available?
You might get questions that require you to refer to sources that you used in your full study, but did not use in the presentation. If you have a formal source list available, it can remind you of author names, titles, dates, and other specific information your audience might want. You might also need to repeat specific information about a source you mentioned orally or give information that was too much to put on the visual.
- Put your list in a conventional format such as MLA style, APA style, Chicago style. If your presentation is based on a paper you wrote, you can simply use the list at the end of the paper.
- Make your list easily available to you in hard copy so that you can retrieve it during the presentation or follow-up question period.
- Make sure you save an electronic copy of the reference list so that you can easily email it to an audience member if needed.
- Should you put this list as a slide at the end of the presentation? Only if you can fit it all on one slide that’s easily readable from all positions in the room. Using multiple slides often doesn’t work well because either you flip too quickly through them for them to be useful, or different audience members are interested in sources on different slides. While it might be good to have such a group of slides “just in case,” a better solution would be ready with a couple of hard copies you can hand out, if needed.
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How to Cite a PowerPoint Presentation
Last Updated: January 16, 2023 Fact Checked
This article was co-authored by wikiHow staff writer, Jennifer Mueller, JD . Jennifer Mueller is a wikiHow Content Creator. She specializes in reviewing, fact-checking, and evaluating wikiHow's content to ensure thoroughness and accuracy. Jennifer holds a JD from Indiana University Maurer School of Law in 2006. There are 9 references cited in this article, which can be found at the bottom of the page. This article has been fact-checked, ensuring the accuracy of any cited facts and confirming the authority of its sources. This article has been viewed 63,784 times. Learn more...
PowerPoint presentations often convey a lot of information in a brief format that's easy to understand. For this reason, they also make excellent sources for a research paper — especially if you're writing on a complex, cutting-edge topic. But how should you cite your source? The elements included in your citation are generally the same as those you would use for any other lecture or presentation. Your specific format will vary, though, depending on whether you're using the Modern Language Association (MLA), American Psychological Association (APA), or Chicago citation style.
- Example: Kalyanaraman, Ananth.
- Example: Kalyanaraman, Ananth. "CPT S 317: Automata and Formal Languages."
- Example: Kalyanaraman, Ananth. "CPT S 317: Automata and Formal Languages." 2017. School of EECS, Washington State University, Pullman.
- Example: Kalyanaraman, Ananth. "CPT S 317: Automata and Formal Languages." 2017. School of EECS, Washington State University, Pullman. Microsoft PowerPoint presentation.
- Example: Kalyanaraman, Ananth. "CPT S 317: Automata and Formal Languages." 2017. School of EECS, Washington State University, Pullman. Microsoft PowerPoint presentation. eecs.wsu.edu/~ananth/CptS317/Lectures/Course.pdf.
- For example, you might write: One of the objectives of the course is to introduce automata theory and the theory of computation (Kalyanaraman slide 3).
- The basic format for a personal communication in-text citation is as follows: (A. Lastname, personal communication, Month day, year).
- Example: Braun, M.
- Example: Braun, M. (2020).
- Example: Braun, M. (2020). Diseases of the nervous system [PowerPoint slides].
- Example: Braun, M. (2020). Diseases of the nervous system [PowerPoint slides]. http://medsci.indiana.edu/c602web/602/c602web/opt/braun/Diseases_NervousSystem.pdf
- For example, you might write: A subdural hemorrhage is a rotational injury that causes slow bleeding (Braun, 2020).
- If you use the presenter's name in the text of your paper, add a parenthetical immediately after the name with the year for the presentation. For example, you might write: Braun (2020) differentiates between different types of brain hemorrhages, which require different treatment.
- If you quote directly from the presentation, add the slide number after the year. For example, you might write: According to Braun (2020, slide 3), the "accumulation of junk" in the central nervous system can lead to problems.
- Example: Damodaran, Aswath.
- Example: Damodaran, Aswath. "Intrinsic Valuation."
- Example: Damodaran, Aswath. "Intrinsic Valuation." PowerPoint presentation, Equity Instruments, NYU Stern School of Business, New York, NY, January 2020.
- Example: Damodaran, Aswath. "Intrinsic Valuation." PowerPoint presentation, Equity Instruments, NYU Stern School of Business, New York, NY, January 2020. http://people.stern.nyu.edu/adamodar/pdfiles/eqnotes/valpacket1spr20.pdf.
- Example: Aswath Damodaran, "Intrinsic Valuation," (PowerPoint presentation, Equity Instruments, NYU Stern School of Business, New York, NY, January 2020), http://people.stern.nyu.edu/adamodar/pdfiles/eqnotes/valpacket1spr20.pdf.
- After the first footnote, use a shortened format for subsequent footnotes with the last name of the presenter and the title of the presentation. For example:
- If the slides come from a classroom website, company intranet, or learning management system (such as Canvas or Blackboard), use the URL only if you're writing for an audience that would have access to that system.  X Research source Thanks Helpful 0 Not Helpful 0
- This article covers how to cite a PowerPoint presentation using the MLA 8th edition (2016), the APA 7th edition (2019), and the Chicago Manual of Style 17th edition (2017). Consult your instructor or editor to make sure you're using the right edition for your citations. Thanks Helpful 0 Not Helpful 0
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- ↑ https://style.mla.org/citing_slides/
- ↑ https://research.moreheadstate.edu/c.php?g=610039&p=4234940
- ↑ https://libguides.capilanou.ca/mla/classnotes
- ↑ https://writeanswers.royalroads.ca/faq/199089
- ↑ https://guides.himmelfarb.gwu.edu/APA/lecture
- ↑ https://apastyle.apa.org/style-grammar-guidelines/references/examples/powerpoint-references
- ↑ https://libguides.up.edu/chicago/other#s-lg-box-wrapper-28673142
- ↑ https://library.ulethbridge.ca/chicagostyle/other/lecture
- ↑ https://libguides.up.edu/chicago/other
About This Article
To cite a PowerPoint presentation in MLA, use footnotes or endnotes to cite your sources. Then in the footnote, list the author’s last name followed by a comma then their first name. Then write the title of the lecture in quotes followed by the venue, the city it was held in, and the abbreviated date you accessed the work. You should put a period after each item. For instance, you might write, “Smith, John. ‘Sensitivity and Social Media.’ Today's Social Networks. Thomson Auditorium. Hamilton. Jan. 23, 2016. Keynote address.” To learn how to cite PowerPoint presentations in APA style, read on! Did this summary help you? Yes No
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- How to Cite a Journal Article | APA, MLA, & Chicago Examples
How to Cite a Journal Article | APA, MLA, & Chicago Examples
Published on March 9, 2021 by Jack Caulfield . Revised on August 23, 2022.
To cite an article from an academic journal, you need an in-text citation and a corresponding reference listing the name(s) of the author(s), the publication date, the article title and journal name, the volume and issue numbers, the page range, and the URL or DOI .
Different citation styles present this information differently. The main citation styles are APA , MLA , and Chicago style .
You can use the interactive example generator to explore the format for APA and MLA journal article citations.
Table of contents
Citing an article in apa style, citing an article in mla style, citing an article in chicago style, frequently asked questions about citations.
In an APA Style journal article reference , the article title is in plain text and sentence case, while the journal name appears in italics, in title case.
The in-text citation lists up to two authors; for three or more, use “ et al. ”
When citing a journal article in print or from a database, don’t include a URL. You can still include the DOI if available.
You can also cite a journal article using our free APA Citation Generator . Search by title or DOI to automatically generate a correct citation.
Generate accurate APA citations with Scribbr
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In an MLA Works Cited entry for a journal article , the article title appears in quotation marks, the name of the journal in italics—both in title case.
List up to two authors in both the in-text citation and the Works Cited entry. For three or more, use “et al.”
A DOI is always included when available; a URL appears if no DOI is available but the article was accessed online . If you accessed the article in print and no DOI is available, you can omit this part.
You can also use our free MLA Citation Generator to create your journal article citations.
Generate accurate MLA citations with Scribbr
In Chicago notes and bibliography style, you include a bibliography entry for each source, and cite them in the text using footnotes .
A bibliography entry for a journal article lists the title of the article in quotation marks and the journal name in italics—both in title case. List up to 10 authors in full; use “et al.” for 11 or more.
In the footnote, use “et al.” for four or more authors.
A DOI or URL (preferably a DOI) is included for articles consulted online; for articles consulted in print, omit this part.
Chicago also offers an alternative author-date style of citation. Examples of how to cite journal articles in this style can be found here .
The elements included in journal article citations across APA , MLA , and Chicago style are the name(s) of the author(s), the title of the article, the year of publication, the name of the journal, the volume and issue numbers, the page range of the article, and, when accessed online, the DOI or URL.
In MLA and Chicago style, you also include the specific month or season of publication alongside the year, when this information is available.
The DOI is usually clearly visible when you open a journal article on an academic database. It is often listed near the publication date, and includes “doi.org” or “DOI:”. If the database has a “cite this article” button, this should also produce a citation with the DOI included.
If you can’t find the DOI, you can search on Crossref using information like the author, the article title, and the journal name.
The abbreviation “ et al. ” (Latin for “and others”) is used to shorten citations of sources with multiple authors.
“Et al.” is used in APA in-text citations of sources with 3+ authors, e.g. (Smith et al., 2019). It is not used in APA reference entries .
Use “et al.” for 3+ authors in MLA in-text citations and Works Cited entries.
Use “et al.” for 4+ authors in a Chicago in-text citation , and for 10+ authors in a Chicago bibliography entry.
Check if your university or course guidelines specify which citation style to use. If the choice is left up to you, consider which style is most commonly used in your field.
- APA Style is the most popular citation style, widely used in the social and behavioral sciences.
- MLA style is the second most popular, used mainly in the humanities.
- Chicago notes and bibliography style is also popular in the humanities, especially history.
- Chicago author-date style tends to be used in the sciences.
Other more specialized styles exist for certain fields, such as Bluebook and OSCOLA for law.
The most important thing is to choose one style and use it consistently throughout your text.
Cite this Scribbr article
If you want to cite this source, you can copy and paste the citation or click the “Cite this Scribbr article” button to automatically add the citation to our free Citation Generator.
Caulfield, J. (2022, August 23). How to Cite a Journal Article | APA, MLA, & Chicago Examples. Scribbr. Retrieved November 21, 2023, from https://www.scribbr.com/citing-sources/cite-a-journal-article/
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How to Cite a Website in a PowerPoint Presentation Apa
Giving credit to sources used in a PowerPoint presentation is essential to provide proof of the information presented. It also gives credit to the original source and makes it easy for the audience to investigate and learn more. Proper citation of sources used in PowerPoint presentations is crucial, and APA citation style is one of the most commonly used citation styles. In this article, we will cover everything you need to know about how to cite a website in a PowerPoint presentation APA.
Table of Contents
Why citing sources is important in PowerPoint presentations
Citing sources in a PowerPoint presentation is critical because it helps to establish credibility and provides the audience with accurate and verifiable information. It also enables the audience to research further and ensures the original source of information receives proper credit. Additionally, failure to cite sources appropriately may lead to plagiarism, which can have serious consequences.
Another reason why citing sources is important in PowerPoint presentations is that it shows respect for the work of others. By acknowledging the sources of information used in the presentation, you are demonstrating that you have done your research and are not simply presenting someone else's work as your own. This can help to build trust with your audience and establish you as a knowledgeable and trustworthy presenter.
Furthermore, citing sources in a PowerPoint presentation can also help to avoid legal issues. Using someone else's work without permission or proper attribution can result in copyright infringement, which can lead to legal action. By citing sources appropriately, you can avoid these legal issues and ensure that you are using information in a responsible and ethical manner.
Understanding APA citation style
APA citation style is a set of rules developed by the American Psychological Association to standardize the citation of sources in academic writing, including PowerPoint presentations. It includes guidelines for formatting citations and references and covers various types of sources, such as books, journals, websites, and others.
One of the key features of APA citation style is the use of in-text citations, which are brief references to sources within the body of the text. These citations typically include the author's last name and the year of publication, and they help readers locate the full reference in the list of references at the end of the document. In addition to in-text citations, APA style also requires a reference list at the end of the document, which provides detailed information about each source cited in the text. By following these guidelines, writers can ensure that their sources are properly credited and their work is more easily understood and verified by others.
What information do you need to cite a website in APA format?
The following information is necessary when citing a website in APA format:
- Author's last name and first initial(s)
- Year the website was published or updated
- Title of the webpage
- Website name
- URL (Uniform Resource Locator)
It is important to note that if the website does not have a publication or update date, you should include the date you accessed the website. Additionally, if the website is an online version of a print publication, you should include the publication information for the print version as well.
Steps to follow when citing a website in a PowerPoint presentation Apa
Here are the steps to follow when citing a website in a PowerPoint presentation APA:
- Start with the author's last name and first initial(s).
- Follow the author's name with the year the website was published or updated in parenthesis.
- After the date, add the title of the webpage, followed by a period.
- Add the name of the website in italics, followed by a period.
- Finally, add the URL of the website.
It is important to note that when citing a website in a PowerPoint presentation, you should also include the date you accessed the website. This is because websites can be updated or removed, and including the date of access helps ensure that your audience can find the information you are citing. You can add the date of access at the end of the citation, after the URL, in the format of "Retrieved Month Day, Year, from [URL]".
Tips for formatting your citation correctly
To format your citation correctly, ensure that you do the following:
- Use proper capitalization in the title and name of the website.
- Italicize the name of the website.
- Use a hanging indent for the second and subsequent lines of your citation.
Additionally, it is important to include the date of access for online sources, as the content may change over time. This information should be included at the end of your citation, following the format of "Accessed [Month Day, Year]."
How to avoid plagiarism when creating a PowerPoint presentation
To avoid plagiarism in PowerPoint presentations, always cite your sources properly. Additionally, try to paraphrase information rather than copying it verbatim. Another crucial tip is to ensure you include all sources used in creating the presentation in your reference list.
It is also important to note that images and graphics used in your PowerPoint presentation should also be properly cited. If you are using an image or graphic that you did not create, make sure to give credit to the original source. This can be done by including a caption or citation directly on the image or in the notes section of the slide. By properly citing all sources, including images and graphics, you can ensure that your presentation is not only plagiarism-free but also ethically sound.
Examples of how to cite different types of websites in Apa format
Here are examples of how to cite different types of websites in APA format:
- Online Journal Article: Author, A.A. (Year). Title of paper. Title of Journal, volume number(issue number), page number(s). URL
- Website: Author, A.A. (Year). Title of webpage. Name of Website. Retrieved from URL
- Blog post: Author, A.A. (Year, Month Day). Title of post [Blog post]. Retrieved from URL
It is important to note that when citing websites in APA format, it is necessary to include the date of access. This is because websites can be updated or removed, and including the date of access ensures that the reader can locate the information you used. The date of access should be formatted as follows: (Accessed Month Day, Year).
Common mistakes to avoid when citing sources in PowerPoint presentations
Some of the common mistakes to avoid when citing sources in PowerPoint presentations include failing to cite your sources properly, failing to include all sources used in your reference list, and copying information from a source without proper attribution.
Another common mistake to avoid when citing sources in PowerPoint presentations is using too many direct quotes. While direct quotes can be useful in emphasizing a point, they should be used sparingly. Instead, try to paraphrase the information in your own words and cite the source appropriately. Additionally, it is important to ensure that the sources you are citing are credible and reliable. Avoid using sources that are biased or lack authority in the subject matter.
Best practices for citing sources in PowerPoint presentations
Here are some best practices for citing sources in PowerPoint presentations:
- Cite all sources used in creating your presentation.
- Ensure your citations and references are formatted correctly according to APA style guidelines.
- Make sure your reference list is complete and includes all sources used in creating your presentation.
- Paraphrase information rather than copying it verbatim.
- Ensure your citations are visible and easy to read in your presentation.
It is also important to consider the credibility of your sources when citing them in your PowerPoint presentation. Make sure to use reputable sources, such as peer-reviewed articles or books from established publishers. Additionally, consider the date of publication and relevance of the source to your presentation topic. Using outdated or irrelevant sources can weaken the credibility of your presentation.
Tools and resources for generating citations and references in Apa format
Several tools and resources are available to help generate citations and references in APA format. These include:
- Citation generators such as Citation Machine, EasyBib, and Cite This For Me.
- The Purdue Online Writing Lab (OWL).
- APA Style Central.
While citation generators can be a helpful tool, it is important to double-check the accuracy of the generated citations. Sometimes, the generator may not correctly identify the source type or may miss important information. It is always a good idea to consult the APA manual or the Purdue OWL for guidance.
In addition to these resources, many universities and libraries offer workshops or online tutorials on APA formatting. These can be a great way to learn more about the intricacies of APA style and ensure that your citations and references are accurate and complete.
Frequently asked questions about citing websites in Apa format for PowerPoint presentations
- Can I use footnotes to cite sources in PowerPoint presentations? It is not recommended to use footnotes in PowerPoint presentations as they can be distracting and take up valuable space on your slides.
- What if the website does not have an author listed? If the website does not have an author listed, use the organization's name as the author in your citation.
- How do I cite a webpage with no date listed? If the website does not have a date listed, use the abbreviation n.d. (no date) in your citation.
- Where do I include my citations on my PowerPoint slides? It is recommended to include your citations on your slides in the speaker notes section or at the bottom of the slide.
In conclusion, properly citing sources in a PowerPoint presentation is crucial to establish credibility and give credit where it's due. APA citation style is one of the most commonly used citation styles, and knowing how to cite a website in APA format is essential for any presentation. Follow the steps outlined in this article, and always use proper formatting to avoid plagiarism and ensure your presentation is of the highest quality.
Another important aspect to consider when citing websites in APA format for PowerPoint presentations is the use of in-text citations. In-text citations are used to give credit to sources within the body of your presentation. When citing a website in APA format, include the author's last name and the year of publication in parentheses at the end of the sentence where the information was used.
It is also important to note that when citing a website in APA format, you should include the full URL of the webpage in your citation. This allows your audience to easily access the source and verify the information you have presented. Additionally, be sure to double-check your citations for accuracy and consistency throughout your presentation.
How to Cite a PowerPoint Presentation in Apa
How to in Text Cite a PowerPoint Apa
How to Cite a PowerPoint in Apa
How to Cite Images in PowerPoint Apa
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How do I cite an image from a slide presentation on the web or from a lecture I attend?
Note: This post relates to content in the eighth edition of the MLA Handbook . For up-to-date guidance, see the ninth edition of the MLA Handbook .
Cite an image from a slide presentation on the web the same way you would cite an image on a web page. Indicate the slide and its number, either in the optional-element slot at the end of the entry or in a parenthetical citation in your text:
Benton, Thomas Hart. Instruments of Power . 1930–31. The Met , Metropolitan Museum of Art, www.metmuseum.org/blogs/now-at-the-met/from-the-director/2012/benton/slideshow. Slide 1. Thomas Hart Benton’s panel Instruments of Power is part a larger mural (slide 1).
Cite an image from a slide presentation that you viewed in person by providing the name of the presenter as the author if the author created the image in the slide. Then provide the title of the image as the title of the source. Provide the name of the presentation or the name of the class as the title of the container. Then provide the date and the location. Indicate the slide and its number in the optional-element slot at the end of the entry or in a parenthetical citation in your text:
Smith, Ryan. “Goals of the Course.” English 204: African American Literature, 4 Apr. 2016, Evergreen State College, Olympia. Slide 2. Smith indicates that one of the goals of the course is to “understand African American literature in all its variety” (slide 2).
If the presenter did not create the image in the slide, provide information about the original, if known:
Monet, Claude. Bridge over a Pond of Water Lilies . 1899. Introduction to the History of Art, taught by Jane Ford, 4 Apr. 2016, Bates College, Lewiston. Slide 2.
Cite a presentation or lecture in APA style
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Computer Science > Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition
Title: advgen: physical adversarial attack on face presentation attack detection systems.
Abstract: Evaluating the risk level of adversarial images is essential for safely deploying face authentication models in the real world. Popular approaches for physical-world attacks, such as print or replay attacks, suffer from some limitations, like including physical and geometrical artifacts. Recently, adversarial attacks have gained attraction, which try to digitally deceive the learning strategy of a recognition system using slight modifications to the captured image. While most previous research assumes that the adversarial image could be digitally fed into the authentication systems, this is not always the case for systems deployed in the real world. This paper demonstrates the vulnerability of face authentication systems to adversarial images in physical world scenarios. We propose AdvGen, an automated Generative Adversarial Network, to simulate print and replay attacks and generate adversarial images that can fool state-of-the-art PADs in a physical domain attack setting. Using this attack strategy, the attack success rate goes up to 82.01%. We test AdvGen extensively on four datasets and ten state-of-the-art PADs. We also demonstrate the effectiveness of our attack by conducting experiments in a realistic, physical environment.
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Minimally invasive management of sleeve gastrectomy collection with a nasobiliary drainage tube
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Tejminder S Sidhu, Shaurya Jhamb, Christine Welch, Scott Whiting, Minimally invasive management of sleeve gastrectomy collection with a nasobiliary drainage tube, Journal of Surgical Case Reports , Volume 2023, Issue 11, November 2023, rjad626, https://doi.org/10.1093/jscr/rjad626
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A staple line leak is a feared complication of sleeve gastrectomy. Endoscopic methods have superseded surgical management of small leaks, however large collections often require surgical intervention. Here, we describe endoscopic management of large collection adjacent to the staple line with an 8Fr nasobiliary tube.
Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy is one of the most common bariatric procedures in Australia. This procedure provides significant caloric restriction and ghrelin suppression while maintaining an acceptable side effect profile [ 1 , 2 ]. Complications of the procedure include haemorrhage, abscess formation, stricture, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, and nutritional deficiencies; however, the most dreaded complication is a staple line leak. Here we present a case of a large staple line collection successfully managed via an endoscopic approach with drainage via a nasobiliary tube placed within the staple line collection and subsequently closed with an over the scope clip.
A 31-year-old female, 6 weeks post laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy presented to the emergency department with epigastric pain and vomiting. Initial bloods showed raised inflammatory markers with a white cell count of 15.5 × 10 9 /L and C-reactive protein of 342 mg/L. Initial CT on presentation showed the presence of a 14 × 7 × 5 cm 3 gas and fluid filled collection adjacent to the staple line ( Fig. 1 ). The patient was resuscitated with adequate fluids and kept nil by mouth. Prompt broad spectrum antibiotics were commenced. An 8Fr firm nasobiliary tube was placed directly into the collection via the defect near the GOJ under endoscopic guidance and placed on suction. During the same endoscopic procedure, a feeding nasojejunal tube was placed to ensure adequate nutrition. Given the extent of the collection, sequential advancement of the nasobiliary tube over the course of 23 days was required to ensure adequate drainage. The collection was monitored with repeat CT scans until resolution ( Fig. 2 ). The GOJ defect was then endoscopically closed with an over the scope clip on Day 23 post presentation. The patient was discharged home post a repeat CT showing complete resolution of the collection and no oral contrast medium extending into the site of the previous collection.
Coronal CT image showing staple line collection at time of presentation. The image shows a 14 × 7 × 5 cm 3 collection adjacent to the sleeve gastrectomy staple line.
Coronal CT images on Days 2, 9 and 14 post insertion of nasobiliary drainage tube to sleeve gastrectomy staple line collection showing interval reduction in collection size.
Staple line leaks commonly occur at the proximal portion of the sleeve and are thought to be caused by increased luminal pressure at the angularis incisura and ischaemia caused by dissection and stapling [ 1 , 3 ]. Staple line leaks are commonly diagnosed on computed tomography (CT). Management of the leak is then commenced, with fluid resuscitation, IV antibiotics and either surgical, percutaneous, or endoscopic intervention. Previously surgical management via laparoscopic washout was the preferred method of management of these leaks, however, in recent times endoscopic management with stenting or clipping has been favoured [ 4 , 5 ]. Endoscopic management of staple line collections via a double pigtail drain is an established method of dealing with this complication, however, large collections still often require invasive surgical interventions [ 5 , 6 ].
This case highlights an endoscopic approach to manage large collections post sleeve gastrectomy. The extensive collection in this case was managed in a minimally invasive manner with placement of a nasobiliary drainage tube. Previously described endoscopic management options such as a double pigtail stent would not be able to adequately drain the collection in this case [ 5 , 6 ]. . This novel use of a firm nasobiliary tube when placed on wall suction with its associated length facilitated rapid resolution of this large collection allowing expedient closure of the defect with an over the scope clip.
Other important considerations in management of patients with leaks is nutrition. In this case, a nasojejunal feeding tube was placed to allow enteric feeding throughout. This allowed the patient to avoid total parental nutrition and associated complications [ 7 ].
The use of a nasobiliary tube in the fashion described above is not without issues as it requires the patient to remain in hospital connected to wall suction or a vacuum machine whilst tolerating two nasal tubes (one for drainage and one for feeding) in situ until resolution. Appropriate attention needs to be paid to pressure area cares and patient comfort.
Large sleeve gastrectomy collections can be managed with a nasobiliary drainage tube placed into the collection under endoscopic guidance avoiding the need for invasive surgical intervention.
Rachad AA , Basile M , El Masri H . Gastric leaks post sleeve gastrectomy: review of its prevention and management . World J Gastroenterol 2014 ; 20 : 13904 – 10 .
Mans E , Serra-Prat M , Palomera E , et al. Sleeve gastrectomy effects on hunger, satiation, and gastrointestinal hormones and motility responses after a liquid meal test . Am J Clin Nutr 2015 ; 102 : 540 – 7 .
Sakran N , Goitein D , Razniel A , et al. Gastric leaks after sleeve gastrectomy: a multicentre experience with 2834 patients . Surg Endosc 2012 ; 27 : 240 – 5 .
Keren D , Eyal O , Sroka G , et al. Over-the-scope clip (OTSC) system for sleeve gastrectomy leaks . Obes Surg 2015 ; 25 : 1358 – 63 .
Lazzarin G , Di Furia M , Romano L , et al. Endoscopic double-pigtail catheter (EDPC) internal drainage as first-line treatment of gastric leak: a case series during sleeve gastrectomy learning curve for morbid obesity . Minimal Invas Surg 2020 ; 2020 : 1 – 7 .
Bashah M , Khidir N , El-Matbouly M . Management of leak after sleeve gastrectomy: outcomes of 73 cases, treatment algorithm and predictors of resolution . Obes Surg 2019 ; 30 : 515 – 20 .
Wolfe BM , Ryder MA , Nishikawa RA , et al. Complications of parenteral nutrition . Am J Surg 1986 ; 152 : 93 – 9 .
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