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- APA Style 7th edition
How to Cite in APA Format (7th edition) | Guide & Generator
This citation guide outlines the most important citation guidelines from the 7th edition APA Publication Manual (2020). Scribbr also offers free guides for the older APA 6th edition , MLA Style , and Chicago Style .
Generate accurate APA citations with Scribbr
Table of contents, apa in-text citations, apa references, formatting the apa reference page, free lecture slides, frequently asked questions.
In-text citations are brief references in the running text that direct readers to the reference entry at the end of the paper. You include them every time you quote or paraphrase someone else’s ideas or words to avoid plagiarism .
An APA in-text citation consists of the author’s last name and the year of publication (also known as the author-date system). If you’re citing a specific part of a source, you should also include a locator such as a page number or timestamp. For example: (Smith, 2020, p. 170) .
Parenthetical vs. narrative citation
The in-text citation can take two forms: parenthetical and narrative. Both types are generated automatically when citing a source with Scribbr’s APA Citation Generator.
- Parenthetical citation: According to new research … (Smith, 2020) .
- Narrative citation: Smith (2020) notes that …
Multiple authors and corporate authors
The in-text citation changes slightly when a source has multiple authors or an organization as an author. Pay attention to punctuation and the use of the ampersand (&) symbol.
When the author, publication date or locator is unknown, take the steps outlined below.
Prevent plagiarism. Run a free check.
APA references generally include information about the author , publication date , title , and source . Depending on the type of source, you may have to include extra information that helps your reader locate the source.
Citing a source starts with choosing the correct reference format. Use Scribbr’s Citation Example Generator to learn more about the format for the most common source types. Pay close attention to punctuation, capitalization, and italicization.
Generate APA citations for free
It is not uncommon for certain information to be unknown or missing, especially with sources found online. In these cases, the reference is slightly adjusted.
On the first line of the page, write the section label “References” (in bold and centered). On the second line, start listing your references in alphabetical order .
Apply these formatting guidelines to the APA reference page:
- Double spacing (within and between references)
- Hanging indent of ½ inch
- Legible font (e.g. Times New Roman 12 or Arial 11)
- Page number in the top right header
Which sources to include
On the reference page, you only include sources that you have cited in the text (with an in-text citation ). You should not include references to personal communications that your reader can’t access (e.g. emails, phone conversations or private online material).
Are you a teacher or professor looking to introduce your students to APA Style? Download our free introductory lecture slides, available for Google Slides and Microsoft PowerPoint.
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Are your APA in-text citations flawless?
The AI-powered APA Citation Checker points out every error, tells you exactly what’s wrong, and explains how to fix it. Say goodbye to losing marks on your assignment!
When no individual author name is listed, but the source can clearly be attributed to a specific organization—e.g., a press release by a charity, a report by an agency, or a page from a company’s website—use the organization’s name as the author in the reference entry and APA in-text citations .
When no author at all can be determined—e.g. a collaboratively edited wiki or an online article published anonymously—use the title in place of the author. In the in-text citation, put the title in quotation marks if it appears in plain text in the reference list, and in italics if it appears in italics in the reference list. Shorten it if necessary.
When you quote or paraphrase a specific passage from a source, you need to indicate the location of the passage in your APA in-text citation . If there are no page numbers (e.g. when citing a website ) but the text is long, you can instead use section headings, paragraph numbers, or a combination of the two:
(Caulfield, 2019, Linking section, para. 1).
Section headings can be shortened if necessary. Kindle location numbers should not be used in ebook citations , as they are unreliable.
If you are referring to the source as a whole, it’s not necessary to include a page number or other marker.
The abbreviation “ et al. ” (meaning “and others”) is used to shorten APA in-text citations with three or more authors . Here’s how it works:
Only include the first author’s last name, followed by “et al.”, a comma and the year of publication, for example (Taylor et al., 2018).
APA Style usually does not require an access date. You never need to include one when citing journal articles , e-books , or other stable online sources.
However, if you are citing a website or online article that’s designed to change over time, it’s a good idea to include an access date. In this case, write it in the following format at the end of the reference: Retrieved October 19, 2020, from https://www.uva.nl/en/about-the-uva/about-the-university/about-the-university.html
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APA Style (7th ed.)
- Cite: Why? When?
- Book, eBook, Dissertation
- Article or Report
- Business Sources
- Artificial Intelligence (AI) Tools
- In-Text Citation
- Format Your Paper
Format Your Paper
Download and use the editable templates for student papers below: .
- APA 7th ed. Template Document This is an APA format template document in Google Docs. Click on the link -- it will ask for you to make a new copy of the document, which you can save in your own Google Drive with your preferred privacy settings.
- APA 7th ed. Template Document A Microsoft Word document formatted correctly according to APA 7th edition.
- APA 7th ed. Annotated Bibliography template A Microsoft Word document formatted correctly for an annotated bibliography.
Or, view the directions for specific sections below:
Order of sections (section 2.17).
- Title page including Title, Author, University and Department, Class, Instructor, and Date
- Body (including introduction, literature review or background, discussion, and conclusion)
- Appendices (including tables & figures)
Margins & Page Numbers (sections 2.22-2.24)
- 1 inch at top, bottom, and both sides
- Left aligned paragraphs and leave the right edge ragged (not "right justified")
- Indent first line of each paragraph 1/2 inch from left margin
- Use page numbers, including on the title page, 1/2 inch from top and flush with right margin
Text Format (section 2.19)
- Times New Roman, 12 point
- Calibri, 11 point
- Arial, 11 point
- Lucinda Sans Unicode, 10 point
- Georgia, 11 point
- Double-space and align text to the left
- Use active voice
- Don't overuse technical jargon
- No periods after a web address or DOI in the References list.
Tables and Figures In-Text (chapter 7)
- Label tables and figures numerically (ex. Table 1)
- Give each table column a heading and use separating lines only when necessary
- Design the table and figure so that it can be understood on its own, i.e. it does not require reference to the surrounding text to understand it
- Notes go below tables and figures
Title Page (section 2.3)
- Include the title, your name, the class name , and the college's name
- Title should be 12 words or less and summarize the paper's main idea
- No periods or abbreviations
- Do not italicize or underline
- No quotation marks, all capital letters, or bold
- Center horizontally in upper half of the page
Body (section 2.11)
- Align the text to the left with a 1/2-inch left indent on the first line
- As long as there is no Abstract, at the top of the first page, type the title of the paper, centered, in bold , and in Sentence Case Capitalization
- Usually, include sections like these: introduction, literature review or background, discussion, and conclusion -- but the specific organization will depend on the paper type
- Spell out long organization names and add the abbreviation in parenthesis, then just use the abbreviation
- Spell out numbers one through nine and use a number for 10 or more
- Use a number for units of measurement, in tables, to represent statistical or math functions, and dates or times
Headings (section 2.26-2.27)
- Level 1: Center, bold , Title Case
- Level 2: Align left, bold , Title Case
- Level 3: Alight left, bold italics , Title Case
- Level 4: Indented 1/2", bold , Title Case, end with a period. Follow with text.
- Level 5: Indented 1/2", bold italics , Title Case, end with a period. Follow with text.
Quotations (sections 8.26-8.33)
- Include short quotations (40 words or less) in-text with quotation marks
- For quotes more than 40 words, indent the entire quote a half inch from the left margin and double-space it with no quotation marks
- When quoting two or more paragraphs from an original source, indent the first line of each paragraph a half inch from the left margin
- Use ellipsis (...) when omitting sections from a quote and use four periods (....) if omitting the end section of a quote
References (section 2.12)
Begins on a new page following the text of your paper and includes complete citations for the resources you've used in your writing.
- References should be centered and bolded at the top of a new page
- Double-space and use hanging indents (where the first line is on the left margin and the following lines are indented a half inch from the left)
- List authors' last name first followed by the first and middle initials (ex. Skinner, B. F.)
- Alphabetize the list by the first author's last name of of each citation (see sections 9.44-9.49)
- Capitalize only the first word, the first after a colon or em dash, and proper nouns
- Don't capitalize the second word of a hyphenated compound
- No quotation marks around titles of articles
Appendices with Tables, Figures, & Illustrations (section 2.14, and chapter 7)
- Include appendices only to help the reader understand, evaluate, or replicate the study or argument
- Put each appendix on a separate page and align left
- For text, do not indent the first paragraph, but do indent the rest
- If you have only one appendix, label it "Appendix"
- If you have two or more appendices, label them "Appendix A", "Appendix B" and so forth as they appear in the body of your paper
- Label tables and figures numerically (ex. Table 1, or Table B1 and Table B2 if Appendix B has two tables) and describe them within the text of the appendix
- Notes go below tables and figures (see samples on p. 210-226)
Double-space the entire bibliography. give each entry a hanging indent. in the following annotation, indent the entire paragraph a half inch from the left margin and give the first line of each paragraph a half inch indent. see the template document at the top of this page..
- Check with your professor for the length of the annotation and which elements you should evaluate.
These elements are optional, if your professor or field requires them, but they are not required for student papers:
Abstract (section 2.9).
- Abstract gets its own page
- Center "Abstract" heading and do not indent the first line of the text
- Summarize the main points and purpose of the paper in 150-250 words maximum
- Define abbreviations and acronyms used in the paper
Running Head (section 2.8 )
- Shorten title to 50 characters or less (counting spaces and punctuation) for the running head
- In the top margin, the running head is aligned left, with the page number aligned on the right
- On every page, put (without the brackets): [SHORTENED TITLE OF YOUR PAPER IN ALL CAPS] [page number]
More questions? Check out the authoritative source: APA style blog
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- Last Updated: Oct 11, 2023 9:55 AM
- URL: https://libguides.uww.edu/apa
APA Basics: APA 7 STUDENT PAPER TEMPLATE & Formatting Guidelines
- APA 7 STUDENT PAPER TEMPLATE & Formatting Guidelines
- Database Search Strategies
- Finding Journal Articles
- Official APA Tutorial and APA FAQs
- In-Text Citations
- Cite a YouTube Video or Website
- How to Do an Annotated Bibliography
- 4 Steps to Creating Your Annotated Bibliography
- APA Format Checklist
- Downloadable APA Resources
Monroe College & APA Style
Monroe college uses apa 7 style guidelines for all student papers. , you can download our detailed apa 7 formatting tutorial here ., if your instructor's directions conflict with any apa rules, follow the instructor's directions., download the apa 7 student paper template.
- APA 7 Student Paper Template (.docx) Download this 7th-edition template, and use it to format your APA-style Research Paper. Simply download and save a new copy of the document and paste the contents of your paper into the appropriate fields within the template.
- APA 7 Paper Template WITH ABSTRACT This version of the template includes the ABSTRACT page. Ask your instructor whether the Abstract is required for your paper.
- APA 7 Student Paper Template PDF
APA Title Page
Please note: In 7th edition format, student papers do not include a running head unless requested by the instructor or institution.
About the Font
As noted in the apa style blog : in the 7th edition, a variety of fonts are permitted. , monroe college uses times new roman size 12 font by default. (this is 12pt times new roman without bold or underline).
Sample APA 7th Edition Title Page
Adapted from the APA Style Blog
See sample abstract below .
- Sample APA 7 Abstract - (Click to view in a new tab) This is the abstract used on the official APA 7 website. Note the format details highlighted above.
7th Edition APA Section Headings
Apa 7 section headings.
- Running heads are no longer required for student papers.
- written in title case
- Level 1 and 2 Section Headings APA 7
This is an excerpt. The full Annotated Sample Student Paper can be downloaded from the official APA Style Website here .
**note: in apa 7 th ed., the running head is no longer required for student papers.**.
Y our references should begin on a new page separate from the text of the essay.
Title this page References centered and bolded at the top of the page.
All text should be double-spaced just like the rest of your essay.
Citations are listed in alphabetical order. (Default is author's last name)
Whichever font you choose, the selected font should be used consistently throughout the entire paper. View sample citations for online media in various formats on the APA website.
- Sample APA 7 References Page Click the links in the green boxes for more info on each type of citation.
You can view basic 7th-edition guidelines and samples for each section of an APA Student Paper by clicking the links below:
Quick Sheet: APA 7 Citations
Quick help with apa 7 citations.
- Quick Sheet - Citing Journal Articles, Websites & Videos, and Creating In-Text Citations A quick guide to the most frequently-used types of APA 7 citations.
Click on the slides below, or, for full details, visit the in-text citations libguide ..
Click the PDF Icon Below to View/Download Presentation in a New Tab.
- Formatting In-text Citations, Full Citations, and Block Quotes In APA 7 Style
Purdue OWL 7th Edition Changes Guide
Great News! The Purdue OWL (Online Writing Lab) has created a handy guide to Changes in the 7th edition of the APA Style Manual
We've done our best to lay out the basic standards for the two different editions here, but you can go to the OWL for a more comprehensive breakdown of the new APA standards.
VIDEO: Citation Styles
Excelsior OWL APA Formatting Quiz
Test your apa 7th ed. formatting knowledge, take this quiz from the excelsior college online writing lab , official apa sample paper, view an example of a student paper from the official apa style website., a sample student paper in apa 7 format, with hints and tips for good formatting and style can be seen below. for more info, go to the apa website ..
- Sample Student Paper in APA Format
Downloadable Presentation: How to Format Your APA Paper
- APA Formatting Basics Presentation - (Click to open presentation in a new tab)
- Next: Database Search Strategies >>
- Last Updated: Oct 17, 2023 12:36 PM
- URL: https://monroecollege.libguides.com/apa
- Research Guides |
- Databases |
APA 7th Ed. Help: Professional Paper Formatting
- Create Citation
- Student Paper Formatting
- In-Text Citations
- References Page
- ChatGPT & other AI tools
- Avoiding Plagiarism
- Evaluating Sources This link opens in a new window
Professional Paper Formatting
About professional paper formatting.
Use the Professional Paper APA Format only if directed and required by your instructor . For most coursework, Gateway Technical College is following the formatting guidelines for the new Student Paper format found in the 7th edition. For more information on each section look for the corresponding page in this Guide.
The Gateway Libraries recommend that students consult their course syllabus and assignment details for any course specifics and additional faculty requirements.
If students are seeking publication, refer to the journal's instructions for submission guidelines and any additional requirements beyond APA.
Library home, about the library.
- Hours & Locations
- Library Staff Directory
- Mission and Vision
Find Books & Videos
- Library Catalogs
- OverDrive eBooks
- ProQuest eBook Central
- Database A-Z List
- Databases by Subject
- ZoteroBib (For APA & MLA)
Resources for faculty & staff, help & tutorials.
Use the Professional Paper APA Format only if directed and required by your instructor .
The basics for an APA formatted Professional Paper are:
- Margins: 1-inch margins on all sides
- Font: approved fonts include Calibri 11 pt, Arial 11 pt, Lucinda Sans Unicode 10 pt, Georgia 11 pt, and Times New Roman 12 pt.
- Spacing: double-spacing throughout
- Running head (an abbreviated version of the paper title) in all capital letters, placed in the header, flush left.
- Page Numbers: page numbers are placed in the header, flush right.
- In addition to the text of your paper include a title page, abstract page, and a references page.
- Title page: include the title (in bold ), followed by an extra line space and then your name and the name of your college affiliation, Gateway Technical College.
- Use only one space after a period in the body of the paper.
Professional Paper formatting details can be found in Chapter 2 of the APA Publication Manual 7th edition.
APA formatting from the American Psychological Association.
APA Style (7th Edition) paper formatting information from the Purdue University Online Writing Lab (OWL) often referred to as Purdue OWL.
Professional Paper Format: Summary Of Notable APA 7th ed. Changes
The number in parentheses indicates the corresponding chapter or section(s) in the APA Publication Manual.
- Professional papers still include a running head of 50 characters or fewer based on the paper title. The words "Running head" no longer appear before the running head title text . ( 2.1, 2.3 2.8 & 2.18)
- Recommended fonts now include Calibri 11 pt, Arial 11 pt, Lucinda Sans Unicode 10 pt, Georgia 11 pt, and Times New Roman 12 pt. ( 2.19)
- On the first page of text (body of the paper), the title of the paper appears at the top of the paper in bold and centered. (2.11)
- Use only one space after a period in the body of the paper. (6.1)
- All Headings and Subheadings are in bold . (2.27)
APA Professional Paper Template
- APA 7th Edition Professional Paper Template for MS Word Save this template to your desktop or flash drive and then adapt it for your paper. Margins, Calibri 11 pt font, spacing, header, title page, abstract page, and references page are preset to meet APA specifications for Professional Papers. If you are seeking publication, refer to the journal's instructions for submission guidelines and any additional requirements beyond APA.
Sample APA 7th ed. Professional Papers
- APA Style Professional Paper (7th ed.) Authoritative Sample Professional Paper from APA. Based on pages taken directly from the Publication Manual - 7th ed.
- APA 7 Professional Paper Sample (7th ed): from Purdue University Online Writing Lab (OWL) Provides both student and professional examples. Scroll down the page for the Professional Paper example as needed.
- APA Style: Sample Papers (7th ed.) Landing Page Authoritative sample papers from APA. Provides both student and professional examples.
- << Previous: Need Help?
- Last Updated: Oct 24, 2023 12:11 PM
- URL: https://libguides.gtc.edu/APA
APA 7: Sample Paper
- Paper Sections
- Quote & Paraphrase
- Format in Word
- In-Text Citations
- Reference List
- Sample Paper
Examples of the Different Paper Sections
- Title Page - APA 7 Example
- References Page
- Student Paper - Example in APA Format Includes title page, body, and references.
- Sample Annotated Student Paper in APA Style
- APA 7 Quick Reference Guide
Optional Paper Sections
- Headings - APA 7 Style Guide
- Accessible Use of Colors in APA 7
- Figures - APA 7 The basics of figure setup, including figure components, principles of figure construction, and placement of figures in a paper.
- Tables - APA 7 The basics of table setup, including table components, principles of table construction, and placement of tables in the paper.
- << Previous: Reference List
- Next: FAQs >>
APA Formatting and Style (7th ed.) for Student Papers
- What's New in the 7th ed.?
- Principles of Plagiarism: An Overview
- Basic Paper Formatting
- Basic Paper Elements
- Punctuation, Capitalization, Abbreviations, Apostrophes, Numbers, Plurals
- Tables and Figures
- Reference Page Format
- Periodicals (Journals, Magazines, Newspapers)
- Books and Reference Works
- Webpage on a Website
- Discussion Post
- Company Information & SWOT Analyses
- Dissertations or Theses
- ChatGPT and other AI Tools
- Online Images
- Online Video
- Computer Software and Mobile Apps
- Missing Information
- Two Authors
- Three or More Authors
- Group Authors
- Missing Author
- Chat GPT and other AI Tools
- Secondary Sources
- Block Quotations
- Fillable Template and Sample Paper
- Government Documents and Legal Materials
- APA Style 7th ed. Tutorials
- Additional APA 7th Resources
- Writing Center - Writing Skills This link opens in a new window
APA 7th ed. Fillable Word Template and Sample Paper
- APA 7th ed. Template Download this Word document, fill out the title page and get writing!
- Sample Paper APA 7th ed. Our APA sample paper shows you how to format the main parts of a basic research paper.
- APA 7th Sample Papers from Purdue Owl
- << Previous: Block Quotations
- Next: Government Documents and Legal Materials >>
- Last Updated: Nov 2, 2023 3:06 PM
- URL: https://national.libguides.com/apa_7th
APA Style 7th Edition: Citing Your Sources
Apa 7th edition, what is the purpose, quick links.
- In Text Quick View
- Block Quotes
- Books & eBooks
- Conference Presentations
- Social Media
- Legal References
- Reports and Gray Literature
- Academic Integrity and Plagiarism
- Additional Resources
- Reference Page
APA Publications in the Library
This guide pertains to the 7th edition of the APA Manual.
This guide is designed to support the citation and reference needs of USC students, staff, and faculty. The 7th edition of the manual does make distinctions between formatting certain components for academic use over publication. This guide will distinguish student/academic formatting where applicable.
This guide is designed as a "quick" reference to common APA citation, reference and formatting criteria. When in doubt, we encourage users to consult with the APA publication manual or APA website for further clarification as the authority on formatting.
Attribution for guide: Adapted from American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed). https://doi.org/10.1037/0000165-000
What is the purpose of citations?
Citations help readers locate your sources. They help to continue the scholarly conversation. To learn more about how citations can help you avoid plagiarism, view this interactive tutorial:
USC Library Lessons: Avoiding Plagiarism through Citations
When considering citations and references for your papers, you can ask yourself, "could someone find this information in the future?"
A client's personal file would not need a citation because your reader cannot go find that information again. Census statistics would require a citation because your reader could go locate that information again.
APA requires FOUR ELEMENTS of every citation:
- Who- Author of content
- When- Date content was published
- What- Title of content
- Where- Publication information. This can be the website you got it from or the journal or book's publication information.
If any of the elements listed above are unavailable, check out "Missing Reference Information" from APA for more information.
- APA Style Website As part of our Style and Grammar Guidelines, we explain the basics of paper format, grammar, punctuation, in-text citations, references, bias-free language, and more. Much of what you used to find on the sixth edition blog, you can now find on the APA Style website.
- Organizing Your Social Sciences Research Paper by Robert V. Labaree Last Updated Oct 10, 2023 1820780 views this year
- Owl Purdue 7th Edition Style Guide and Formatting Writing guide from Owl Purdue covering the 7th edition of the APA Manual
- Quick Reference Guide Quick guide on how to identify components to configure a reference for Journal article, book, and chapter from an edited book.
- Annotated Sample Student Paper Sample student paper with formatting annotations.
- Sample student paper
- Annotated Sample Professional Paper Sample professional paper with formatting annotations
- Sample professional paper
- USC Libraries APA Style Quick Guide
- Next: In Text Citations >>
- Last Updated: Nov 1, 2023 3:17 PM
- URL: https://libguides.usc.edu/APA7th
- MJC Library & Learning Center
- Research Guides
Format Your Paper & Cite Your Sources
- APA Style, 7th Edition
- Citing Sources
- MLA Style (8th/9th ed.)
Formatting your paper, headings organize your paper (2.27), video tutorials, reference list format (9.43).
- Elements of a Reference
Reference Examples (Chapter 10)
Dois and urls (9.34-9.36), in-text citations.
- In-Text Citations Format
- In-Text Citations for Specific Source Types
- Chicago Style
- Harvard Style
- Other Styles
- Annotated Bibliographies
- How to Create an Attribution
What is APA Style?
APA style was created by social and behavioral scientists to standardize scientific writing. APA style is most often used in:
- social sciences (sociology, business), and
If you're taking courses in any of these areas, be prepared to use APA style.
For in-depth guidance on using this citation style, refer to Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association , 7th ed. We have several copies available at the MJC Library at the call number BF 76.7 .P83 2020 .
APA Style, 7th ed.
In October 2019, the American Psychological Association made radical changes its style, especially with regard to the format and citation rules for students writing academic papers. Use this guide to learn how to format and cite your papers using APA Style, 7th edition.
You can start by viewing the video tutorial .
For help on all aspects of formatting your paper in APA Style, see The Essentials page on the APA Style website.
- sans serif fonts such as 11-point Calibri, 11-point Arial, or 10-point Lucida Sans Unicode, or
- serif fonts such as 12-point Times New Roman, 11-point Georgia, or normal (10-point) Computer Modern (the default font for LaTeX)
- There are exceptions for the title page , tables , figures , footnotes , and displayed equations .
- Margins : Use 1-in. margins on every side of the page.
- Align the text of an APA Style paper to the left margin . Leave the right margin uneven, or “ragged.”
- Do not use full justification for student papers.
- Do not insert hyphens (manual breaks) in words at the end of line. However, it is acceptable if your word-processing program automatically inserts breaks in long hyperlinks (such as in a DOI or URL in a reference list entry).
- Indent the first line of each paragraph of text 0.5 in . from the left margin. Use the tab key or the automatic paragraph-formatting function of your word-processing program to achieve the indentation (the default setting is likely already 0.5 in.). Do not use the space bar to create indentation.
- There are exceptions for the title page , section labels , abstract , block quotations , headings , tables and figures , reference list , and appendices .
Student papers generally include, at a minimum:
- Title Page (2.3)
- Text (2.11)
- References (2.12)
Student papers may include additional elements such as tables and figures depending on the assignment. So, please check with your teacher!
Student papers generally DO NOT include the following unless your teacher specifically requests it:
- Running head
- Author note
For complete information on the order of pages , see the APA Style website.
Number your pages consecutively starting with page 1. Each section begins on a new page. Put the pages in the following order:
- Page 1: Title page
- Page 2: Abstract (if your teacher requires an abstract)
- Page 3: Text
- References begin on a new page after the last page of text
- Footnotes begin on a new page after the references (if your teacher requires footnotes)
- Tables begin each on a new page after the footnotes (if your teacher requires tables)
- Figures begin on a new page after the tables (if your teacher requires figures)
- Appendices begin on a new page after the tables and/or figures (if your teacher requires appendices)
Sample Papers With Built-In Instructions
To see what your paper should look like, check out these sample papers with built-in instructions.
- Sample Student Paper
- Sample Professional Paper
APA Style uses five (5) levels of headings to help you organize your paper and allow your audience to identify its key points easily. Levels of headings establish the hierarchy of your sections just like you did in your paper outline.
APA tells us to use "only the number of headings necessary to differentiate distinct section in your paper." Therefore, the number of heading levels you create depends on the length and complexity of your paper.
See the chart below for instructions on formatting your headings:
Use Word to Format Your Paper:
Use Google Docs to Format Your Paper:
Placement: The reference list appears at the end of the paper, on its own page(s). If your research paper ends on page 8, your References begin on page 9.
Heading: Place the section label References in bold at the top of the page, centered.
Arrangement: Alphabetize entries by author's last name. If source has no named author, alphabetize by the title, ignoring A, An, or The. (9.44-9.48)
Spacing: Like the rest of the APA paper, the reference list is double-spaced throughout. Be sure NOT to add extra spaces between citations.
Indentation: To make citations easier to scan, add a hanging indent of 0.5 in. to any citation that runs more than one line. Use the paragraph-formatting function of your word processing program to create your hanging indent.
See Sample References Page (from APA Sample Student Paper):
Elements of Reference List Entries: (Chapter 9)
References generally have four elements, each of which has a corresponding question for you to answer:
- Author: Who is responsible for this work? (9.7-9.12)
- Date: When was this work published? (9.13-9.17)
- Title: What is this work called? (9.18-9.22)
- Source: Where can I retrieve this work? (9.23-9.37)
By using these four elements and answering these four questions, you should be able to create a citation for any type of source.
For complete information on all of these elements, checkout the APA Style website.
This infographic shows the first page of a journal article. The locations of the reference elements are highlighted with different colors and callouts, and the same colors are used in the reference list entry to show how the entry corresponds to the source.
To create your references, you'll simple look for these elements in your source and put them together in your reference list entry.
American Psychological Association. Example of where to find reference information for a journal article [Infographic]. APA Style Center. https://apastyle.apa.org/style-grammar-guidelines/references/basic-principles
Below you'll find two printable handouts showing APA citation examples. The first is an abbreviated list created by MJC Librarians. The second, which is more comprehensive, is from the APA Style website. Feel free to print these for your convenience or use the links to reference examples below:
- APA Citation Examples Created by MJC Librarians for you.
- Common References Examples (APA Handout) Printable handout from the American Psychological Association.
- APA Style Quick Reference Guide See how to format three typical types of references.
- Journal Article
- Magazine Article
- Newspaper Article
- Edited Book Chapter
- Webpage on a Website
Classroom or Intranet Sources
- Classroom Course Pack Materials
- How to cite ChatGPT
- Dictionary Entry
- Government Report
- Legal References (Laws & Cases)
- TED Talk References
- Religious Works
- Open Educational Resources (OER)
- Archival Documents and Collections
You can view the entire Reference Examples website below and view a helpful guide to finding useful APA style topics easily:
- APA Style: Reference Examples
- Navigating the not-so-hidden treasures of the APA Style website
- Missing Reference Information
Sometimes you won't be able to find all the elements required for your reference. In that case, see the instructions in Table 9.1 of the APA style manual in section 9.4 or the APA Style website below:
- Direct Quotation of Material Without Page Numbers
The DOI or URL is the final component of a reference list entry. Because so much scholarship is available and/or retrieved online, most reference list entries end with either a DOI or a URL.
- A DOI is a unique alphanumeric string that identifies content and provides a persistent link to its location on the internet. DOIs can be found in database records and the reference lists of published works.
- A URL specifies the location of digital information on the internet and can be found in the address bar of your internet browser. URLs in references should link directly to the cited work when possible.
When to Include DOIs and URLs:
- Include a DOI for all works that have a DOI, regardless of whether you used the online version or the print version.
- If an online work has both a DOI and a URL, include only the DOI.
- For works without DOIs from websites (not including academic research databases), provide a URL in the reference (as long as the URL will work for readers).
- For works without DOIs from most academic research databases, do not include a URL or database information in the reference because these works are widely available. The reference should be the same as the reference for a print version of the work.
- For works from databases that publish original, proprietary material available only in that database (such as the UpToDate database) or for works of limited circulation in databases (such as monographs in the ERIC database), include the name of the database or archive and the URL of the work. If the URL requires a login or is session-specific (meaning it will not resolve for readers), provide the URL of the database or archive home page or login page instead of the URL for the work. (See APA Section 9.30 for more information).
- If the URL is no longer working or no longer provides readers access to the content you intend to cite, try to find an archived version using the Internet Archive , then use the archived URL. If there is no archived URL, do not use that resource.
Format of DOIs and URLs:
Your DOI should look like this:
Follow these guidelines from the APA Style website.
APA Style uses the author–date citation system , in which a brief in-text citation points your reader to the full reference list entry at the end of your paper. The in-text citation appears within the body of the paper and briefly identifies the cited work by its author and date of publication. This method enables your reader to locate the corresponding entry in the alphabetical reference list at the end of your paper.
Each work you cite must appear in the reference list, and each work in the reference list must be cited in the text (or in a table, figure, footnote, or appendix) except for the following (See APA, 8.4):
- Personal communications (8.9)
- General mentions of entire websites, whole periodicals (8.22), and common software and apps (10.10) in the text do not require a citation or reference list entry.
- The source of an epigraph does not usually appear in the reference list (8.35)
- Quotations from your research participants do not need citations or reference list entries (8.36)
- References included in a statistical meta-analysis, which are marked with an asterisk in the reference list, may be cited in the text (or not) at the author’s discretion. This exception is relevant only to authors who are conducting a meta-analysis (9.52).
Formatting Your In-Text Citations
Parenthetical and Narrative Citations: ( See APA Section 8.11)
In APA style you use the author-date citation system for citing references within your paper. You incorporate these references using either a parenthetical or a narrative style.
- In parenthetical citations, the author name and publication date appear in parentheses, separated by a comma. (Jones, 2018)
- A parenthetical citation can appear within or at the end of a sentence.
- When the parenthetical citation is at the end of the sentence, put the period or other end punctuation after the closing parenthesis.
- If there is no author, use the first few words of the reference list entry, usually the "Title" of the source: ("Autism," 2008) See APA 8.14
- When quoting, always provide the author, year, and specific page citation or paragraph number for nonpaginated materials in the text (Santa Barbara, 2010, p. 243). See APA 8.13
- For most citations, the parenthetical reference is placed BEFORE the punctuation: Magnesium can be effective in treating PMS (Haggerty, 2012).
In narrative citations, the author name or title of your source appears within your text and the publication date appears in parentheses immediately after the author name.
- Santa Barbara (2010) noted a decline in the approval of disciplinary spanking of 26 percentage points from 1968 to 1994.
In-Text Citation Checklist
- In-Text Citation Checklist Use this useful checklist from the American Psychological Association to ensure that you've created your in-text citations correctly.
In-Text Citations for Specific Types of Sources
Quotations from Research Participants
Use NoodleTools to Cite Your Sources
NoodleTools can help you create your references and your in-text citations.
- NoodleTools Express No sign in required . When you need one or two quick citations in MLA, APA, or Chicago style, simply generate them in NoodleTools Express then copy and paste what you need into your document. Note: Citations are not saved and cannot be exported to a word processor using NoodleTools Express.
- NoodleTools (Login Full Database) This link opens in a new window Create and organize your research notes, share and collaborate on research projects, compose and error check citations, and complete your list of works cited in MLA, APA, or Chicago style using the full version of NoodleTools. You'll need to Create a Personal ID and password the first time you use NoodleTools.
See How to Use NoodleTools Express to Create a Citation in APA Format
Additional NoodleTools Help
- NoodleTools Help Desk Look up questions and answers on the NoodleTools Web site
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- Last Updated: Oct 25, 2023 3:54 PM
- URL: https://libguides.mjc.edu/citeyoursources
Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommerical International 4.0 License .
APA Style & Citation 7th edition
- What's new with the 7th edition
- Annotated Bibliography
- PowerPoint and APA
- Citations: References
- Citations: In-Text
- Library Databases
- Books and Ebooks
- Media (includes videos)
- Other types of sources
- Numbers, Capitalization, Italics
- Additional Resources
Chat with a Librarian
Contact the library.
The Library is open Monday, Tuesday, Thursday, & Friday from 10AM - 5PM and Wednesday from 1PM - 8PM.
If you need help from the librarian or need to access the library resources outside of those hours let us know!
Call or text 717-728-2500 or email [email protected] to make an appointment.
Remember the Learning Hub is also open with lots of great faculty and staff willing to help with tutoring, advising, and general questions.
Editable APA Template
- APA 7th edition student sample paper To use this as a template, open the document with Word and replace the text with your own, but keep the formatting.
General APA Rules
Rules for all apa papers:.
- Margins: 1"
- Recommended font: 12-point Times New Roman, or 11-point Calibri, Arial or Georgia; or 10-point Lucida sans Unicode or Computer Modern
- Make sure that there is no extra space after each paragraph (Microsoft Word defaults to including one. Fix this by: highlighting your entire paper, clicking the Paragraph Settings button [bottom-right corner of Paragraph section at top of the page/screen], then selecting "Don't add space between paragraphs of the same style" or making the Spacing After = 0.
Sections of an APA Paper
- Title Page - check with your instructor if they are requiring a title page
- Text of your paper
- Appendices - check with your instructor to see if they want you to include appendices
Major Sections of Your Paper
If a title page is required for your assignment, follow these steps:
- Place your cursor at the top of the first page Hit Enter on the keyboard 4 times
- Capitalize the first letter of all important words (but not words like a, the, of, etc.)
- Title may be up to 2 lines (Main Title on First Line: Subtitle on Second)
- Title should be no more than 12 words
- Title should contain no abbreviations (spell out United States of America instead of using U.S.A.)
- Title should contain no unnecessary words
- Title font should be bold, and centered on page
- Press ENTER twice, then type your full name (with middle initial if you want to include it)
- Press ENTER, then type Central Penn College
- Press ENTER, then type the course name and number this assignment is for
- Press ENTER, type the Instructor's name - check with them for their preferred form
- Press ENTER, type the due date in month, date, year format
First Page of Your Essay
1. Type the title of your paper as it appears on the title page - bold font, title case, and centered
2. On the first line of your paragraph, click the left align button to move your cursor back to the left margin
3. Begin writing your paper. Once you have a few lines done, highlight the lines you've written (do NOT include the title), then click the Paragraph Formatting button
4. Under Indentation: Special, choose First Line. The default indentation is 0.5", which is correct
Your References should begin at the top of a new page immediately after your essay has ended.
1. Type in bold font and center the title: References
2. Press enter, then select the left align button to move your cursor to the left margin
3. Write (or paste) all of your citations. Each citation should begin on a new line. Double line spacing, like the rest of your paper. Do not add any extra spaces between citations.
4. Highlight all of your citations, then click the Sort button in the Paragraph section of the menu. The defaults are correct to sort alphabetically. Click OK. [The sort option is not available in Word online, open your document in the desktop app or manually copy and paste your citations in alphabetical order.]
5. Highlight all of your citations, then select Paragraph options. Under Indentation: Special, select Hanging. The default setting is 0.5", which is correct. Click OK.
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How to Format a Research Paper in APA 7th Edition: The Complete Guide
Formatting a research paper in accordance with the American Psychological Association's (APA) style guidelines is a fundamental skill for academic and professional writers. The recently updated APA 7th edition has brought some changes and refinements to the formatting rules.
In this comprehensive guide, we will walk you through the step-by-step process of formatting a research paper in APA 7th edition, from the title page to the references section. By the end, you'll have the knowledge and skills to create a polished and professional research paper that adheres to APA guidelines.
Section 1: Title Page
The title page is the first impression of your research paper. It's important to get it right. Here's how to format it:
- 1.1 Title: The title should be concise and informative. Center it four or five lines down from the top of the page, bold it, and use title case (capitalize the first letter of words consisting of four or more letters, as well as all major words, i.e., nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs).
- 1.2 Author Information: Below the title, list the author(s) by their first name, middle initial, and last name. If there are multiple authors, separate them with a comma.
- 1.3 Institutional Affiliation: Right below the author information, include the name of your institution. This should be followed by the author note (if applicable) and the running head.
- 1.4 Running Head: In the header, align the title of your paper (in uppercase). This should be left-justified, with no more than 50 characters (including spaces).
- 1.5 Page Number: Insert the page number in the top right corner.
Section 2: Abstract
The abstract provides a concise summary of your research. Here's how to format it:
- 2.1 Heading: Center the word "Abstract" at the top of the page in bold.
- 2.2 Length: Your abstract should be between 150 and 250 words.
- 2.3 Content: Summarize the key points of your research, including the research question, methods, results, and conclusion.
- 2.4 Keywords: Below the abstract, list a few keywords relevant to your research.
Section 3: Body of the Paper
The main body of your research paper should be organized and structured correctly.
- 3.1 Headings: Use clear and consistent headings to divide your paper into sections and subsections. Use APA heading levels (Level 1, Level 2, etc.) to indicate hierarchy.
- 3.2 Font and Spacing: Use a 12-point readable font, such as Times New Roman or Calibri. Double-space the entire paper, including the abstract and references.
- 3.3 Margins: Use 1-inch margins on all sides.
- 3.4 In-Text Citations: When referencing other works within your paper, use parenthetical in-text citations. Include the author's last name and the year of publication.
- 3.5 Quotations: For direct quotations, use double quotation marks. Include the page number if quoting directly from a source.
Section 4: References
The references section lists all the sources you've cited in your paper.
- 4.1 Heading: Center the word "References" at the top of the page, in bold and plain text.
- 4.2 Alphabetical Order: List your references in alphabetical order by the author's last name. Use a hanging indent for each reference.
- 4.3 Author Names: Invert the first author's name (last name, first initial) and use an ampersand (&) before the last author's name in multiple-author references.
- 4.4 Title: Italicize book and journal titles. Use sentence case (only the first word and proper nouns capitalized) for book and article titles.
- 4.5 Online Sources: Include the DOI (Digital Object Identifier) for online articles when available. For webpages or websites, provide the URL.
- 4.6 Journal References: Include the volume, issue, and page numbers for journal articles.
- 4.7 Book References: Include the publisher's name for books.
Section 5: Appendices
If you have supplementary materials like tables, figures, or questionnaires, include them in the appendices. Make sure to label them appropriately.
How eContent Pro Can Help
Authors often find the task of formatting their manuscripts to meet the stringent requirements of APA 7th Edition guidelines to be a daunting challenge. That's where eContent Pro steps in as a valuable partner to alleviate these formatting woes.
Our experienced team understands the intricacies of APA 7th Edition formatting, and we are well-equipped to assist authors in meticulously aligning their manuscripts with these guidelines. Here's how we can help:
- Expertise in APA Guidelines: Our professionals are well-versed in the latest APA guidelines, ensuring that every aspect, from the title page to the references section, is formatted correctly.
- Ensuring Consistency: We maintain consistency throughout your manuscript by adhering to APA style requirements for headings, citations, in-text references, and more.
- Precision in Citations: Authors can trust our team to accurately format in-text citations and reference lists, minimizing the risk of errors.
- Efficiency: We save authors valuable time by expertly handling the formatting process in an average of 1 to 2 business days at no extra cost.
Contact us today to learn more about our editorial services and how we can help you achieve your goals. With our team of experts by your side, you can be confident that your manuscript will be polished to perfection and ready to stand out in the competitive publishing landscape.
Purdue Online Writing Lab Purdue OWL® College of Liberal Arts
APA Headings and Seriation
Welcome to the Purdue OWL
This page is brought to you by the OWL at Purdue University. When printing this page, you must include the entire legal notice.
Copyright ©1995-2018 by The Writing Lab & The OWL at Purdue and Purdue University. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, reproduced, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed without permission. Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our terms and conditions of fair use.
Note: This page reflects the latest version of the APA Publication Manual (i.e., APA 7), which released in October 2019. The equivalent resource for the older APA 6 style can be found here .
APA Style uses a unique headings system to separate and classify paper sections. Headings are used to help guide the reader through a document. The levels are organized by levels of subordination, and each section of the paper should start with the highest level of heading. There are 5 heading levels in APA. Regardless of the number of levels, always use the headings in order, beginning with level 1. The format of each level is illustrated below:
Thus, if the article has four sections, some of which have subsections and some of which don’t, use headings depending on the level of subordination. Section headings receive level one format. Subsections receive level two format. Subsections of subsections receive level three format. For example:
Method (Level 1)
Site of Study (Level 2)
Participant Population (Level 2)
Teachers (Level 3)
Students (Level 3)
Results (Level 1)
Spatial Ability (Level 2)
Test One (Level 3)
Teachers With Experience. (Level 4)
Teachers in Training. (Level 4)
Teaching Assistants . (Level 5)
Test Two (Level 3)
Kinesthetic Ability (Level 2)
In APA Style, the Introduction section never gets a heading and headings are not indicated by letters or numbers. For subsections in the beginning of a paper (introduction section), the first level of subsection will use Level 2 headings — the title of the paper counts as the Level 1 heading. Levels of headings will depend upon the length and organization of your paper. Regardless, always begin with level one headings and proceed to level two, etc.
Special headings called section labels are used for certain sections of a paper which always start on a new page.
- Paper title
- Appendix A (and so on for subsequent appendices)
These labels should be positioned on their own line at the top of the page where the section starts, in bold and centered.
APA also allows for seriation in the body text to help authors organize and present key ideas. For lists where a specific order or numbered procedure is necessary, use an Arabic numeral directly followed by a period, such as:
On the basis of four generations of usability testing on the Purdue OWL, the Purdue OWL Usability Team recommended the following:
- Move the navigation bar from the right to the left side of the OWL pages.
- Integrate branded graphics (the Writing Lab and OWL logos) into the text on the OWL homepage.
- Add a search box to every page of the OWL.
- Develop an OWL site map.
- Develop a three-tiered navigation system.
Numbered lists should contain full sentences or paragraphs rather than phrases. The first word after each number should be capitalized, as well as the first word in any following sentence; each sentence should end with a period or other punctuation.
For lists that do not communicate hierarchical order or chronology, use bullets:
In general, participants found the user-centered OWL mock up to be easier to use. What follows are samples of participants' responses:
- "This version is easier to use."
- "Version two seems better organized."
- "It took me a few minutes to learn how to use this version, but after that, I felt more comfortable with it."
Authors may also use seriation for paragraph length text.
For seriation within sentences, authors may use letters:
On the basis of research conducted by the usability team, OWL staff have completed (a) the OWL site map; (b) integrating graphics with text on the OWL homepage; (c) search boxes on all OWL pages except the orange OWL resources (that is pending; we do have a search page); (d) moving the navigation bar to the left side of pages on all OWL resources except in the orange area (that is pending); (e) piloting the first phase of the three-tiered navigation system, as illustrated in the new Engagement section.
Authors may also separate points with bullet lists:
On the basis of the research conducted by the usability team, OWL staff have completed
- the OWL site map;
- integrating graphics with text on the OWL homepage;
- search boxes on all OWL pages except the orange OWL resources (that is pending; we do have a search page);
- moving the navigation bar to the left side of pages on all OWL resources except in the orange area (that is pending);
- piloting the first phase of the three-tiered navigation system, as illustrated in the new Engagement section.
If your bulleted list is part of the sentence and is not preceded by a colon, treat the bullets like a part of the sentence, adhering to standard capitalization and punctuation. This option is helpful for complex or longer bulleted sentences that may be more difficult to read without the aid of punctuation. For items in a bulleted list that are phrases rather than sentences, no punctuation is necessary.
Home / Guides / Citation Guides / APA Format / Formatting an APA title page
Formatting an APA title page
The title page is a requirement for all APA papers. The primary role of the title page is to present just that: the title. But that’s only the beginning of what is actually required for a properly formatted APA title page. This is the first chance a writer has to truly engage with the reader.
For students, the title page also lets people know which class, professor, and institution the text was written for. For professional authors, the title page is an opportunity to share any affiliations or conflicts of interest that might be present.
APA Style recognizes two different ways to format a title page. One is for student papers and the other is for professional papers. This guide will examine the difference and provide real-life examples of both.
The information provided below comes from the 7 th edition of the APA’s Publication Manual . You can read more about title page elements in Sections 2.1 – 2.8.
Here’s a run-through of everything this page includes:
The difference between a professional title page and a student title page in APA
Elements of an apa style title page, apa formatting title page example, conclusion: formatting a title page in apa 7.
Both student and professional title pages require a title, author, and an affiliation. Both types of title page also require the same basic formatting, including 1-inch indentations on all sides and a page number in the top right corner.
The primary difference is that professional title pages also require an author note and a running head. However, some professors do ask that you provide some of these elements in student papers. It’s a good idea to know how to format them just in case.
Student title page APA
An APA title page for any paper being submitted for a class, degree, or thesis is all about the basics. Here are the elements that should be included in a student title page :
- Title of your paper
- Byline (author or authors)
- Affiliation (department and university)
- Course name and course number
- Instructor name
Your professor or institution might have their own formatting requirements. When writing a paper for a class, the first rule is to always pay attention to the instructions.
Professional title page APA
A professional title page skips the class info and due date, but it includes:
- Affiliation (division and/or organization)
- Author note
- Running head
The author note and running head are generally only required for professional papers. However, some professors might ask that you include one or both of them. Be sure to check the assignment instructions before submitting.
The title of your paper is really important. This is where the author needs to simultaneously inform and engage the reader without being overly wordy.
An effective title will:
- Engage the reader
- Concisely explain the main topic of research
- Concisely explain any relevant variables or theoretical issues
The paper title should be placed three or four lines down from the top margin of the page. It should be presented in bold, title case, and centered on the page.
The correct way to display the author’s name is first name, middle initial, and last name. The most important thing is to prevent the possibility of mistaken identity. After all, there are a lot of papers published every year, and it’s possible that someone else has the same name as you do.
For all author bylines in APA, all licenses and degrees are omitted (e.g., Dr., Professor, PhD, RN, etc.).
If your paper has multiple authors, then they should all be listed in the same way, in order of their contributions. All authors should be on the same line, unless more lines are required.
Here’s an example of a properly formatted byline for a paper with two authors:
Cassandra M. Berkman and Wilhelm K. Jackson
The affiliation element is where you identify the place where the work was conducted or who it was conducted for. This is almost always a university or institution. In some cases, there are multiple affiliations for one author, or multiple authors with different affiliations.
Academic affiliations include schools, universities, and teaching hospitals. The affiliation line should include the specific department followed by the name of the institution. There is no need to include a location for academic affiliations.
Here is an example of what a basic academic affiliation line should look like:
Department of Psychology, Colorado State University
Non-academic affiliations are anything that isn’t a school or university, which could be a hospital, laboratory, or just about any type of organization. The affiliation line for a non-academic organization should include the department or division, followed by the name and location of the organization. All elements should be separated by commas.
Here’s how it looks when put to use:
Vidant Health, Greenville, NC, United States
Course number and name (Student only)
Use the course number and course name as they appear on official university materials. Examples:
- ENG 204: Modern English Literature
- PSYC 2301: Research Methodology
Instructor name (Student papers only)
It’s important that you display your instructor’s name in their preferred way. With academics who have multiple degrees and positions, this isn’t something that you should guess at.
It is generally safe to use the course syllabus to see how they prefer to be listed. For example, some use the word “Professor” as their prefix, and many will have PhD, RN, or other type of professional designation.
Due date (Student papers only)
The due date should be presented in the day, month, and year format that is standard to your country.
The page number goes at the top right-hand side of the paper. This is one of the only elements that appears on every single page.
You can add running page numbers to your paper by double-clicking the header portion of the document or clicking the “Insert” tab. It will automatically insert page numbers into the rest of the document.
Author note (Professional papers only)
The author note is usually only required for professional papers. This is where additional data, disclaimers, conflicts of interest, and statements about funding are placed. In some cases, the author statement can be several pages long.
The author note is generally split into four paragraphs, including:
- ORCID iD (a scientific/academic author ID)
- Changes of Affiliation
- Disclosures and Acknowledgments
- Contact Information
Section 2.7 of the Publication Manual has even more information on how to structure these elements for a professional paper.
Running Head (Professional papers only)
While some student papers might require a running head, this is something that is typically only for papers being submitted for publication. This is an abbreviated version of your title that appears at the top of every page to help readers identify it. The running title is particularly useful especially in print versions of journals and publications.
The running head does not have to use the same words as they appear in your title. Instead, try to re-work your paper’s main idea into a shortened form.
For example, if your paper’s title is:
“A Mystery of Style: Exploring the Formatting Mechanics of the Running Head According to APA Style 7th Edition”
Then your abbreviated title can be something like:
“RUNNING HEAD IN APA 7”
“FORMATTING THE RUNNING HEAD”
The idea is to convey only the most important aspects of your title. The running head should be entered in the page header, flush left against the margin, and presented in all-capital letters.
The APA suggests a maximum length of 50 characters (including spaces and punctuation) for a running head. If your title is already 50 characters and under, then you can use the whole thing as the running head.
Next, let’s have a look at an example of what a real APA title page looks like when it’s all put together.
Student title page formatting example
Professional title page formatting example
All papers written according to APA Style should have a properly formatted title page. Making sure that the title page elements are accurate and informative will help people access your work. It is also the first opportunity that you have as the author to establish credibility and engage the reader.
For more information on the basic elements of an APA paper, check out Chapter 2 of the Publication Manual or our guide on APA format .
Published October 28, 2020.
APA Formatting Guide
- Annotated Bibliography
- Block Quotes
- et al Usage
- In-text Citations
- Multiple Authors
- Page Numbers
- Parenthetical Citations
- Reference Page
- Sample Paper
- APA 7 Updates
- View APA Guide
- Book Chapter
- Journal Article
- Magazine Article
- Newspaper Article
- Website (no author)
- View all APA Examples
An APA title page provides the details of the paper, such as the title of the paper, author name, and author affiliation. APA title pages have two formats—one for professional papers and one for student papers.
The elements to be added on the title page of a professional paper (in order of appearance) are:
- Page number and running head: These elements appear in the header section. The page number appears at the top-right corner, whereas the running head appears at the top-left corner. If the title is too long, the running head is shortened to less than 50 characters.
- Title of the paper: It provides information about the paper. It is aligned center and set in bold.
- Names of the authors: It gives the names of the contributors to the paper and is aligned center.
- Affiliations of the authors: It gives the department and university details of the authors.
- Author note: It gives extra information about the authors.
In a student paper, the following details are included on the title page:
- Page number: This appears in the top-right corner of the header section.
- Title of the paper: It gives the reader an idea of the information in the paper. It appears in title case and bold. It is center-aligned.
- Names of the authors: The names of the contributors are added here. This field is also called the by-line.
- Affiliations of the authors: It includes the names of the authors’ departments and universities.
- Name of the course: The name of the course for which the paper is written is included in this field.
- Name of the instructor: Unlike the professional paper, the instructor’s name is included in a student paper.
- Due date of the assignment: The due date of the assignment is added here. The format is “Month Day, Year” (e.g., August 22, 2017).
The title page information for APA is different for a professional paper and a student paper. As a student, you need to include the following details in the same order on the title page of your student paper.
- Page number: This appears in the header section. Set the page number in the top-right corner of the header.
- Title of the paper: Set it in title case and bold. Align it to the center.
- Names of the authors: Provide the names of the contributors. This field is also called the by-line.
- Affiliations of the authors: Include your department and university name.
- Name of the course: Provide the name of the course and course number for which the paper is written.
- Name of the instructor: Add the instructor’s name. There is no rigid rule on how to set the instructor’s name. You can set it according to the instructor’s preference.
- Due date of the assignment: Add the due date of the assignment. The format should be “Month Day, Year” (e.g., August 23, 2021).
APA Citation Examples
Other Citation Styles
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APA 7th edition manual
Apa 7 citation examples, missing elements - apa 7, apa 7 paper formatting basics, apa 7 document templates, more apa 7th ed. resources, 1-credit apa 7th ed. class available.
- MLA (9th ed.) resources
- Job and career resources
This guide will introduce you to APA 7 citations, both for the References page of your paper and in-text citations. It is offered in multiple file formats below.
- Citation Examples - APA 7 - Word Document
- Citation Examples - APA 7 - PDF
This guide will tell you exactly what to do if your resource is missing a citation element. Can't find the author, publication date, page numbers, or something else? Use this guide to find out what to do! This guide is offered in multiple formats below.
- Missing Elements - APA 7 - Word Document
- Missing Elements - APA 7 - PDF
- Typed, double-spaced paragraphs.
- 1" margins on all sides.
- Align text to the left.
- Choose one of these fonts: 11-point Calibri, 11-points Arial, 10-point Lucida Sans Unicode, 12-point Times New Roman, 11-point Georgia, 10-point Computer Modern.
- Include a page header (also known as the "running head") at the top of every page with the page number.
- APA papers are broken up into sections. Check with your instructor for his/her expectations.
- In general, headings and title are centered.
APA 7th edition recognizes two kinds of paper formats - student papers (undergraduate students) and professional research papers (graduate students and professionals). At Clackamas CC, you will use the student paper formatting conventions.
You don't have to format a paper from scratch! Download this APA-formatted document template as a Word document or Google document. Save it, erase the existing text, and type your text right into the template. Learn how to format a paper in APA format by reading the contents of the template. The References page has been formatted with hanging indents.
- Download & edit: APA Word document template Microsoft Word document template to save a copy of and type into. To edit it, save a copy to your desktop or Clackamas Office 365 account. Includes tips on how to format a paper in APA. Last updated Feb. 2020.
- Download & edit: Pages document template If you need this template in Pages, email [email protected]
- View Only: Sample APA student paper (7th ed.) This sample student paper includes descriptions of indentations, margins, headers, and other formatting conventions (APA, 2020).
- APA Style (APA.org) APA's site answers all the basic questions about APA 7th edition and gives sample "student" and "professional" papers. This will help you with document format, in-text citations, the References list, and various stylistics.
The English department offers an APA 7th ed. style course. It’s a one-credit online course. The course was developed for nursing students, but is also appropriate for students in other disciplines who need to develop APA formatting and style skills.
Introduces American Psychological Association (APA) style and documentation, including document format, in-text citation, and References page. Includes style and documentation for narrative and academic papers. Students will work with provided sources. Recommended for pre-nursing and nursing students, allied health students, and STEM and social science students. Prerequisites: WR-121 with a C or better.
- Intro. to APA Style and Documentation
- Instructor: Susan Pesznecker
- [email protected]
- 100% online
- Offered Fall / Winter
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- Last Updated: Nov 3, 2023 3:17 PM
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