Essay on Tsunami for Students and Children
500+ Words Essay on Tsunami
Tsunami is a phenomenon where a series of strong waves that are responsible for the surge in water sometimes reach the heights in many meters. This is a natural disaster that is caused due to the volcano eruption in the ocean beds. Also, a phenomenon like landslides and earthquakes contributes to reasons for a tsunami. Like other natural disasters, the impact of the tsunami is also huge. It has been seen throughout history how disastrous the tsunami is. The essay on tsunami talks about various factors that contribute to the tsunami and the damage it causes to mankind.
Essay on Tsunami
The disaster that is caused due to waves generated in the ocean because of the earthquake and whose main point is under the water is known as ‘Tsunami’. Also, the term tsunami is associated with tidal waves. Thus, a tsunami is also called as the series of ocean waves that have a very long wavelength. Because of the tsunami, there are strong waves of water is formed and this moves landwards. So, this causes inland movement of water which is very high and lasts for a long time. Thus, the impact of these waves is also very high.
Greeks were the first people on Earth to claim the effects of the tsunami. They claim that tsunami is just like land earthquakes. Also, the only difference between tsunami and earthquake is that tsunami is caused in oceans. Thus, the scale and ferocity of the tsunami are almost impossible to control.
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The History of Tsunami
The highest ever recorded tsunami was on 9th July 1958 in the record books. It took place in a bay which was located in the ligula bay along the coasts of Alaska. After the quake, a massive mass of rock fell into the bay waters from the cliff nearby. Thus, this created an impact and produced a wave that reached a height of 524 meters. Also, this is regarded as one of the highest recorded tsunami waves ever.
The destructive waves responsible for the occurrence of tsunami is also produced in waters of bays or lakes. As this water approached the coast, it grows larger. However, the size of this wave is very low in deep-sea areas. Tsunami waves that are generated in the lakes or bays do not travel for a long distance. Thus, they are not as destructive as the ones produced in the ocean waters. There are various directions in which tsunami can travel from the main point.
One similar devastating tsunami was experienced in India in 2004. However, the origin of this tsunami was located near Indonesia. Because of the tsunami, it was expected that a total of 2 lakh people lost their lives. The waves traveled extensively thousands of kilometers in countries like Thailand, India, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, and the Maldives.
Tsunamis occur mainly in the Pacific Ocean. There are very chances that they take place in the area where there are larger bodies. Coastlines and open bays next to very deep waters may help tsunami further into a step-like wave.
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The Indian Ocean Tsunami of 2004 and Its Consequences Essay
Among various natural disasters, tsunamis deserve particular attention for the combination of their destructive character and opportunities to prevent human losses. An event that entirely transformed standard scientific approaches to this phenomenon was the Indian Ocean tsunami in 2004. According to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (2014), it all started with a 9.1 magnitude earthquake near Sumatra, Indonesia. Although not resulting in significant destruction, it ruptured “a 900-mile stretch along with the Indian and Australian plates,” forcing massive ocean floor segments over thirty meters upward (Roos, 2020, para. 9). Combined with the ten-minute duration, such a quake caused a tremendous tsunami rushing across the Indian Ocean. It affected the entire region, with the heaviest losses in nearby Indonesia and several deaths occurring even in South Africa, five thousand miles from the epicenter (Roos, 2020). Therefore, this tsunami became a global disaster affecting millions of people and requiring a thorough review and identification of future preventive and mitigation measures.
The statistical data published by international researchers demonstrate the tremendous effects of this natural disaster. With 227,898 people dead or missing, it caused the highest number of tsunami victims throughout recorded history (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 2014). The worst effects of the great wave were observed in Indonesia, where the death toll exceeded 160,000 people, and the overall damages almost reached $4.5 billion (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 2014). The remaining fatalities were found all along the Indian Ocean coast, with the largest numbers in Sri Lanka and India. The total material losses were estimated to reach $10 billion (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 2014). Entire communities were wiped off the map, thousands of houses and large infrastructural objects were destroyed. Moreover, ruined coastal facilities resulted in a significant impact on tourism, which constituted the primary income source for many states. Thus, this tsunami became the deadliest and most destructive natural disaster in the region for years.
The latest strategies aimed at mitigating tsunamis are vast; however, their implementation is complex and does not always guarantee the complete prevention of the disaster’s impact. The first strategy is concerned with the vertical evacuation of the population to the excising natural high ground or tsunami-resistant structures or special-purpose structures. The second strategy is the construction of structures that are higher than the expected height of tsunami inundation (Goltz & Yamori, 2020). The third strategy is concerned with excellent preparedness of the cities in communities, such as the adoption of building codes to address tsunamis, the moving of essential community assets and vulnerable individuals out of tsunami hazard zones, as well as planning for post-tsunami recovery. It is suggested to implement a global educational program, allowing people to identify the early signs of an incoming disaster, which be viewed as a measure to prevent human losses.
Nevertheless, despite all technological advancements, the generation and distribution of warnings still take time, and nearby areas can be affected in minutes. Therefore, straightforward advice to anyone in the coastal zone, feeling the ground shaking or seeing the water inexplicably receding, would be to rush to an elevated place and stay there until the wave passes. Because not all current prevention and mitigation efforts are fully effective, further research and development efforts are needed to address the challenge of the adverse impact of tsunamis on the global population.
Goltz, J., & Yamori, K. (2020). Tsunami preparedness and mitigation strategies. Natural Hazard Science. Web.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. (2014). December 26, 2004, Sumatra, Indonesia earthquake and tsunami – Tenth anniversary update. Web.
Roos, D. (2020). The 2004 tsunami wiped away towns with ‘mind-boggling’ destruction. History . Web.
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Essay on the tsunami of 26th december 2004.
Essay on the Tsunami of 26th December 2004!
On 26th December 2004, the Indian Ocean was hit by tsunamis which are considered to be the most catastrophic in the living memory of the inhabitants of the coastal areas of this ocean. It was caused by a severe earthquake which measured 8.9 on the Richter scale.
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Seismologists at Northwestern University in Illinois later upgraded the earthquake to magnitude 9.3 on Richter scale. This is perhaps the highest magnitude for any earthquake ever recorded anywhere in the world. This earthquake had its epicentre off the coast of Sumatra (Indonesia) at 3.5° north latitude and 95° east longitude. This place happens to be at the tri-junction of the Indian, Australian and Burmese (Myanmarese) plates.
The following description gives a brief account of sequence of events about tsunamis which affected most countries to bordering the Indian Ocean.
The earthquake was triggered by the collision of the Indian plate with Burmese plate. It occurred at the point where the Indian plate subducts below the Burmese plate due to the northward movement of the Indian plate (Fig. 8.8). Seismologists have noted a 15 metre slip in the vertical direction along the crack that is about 1000 km long extending upto Andaman and Nicobar Islands in the northern direction.
Damages by Tsunami :
This tsunami had been the most damaging in the world history. It had wrecked havoc to as many as 11 countries of south and Southeast Asia and East Africa extending from Indonesia to Somalia. Hence it is rightly called the tragedy of international dimensions. Various types of damages done by the tsunami of 26th December 2004 are briefly described as under.
1. Death Toll :
The tsunamis that hit the Indian Ocean on 26th Dec. 2004 claimed over 1.5 lakh lives in different countries of Asia and Africa. The soaring waves killed people of at least 40 nationalities including tourists from various countries of the world.
Table 8.5 shows that Indonesia has been the worst sufferer with death toll of over one lakh persons. Sri Lanka, India and Thailand also suffered heavy tolls. The other countries which suffered loss of life include Myanmar, Bangladesh, Maldives and the distant African countries of Somalia, Kenya, Seychelles and Tanzania.
Surprisingly Malaysia suffered only a fraction of destruction despite its being located so near to the epicentre of the earthquake. This is because of the location of Sumatra which acted as buffer for Malaysia.
Besides over one million people were affected and several others were rendered homeless.
In India, the Andaman and Nicobar Islands were the closest to the epicentre of the earthquake and hence the origin of tsunamis, and was the worst sufferer. Areas like Car Nicobar, Katchal, Nancowry, Campbell Bay, Champion Island, Chowra and Teresa Island have been badly affected. In Car Nicobar, half of the total population of about 20 thousand was reportedly missing.
TABLE 8.5 Number of Persons killed by Tsunamis:
On the main land of India, the main attack of tsunamis was on the coastal areas of Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Kerala and the union territory of Pondicherry. Of these three states, Tamil Nadu suffered the most.
The largest number of deaths was reported from Nagapattinam, Kanniyakumari, Cuddalore and Chennai districts. Out of a total population of about 15 lakhs in Nagapattinam district about five thousand persons were killed, 2 lakh injured and 1.5 lakh were rendered homeless.
As many as 80 villages were completely swept away by waves. Fishing boats were wrested ashore to a distance of one kilometre with many landing on rail tracks near Nagapattinam railway station. The story was almost the same in Kanniyakumari, Cuddalore and Chennai districts.
After Nagapattinam, Kanniyakumari district reported the heaviest toll. Kanniyakumari itself looked like a ghost town. The toll has been heightened because across the Tamil Nadu coast, villages of fishermen are situated between the low tide and high tide areas. In the pilgrim town of Tiruchander, sea water entered inland as far as 2 km. Like Kanniyakumari, Cuddalore looked like a ghost city.
In Andhra Pradesh, all the nine districts on the coast were badly affected by tsunamis though four south coastal districts were the worst affected. Most victims met their watery grave as they were taken unawared. The fishing community which lived in makeshift houses near the head was totally washed away. A large number of deaths had been reported from Krishna, Prakasam, Nellore, West Godawari and East Godawari districts.
In Kerala, the highest toll was reported from Kollam district followed by Alappuzha and Ernakulam districts. In north Kerala, damage by waves was reported from Kozhikode and Kannur districts.
Severe damage was reported from Karaikal in Pondicherry.
The countries which reported death toll higher than India were Indonesia and Sri Lanka. In Indonesia, Sumatra and Java including Aceh Province were the worst sufferers. In Sri Lanka, Matara, Galle, Weligma, Hambantota, Batticaloa and Colombo reported heavy casualties. The Jaffna peninsula also suffered heavy casualties. High death toll was also reported from Phuket island of Thailand.
Besides a large number of tourists from Europe, North America, South America and Australia who had come to the tsunami affected countries to celebrate Christmas and New year also lost their lives.
2. Loss of Property :
Property worth crores of rupees has been damaged as a result of attack by tsunamis. Infrastructural elements like houses, public buildings, transport and communication system etc. had been damaged almost beyond repair.
Sea water even entered the nuclear power plant at Kalpakkam which was closed for a number of days. In Sri Lanka, rail tracks were twisted near Colombo and a train was derailed in which about 1,000 persons were killed.
According to preliminary findings of the government of India, the coastal areas of India, which include large coastal tracts of Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Pondicherry and Kerala, have suffered financial losses of billions of rupees. The financial loss in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands was pegged at Rs. 2,500 crore (see Table 8.6).
3. Physiographical Changes :
Tsunamis of 26th December 2004 were so strong that they could bring about drastic physiographic changes in different parts of the world. Satellite pictures of the tsunami affected areas show conspicuous changes in Chennai (particularly Adyar river course) as well as Trinket Katchall and Camorta Islands of the Andaman and Nicobar.
Water level in many islands had risen, number of beaches in many islands like Campbell Bay had vanished and Trinket Island was split into two. Car Nicobar, which was worst affected sank to some extent. Indira Point, the southern-most tip of the Indian Union, was almost completely washed out, shrinking the coastline inland. These islands are hardly 125 to 200 km from the origin of tsunamis and had to face the worst fury of the killing waves.
In Maldives, 130 of the 200 islands were substantially damaged and 19 inhabited islands were swept away.
TABLE 8.6 Estimates of Financial Losses in India caused by Tsunamis:
Many of the smaller islands near the coast of Sumatra have either disappeared or they have been deformed by the force of the earthquake.
According to the U.S. Geological Survey many of the small islands of the southwest coast of Sumatra might have moved to the southwest by as much as 20 metres. According to the U.S. Geological Survey expert Ken Herdnut, the northwestern tip of Sumatra may also have shifted to the southwest by about 36 metres.
However, Stuart Sipkin of the USGS National Earthquake Information Centre in Golden Colorado said it was more likely that the islands of Sumatra had risen higher out of sea than they had moved laterally. Collision of the Indian and the Burmese plate created a fault 1,200 km long and 150-200 km wide in the Indian Ocean. (Fig. 8.10)
The latest data available through the Global Positioning System (GPS) has shown that under impact of the earthquake, almost whole of south-east Asia moved eastward by a few centimetres. On an average Thiruvananthapuram moved by 26 mm, Bangalore by 15 mm, Singapore (westward) by 14 mm, Diego Garcia by 12 mm, Kunming in China (south-westward) by 9 mm, Lhasa in Tibet (southeastward) by 4 mm and Dehradun by 2 mm. The data also reveals that the quake caused deformations on the earth’s surface cross a radius of 4,500 km from the epicentre.
4. Motion of the Earth :
The US Geological Survey also expressed the opinion (as expressed by Ken Herdnut) that tremendous energy released by the earthquake made the earth wobble on its axis. According to Richard Gross, a NASA geophysicist, the earthquake might have permanently accelerated the earth’s rotation due to shift of mass towards the earth’s centre.
This had caused the planet to spin 3 microseconds or one millionth of a second faster and to tilt about 2.5 cm on its axis. In other words, day is shortened by about 3 microseconds and the North Pole has shifted towards east Siberia by 2.5 cm. Besides earth’s oblatiness (flattering at the poles and bulging at the equator) decreased by one part in 10 billion.
5. Decline in Soil Fertility and Agricultural Production :
Vast low lying coastal areas were submerged under sea water which increased the salinity of the soil and reduced agricultural production. Cuddalore and Nagapattinam districts in Tamil Nadu were the worst affected. Tests conducted on soil samples from these districts showed that sea water had seeped to a depth of about 90 cm of soil, thereby totally affecting the root zone (15-30 cm below ground).
Soil profile tests showed high salinity varying from 6.8 to 9.10 pH value (neutral value for pH is 7). This is highly saline condition in which no paddy crop could be cultivated. In Nagapattinam district alone, more than 9,500 hectares of land had been rendered unfit for cultivation by increased salinity.
Horticulture also suffered heavy losses. The total loss in Nagapattinam district was estimated at Rs. 5.2 crore. This land could be reclaimed by flushing the soil with fresh water from the Cauvery River and by administering about two metric tonnes of gypsum per hectare. This process normally takes about 3 to 4 years to show the desired results. Farmers had been advised to sow plants like cashewnut which are saline-resistant.
6. Effect on Marine Life :
The killer tsunamis had badly affected the marine life of the Indian Ocean. A large section of the coral reefs of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands archipelago had been destroyed, while others suffered extensive damages.
According to marine biologists, satellite pictures showed that 45 per cent of the fragile coral reefs had been destroyed. The surviving reefs were damaged by the debris washed into the sea from the islands. Experts say it would take at least 700 to 800 years for reefs to re-form.
The coral reefs around the Andaman and Nicobar Islands are of fringing type i.e., they lie just off the coastline. Hence they have suffers extensive damage. According to Greg Miller, Executive Scientist of Global Reef Watch, “The fragile coral reefs off the archipelago’s islands are relatively new (about a thousand years old) and could not withstand the high speed tsunami waves”. There were an estimated 316 species of corals around the islands of the archipelago. Some of the species that were unique to the archipelago could have become extinct.
Fishing also suffered heavy losses at the hands of the powerful tsunamis. Sea beaches along the coasts of the Indian Ocean became graveyards of the dead fishes after the tsunami swept across the ocean. Mangrove areas that acted as nursery habitats to fish and shrimp were also damaged. The breeding, feeding and other activities of large sea mammals such as whales, dolphins etc. were also adversely affected.
Marine exports from India to the tune of US $ 1.3 billion were severely hit owing to wreckage caused by tsunamis. Since hatcheries and aquaculture ponds of coastal areas from Kerala to Orissa have been adversely affected, the marine production and hence the marine exports were badly hit. Fish, prawns and shrimps form a major chunk of India’s marine exports.
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2004 Indian Ocean Earthquake and Tsunami
Description and explanation, prior events and warning signs, response and consequences, works cited.
In 2004, South Asia experienced one of the deadliest tsunamis and earthquakes in history. It was notable for two reasons – its almost unprecedented scale and unexpected nature. Both the scientific community and the governments were taken aback by the natural disaster since the region had not been known as tsunami-prone. The ensuing crisis called for immediate substantial humanitarian assistance, geological studies, and the implementation of warning systems and emergency responses.
Tsunamis and earthquakes are intrinsically related, often occurring in sequence. A rupture between the Indian and Burma tectonic plates caused an earthquake with a record high magnitude. “The earthquake induced a massive tsunami responsible for casualties and damages along most of the coasts surrounding the Indian Ocean” (Bletery et al. 5116). The natural disasters affected area over 1200 kilometres and 15 countries in Asia and Africa. The tsunami lasted over seven hours and had waves that reached 30 metres in height. The death toll of the transpired events amounts to at least 227,898 people (Suppasri et al. 3313). Both earthquake and tsunami are listed among the largest and deadliest natural disasters in the world.
The region was not prepared to handle the disaster, because such disturbances were not an observed phenomenon there. Sieh et al. argue that “records of predecessors existed neither in the cultural memory or written records of communities along the coasts of the Indian Ocean nor in the scientiﬁc literature” (308). However, this does not mean that tsunamis had never taken place in the region, as the studies have found evidence of prehistoric tsunamis which are depicted in Appendix A (Sieh et al. 309). The black dots indicate sites of natural disasters that occurred between 1460 and 1300 C.E. As a result, no large-scale water fluctuations were expected around the time of the 2004 tsunami.
In 2004, there were no tsunami warning systems implemented; thus, it resulted in complete regional unpreparedness. Therefore, the most evident sign of the incoming tsunami was the earthquake. Minutes before the strike, the sea receded, which is a typical tsunami warning sign, combined with the shaking of the ground (Hall et al. 482). Due to the absence of evacuation measures, people on the coast were hit by the first wave. Altogether, neither the government nor the population knew what specific signs to look out for because of the lack of adequate tsunami forecasts.
The 2004 tsunami and earthquake sent reverberations across the oceans that reached as far as East Africa, yet Asian countries were hit the most. “Indonesia was by far the worst affected country with an estimated total damage of USD 4.5 billion, 167,052 people killed, and 590,684 individuals further affected” (Ismail et al. 439). Hundreds of hospitals, schools, governmental facilities could no longer function. The transport infrastructure was heavily damaged, including thousands of kilometres of road, numerous airports and seaports. Furthermore, devastation left countries without telecommunications sufficient for timely broadcasting of assistance requests. Householding and agriculture suffered from the tsunami, leaving the workforce homeless and unemployed. The impact on human living was so grave the governments established agencies specifically for dealing with restoration efforts, like Agency for the Rehabilitation and Reconstruction of Aceh and Nias in Indonesia.
The realization that the region is now susceptible to tsunamis provoked the change in perception of its safety. Appendix B (Frankenberg et al. 4) shows the exodus of the inhabitants of the affected area over the years. The graph suggests the positive correlation between the degree of devastation and the number of people leaving the region. It is also apparent that the more damage the infrastructure suffered, the more population left, with high damage areas getting abandoned by up to 30%. This is also supported by a map in Appendix C (Suppasri et al. 3317). It depicts the low population in density in the areas that were affected by the tsunami. Red dots pinpoint the location of tsunamis that were caused by the 2004 catastrophe, thus encouraging people to migrate.
The government launched a reconstruction program for the affected areas. The magnitude of the disaster provoked diverse humanitarian aid from countries, non-governmental organizations, and corporations. For instance, Srivastava writes that “Charitable organizations constructed many more houses than the government organizations and therefore rehabilitation was achieved at a quicker pace” (200). The international aid included financial assistance, medical supplies, food, clothes, and volunteers. Combined with governmental activities, they rebuilt the area, although a large proportion of the inhabitants chose to immigrate from the shoreline.
Overall, the 2004 natural disaster was a shocking event with numerous scientific, economic, and social implications. The unexpected appearance of tsunami provoked geological research that linked the regional contemporary tsunami vulnerability to the ancient catastrophes. The governments were forced to react and institute proper evacuation and preparation measures. The substantial damage to the area and massive civilian casualties attracted attention and help from the international community in restoration efforts. Meanwhile, the catastrophe served as the catalyst for later tsunamis that were less disastrous in scale but caused the population exodus from high-damage areas.
Bletery, Quentin, et al. “A Bayesian Source Model for the 2004 Great Sumatra‐Andaman Earthquake.” Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth , vol. 121, no. 7, 2016, pp. 5116-5135.
Frankenberg, Elizabeth, et al. “Should I Stay or Should I Go? Long-Term Migration after the Indian Ocean Tsunami.” Population Association of American Annual Meeting . 2017. pp. 1-10.
Hall, Sarah, et al. “Awareness of Tsunami Natural Warning Signs and Intended Evacuation Behaviors in Java, Indonesia.” Natural Hazards , vol. 89, no.1, 2017, pp. 473-496.
Ismail, Nafesa, et al. “Livelihood Changes in Banda Aceh, Indonesia after the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami.” International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction , vol. 28, 2018, pp. 439-449.
Sieh, Kerry, et al. “Penultimate Predecessors of the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami in Aceh, Sumatra: Stratigraphic, Archeological, and Historical Evidence.” Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth , vol. 120, no. 1, 2015, pp. 308-325.
Srivastava, Mitashree. “Life and Livelihood in Coastal Community post Tsunami 2004: An Anthropological Case Study of Arattupuzha Village of Kerala.” Development, Resources and Livelihoods , no. 15, 2015, pp. 192-202.
Suppasri, Anawat, et al. “A Decade after the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami: The Progress in Disaster Preparedness and Future Challenges in Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Thailand and the Maldives.” Pure and Applied Geophysics , vol. 172, no. 12, 2012, pp. 3313-3341.
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StudyCorgi. (2023, August 7). 2004 Indian Ocean Earthquake and Tsunami. Retrieved from https://studycorgi.com/2004-indian-ocean-earthquake-and-tsunami/
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- Published: 02 January 2021
Tsunami in the last 15 years: a bibliometric analysis with a detailed overview and future directions
- Nikita Jain 1 , 2 ,
- Deepali Virmani 3 &
- Ajith Abraham 4
Natural Hazards volume 106 , pages 139–172 ( 2021 ) Cite this article
In the last fifteen years, tsunami science has progressed at a rapid pace. Three major tsunamis: The Indian Ocean in 2004, the 2011 Tohoku tsunami, and the 2018 Palu tsunami were significant landmarks in the history of tsunami science. All the three tsunamis, as mentioned, suffered from either no warning or poor reception of the alerts issued. Various lessons learned, consequent numerical models proposed, post-2004 tsunami damage findings manifested into solutions. However, the misperceived solutions led to a disastrous impact of the 2011 Tohoku event. In the following years, numerous improvements in warning systems and community preparedness frameworks were proposed and implemented. The contributions and new findings have added multi-fold advancements to tsunami science progress. Later, the 2018 Palu tsunami happened and again led to a massive loss of life and property. The warning systems and community seemed un-prepared for this non-seismic tsunami. A significant change is to take place in tsunami science practices and solutions. The 2018 tsunami is one of the most discussed and researched events concerning the palaeotsunami records, damage assessment, and source findings. In the new era, using machine learning and deep learning prevails in all the fields related to tsunami science. This article presents a complete 15-year bibliometric analysis of tsunami research from Scopus and Web of Science (WoS). The review of majorly cited documents in the form of a progressing storyline has highlighted the need for multidisciplinary research to design and propose practical solutions.
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Sendai framework for disaster risk reduction: hybrid machine model consisting https://www.unisdr.org/files/43291_sendaiframeworkfordrren.pdf .
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Jain, N., Virmani, D. & Abraham, A. Tsunami in the last 15 years: a bibliometric analysis with a detailed overview and future directions. Nat Hazards 106 , 139–172 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-020-04454-2
Received : 16 May 2020
Accepted : 25 November 2020
Published : 02 January 2021
Issue Date : March 2021
DOI : https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-020-04454-2
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Stories of tsunami survivors in india.
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By Rina Chunder, ACT International Calcutta, India, January 4, 2006
Restoring families, restoring homes
When Anjuman, 14, Appu, 10, Shiva, 8, Jeevaratnam, 6, and Anbarasi, 4, lost their mother, Maleu, to the tsunami in December 2004, their father also deserted them, but not before getting the compensation from the government for his wife's death. The Indian government gave Rs. 200,000 (US$4,444) in compensation for each victim. Maleu's husband made a deposit of Rs. 20,000 in each of his children's names but left with the rest of the money.
The children, who lived in the village of Thirumullaivasal in Nagapattinam district, Tamil Nadu, were thrown into chaos. The eldest son, himself a child, started looking after the other children to the best of his ability. Still, however, they stopped going to school, and nobody was bathing the children or looking after their personal hygiene.
The youngest child, 4-year-old Anbarasi, became increasingly withdrawn because of the trauma she had experienced. She refused to talk to anybody, cried constantly and sucked her thumb. However, an ailing aunt, a widow who herself was very poor with two sons to feed, provided food for the children everyday.
When Lutheran World Service-India (LWSI), a member of the global alliance Action by Churches Together (ACT) International, came across this family, the staff members, some of whom had received training in providing psychosocial services, began looking after the children's welfare. First, they asked the children's aunt, Mangal Laxmi, to allow the children to stay with her, where they still are. Now, they are fed and have someone to look after their needs. LWSI staff members visit them regularly, discussing their problems with them, giving them assurances of accompanying them in their situation and offering the necessary psychosocial counseling. Attempts by LWSI staff to play with Anbarasi and cajole her to talk and communicate with them have also borne fruit. She is now laughing, talking and playing again. And through the staff's intervention, the four youngest children have returned to school.
Mangal, the children's aunt, earned a living by selling fish, and her two sons earned only Rs. 20 to 30 (US$0.44-0.67) a day in their jobs. Because of their small incomes and extra children to support, LWSI-ACT provided livelihood support to Anjuman, the eldest of the four children, who had worked on other people's boats before the tsunami. An LWSI-ACT livelihood kit, comprising a boat, an engine, nets and other fishing equipment, like rope, leads and floats, is enabling Anjuman to resume fishing and earn his living again. Each LWSI-ACT boat with equipment is given to five fishing families who then form a self-help group.
Since Mangal's house was damaged in the tsunami, she had to borrow money before the rainy season for some essential repairs. But LWSI-ACT has listed her to receive a new house as part of its shelter program. She is now eagerly waiting for the day when she can move into her new house with her extended family - a house she can call home again.
Govindan and Nilavati were a happy couple with four children, ranging in age from 8 to 15. Govindan, a fisherman and a boat owner in a small village in Tamil Nadu, earned around Rs 15,000 (US$333) a month. Then came the tsunami that tore apart their village and lives.
Govindan was at the seashore, removing waste from a fishing net while Nilavati was selling fish. When the huge waves came, the two were separated. Govindan survived by hanging onto a palm tree, and Nilavati ran to a nearby hut. Then they started searching for their children, who were at home at the time. The children had run 15 kilometers and taken shelter in a temple. For 15 days the family stayed in a relief center inside a school. Now they are staying at a relative's place until they receive a permanent house from LWSI-ACT.
Govindan's boat and house were completely destroyed. Initially he struggled to keep supporting his family. He borrowed from relatives and depended on relief from the government and NGOs. In addition to receiving assistance with housing, the family is also receiving other relief supplies and livelihood support from LWSI-ACT.
The LWSI-ACT relief kit that the family has received comprises clothing, kitchen utensils and hygiene items. The livelihood kit, like the one other fishing families have received, has enabled Govindan to return to work and the sea again.
While Govindan is not earning as much as he was before, he is at least earning enough to make ends meet. Now Nilavati and Govindan are waiting for the permanent house they will receive from LWSI-ACT where they can live with their children and build their home again.
Sailing back to life
Velmurugam, 36, was repairing his fishing nets on the shore when the tsunami hit his village, Anichankuppam, in the Villupuram district of Tamil Nadu. He tried to save his boat and engine, which he owned, but they were destroyed in the waves. His brother saved him, but Velmurugam was injured and had swallowed so much salt water that he had to be kept in the hospital for 10 days. His wife and two children escaped from their house to the main road in the tsunami. They stayed in another village for three days, then with a friend for a month, where Velmurugam joined them. They are now living in a temporary shelter until they receive permanent housing.
Having lost all their belongings in the tsunami, the relief and livelihood kits they have received from LWSI-ACT have helped them in this difficult situation and have enabled Velmurugam to resume fishing and earn a living again.
After returning to his work, Velmurugam began earning Rs. 2,000 (approx. US$44) a month in July and August last year during the lean season, when earnings are typically lower. But he is still managing to earn Rs. 50-100 (US$1.11-2.22) a day. Velmurugam's wife, Kavita, is also an active member of the self-help group.
Rina Chunder is the information/documentation officer for Lutheran World Service - India, a member of the global alliance Action by Churches Together (ACT) International.
For further information, please contact: ACT Communications Officer Callie Long (mobile/cell phone +41 79 358 3171) or ACT Information Officer Stephen Padre (mobile/cell phone +41 79 681 1868)
ACT Web Site address: http://www.act-intl.org
ACT is a global alliance of churches and related agencies working to save lives and support communities in emergencies worldwide. The ACT Coordinating Office is based with the World Council of Churches (WCC) and the Lutheran World Federation (LWF) in Switzerland.
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Understanding Recovery in Andaman and Nicobar Islands - Southasiadisasters.net Issue No. 175, October 2018
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- Tsunami of 2004 in India
Tsunami of 2004 in India - Essay Example
- Subject: Sociology
- Type: Essay
- Level: High School
- Pages: 4 (1000 words)
- Downloads: 2
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Extract of sample "Tsunami of 2004 in India"
The constant anticlockwise rotation of the Australian plate over the centuries has exerted a lot of stress upon the Indian plate’s segment in the south. While the Australian plate has shown a counterclockwise movement, the Indian tectonic plate has shown an equally uninterrupted movement in the north-east direction. The Indian tectonic plate joined the Eurasian tectonic plate to develop a whole range of mountains known as the Himalayas. It is because of the very displacement and collision with the Australian and the Eurasian tectonic plates that the eastern boundary of the Indian plate is now characterized by excessive faults and the probability of occurrence of earthquakes over there is dangerously high.
Andaman Sea is one of those areas that have been the most active with respect to earthquakes in the past. The result on December 26 was a rupture the USGS estimates was more than 600 miles (1,000 kilometers) long, displacing the seafloor above the rupture by perhaps 10 yards (about 10 meters) horizontally and several yards vertically. That doesn't sound like much, but the trillions of tons of rock that were moved along hundreds of miles caused the planet to shudder with the largest magnitude earthquake in 40 years.
(National Geographic News). India had had one of the most disastrous earthquakes in its whole history on 26 December 2004 in which, 11000 people lost their lives and more then 5000 people got lost and were presumed to be dead. Number of Indians that were displaced by the tsunami was more than 380000. The earthquake caused so panic that (The World Bank) estimated the cost of reconstruction to go up to $1.2 billion. Areas that underwent maximum destruction included but were not limited to the Nicobar Islands and Andaman.
These Indian territories in the Indian Ocean experienced numerous aftershocks after the occurrence of tsunami for many days. The Territory Police Chief S. B. Deol said that the ratio of dead or injured people to safe people as a result of the tsunami was 1:5 (The Times of India). One of the most fundamental reasons of increased damage and destruction in the islands of Car Nicobar and Great Nicobar in comparison to other regions was their general flatness. Numerous small islands that were located in the Nicobars have altogether disappeared while many like Trinket have been altered in their shape.
Trinket, itself was broken up into two halves. The saltwater brought by the tsunami in the islands has ruined the farms in those places and many sources of freshwater have now become extinct. Chowra Island with the population of 1500 people saw a 66.66 per cent loss of inhabitants as a result of the tsunami. The submersion of tsunami waves with the local air base on Car Nicobar caused the death of 100 Indian Air Force personnel along with their families. In order to meet the challenges that it was exposed to because of the occurrence of the earthquake, the government of India assessed the damage with the mutual help of the World Bank, United Nations and the Asian Development Bank.
The joint team including representatives of each of the three agencies conducted an in-depth analysis of the environmental and socioeconomic consequences of the tsunami as requested by the Indian government. States which were particularly analyzed for the effects of tsunami were Kerala, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. Using the results of the comprehensive research, the government o
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Essay On Tsunami – 10 Lines, Short & Long Essay For Children
Key Points To Remember: Essay On Tsunami For Lower Primary Classes
10 lines on tsunami for kids, a paragraph on tsunami in english for children, short essay on tsunami for kids, long essay on tsunami for children, what will your child learn from this essay, interesting facts about tsunami for kids.
The word ‘Tsunami’ is of Japanese origin, which means harbour wave. A tsunami is the repetition of long-wavelength water waves triggered due to quakes and volcanic eruptions in ocean beds. If the earthquake fails to cause a tsunami inside the ocean, it will mostly cause a landslide. This tsunami essay for classes 1, 2 and 3 will help your child learn about new things. A tsunami essay in English will also improve ability to convert thoughts into words, positively impacting communication and vocabulary.
A topic like tsunami isn’t a very easy topic to write about. Children might need the assistance of parents or teachers to write about tsunamis. Here are a few key points to remember when writing a composition on tsunami for lower primary classes:
- Use videos or pictures while explaining tsunamis to kids. Visual aids help in better memorisation.
- Keep the content crisp and clear. A tsunami is a phenomenon that involves geographical terms. So, keep in mind to use simple language.
- Encourage your child to write their essay independently once the basics are covered.
What is a tsunami? How does it occur, and what is its impact? Get answers to these questions from the essay for class 1 and 2 kids on tsunamis. Mentioned below are a few lines on tsunami:
- Tsunamis are natural disasters that cause harm to the environment.
- It happens due to an earthquake underwater.
- These occur unexpectedly.
- Volcanic eruptions, plate shifting, the sinking of the earth, etc., are other reasons for tsunamis.
- The term tsunami means harbour waves.
- It has a series of waves with a high wavelength, capable of serious damage.
- The waves created in seas and oceans move towards the land and destroy buildings, homes, forests, etc.
- Landslides also lead to tsunamis.
- Most tsunamis often happen in the Pacific ocean.
- India experienced a similarly destructive Tsunami in 2004.
Do you want to read a short paragraph on tsunamis for children? Then, you are at the right place. Given below is a template for reference:
A tsunami is a series of waves of high wavelengths that cause water to move toward the land. It happens due to earthquakes whose main point is in the water/ocean. Greeks were the first to notice the effects of tsunamis. Sudden volcanic eruptions in the ocean beds, the sinking of the earth, etc., are the other major reasons for tsunamis. Like any other natural calamity, it causes widespread damage to human lives, buildings and trees. Underwater explosions can lead to tsunamis as well. The Pacific Ocean is known to be the hub of tsunamis. Ports and harbours get affected badly by tsunamis.
Looking for a simple-written short essay for classes 1,2 and 3 on tsunamis for kids to understand? Well, search no further. Given below is the template for the same:
A tsunami is defined as a series of waves of high wavelengths that cause water to move toward the land. It happens due to earthquakes whose main point is in the water. Greeks were the first to study the effects of tsunamis, and the only difference between earthquakes and tsunamis is that the latter happens in water. Tsunamis are called seismic waves. We should know that all seismic waves are tsunamis, but earthquakes are not the sole cause of all tsunamis. It also occurs due to sudden volcanic eruptions in the ocean beds, the sinking of the earth, etc. Like any other natural calamity, it causes widespread damage to human lives, public and private properties, and forests. Underwater explosions can lead to tsunamis as well. The Pacific Ocean is known to be the hub of tsunamis. During tsunamis, marine life is also get affected.
Natural calamities like tsunamis occur due to various reasons and cause damage to living and non-living. Here is an essay for class 3 kids on the causes, impacts and history of tsunamis.
History of Tsunami
According to legend, the Greek historian Thucydides suggested that there might be a connection between undersea earthquakes and tsunamis. But until the 20th century, knowledge of the causes and nature of tsunamis was limited. Ammianus, a Roman historian, characterised the sequence of events leading up to a tsunami as an earthquake, a quick retreat of the sea, and then a massive wave. The highest ever tsunami took place in a bay along the coasts of Alaska on July 9th, 1958.
What are the Causes and Effects of Tsunami?
Causes of Tsunami
- Earthquakes and Landslides: Shifts in tectonic plates cause earthquakes, and when the main point is in the water, a tsunami is triggered. Sometimes landslides induced by earthquakes lead to these tidal waves.
- Volcanic Eruptions in Sea Beds: Volcanic eruptions in sea beds are another cause of these high wavelength waves.
- The Sinking of The Earth: Changes in the earth’s crust or interiors often lead to the sinking of the earth, and this sudden shift can trigger a tsunami.
- Underwater Explosions: Incidents like meteor collisions with the earth, or chunks of ice breaking off from glaciers lead to underwater explosions.
Effects of Tsunami
- Boats and Ships Sink: The crashing of such high waves causes widespread damage to boats and ships off the coast.
- It Ruins Buildings, Trees and Houses: Since the water moves towards the land and is of high velocity, it can destroy homes, uproot trees and displace vehicles.
- Causes: As in the case of any natural calamity, a tsunami also takes a toll on people’s lives.
How Can Tsunami Be Prevented?
The effects of a tsunami can be reduced by avoiding inundation areas, slowing down water by building ditches, slopes, etc. and steering water to strategically placed walls or structures. An alert well ahead of time can also reduce the damage percentage.
How To Prepare for a Tsunami Disaster?
- To escape a tsunami, go 100 feet above sea level or 2 miles away.
- Often there are weather reports and cautionary warnings for a tsunami. Please take care to follow them.
- Every foot inland or upward is sure to make a difference!
- If you can see the wave, you are too close for safety!
Your child will learn about the causes, history and effects of natural disasters such as tsunamis. They will also understand essay writing and its ways better.
- The word tsunami means harbour wave in Japanese.
- The Pacific Ocean is the hub of tsunamis.
- The first wave of a tsunami is never the biggest.
- The series of waves generated by a tsunami is called a wave train.
- Often called tidal waves, tsunamis are not related to ocean tides.
What is the Difference Between Earthquake and Tsunami?
The major difference between an earthquake and a tsunami is that tsunamis are triggered by earthquakes whose main point is in the oceans or seas. And earthquakes happen on the land.
Topics like composition on tsunamis create awareness about natural calamities and the damage these can cause to humans. Teach your child about possible effects and help them learn new things.
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- Paragraph On Tsunami
Paragraph on Tsunami - Check Samples for 100, 150, 200, 250 Words
A tsunami is a kind of natural disaster which is caused due to volcanic eruptions in the ocean beds. Tsunamis are natural occurrences in which a series of powerful waves cause a surge in water that can reach heights of several metres. There are various other reasons that can cause a tsunami which is equally hazardous to people as other natural disasters.
Table of Contents
Paragraph on tsunami in 100 words, paragraph on tsunami in 150 words, paragraph on tsunami in 200 words, paragraph on tsunami in 250 words, frequently asked questions on tsunami.
Tsunamis are caused due to various reasons. There are many factors that can lead to tsunamis and cause harm to humankind. Before writing a paragraph on tsunamis, check the samples provided below.
Tsunamis are caused majorly due to volcanic eruptions and earthquakes that occur under the ocean. There are various factors that cause tsunamis, like the sinking of the earth, explosives, etc. Tsunamis occur primarily in areas where two continents meet. Tsunamis also happen due to volcanic eruptions under the ocean beds. The Pacific Ocean is well-known for the frequent occurrence of tsunamis. Tsunamis cause a lot of damage to the environment. It destroys buildings, forests, livelihood, etc. Since it is a sudden event, no one can anticipate its occurrence.
Tsunamis are natural disasters that are destructive to the environment. It is caused due to an earthquake underwater. Just like earthquakes are unpredictable, tsunamis occur suddenly, and no one can anticipate their occurrence. There can be various reasons for a tsunami to occur, like the sinking of the earth, explosives, etc. Tsunamis occur primarily in areas where two continents meet. It is known that the Pacific Ocean is a hub of tsunamis. Tsunamis also happen due to volcanic eruptions under the ocean beds. Tsunami is a term that refers to tidal waves. Therefore, a tsunami is defined as a sequence of ocean waves with a very long wavelength. Due to the tsunami, strong waves of water are created and move landwards. As a result, there is a large inland water movement that lasts for a long time. As a result, these waves have significant destructive power. Like other natural disasters, tsunamis also bring great destruction to the environment. It brings losses to livelihood, property, forests, etc.
A sudden movement under the sea beds causes tsunamis. It is an earthquake inside the sea or ocean. The Pacific Ocean is known to be a hotspot of tsunamis. Other than earthquakes, there are other reasons for tsunamis to occur. One of the major reasons is volcanic eruptions under the sea beds. Other reasons for the occurrence of tsunamis are the sinking of the earth, explosives, etc. These natural disasters occur primarily in areas where two continents meet. A tsunami is a term that refers to tidal waves. Therefore, a tsunami is defined as a sequence of ocean waves with a very long wavelength. Due to the tsunami, strong waves of water are created and move landwards. As a result, there is a large inland water movement that lasts for a long time. As a result, these waves have significant destructive power. Like any other natural disaster, tsunamis bring massive destruction to the environment. When a tsunami strikes, the sea waves reach a speed of 420 kilometres per hour. Beaches are ruined, trees and plants are broken, and human settlements, residences, buildings, and ports are demolished due to the tsunami.
The term “tsunami” refers to tidal waves. As a result, a tsunami is characterised as a series of extraordinarily long-wavelength ocean waves. Strong waves of water are formed by the tsunami and move landward. As a result, there is a massive and long-lasting inland water movement. As a result, these waves have considerable destructive power. Tsunamis are caused by abrupt movement beneath the seabed. It’s an earthquake that occurs deep within the water or ocean. The Pacific Ocean is known to be a hotspot of tsunamis. Tsunamis can develop for a variety of reasons other than earthquakes. Volcanic explosions beneath the seabed are one of the leading causes. Tsunamis can also be caused by the earth sinking, the explosion of bombs, and other factors. Tsunamis are especially common in locations where two continents meet. Tsunamis cause strong water waves to move towards the ground. The Greeks were the first people on the planet to assert that tsunamis had occurred. As per the Greeks, a tsunami is a ground quake. Tsunamis and earthquakes are only distinguished by the fact that tsunamis occur in the oceans. As a result, controlling the size and spread of tsunamis is nearly impossible. Tsunamis, like every other natural calamity, wreak havoc on the environment. The sea waves reach a speed of 420 kilometres per hour when a tsunami strikes. Due to tsunamis in seas or oceans, beaches are wrecked, trees and plants are washed away, and human settlements, dwellings, buildings, and ports are destroyed.
What is meant by a tsunami?
A tsunami is a strong and abrupt movement inside the water, causing destruction to the environment. It is a kind of natural disaster which is similar to earthquakes. It occurs inside the water causing strong tidal waves.
How are earthquakes different from tsunamis?
Earthquakes are strong and sudden movements on land, but tsunamis are caused by earthquakes inside the seas or oceans.
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Giant waves caused by earthquakes or volcanic eruptions in the sea are known as tsunamis . The height of tsunami waves does not substantially rise as they approach the ocean's depths. However, as the waves move inland, the ocean's depth declines, causing them to rise to ever-higher heights. Although tsunamis majorly affect only coastal areas, they have a tremendous amount of destructive power and can have an impact on entire ocean basins. Here are a few sample essays on "Tsunami".
100 Words Essay On Tsunami
The first people to declare the existence of tsunamis were the Greeks. The Greeks considered a tsunami to be a ground quake. The only thing that separates tsunamis from earthquakes is that tsunamis happen in the ocean. Consequently, it is very difficult to limit the magnitude and spread of tsunamis. The ecology suffers significantly as a result of tsunamis. Buildings, ecosystems, livelihoods, and other things are destroyed.
Underwater earthquakes and volcanic eruptions play a crucial role in the development of tsunamis. Tsunamis are caused by various sources, including ground sinking, explosives, etc. Volcanic eruptions beneath the ocean's surface also cause tsunamis to occur. It is commonly known that tsunamis frequently happen in the Pacific Ocean.
200 Words Essay On Tsunami
The word "tsunami," meaning "harbour wave," is of Japanese origin. A tsunami is a series of lengthy water waves that are caused by ocean floor tremors and volcanic eruptions. A landslide will be the primary effect of the earthquake, barring any failure to produce a tsunami on the inside of the seas.
Warning Signs About Tsunamis
The ecology is destroyed by tsunamis , just like any other natural disaster. When a tsunami hits, the ocean waves accelerate to 420 km/h. There are warning signs advising individuals to get away if a tsunami is approaching in several places along the western coastline of the United States, which is vulnerable to tsunamis from the Pacific Ocean.
Based on details about the event that caused the tsunami, the topography of the sea floor, and the coastal landmass, computer simulations can roughly forecast the tsunami's arrival and damage.
Signals By Animals | Animals in the neighbourhood provide one of the first warnings. Before the flood comes, a lot of creatures recognise danger and seek higher ground. Marine life is impacted by tsunamis as well. The ability to predict earthquakes, tsunamis, and other natural disasters could be achieved by closely observing their behaviour.
Tsunami Warning Systems | The public can now be alerted to tsunamis before they reach the coasts in areas with a high risk of flooding by using the tsunami warning systems that are available nowadays.
500 Words Essay On Tsunami
A tsunami is a natural disaster that originates under water and is brought on by the waves that an earthquake causes to be generated in the ocean. The tsunami's impacts were initially reported by Greeks on Earth. They claim that earthquakes on land and tsunamis are identical. The sole distinction between a tsunami and an earthquake is that a tsunami results from an oceanic event. Because of this, it is practically impossible to manage the height and intensity of the tsunami.
Tsunami In India
In 2004, India suffered from a terrible tsunami. The tsunami's source was, though, close to Indonesia. It was estimated that 2 lakh people died due to the tsunami. The waves covered thousands of kilometres in places like Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Thailand, India, Indonesia, and the Maldives.
In the Pacific Ocean, tsunamis dominate. They are likely to occur in a region with more massive bodies. A tsunami may be aided in its progression into a step-like wave by open bays and coastlines near extremely deep oceans.
Here are some steps that can be taken by the government to prevent Tsunami and especially the destruction it brings:-
Infrastructure | Government expenditures can go toward developing infrastructure that is robust, highly secure, and capable of withstanding a tsunami's impact. The height should be sufficient to prevent the tsunami's upper wave from conquering it. A tsunami-prone area can be protected from intensive development and habitational activity.
Warning Systems | The local government can install a quick and effective early warning system. This would assist in raising everyone's level of alertness. By doing so, it might be possible to reduce the loss of human life by getting more people to migrate or escape dangerous locations.
Awareness | It is vitally important to inform people about the effects of tsunamis and their potential consequences. They must be instructed on recognising and understanding the early tsunami warning signs. Under challenging circumstances, they must learn to stay fully prepared rather than panic and anxiously rush around.
Afforestation | Another alternative is to plant trees that can absorb the force of tidal waves, like mangroves, along the coast and its borders. These may lessen a tsunami's effects and limit the devastation they create.
My Experience Of Mock Drills
I remember mock drills were conducted in my school and high school as they were located near the coast of the Arabian sea. These mock drills were conducted to prepare the students for any emergency circumstances like tsunamis, earthquakes and fire disasters. We were taught how to escape in a planned manner which does not create a problematic situation. We were strictly instructed not to use lifts in such a scenario. During heavy rains, school was kept off since Tsunami is more likely to strike during rains.
Tsunamis are less common than other types of natural disasters. However, they may still cause significant damage. A tsunami's most severe consequence is the massive number of deaths. As a result, individuals have little time to flee or escape a tsunami's immediate, nearly silent impact. Tsunamis significantly harm the environment in addition to bringing severe degradation. Marine life suffers extreme damage.
Explore Career Options (By Industry)
- Information Technology
Bio Medical Engineer
The field of biomedical engineering opens up a universe of expert chances. An Individual in the biomedical engineering career path work in the field of engineering as well as medicine, in order to find out solutions to common problems of the two fields. The biomedical engineering job opportunities are to collaborate with doctors and researchers to develop medical systems, equipment, or devices that can solve clinical problems. Here we will be discussing jobs after biomedical engineering, how to get a job in biomedical engineering, biomedical engineering scope, and salary.
Database professionals use software to store and organise data such as financial information, and customer shipping records. Individuals who opt for a career as data administrators ensure that data is available for users and secured from unauthorised sales. DB administrators may work in various types of industries. It may involve computer systems design, service firms, insurance companies, banks and hospitals.
Individuals in the operations manager jobs are responsible for ensuring the efficiency of each department to acquire its optimal goal. They plan the use of resources and distribution of materials. The operations manager's job description includes managing budgets, negotiating contracts, and performing administrative tasks.
GIS officer work on various GIS software to conduct a study and gather spatial and non-spatial information. GIS experts update the GIS data and maintain it. The databases include aerial or satellite imagery, latitudinal and longitudinal coordinates, and manually digitized images of maps. In a career as GIS expert, one is responsible for creating online and mobile maps.
A career as ethical hacker involves various challenges and provides lucrative opportunities in the digital era where every giant business and startup owns its cyberspace on the world wide web. Individuals in the ethical hacker career path try to find the vulnerabilities in the cyber system to get its authority. If he or she succeeds in it then he or she gets its illegal authority. Individuals in the ethical hacker career path then steal information or delete the file that could affect the business, functioning, or services of the organization.
If you are intrigued by the programming world and are interested in developing communications networks then a career as database architect may be a good option for you. Data architect roles and responsibilities include building design models for data communication networks. Wide Area Networks (WANs), local area networks (LANs), and intranets are included in the database networks. It is expected that database architects will have in-depth knowledge of a company's business to develop a network to fulfil the requirements of the organisation. Stay tuned as we look at the larger picture and give you more information on what is db architecture, why you should pursue database architecture, what to expect from such a degree and what your job opportunities will be after graduation. Here, we will be discussing how to become a data architect. Students can visit NIT Trichy , IIT Kharagpur , JMI New Delhi .
The invention of the database has given fresh breath to the people involved in the data analytics career path. Analysis refers to splitting up a whole into its individual components for individual analysis. Data analysis is a method through which raw data are processed and transformed into information that would be beneficial for user strategic thinking.
Data are collected and examined to respond to questions, evaluate hypotheses or contradict theories. It is a tool for analyzing, transforming, modeling, and arranging data with useful knowledge, to assist in decision-making and methods, encompassing various strategies, and is used in different fields of business, research, and social science.
Individuals who opt for a career as geothermal engineers are the professionals involved in the processing of geothermal energy. The responsibilities of geothermal engineers may vary depending on the workplace location. Those who work in fields design facilities to process and distribute geothermal energy. They oversee the functioning of machinery used in the field.
Bank Probationary Officer (PO)
A career as Bank Probationary Officer (PO) is seen as a promising career opportunity and a white-collar career. Each year aspirants take the Bank PO exam . This career provides plenty of career development and opportunities for a successful banking future. If you have more questions about a career as Bank Probationary Officer (PO), what is probationary officer or how to become a Bank Probationary Officer (PO) then you can read the article and clear all your doubts.
A career as a Finance Executive requires one to be responsible for monitoring an organisation's income, investments and expenses to create and evaluate financial reports. His or her role involves performing audits, invoices, and budget preparations. He or she manages accounting activities, bank reconciliations, and payable and receivable accounts.
An Investment Banking career involves the invention and generation of capital for other organizations, governments, and other entities. Individuals who opt for a career as Investment Bankers are the head of a team dedicated to raising capital by issuing bonds. Investment bankers are termed as the experts who have their fingers on the pulse of the current financial and investing climate. Students can pursue various Investment Banker courses, such as Banking and Insurance , and Economics to opt for an Investment Banking career path.
Bank Branch Manager
Bank Branch Managers work in a specific section of banking related to the invention and generation of capital for other organisations, governments, and other entities. Bank Branch Managers work for the organisations and underwrite new debts and equity securities for all type of companies, aid in the sale of securities, as well as help to facilitate mergers and acquisitions, reorganisations, and broker trades for both institutions and private investors.
Treasury analyst career path is often regarded as certified treasury specialist in some business situations, is a finance expert who specifically manages a company or organisation's long-term and short-term financial targets. Treasurer synonym could be a financial officer, which is one of the reputed positions in the corporate world. In a large company, the corporate treasury jobs hold power over the financial decision-making of the total investment and development strategy of the organisation.
A Product Manager is a professional responsible for product planning and marketing. He or she manages the product throughout the Product Life Cycle, gathering and prioritising the product. A product manager job description includes defining the product vision and working closely with team members of other departments to deliver winning products.
A career as Transportation Planner requires technical application of science and technology in engineering, particularly the concepts, equipment and technologies involved in the production of products and services. In fields like land use, infrastructure review, ecological standards and street design, he or she considers issues of health, environment and performance. A Transportation Planner assigns resources for implementing and designing programmes. He or she is responsible for assessing needs, preparing plans and forecasts and compliance with regulations.
Individuals in the architecture career are the building designers who plan the whole construction keeping the safety and requirements of the people. Individuals in architect career in India provides professional services for new constructions, alterations, renovations and several other activities. Individuals in architectural careers in India visit site locations to visualize their projects and prepare scaled drawings to submit to a client or employer as a design. Individuals in architecture careers also estimate build costs, materials needed, and the projected time frame to complete a build.
Having a landscape architecture career, you are involved in site analysis, site inventory, land planning, planting design, grading, stormwater management, suitable design, and construction specification. Frederick Law Olmsted, the designer of Central Park in New York introduced the title “landscape architect”. The Australian Institute of Landscape Architects (AILA) proclaims that "Landscape Architects research, plan, design and advise on the stewardship, conservation and sustainability of development of the environment and spaces, both within and beyond the built environment". Therefore, individuals who opt for a career as a landscape architect are those who are educated and experienced in landscape architecture. Students need to pursue various landscape architecture degrees, such as M.Des , M.Plan to become landscape architects. If you have more questions regarding a career as a landscape architect or how to become a landscape architect then you can read the article to get your doubts cleared.
An expert in plumbing is aware of building regulations and safety standards and works to make sure these standards are upheld. Testing pipes for leakage using air pressure and other gauges, and also the ability to construct new pipe systems by cutting, fitting, measuring and threading pipes are some of the other more involved aspects of plumbing. Individuals in the plumber career path are self-employed or work for a small business employing less than ten people, though some might find working for larger entities or the government more desirable.
Individuals who opt for a career as construction managers have a senior-level management role offered in construction firms. Responsibilities in the construction management career path are assigning tasks to workers, inspecting their work, and coordinating with other professionals including architects, subcontractors, and building services engineers.
Carpenters are typically construction workers. They stay involved in performing many types of construction activities. It includes cutting, fitting and assembling wood. Carpenters may help in building constructions, bridges, big ships and boats. Here, in the article, we will discuss carpenter career path, carpenter salary, how to become a carpenter, carpenter job outlook.
An individual who opts for a career as a welder is a professional tradesman who is skilled in creating a fusion between two metal pieces to join it together with the use of a manual or fully automatic welding machine in their welder career path. It is joined by intense heat and gas released between the metal pieces through the welding machine to permanently fix it.
Individuals who opt for a career as an environmental engineer are construction professionals who utilise the skills and knowledge of biology, soil science, chemistry and the concept of engineering to design and develop projects that serve as solutions to various environmental problems.
Orthotist and Prosthetist
Orthotists and Prosthetists are professionals who provide aid to patients with disabilities. They fix them to artificial limbs (prosthetics) and help them to regain stability. There are times when people lose their limbs in an accident. In some other occasions, they are born without a limb or orthopaedic impairment. Orthotists and prosthetists play a crucial role in their lives with fixing them to assistive devices and provide mobility.
A veterinary doctor is a medical professional with a degree in veterinary science. The veterinary science qualification is the minimum requirement to become a veterinary doctor. There are numerous veterinary science courses offered by various institutes. He or she is employed at zoos to ensure they are provided with good health facilities and medical care to improve their life expectancy.
A career in pathology in India is filled with several responsibilities as it is a medical branch and affects human lives. The demand for pathologists has been increasing over the past few years as people are getting more aware of different diseases. Not only that, but an increase in population and lifestyle changes have also contributed to the increase in a pathologist’s demand. The pathology careers provide an extremely huge number of opportunities and if you want to be a part of the medical field you can consider being a pathologist. If you want to know more about a career in pathology in India then continue reading this article.
Gynaecology can be defined as the study of the female body. The job outlook for gynaecology is excellent since there is evergreen demand for one because of their responsibility of dealing with not only women’s health but also fertility and pregnancy issues. Although most women prefer to have a women obstetrician gynaecologist as their doctor, men also explore a career as a gynaecologist and there are ample amounts of male doctors in the field who are gynaecologists and aid women during delivery and childbirth.
When it comes to an operation theatre, there are several tasks that are to be carried out before as well as after the operation or surgery has taken place. Such tasks are not possible without surgical tech and surgical tech tools. A single surgeon cannot do it all alone. It’s like for a footballer he needs his team’s support to score a goal the same goes for a surgeon. It is here, when a surgical technologist comes into the picture. It is the job of a surgical technologist to prepare the operation theatre with all the required equipment before the surgery. Not only that, once an operation is done it is the job of the surgical technologist to clean all the equipment. One has to fulfil the minimum requirements of surgical tech qualifications.
Also Read: Career as Nurse
People might think that a radiation therapist only spends most of his/her time in a radiation operation unit but that’s not the case. In reality, a radiation therapist’s job is not as easy as it seems. The job of radiation therapist requires him/her to be attentive, hardworking, and dedicated to his/her work hours. A radiation therapist is on his/her feet for a long duration and might be required to lift or turn disabled patients. Because a career as a radiation therapist involves working with radiation and radioactive material, a radiation therapist is required to follow the safety procedures in order to make sure that he/she is not exposed to a potentially harmful amount of radiation.
A recreational worker is a professional who designs and leads activities to provide assistance to people to adopt a healthy lifestyle. He or she instructs physical exercises and games to have fun and improve fitness. A recreational worker may work in summer camps, fitness and recreational sports centres, nature parks, nursing care facilities, and other settings. He or she may lead crafts, sports, music, games, drama and other activities.
An oncologist is a specialised doctor responsible for providing medical care to patients diagnosed with cancer. He or she uses several therapies to control the cancer and its effect on the human body such as chemotherapy, immunotherapy, radiation therapy and biopsy. An oncologist designs a treatment plan based on a pathology report after diagnosing the type of cancer and where it is spreading inside the body.
For an individual who opts for a career as an actor, the primary responsibility is to completely speak to the character he or she is playing and to persuade the crowd that the character is genuine by connecting with them and bringing them into the story. This applies to significant roles and littler parts, as all roles join to make an effective creation. Here in this article, we will discuss how to become an actor in India, actor exams, actor salary in India, and actor jobs.
Individuals who opt for a career as acrobats create and direct original routines for themselves, in addition to developing interpretations of existing routines. The work of circus acrobats can be seen in a variety of performance settings, including circus, reality shows, sports events like the Olympics, movies and commercials. Individuals who opt for a career as acrobats must be prepared to face rejections and intermittent periods of work. The creativity of acrobats may extend to other aspects of the performance. For example, acrobats in the circus may work with gym trainers, celebrities or collaborate with other professionals to enhance such performance elements as costume and or maybe at the teaching end of the career.
Video Game Designer
Career as a video game designer is filled with excitement as well as responsibilities. A video game designer is someone who is involved in the process of creating a game from day one. He or she is responsible for fulfilling duties like designing the character of the game, the several levels involved, plot, art and similar other elements. Individuals who opt for a career as a video game designer may also write the codes for the game using different programming languages. Depending on the video game designer job description and experience they may also have to lead a team and do the early testing of the game in order to suggest changes and find loopholes.
The career as a Talent Agent is filled with responsibilities. A Talent Agent is someone who is involved in the pre-production process of the film. It is a very busy job for a Talent Agent but as and when an individual gains experience and progresses in the career he or she can have people assisting him or her in work. Depending on one’s responsibilities, number of clients and experience he or she may also have to lead a team and work with juniors under him or her in a talent agency. In order to know more about the job of a talent agent continue reading the article.
If you want to know more about talent agent meaning, how to become a Talent Agent, or Talent Agent job description then continue reading this article.
Radio Jockey is an exciting, promising career and a great challenge for music lovers. If you are really interested in a career as radio jockey, then it is very important for an RJ to have an automatic, fun, and friendly personality. If you want to get a job done in this field, a strong command of the language and a good voice are always good things. Apart from this, in order to be a good radio jockey, you will also listen to good radio jockeys so that you can understand their style and later make your own by practicing.
A career as radio jockey has a lot to offer to deserving candidates. If you want to know more about a career as radio jockey, and how to become a radio jockey then continue reading the article.
An individual who is pursuing a career as a producer is responsible for managing the business aspects of production. They are involved in each aspect of production from its inception to deception. Famous movie producers review the script, recommend changes and visualise the story.
They are responsible for overseeing the finance involved in the project and distributing the film for broadcasting on various platforms. A career as a producer is quite fulfilling as well as exhaustive in terms of playing different roles in order for a production to be successful. Famous movie producers are responsible for hiring creative and technical personnel on contract basis.
Fashion bloggers use multiple social media platforms to recommend or share ideas related to fashion. A fashion blogger is a person who writes about fashion, publishes pictures of outfits, jewellery, accessories. Fashion blogger works as a model, journalist, and a stylist in the fashion industry. In current fashion times, these bloggers have crossed into becoming a star in fashion magazines, commercials, or campaigns.
Photography is considered both a science and an art, an artistic means of expression in which the camera replaces the pen. In a career as a photographer, an individual is hired to capture the moments of public and private events, such as press conferences or weddings, or may also work inside a studio, where people go to get their picture clicked. Photography is divided into many streams each generating numerous career opportunities in photography. With the boom in advertising, media, and the fashion industry, photography has emerged as a lucrative and thrilling career option for many Indian youths.
In a career as a copywriter, one has to consult with the client and understand the brief well. A career as a copywriter has a lot to offer to deserving candidates. Several new mediums of advertising are opening therefore making it a lucrative career choice. Students can pursue various copywriter courses such as Journalism , Advertising , Marketing Management . Here, we have discussed how to become a freelance copywriter, copywriter career path, how to become a copywriter in India, and copywriting career outlook.
Careers in journalism are filled with excitement as well as responsibilities. One cannot afford to miss out on the details. As it is the small details that provide insights into a story. Depending on those insights a journalist goes about writing a news article. A journalism career can be stressful at times but if you are someone who is passionate about it then it is the right choice for you. If you want to know more about the media field and journalist career then continue reading this article.
For publishing books, newspapers, magazines and digital material, editorial and commercial strategies are set by publishers. Individuals in publishing career paths make choices about the markets their businesses will reach and the type of content that their audience will be served. Individuals in book publisher careers collaborate with editorial staff, designers, authors, and freelance contributors who develop and manage the creation of content.
In a career as a vlogger, one generally works for himself or herself. However, once an individual has gained viewership there are several brands and companies that approach them for paid collaboration. It is one of those fields where an individual can earn well while following his or her passion. Ever since internet cost got reduced the viewership for these types of content has increased on a large scale. Therefore, the career as vlogger has a lot to offer. If you want to know more about the career as vlogger, how to become a vlogger, so on and so forth then continue reading the article. Students can visit Jamia Millia Islamia , Asian College of Journalism , Indian Institute of Mass Communication to pursue journalism degrees.
Individuals in the editor career path is an unsung hero of the news industry who polishes the language of the news stories provided by stringers, reporters, copywriters and content writers and also news agencies. Individuals who opt for a career as an editor make it more persuasive, concise and clear for readers. In this article, we will discuss the details of the editor's career path such as how to become an editor in India, editor salary in India and editor skills and qualities.
Content writing is meant to speak directly with a particular audience, such as customers, potential customers, investors, employees, or other stakeholders. The main aim of professional content writers is to speak to their targeted audience and if it is not then it is not doing its job. There are numerous kinds of the content present on the website and each is different based on the service or the product it is used for.
Individuals who opt for a career as a reporter may often be at work on national holidays and festivities. He or she pitches various story ideas and covers news stories in risky situations. Students can pursue a BMC (Bachelor of Mass Communication) , B.M.M. (Bachelor of Mass Media) , or MAJMC (MA in Journalism and Mass Communication) to become a reporter. While we sit at home reporters travel to locations to collect information that carries a news value.
Linguistic meaning is related to language or Linguistics which is the study of languages. A career as a linguistic meaning, a profession that is based on the scientific study of language, and it's a very broad field with many specialities. Famous linguists work in academia, researching and teaching different areas of language, such as phonetics (sounds), syntax (word order) and semantics (meaning).
Other researchers focus on specialities like computational linguistics, which seeks to better match human and computer language capacities, or applied linguistics, which is concerned with improving language education. Still, others work as language experts for the government, advertising companies, dictionary publishers and various other private enterprises. Some might work from home as freelance linguists. Philologist, phonologist, and dialectician are some of Linguist synonym. Linguists can study French , German , Italian .
Production Manager Job Description: A Production Manager is responsible for ensuring smooth running of manufacturing processes in an efficient manner. He or she plans and organises production schedules. The role of Production Manager involves estimation, negotiation on budget and timescales with the clients and managers.
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A quality controller plays a crucial role in an organisation. He or she is responsible for performing quality checks on manufactured products. He or she identifies the defects in a product and rejects the product.
A quality controller records detailed information about products with defects and sends it to the supervisor or plant manager to take necessary actions to improve the production process.
A career as Production Engineer is crucial in the manufacturing industry. He or she ensures the functionality of production equipment and machinery to improve productivity and minimize production costs in order to drive revenues and increase profitability.
Automation Test Engineer
An Automation Test Engineer job involves executing automated test scripts. He or she identifies the project’s problems and troubleshoots them. The role involves documenting the defect using management tools. He or she works with the application team in order to resolve any issues arising during the testing process.
Individuals who opt for a career as product designers are responsible for designing the components and overall product concerning its shape, size, and material used in manufacturing. They are responsible for the aesthetic appearance of the product. A product designer uses his or her creative skills to give a product its final outlook and ensures the functionality of the design.
Students can opt for various product design degrees such as B.Des and M.Des to become product designers. Industrial product designer prepares 3D models of designs for approval and discusses them with clients and other colleagues. Individuals who opt for a career as a product designer estimate the total cost involved in designing.
A career as R&D Personnel requires researching, planning, and implementing new programs and protocols into their organization and overseeing new products’ development. He or she uses his or her creative abilities to improve the existing products as per the requirements of the target market.
A Commercial Manager negotiates, advises and secures information about pricing for commercial contracts. He or she is responsible for developing financial plans in order to maximise the business's profitability.
Careers in computer programming primarily refer to the systematic act of writing code and moreover include wider computer science areas. The word 'programmer' or 'coder' has entered into practice with the growing number of newly self-taught tech enthusiasts. Computer programming careers involve the use of designs created by software developers and engineers and transforming them into commands that can be implemented by computers. These commands result in regular usage of social media sites, word-processing applications and browsers.
ITSM Manager is a professional responsible for heading the ITSM (Information Technology Service Management) or (Information Technology Infrastructure Library) processes. He or she ensures that operation management provides appropriate resource levels for problem resolutions. The ITSM Manager oversees the level of prioritisation for the problems, critical incidents, planned as well as proactive tasks.
Information Security Manager
Individuals in the information security manager career path involves in overseeing and controlling all aspects of computer security. The IT security manager job description includes planning and carrying out security measures to protect the business data and information from corruption, theft, unauthorised access, and deliberate attack
Big Data Analytics Engineer
Big Data Analytics Engineer Job Description: A Big Data Analytics Engineer is responsible for collecting data from various sources. He or she has to sort the organised and chaotic data to find out patterns. The role of Big Data Engineer involves converting messy information into useful data that is clean, accurate and actionable.
Cloud Solution Developer
A Cloud Solutions Developer is basically a Software Engineer with specialisation in cloud computing. He or she possesses a solid understanding of cloud systems including their operations, deployment with security and efficiency with no little downtime.
CRM Technology Consultant
A Customer Relationship Management Technology Consultant or CRM Technology Consultant is responsible for monitoring and providing strategy for performance improvement with logged calls, performance metrics and revenue metrics. His or her role involves accessing data for team meetings, goal setting analytics as well as reporting to executives.
Career as IT Manager requires managing the various aspects of an organization's information technology systems. He or she is responsible for increasing productivity and solving problems related to software and hardware. While this role is typically one of the lower-level positions within an organisation, it comes with responsibilities related to people and ownership of systems.
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Essay on Tsunami 2004, 250-300 words
Essay on tsunami 2004: Tsunami is most dreadful of all-natural calamities. It means terrible sea-shore waves. Whenever Tsunami happens there is a lot of destruction at the ports and nearby areas. Tsunamis are to happen from time to time. Sometimes they are destructive and other times not so.
A tsunami happens due to the earthquake. Whenever an earthquake happens deep inside the sea or at the ports then sea-waves arise in a terrible way. They are very destructive. Man cannot fore-cost its happening. We have to face many types of ruins at the time of the Tsunami .
image source: wallpaperaccess
On December 24, 2004 , India. South Asia and South East Asia faced a very terrible Tsunami . It was so terrible inside the sea that Sri Lanka and Indian coastal areas faced deadly
Destruction. Lakhs of people died many more affected. Wounded people are countless in that tragedy. We are helpless for those who are died. But the whole world is open-heartedly providing relief to the survivors of the Tsunami . Many heads of states, organization and departments are heading towards the rebuilding process of the victims we should help them by providing them shelter , food, and education etc.
The destruction in tsunami 2004 has proved that disaster management in India is too poor to facing natural calamities like a tsunami. It is needed. It is the need of this age to develop a powerful system to guess and to forecast the natural calamities. If we have proper and adequate measures then we can prevent the mass loss of lives and property. With the help of Japan and British technology Indian Met-depth. Is developing fore-telling measures in this regard. We have a wide range of coastal areas in India. So it is the demand for time to be well-equipped with the latest technology.
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Essay on Tsunami for Students in English | 500+ Words Essay
January 1, 2021 by Karan
Essay on Tsunami: A sudden, unexpected series of ocean waves of high risen wavelengths are called tsunami waves. They are strong currents of water waves that rush through inland spaces, flood nearby areas and last for a long time. They are seismic waves that trigger landslide undersea and force themselves through any obstacle on their way. Large volumes of water are displaced at great transoceanic distances at high speeds.
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Essay on Tsunami 500 Words in English
Below we have provided Tsunami Essay in English, suitable for class 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10.
A tsunami is a series of fierce waves generated by the displacement of water. They occur in substantial water bodies due to earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and underwater explosions. Tsunamis are also oftenly referred to as tidal waves. The waves are very high in magnitude as well as their length, and they can be immensely destructive.
Japan is the country which has recorded the most significant number of tsunamis. The tsunami generated in the Indian Ocean in the year 2004 is still considered as the most upsetting tsunami taking more than two hundred thousand lives. Tsunamis are quite rare in occurrence as compared to other natural disasters , but they are equally damaging.
Causes of Tsunami
The leading cause of a tsunami is attributable to an earthquake . However, even volcanic eruptions, landslides and comets or other heavenly bodies hitting the sea can be a source. When the tectonic plates of the earth positioned under the sea are disturbed, an earthquake takes place, causing the seawater to displace and erupt in sudden waves. These waves move further and further towards the shores. They can go unnoticed in the deep ocean but become more prominent as the water becomes shallow.
Landslides are another prominent cause of a tsunami. When heavy debris falls without warning with massive force into the sea, it causes a tremendous ripple effect. This ripple effect thus, causes tidal waves to form, which ultimately rise towards the land and cause massive destruction. During the eruption of a volcano on land, debris falls with a great thrust into the water body, causing the same ripple effect. Volcanoes can be underwater as well. They are known as submarine volcanoes. Tsunamis can further occur as a result of meteorological activity and human-made triggers.
Effects of Tsunami
When water washes away the shores with such colossal force, it damages the sewage system and freshwater. It also causes water fit for drinking to erode and contaminate. Because of the water being stagnant and polluted, numerous diseases like malaria affect a large number of people. They become ill, and infections spread quickly. A tsunami may even destroy nuclear plants which result in emittance of harmful radiations. These radiations are fatal to the health of every living organism. Mass evacuations become necessary in areas exposed to radiations because they can result in cancer, death and can even affect the DNA structures.
The saddest effect of a tsunami is the loss of lives in huge numbers. Tsunamis hit suddenly, with almost no warning and hence people get no time to escape it or run away. They drown, collapse, are electrocuted, etc. Tsunamis not only cause massive destruction of life but also degrade the environment in a gigantic way. It uproots trees and destroys pipelines which lead to the release of dioxides, raw sewage and other pollutants into the atmosphere. When these hazardous pollutants are washed into the sea, they also cause unbearable damage to the aquatic underwater life.
When the waves of a powerful tsunami smash the shores, they destroy trees, cars, buildings, telephone lines, pipelines and other man-made equipment into bits and pieces. Poverty rises in areas which get most affected by the wrath of tsunamis. The governments are also able to do little for their betterment immediately due to the high funding requirement and expenses.
Recent searches clear all, session expired, please login to continue., virtual g20 leaders’ summit.
During the closing session of the New Delhi G20 Summit on 10 September 2023, Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi had announced that India would be hosting a virtual G20 Leaders’ Summit prior to the conclusion of India’s G20 Presidency.
In pursuance of this announcement, a virtual G20 Leaders’ Summit, chaired by the Prime Minister, will be held on 22 November 2023.
Leaders of all G20 Members including the Chair of the African Union, as well as nine Guest countries, and Heads of 11 International Organizations, have been invited.
It may be recalled that the New Delhi G20 Summit witnessed the unanimous adoption of the G20 New Delhi Leaders’ Declaration. The Virtual Summit will take forward key, select outcomes / action points from the New Delhi Summit as well as review developments since then. The deliberations of the 2nd Voice of Global South Summit, held on 17 November 2023, will also feed into the discussions.
The Virtual G20 Summit is also expected to push for effective implementation of various G20 decisions, including through relevant national and international platforms.
India holds the G20 Presidency until 30 November 2023. The G20 Troika during the Brazilian G20 Presidency in 2024 will comprise India, Brazil, and South Africa.
18 November 2023
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A Big Year for India on the Global Stage Ends in Cricket Heartbreak
A dominant World Cup run closes with a loss to Australia in the final, a symbol of how far India has come and how far it still has to go.
By Mujib Mashal
Reporting from the stadium in Ahmedabad, India
The stage was amply set: an acrobatic air show by Indian military planes, performances by star Bollywood singers, a light display, lots of fireworks and — talked about as the highlight — an appearance by Prime Minister Narendra Modi in the vast stadium that bears his name.
All India’s national cricket team, undefeated and heavily favored, had to do was win.
In the end, the Indians fell short, losing to Australia on Sunday night in the men’s World Cup, silencing the home crowd of about 100,000 and bringing heartache to more than a billion Indians who have grown used this year to unending validation of their country’s global rise.
The result was a bitter pill for a nation that expected a coronation as the most dominant force, measured in passion and money, in a sport that by some estimates is the world’s second most popular. It seemed to symbolize how far India has come, on and off the field, and how far it still has to go.
The Indian team had entered the final in Ahmedabad, in the western state of Gujarat, having handsomely won all 10 of its matches in the tournament. The image-savvy Mr. Modi hoped to lap up a moment of glory at Narendra Modi Stadium, in his home state, ahead of elections early next year, when he will be seeking a third term.
The choreography — of a strong leader handing the trophy to a commanding team that swept to victory — would serve to further fuse his image to the story of India’s ascent.
But by the time Mr. Modi reached the stadium toward the end of the match, India’s chances had spiraled downward. He presented the trophy to the Australians after the crowd had mostly exited.
“Dear Team India,” the prime minister said in a consolation message on X after the game. “Your talent and determination through the World Cup was noteworthy. You’ve played with great spirit and brought immense pride to the nation.”
And there has been a lot for India, now the world’s most populous nation, to be proud of this year. Its economy, the world’s fifth largest, is the fastest growing among major nations (even if that growth is highly unequal). It emerged as a powerful voice for developing nations as it hosted the Group of 20 summit this year. And it became the first country to successfully land a rover on the southern pole of the moon.
In cricket, India is the world’s undisputed economic powerhouse. At least 80 percent of revenues in global cricket come from India, global cricket officials estimate. Indian broadcast rights for international matches for a four-year period fetched about $3 billion.
In addition, there is the country’s lucrative domestic league, the Indian Premier League. Its 10 teams are valued at about $1 billion on average, and the league, which draws the best players from India and around the world, sold its five-year media rights for about $6 billion.
The sport’s riches are also beginning to trickle to the women’s game. Last year, India launched the $500 million Women’s Premier League , offering hope to young female cricketers in a country where female participation in the formal economy remains abysmal.
But India’s checkbook domination of the game has not translated into comparable success on the biggest international stages. India has won the World Cup, played every four years, twice in the tournament’s 48-year history, the last time in 2011. Australia has won six times.
And other nations have been rankled by how India uses its outsize influence over cricket. India’s World Cup planning drew complaints as its late announcement of dates and tickets made it difficult for overseas fans to participate.
None of that was on the minds of Indians, though, as they streamed into the tournament final on Sunday with high expectations. It seemed as if the entire country had descended on Ahmedabad: Airlines added flights, and celebrities kept landing in chartered planes. Hotel rooms shot up anywhere from five to 10 times the usual rate.
All morning, the city’s metro ferried people to Narendra Modi Stadium. At every stop, families clad in blue squeezed their way into the packed cars, which became moving sound boxes filled with roaring cheers in Hindi:
“Mother India? Long live!”
“Win, win? India will win!”
By the time they got off the trains, many had become warmly acquainted, in the way that sporting events bring together complete strangers.
Some, like 16-year-old Kartik, had traveled long distances even without a ticket, clinging to hope until the last minute. He had taken several trains from the south of the country and stood outside the stadium gates with a large handwritten sign.
“I WANT TWO TICKETS,” the sign read. “I AM COME FROM 3000 KMS.”
In case anyone wondered whether he was asking for a donation, he had written in a corner in smaller letters: “I will buy.”
During the few stretches of play when India showed hopes of bouncing back, the huge crowd cheered the team on in unison.
But for much of the night, it was the crowd’s silence that told the story. Toward the end, as India’s defeat appeared certain, it was so silent that the single clap of an Australian fan could be heard in an entire section. When the fireworks announced Australia’s victory, it was so quiet that it felt like salt on gaping wounds.
After his team lifted the trophy, Pat Cummins, the Australian captain, said he had begun his day nervous seeing the sea of blue all around him.
“Awesome day,” he added. “The good thing was they weren’t too noisy for most of it.”
After the loss, India’s coach, Rahul Dravid, said his team was shattered to see such a dominating campaign end in a whimper.
World Cup glory had evaded Mr. Dravid several times during his playing career, too, including when he captained the team in 2007. Now, as coach, he said it was “tough to see” a team that had “represented India fantastically” go out with a loss.
“But yeah, that’s sport. That happens. It can happen,” he said. “And I’m sure that the sun will come up tomorrow morning. We’ll learn from it. We’ll reflect. And we’ll move on, as will everyone else.”
Mujib Mashal is the South Asia bureau chief for The Times, helping to lead coverage of India and the diverse region around it, including Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bangladesh and Bhutan. More about Mujib Mashal