Talk to our experts
- Essay on Freedom of Speech in English Free PDF download
Download Important English Essay on the Topic - Freedom of Speech Free PDF from Vedantu
One of the fundamental rights of the citizens of India is ‘Freedom of Speech’. This is allowed to the citizens by a lot of countries to empower the citizens to share their own thoughts and views. This freedom of speech essay is for students of class 5 and above. The language used in this essay is plain and simple for a better understanding of the students. This freedom of speech essay example will help the students write a paragraph on freedom of speech in their own words easily.
Long Essay on Freedom of Speech
The phrase “Freedom of Speech” has been misinterpreted by some individuals who either do not actually understand the meaning of the phrase completely or have a totally different agenda in mind altogether. Every democratic country gives its citizens this freedom. The same is guaranteed by the Constitution of India too. Irrespective of your gender, religion, caste, or creed, you are guaranteed that freedom as an Indian. The values of democracy in a country are defined by this guaranteed fundamental freedom. The freedom to practice any religion, the freedom to express opinions and disagreeing viewpoints without hurting the sentiments or causing violence is what India is essentially made up of.
Indians stand out for their secularism and for spreading democratic values across the world. Thus, to save and celebrate democracy, enforcing freedom of speech in India becomes a necessity. Freedom of speech is not only about the fundamental rights, it’s also a fundamental duty to be done by every citizen rightfully so as to save the essence of democracy.
In developed democracies like the US, UK, Germany or France, we see a “freedom of speech” that is different from what we see in authoritarian countries like China, Malaysia or Syria and failed democratic countries like Pakistan or Rwanda. These governance systems failed because they lacked freedom of speech. Freedom of press gives us a yardstick to gauge the freedom of speech in a country. A healthy, liberal and strong democracy is reflected by a strong media presence in a country, since they are supposed to be the voice of the common people. A democracy that has a stomach for criticisms and disagreements is taken in a positive way.
Some governments get very hostile when faced with any form of criticism and so they try to oppress any voices that might stand against them. This becomes a dangerous model of governance for any country. For example, India has more than hundred and thirty crores of population now and we can be sure that every individual will not have the same thought process and same views and opinions about one thing. A true democracy is made by the difference of opinions and the respect people have for each other in the team that is responsible for making the policies.
Before making a choice, all aspects and angles of the topic should be taken into consideration. A good democracy will involve all the people - supporters and critics alike, before formulating a policy, but a bad one will sideline its critics, and force authoritarian and unilateral policies upon all of the citizens.
Sedition law, a British-era law, was a weapon that was used in India to stifle criticism and curb freedom of speech during the pre-independence era. Through section 124A of Indian Penal Code, the law states that if a person with his words, written or spoken, brings hatred, contempt or excites tension towards a government or an individual can be fined or jailed or fined and jailed both. This law was used by the Britishers to stifle the freedom fighters. Today it is being used by the political parties to silence criticism and as a result is harming the democratic values of the nation.
Many laws in India also protect the people in rightfully exercising their freedom of expression but the implementation of these laws is proving to be a challenge. Freedom of speech cannot be absolute. In the name of freedom of speech, hatred, tensions, bigotry and violence too cannot be caused in the society. It will then become ironically wrong to allow freedom of speech in the first place. Freedom of speech and expression should not become the reason for chaos and anarchy in a nation. Freedom of speech was stifled when article 370 got revoked in Kashmir. Not that the government was trying to go against the democratic values, but they had to prevent the spread of fake news, terrorism or any type of communal tensions in those areas.
Short Essay on Freedom of Speech
Freedom of speech allows the people of our country to express themselves, and share their ideas, views and opinions openly. As a result, the public and the media can comment on any political activity and also express their dissent towards anything they think is not appropriate.
Various other countries too provide freedom of speech to their citizens but they have certain limitations. Different countries have different restrictions on their freedom of speech. Some countries also do not allow this fundamental right at all and the best example being North Korea. There, the media or the public are not allowed to speak against the government. It becomes a punishable offence to criticize the government or the ministers or the political parties.
Key Highlights of the Essay - Freedom of Speech
Every democratic country gives its citizens the Freedom of Speech so as to enable the citizens to freely express their individual views, ideas and concerns. The freedom to be able to practice any religion, to be able to express individual secularism and for spreading democratic values across the world. In order to be able to save and to celebrate democracy, enforcing freedom of speech in India Is essential. Freedom of speech about fundamental rights is also a fundamental duty of citizens in order to save the essence of democracy. In a country, a healthy, liberal and strong democracy is always reflected and can be seen through a strong media presence, as the media are the voice of the common people. When faced with any form of criticism, we see some governments get very hostile, and they try to oppress and stop any kind of voices that might go against them. This is not favorable for any country.
A good democracy involves all the people - all their various supporters and critics alike, before they begin formulating any policies. India had the Sedition law, a British-era law that is used to stifle criticism and curb freedom of speech during the pre-independence era. The section 124A of Indian Penal Code, this law of sedition stated that if a person with his words, written or spoken, brings hatred, contempt or excites tension towards a government or an individual, then he can be fined or jailed or both. Using freedom of speech, people spread hatred, unnecessary tensions, bigotry and some amount of violence too in the society. Ironically in such cases, it will be wrong to allow freedom of speech. The reasons for chaos and anarchy in a nation should not be due to Freedom of speech and expression. This law was stifled when article 370 got revoked in Kashmir, in order to prevent the spread of fake news, terrorism or any type of communal tensions in those areas.
Freedom of speech gives people of our country, the freedom to express themselves, to be able to share their ideas, views and opinions openly, where the public and the media can express and comment on any political activities and can also be able to express their dissent towards anything they think is not appropriate. Different countries have different restrictions on their freedom of speech. And it is not proper to comment on that .In Fact, there are some countries which does not allow this fundamental right , for example, North Korea where neither the media nor the public have any right to speak against or even for the government and it is a punishable offense to openly criticize the government or the or anyone in particular.
While freedom of speech lets the society grow it could have certain negative outcomes. It should not be used to disrespect or instigate others. The media too should not misuse it. We, the people of this nation, should act responsibly towards utilizing its freedom of speech and expression. Lucky we are to be citizens of India. It’s a nation that respects all its citizens and gives them the rights needed for their development and growth.
A fundamental right of every citizen of India, the ‘Freedom of Speech’ allows citizens to share their individual thoughts and views.
FAQs on Essay on Freedom of Speech in English Free PDF download
1. Mention five lines for Freedom of Speech Essay?
i) A fundamental right that is guaranteed to citizens of a country to be able to express their opinions and points of view without any kind of censorship.
ii) A democracy’s health depends on the extent of freedom of expression of all its citizens.
iii) Freedom of speech is never absolute in nature.
iv) New Zealand, USA or UK rank high in terms of freedom of speech by its citizens.
v) A fundamental right in the Indian constitution is the Freedom of Speech and Expression.
2. Explain Freedom of Speech?
A fundamental right of every citizen of India, Freedom Of Speech allows every citizen the freedom and the right to express all their views, concerns, ideas and issues relating to anything about their country. Freedom of Speech is never actual in nature and has its limits too. It cannot be used for any kind of illegal purposes.The health of a democracy depends on the extent of freedom of expression of its citizens.
3. What happens when there is no Freedom of Speech?
A country will become a police and military state with no democratic and humanitarian values in it if there is no freedom of speech. Freedom of Speech is a fundamental right for all citizens, and a failure to not being able to express one’s ideas, beliefs, and thoughts will result in a non authoritarian and non democratic country. Failure to have freedom of speech in a country would mean that the rulers or the governments of those countries have no respect for its citizens.
4. Where can we get study material related to essay writing ?
It is important to practice some of the important questions in order to do well. Vedantu.com offers these important questions along with answers that have been formulated in a well structured, well researched, and easy to understand manner. Various essay writing topics, letter writing samples, comprehension passages are all available at the online portals today. Practicing and studying with the help of these enable the students to measure their level of proficiency, and also allows them to understand the difficult questions with ease.
You can avail all the well-researched and good quality chapters, sample papers, syllabus on various topics from the website of Vedantu and its mobile application available on the play store.
5. Why should students choose Vedantu for an essay on the topic 'Freedom of Speech’?
Essay writing is important for students as it helps them increase their brain and vocabulary power. Today it is important to be able to practice some important topics, samples and questions to be able to score well in the exams. Vedantu.com offers these important questions along with answers that have been formulated in a well structured, well researched, and easy to understand manner. The NCERT and other study material along with their explanations are very easily accessible from Vedantu.com and can be downloaded too. Practicing with the help of these questions along with the solutions enables the students to measure their level of proficiency, and also allows them to understand the difficult questions with ease.
6. What is Freedom of Speech?
Freedom of speech is the ability to express our opinions without any fear.
7. Which country allows the highest level of Freedom of Speech to its citizens?
The USA is at the highest with a score of 5.73.
8. Is Freedom of Speech absolute?
No, freedom of speech cannot be absolute. It has limitations.
Essay on Freedom of Speech for Children and Students
Table of Contents
Essay on Freedom of Speech: Freedom of speech is one of the fundamental rights of the citizens of India. Many countries around the world allow freedom of speech to its citizens to empower them to share their thoughts and views.
Fill Out the Form for Expert Academic Guidance!
Please indicate your interest Live Classes Books Test Series Self Learning
Verify OTP Code (required)
Fill complete details
Target Exam ---
The government of India and many other countries provide freedom of speech to their citizens. This is especially so in the countries with democratic government. Here are essays of varying lengths on the topic Freedom of Speech to help you with the same in your exam. You can select any Freedom of Speech essay as per your need:
Long and Short Essay on Freedom of Speech in English
We have provided below short and long essay on freedom of speech in English. These essay have been written in simple English to let you easily remember the main points and present them whenever required.
These freedom of speech essay will brief you about the right to freedom of speech under the Constitution and what is its significance.
You can use these freedom of speech essays in your school’s/college’s essay writing, speech or debate competitions. You can also use these essays while having normal discussions with your family and friends.
Freedom of Speech Essay 1 (200 words)
Freedom of Speech is one of the fundamental rights provided to the citizens of India. It allows the citizens of our country to express their ideas and share their opinions freely. It allows the general public as well as the media to comment on any of the political activities and even show discontentment against the ones they find inappropriate.
Just like India many other countries also provide the Freedom of Speech and Expression to its citizens but with some limitations. The restrictions put on the Freedom of Speech vary from country to country. There are also many countries that do not allow this basic human right. The general public and the media in such countries are refrained from commenting on the activities carried out by the government. Criticism of government, political parties or ministers is a punishable offense in such countries.
While Freedom of Speech is essential for the overall growth of the society it may have certain negative repercussions too. People must not use it to disrespect or instigate others. The media must also act responsibly and not misuse the Freedom of Speech.
I am lucky to have born in India – a country that respects its citizens and provides them with all the rights that are needed for their growth and development.
Freedom of Speech Essay 2 (300 words)
Freedom of speech is one of the basic rights given to the citizens of most of the countries across the globe. It enables the people residing in those countries to speak their mind without the fear of being punished by the law.
Origin of Freedom of Speech
The concept of freedom of speech originated long back. England’s Bill of Rights 1689 adopted freedom of speech as a constitutional right and it is still in effect. The French revolution in 1789 adopted the Declaration of Rights of Man and of the Citizen. This further affirmed the Freedom of Speech as an undeniable right. The Declaration of Freedom of Speech and Expression in Article 11 states:
“The free communication of ideas and opinions is one of the most precious of the rights of man. Every citizen may, accordingly, speak, write, and print with freedom, but shall be responsible for such abuses of this freedom as shall be defined by law”.
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights that was adopted in the year 1948 also states that everyone should have the freedom to express their ideas and opinions. Freedom of Speech and Expression has now formed a part of the international and regional human rights law.
Freedom of Speech – The Basis of Democracy
A democratic government gives various rights to its people including the right to elect the government of their country. Freedom of speech and expression is known to form the basis of a democratic nation. Merely electing the government is no use if the citizens do not have the right to voice their opinion in case they feel that the elected government is not performing as per the standards set by it initially. This is why right to freedom of speech is an essential right in the democratic nations. It forms the basis of democracy.
Freedom of speech empowers the people to share their ideas and bring about positive changes in the society.
Freedom of Speech Essay 3 (400 words)
Freedom of Speech is considered to be a basic right that every person must be entitled to. It is among the seven fundamental rights given to the citizens of India by the Indian constitution. It forms a part of the Right to Freedom that includes the freedom of speech and expression, right to life and liberty, freedom of movement, freedom of residence, right to practice any profession, freedom to form unions, associations or cooperatives, protection in regard to conviction in offences and protection against arrest in some cases.
Why is Freedom of Speech Essential?
Freedom of speech is essential for the all round growth and development of a person as well as a nation as a whole. Imposing restriction on what one speaks or hears can hamper the development of a person. It can even create discomfort and dissatisfaction that leads to stress. A nation filled with people full of discontent can never grow in the right direction.
Freedom of Speech gives way to open discussions that helps in exchange of ideas which is essential for the growth of the society. It is also essential to express one’s opinion about the political system of the country. When the government knows that it monitored and can be challenged or criticized for the steps it is taking, it acts more responsibly.
Freedom of Speech – Closely Related to Other Rights
Freedom of Speech is closely related to the other rights. It is mainly required to protect the other rights given to the citizens.Freedom of Speech is only when people have the right to express and speak freely they can raise their voice against anything that goes wrong. It enables them to take an active part in democracy rather than just being involved in the election process. Similarly, they can guard other rights such as the Right to Equality, Right to Freedom of Religion, Right against Exploitation and Right to Privacy only when they have the Freedom to Speech and Expression.
It is also closely related to the Right to Fair Trial. Freedom of Speech and Expression enables a person to put across his point freely during a trial which is extremely essential.
Freedom of speech gives the power to raise voice against any kind of injustice happening around. The governments of the countries that offer Right to Information and Opinion and Freedom of Speech and Expression must also welcome the opinions and ideas of their citizens and be receptive to change.
Freedom of Speech Essay 4 (500 words)
Freedom of Speech and Expression is one of the basic rights guaranteed to the citizens of India. It comes under the Right to Freedom which is among the seven fundamental rights included in the Indian constitution. The other rights include Right to Equality, Right to Freedom of Religion, Cultural and Educational Rights, Right to Privacy, Right against Exploitation and Right to Constitutional Remedies.
Freedom of Speech in India
The constitution of India provides Freedom of Speech to every citizen however with some restrictions. This means that the people can freely express their views about others as well as the government, political system, policies and bureaucracy. However, speech can restricted on moral grounds, security and provocation. Under the Right to Freedom in the Indian constitution, the citizens of the country have the following rights:
- Freedom to speak and express ideas and opinions freely
- to assemble peacefully without any arms and ammunitions
- Freedom to form groups, unions and associations
- to move freely in any part of the country
- Freedom to settle in any part of the country
- to practice any profession
- Freedom to indulge in any kind of business or trade provided it is not unlawful.
India known as a democratic country in true sense. The people here have the right to information and can give their opinion on anything even the activities of the government. Freedom of Speech empowers the media to share all that is going on in the country as well as around the world. This makes the people more aware and also keeps them updated with the latest happenings from around the world.
Downside of Freedom of Speech
While the Freedom of Speech allows an individual to share his thoughts and ideas and contribute towards the betterment of his society and fellow citizens, there many disadvantages attached to it too. Many people misuse this freedom. They do not just express their views but also impose them on others. They instigate people and form groups to conduct unlawful activities. Media is also free to express its ideas and opinions. At times, the information shared by them creates panic amongst the general public. Certain news such as that related to the activities of different communal groups has even given rise to communal riots in the past. This disrupts the peace and harmony of the society.
Internet has augmented the Freedom of Speech and Expression. The advent of social media platforms has furthered it all the more. People these days are eager to give their views on anything and everything whether they have knowledge about the same or not. They write hateful comments without caring if they are hurting someone’s feelings or intruding in someone’s personal space. This can certainly termed as the misuse of this freedom and must stopped.
Every country must provide the Freedom of Speech and Expression to its citizens. However, it must defined clearly so that it only helps in bringing about positive changes in the individuals as well as the society and does not disrupt its normal functioning.
Freedom of Speech Essay 5 (600 words)
Freedom of Speech given to citizens of most countries to enable them to share their ideas and provide their opinion on different matters. It considered to be essential for the growth of an individual as well as the society. While most countries provide this freedom to its citizens, many refrain from it.
Many Countries Offer Freedom of Speech
Not only India many countries around the world offer Freedom of Speech and Expression to their citizens. The United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights incorporated in the year 1948 states:
“Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers”.
South Africa, Sudan, Pakistan, Tunisia, Hong Kong, Iran, Israel, Malaysia, Japan, Philippines, South Korea, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Thailand, New Zealand, Europe, Denmark, Finland and Republic of China are among some of the countries that offer Freedom of Speech and Expression to their citizens.
Now, while these countries have given the Right to Freedom of Speech and Expression to their citizens however the degree to which this right rendered to the general public and media differs from country to country.
Countries that Do Not Have Freedom of Speech
There are countries that do not give the right to Freedom of Speech to their citizens to maintain absolute control. Here is a look at some of these countries:
- North Korea :
The country does not provide Freedom of Speech and Expression to its citizens as well as the media. Thus, the government does not only hold the freedom to express ones ideas and opinions but also holds information from its citizens.
The government of Syria known for its tyranny. People here deprived of their basic human right that is the right to Freedom of Speech and Expression.
Yet another country that doesn’t provide Freedom of Speech to its citizens. The citizens of Cuba not allowed to pass any negative comment on the activities of the government or any political party. The government here has even put restriction on internet usage so that people do not get a chance to express anything via the same.
This is another country that does not offer Freedom of Speech and Expression. People cannot voice their opinions or criticize the work of the government. Criticism of the government or any political minister is a criminal offense here.
The citizens of Iran are not aware what it is like to express their opinion and share their ideas freely in the public. Nobody can express any kind of discontentment against the public laws or Islamic standards.
The government of Burma is of the opinion that the Freedom of Speech and Expression is unnecessary. The citizens asked not to express their ideas or opinions particularly if they are against any leader or political party. The media in this country run by the government.
Most people in this country do not even know as to what Freedom of Speech and Expression really is. The government of Libya known for oppressing its citizens. In the age of internet, people around the world are free to express their views on any matter but not in this country. Many people in the country have arrested for criticizing the government on the internet.
Freedom of Speech and Expression is a basic human right that must given to the citizens of each country. However it is sad to see the way the governments of certain countries do not provide even this essential human right to its citizens and oppresses them to fulfil their own selfish motives.
- Essay on India
- Democracy in India
- Essay on Fundamental Rights
- Slogans on Newspaper
- Speech on Newspaper
- Essay on Social Media
Talk to our academic expert!
Language --- English Hindi Marathi Tamil Telugu Malayalam
Get access to free Mock Test and Master Class
Register to Get Free Mock Test and Study Material
Offer Ends in 5:00
Freedom of Expression Essay
Searching for freedom of expression essay? Look no further! This argumentative essay about freedom of expression, thought, & speech, will inspire you to write your own piece.
- The Key Concepts
Freedom of expression refers to the right to express one’s opinions or thoughts freely by utilizing any of the different modes of communication available. The ideas aired should, however, not cause any intentional harm to other personality or status through false or ambiguous statements. Communication of ideas can be achieved through speech, writing or art. Freedom of expression, unlike freedom of thought, may be regulated by the appropriate authorities in any society in order to avoid controversies between different individuals.
The extent to which this limitation or censorship is done varies from nation to nation and is dependent on the government of the day. According to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, every individual has the right to search for information, access and impart variety of ideas irrespective of the frontiers.
Freedom of Expression: The Key Concepts
The subject of freedom of expression has always been controversial, especially when considering political aspects. A state is perceived to have the mandate to impede people from convening groups in which they air their opinions if those views can result in direct harm to other people.
However, the interference would only be an exception if doing so results in more beneficial outcomes than standing aside. For one to be in a position to gauge the eventuality of a gain or a loss, then there should be absolute freedom of expression on all matters irrespective of the nature of the sentiments made.
Arguments for absolute freedom of expression can be a made by evaluating the purpose for which the ideas are expressed and the manner in which we evaluate what is true or false. According to Mill (Eisenach, 2004), the right to express one’s opinions offers humanity a rare chance to switch over an error for the truth if the idea expressed happens to be true.
In case the opinion happens to be wrong, mankind stands a chance of getting a clearer picture of the known truth through collusion with a mistake. Therefore, freedom of expression acts in the best interests of mankind as it endeavors to progress and its limitation deprives people of the prospects of growth.
Whether we let expression of an opinion to be limited or censored, whereas it could be true, then we present ourselves as beyond reproach. We consider all that we know to be the truth and therefore dispel all opinions that question this truth. It is possible for people or authorities to be in fault. For instance, what we consider to be morally right or wrong may not be so.
The lines that define moral rights and wrongs were set by people who could possibly have mistaken. In order to draw the limit, one must differentiate between sureness and the truth. Our certainty that a particular idea is false does not in any way excuse its expression. Suppressing such an idea would not only justify our confidence of the opinion being wrong, but also proves that we are flawless.
If limitation of people’s freedom of expression in matters such as racism is based on certainty that mankind does not stand to lose any benefit, then this sureness should be founded in the freedom itself. We can only consider ourselves to be certain when there have been no opinions raised to question the truths we hold. Therefore, in order to boost our certainty, we have to leave room for the opposing beliefs.
There are governments that censor the expression of certain ideas not because they are false, but because they are considered to be hazardous to the society. Mill argues that in such a situation, the hazard in the expressed opinions is questionable. The only way to ascertain that the opinion is in fact dangerous is not to suppress its expression but to allow its free discussion.
Secondly, if the opinion that is being limited is true, then the alternative view held by the government must be false. Experience has shown that all beliefs that are false are never constructive in the long run. Therefore, the government that prefers to hold a false conviction in place of a hazardous truth does not act in the best interests of its people.
In many instances, the silenced view may be a mistake. However, most of these mistakes do carry with them a scrap of truth. On the other hand, the existing view on each of the different topics often does not contain the entire truth. By listening to the opinions of others on the matter, an opportunity to learn the rest of the uncovered truths presents itself.
For instance in politics, we could have two political parties with different agendas. One wants to institute reforms while another desires to ensure stability. People may not be in a position to discern what should be retained or altered, but ensuring the parties at opposing ends ensures each party checks on the performance of the other. In the long run, we strike for a beneficial balance between their supposed agendas (Bhargava, 2008).
Moreover, if the opinion being expressed is entirely true, it may not be considered so with certainty. For confidence to feature, these views must be contested against other rational opinions of others in order to single out the supporting arguments. It is expected that those who believe in their opinions will place strong arguments in their favor (Matravers, 2001).
If an authority believes in the rationality of its ideas, then it should leave room for the expression of opposing ideas. For instance, if any reigning political party has faith in the views it has concerning the development of the country’s economy, it should not be wary of an opposition party with contradicting views. After all what they stand for has factual backing (O’Rourke, 2001).
Lastly, the battle for supremacy between different opinions opens up a more comprehensive understanding of our beliefs. We begin to comprehend what is required of us and are, thus, in a position to act on them. Human beliefs do not exhibit any motivation and the debates that arise are what add fuel to the fire.
Holding beliefs with a conservative mindset only serves to hinder our acceptance of the possible alternatives (Jones, 2001). Therefore, opposition exhibited in the freedom of speech opens up a lee way for open-mindedness besides posing a challenge to hypocrisy and logical sluggishness.
The absence of restrictions on people’s freedom of oppression allows for the exchange of error for truth or the clarification of the existing truth. It also reinforces our certainty in the opinions we consider true besides increasing our open-mindedness and thoughtfulness. For governments, it ensures those entrusted with the leadership of the country have reasonable opinions that work for the common good of the country’s citizens.
Free discussion and analysis of different ideas will, thus, result in the prosperity of mankind rather than the detrimental effects it is assumed to bring.
Freedom of Expression FAQ
- What Is Freedom of Expression? Freedom of expression is the ability of individual people and groups to express their thoughts, beliefs, emotions, and ideas without any restrictions or censorship from the government. This freedom is protected by the First Amendment of the US Constitution.
- How Does Freedom of Expression Protect Individual Liberty? The First Amendment of the US Constitution guarantees freedom of expression to all citizens. This means that the US Congress does not have the right to restrict the media or people from speaking freely. People also have the right to peaceful assemblies and petitions to the government.
- Why Is Freedom of Expression Important for Democracy? Freedom of expression is an essential human right. It guarantees the free exchange of information, opinions, and ideas in the public space, allowing people to independently form their own views on all the essential issues.
Bhargava, H. (2008). Political Theory: An Introduction . Delhi: Pearson Education.
Eisenach, E. (2004). Mill and Moral Character . New York: Penn State Press.
Jones, T. (2001). Modern Political Thinkers and Ideas: An Historical Introduction . New York: Routledge.
Matravers, D. (2001) Reading Political Philosophy: Machiavelli to Mill . New York: Routledge.
O’Rourke, K. (2001). John Stuart Mill and Freedom of Expression: The Genesis of a Theory . Connecticut: Taylor & Francis.
- Chicago (A-D)
- Chicago (N-B)
IvyPanda. (2023, October 29). Freedom of Expression Essay. https://ivypanda.com/essays/freedom-of-expression/
"Freedom of Expression Essay." IvyPanda , 29 Oct. 2023, ivypanda.com/essays/freedom-of-expression/.
IvyPanda . (2023) 'Freedom of Expression Essay'. 29 October.
IvyPanda . 2023. "Freedom of Expression Essay." October 29, 2023. https://ivypanda.com/essays/freedom-of-expression/.
1. IvyPanda . "Freedom of Expression Essay." October 29, 2023. https://ivypanda.com/essays/freedom-of-expression/.
IvyPanda . "Freedom of Expression Essay." October 29, 2023. https://ivypanda.com/essays/freedom-of-expression/.
- The Certainty and Doubt Relationship
- Political Change in Russia and Why Reform Is a Certainty
- Discovering Faith: The Search for Truth and Certainty
- Freedom of Speech and Expression
- The Rome II Regulation Analysis
- A Defense of Skepticism: Discussion
- This Earth of Mankind
- The Importance of Freedom of Speech
- How the God Communicates With the Mankind
- Knowledge of the External World
- Universal Moral and Legal Codes
- Animal Cruelty as an Ethical and Moral Problem
- Death Penalty and Ethics
- Attorney Client Privilege: Alton Logan’s Law Case
- Safety at the Construction Sites
Freedom Of Speech - Essay Examples And Topic Ideas For Free
Freedom of speech is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or community to articulate their opinions without fear of retaliation, censorship, or legal sanction. Essays could explore the various interpretations of freedom of speech, its limitations, and its impact on democracy and societal harmony. A vast selection of complimentary essay illustrations pertaining to Freedom Of Speech you can find at Papersowl. You can use our samples for inspiration to write your own essay, research paper, or just to explore a new topic for yourself.
Gender Identity and Freedom of Speech
The views of professor of psychology, Jordan Peterson at the University of Toronto on the issue of gender identity and his beliefs, position and refusal to use gender-neutral pronouns has sparked debates. The arguments by the professor have arisen a lot of objective and subjective intuition on his stand that his freedom of speech and need to become politically correct cannot determine by use of pronouns. Discussions are presented in different articles by Ellen Brait, a staff reporter for the […]
Freedom of Speech should not be Limited
Literature has always been tricky. At times, people find certain books to be offensive or inappropriate. People will even go to great lengths to challenge or ban books just because of differing opinions. Limiting free speech has been a constant and continuous argument throughout history. One side argues that certain pieces of writing should be banned or censored due to words, content and themes that are either viewed as inappropriate, controversial or contain language that is no longer acceptable. Violence, […]
First Amendment Values
Americans value the First Amendment as much as a teenage girl values her cell phone. Life just wouldn't be the same without it. Thanks to the authors of the Constitution America has established the fundamental laws, government, and basic rights for American citizens. The document was signed on September 17, 1787, in Philadelphia. Later, Madison introduced 19 amendments, 12 of which were adopted. Ten of them were ratified and became the Bill of Rights on December 10, 1791. The First […]
Freedom of Speech and Censorship
The government needs to also look at the First amendment that gives Americans the freedom of speech. Although freedom of speech gave the Americans an opportunity to express themselves, it came with some disadvantages. Some individuals used this freedom to propagate hatred especially racism. Individuals who had something against the blacks would use the freedom of expression clause to protect themselves before making hateful remarks. They would propagate hate between the African Americans and the whites. Some leaders were known […]
What is Freedom of Speech
Freedom of speech is the right of ones' right to express and communicate their ideas, opinion, and beliefs. As a result, nobody should fear being reprimanded, punished, or expurgated by society and perhaps the government at large. In most cases, it is done to attract mass attention from the community. It is entirely synonymous to seeking freedom of denied privileges such as an inappropriate distribution of public resources and side-lining of the minority among others. It is a universal right […]
We will write an essay sample crafted to your needs.
Censorship is the restriction of speech, communication or other information. Censorship affects our society in different ways. Censorship is usually determined by the government or a private foundation. It influences the music we tune in to, news articles, films, and the books we read. Censorship is a widely debated topic, and can be either harmful or protective to a society. It is possible to argue that censorship has no place in a nation that focuses on freedom of expression, because […]
Freedom of Speech on Social Media
Social media and freedom of speech have taken over the world. People read on the news every day about people being punished for what they post on social media. To what limit should people be punished for what they post? When people post online, everyone can see the material. It does not matter if the account is private. People should face consequences for their actions on social media if their post is offensive, containing work information, or includes a provocative […]
Importance of Freedom of Speech
Freedom of Speech Taken from People Many people around the world are forced to live without a voice for themselves. These people live in constant fear of the consequences they may face if they do voice their opinions. This lack of a voice goes against the inalienable right that is known as freedom of speech, which is defined as “the legal right to express one’s opinion freely” (Merriam-Webster, 2020). These restrictions of free speech can be countered through the use […]
Modern Day Censorship: Syria
How much do we value our freedom of speech as citizens of the United States of America? Would you risk your life to report news that might make an impact in the lives of many? Many countries around the world maintain very strict guidelines in what can be reported and broadcasted. In many countries this amount of strict censorship could even lead to you getting either tortured or killed. One modern day censored country would be the Middle Eastern country […]
Should Freedom of Speech be Limited
In this paper each author reflects their own moral opinion on hate speech shared with freedom of speech and the results from it containing negative content. There are several authors who discuss hate speech in considerations of freedom of speech. Despite strong objections I trust that society is obligated to protect its citizens and prevent any harm done in relation to hate speech under freedom of speech law. First, In “Freedom of Speech” David van Mill argues freedom of speech […]
On Freedom of Speech in School
What is personal liberty? Liberty is being free to do whatever the individual may want to do without restrictions. This can include things such as freedom of speech and freedom of religion and the freedom to bear arms. Anyone living in the United States are actually guaranteed these rights, right from birth. We also live in a society where these rights are given, but are also restricted or limited to a certain extent. We live in a country where anything […]
News and Democracy in Different Media Systems
Many decades ago, Siebert, Peterson, and Schramm (1959) posed a question related to the concepts of the press and its role in society, “Why is the press as it is? Why does it apparently serve different purposes and appear in widely different forms in different countries?” The answers to these questions led the authors to present the Authoritarian, the Soviet communist, the Libertarian, and the Social Responsibility models, which explain what the press should be and do in different countries. […]
Justice Freedom of Speech
With the popularity of the Internet, the network media has broken the limitation of the traditional media in the freedom of speech, and people can enjoy expressing opinions and spreading information. The infinity of the Internet brings many benefits to people, such as searching for information and watching videos. At the same time, the virtual nature of the network also brings hidden dangers for people, such as spreading false information, human flesh search, and so on. One of the reasons […]
Freedom of Speech in the United States
Freedom of speech has been protected in The United States by the First Amendment since 1791. For over 100 years, this right, though symbolically important, has sat dormant. However today, freedom of speech has been in the headlines due to its involvement in controversial topics surrounding the media, political correctness, and “hate speech”. Hateful beliefs and intolerance towards those with different characteristics exist throughout society and results in an environment of hate. Americans now have a hard choice to make […]
Hatred under the Freedom of Speech
There is a thin line between an open expression of plain hatred and the expression of opinion. It is safe to assume that every person at some point of his or her life, either witnessed or experienced a bias from bigots based on race, nationality, sex, or other characteristics. People interpret “hate speech” differently; some compare it to the crime; others see it as practicing the First Amendment. Both groups can bring a lot of arguments to support their point […]
First Amendment Freedom of Speech
The 2017 Berkeley protests organized by different groups including By Any Means Necessary (BAMN) were an abject violation of the freedom of speech as outlined in the First Amendment of the American constitution. The protests successfully stopped a speech by Milo Yiannopoulos, a controversial Breitbart editor and a self-declared Trump supporter. The protests turned violent and led to the destruction of the property thus posing significant harm to the society. In defending the protests, Yvette Felarca, BAMN’s spokesperson argued that […]
What Freedom Means to me
There are millions of people around the world that live under conditions where the government withholds their human freedoms from them. Some people can not practice the religion they truly believe in, and others are scared for their lives on a daily basis. No matter how many restrictions citizens of different countries must abide by, nobody should be forced into silence. To “be free” means that everybody has the right to raise up their voice, and act for what they […]
On Freedom of Speech and Expression
Privacy is an essential right that every citizen of the United States is granted. Under the first amendment of the constitution rights such as freedom of press, speech, and privacy are protected. The first amendment separates the United States’ constitution from many other countries for a simple reason, the freedom of speech and expression. Freedom of speech and expression is the right to speak freely without fear of repercussion from the government simply because it doesn’t like the content of […]
Freedom of Speech Today
The citizens of the United States of America exercise their First Amendment right, freedom of speech in their day to day lives. Being able to voice their opinion and speak up for what they believe in is what gives our country its degree of autonomy. Having the freedom of speech is a blissful thing that people in other countries long for; such lack of censorship. Despite this freedom, it is not a free for all and has to be regulated […]
Hate Speech Debate and Discussion
In the wake of technological advancement immorality in college campus have increased. For instance, parents are sending their girls in all-girls boarding schools, and they are coming home emotionally traumatized and with low self-esteem because of sexual abuse by the older same sex. Indeed, sexual harassment and discrimination have increased in schools which are stimulating hatred and school dropouts following the progress of technology in the community. Although the immoralities are punishable and illegal in the country, they have continually […]
Negative Side-Effects of Free Speech
Since the beginning of our country, one of our founding principles has been the right to express yourself through speech, media, or any other means of communication. For a long time those that founded our country were under the control of the British, and the lack of freedom to do and say what was on your mind was very constrained. With the American Revolution, we fought for the right to convey our beliefs without fear of another governing force taking […]
1st Amendment and Congress
David Thuita I Amendment "Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances." The beginning of the second amendment finds its root in Athens, Greece during the 400s B.C., where free men were allowed to freely speak. Athen theaters, writings, and educational institutions all […]
Internet Censorship Laws in Saudi Arabia
"The thought of not being able to express oneself through the internet without repercussions might seem implausible; however, it is an ongoing problem in countries like Saudi Arabia. Currently, Saudi Arabia holds a score of 73 out of 100 for its Internet Freedom Score, which sets it as “not free” (“Saudi Arabia Internet Score”). Citizens are prohibited from visiting and accessing many parts of the web due to governmental restrictions based on immoral and “radically” opinionated content. This limits their […]
Question of Womens Educational Rights
What if you were not allowed to have a voice and share what you think just because of your gender? How would that make you feel? Well, this is a common thing that happens in our country and across the world. That is why I am focusing on Women's Rights as my Exhibition topic. I want this to stop. Our class Central Idea is, "Global opportunities may create conflict between people and other living things." Our groups Central Idea had […]
Countries that Ban Same-sex Intercourse is this a Violation of International Law?
Is against the law to murder a person based up on their sexual preference? Would you take away a Civil Liberty? This But is a question you should pounder as you read my paper. But we are going to look at the international aspect. There are many countries where same-sex intercourse and or marriage is against the law. Imagine this being your reality. Having to hide from your family and friend and pretend to be someone else. You wonder should […]
Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)
Introduction From investigations from World War I to present day investigations, hate crimes have occurred in the United States throughout all of history. According to the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), a hate crime is a traditional offense, such as murder, arson, or even vandalism; with a biased element (“Hate Crimes”). Of the 7,175 incidents reported on the FBI website during the year 2017, the top bias motivation was race, ethnicity, and ancestry followed by the bias of religions (“2017 […]
The Need for the Restrictions of Hate Speech in America
Recently, the Westboro Baptist Church has been quite often in the headlines. The Anti-Defamation League's website calls the church "a small virulently homophobic, anti-Semitic hate group" based in Topeka, Kansas ("About WBC"). Since 2005, Westboro has often picketed the funerals of homosexual soldiers with signs that say "God Hates Fags" or "Thank God for Dead Soldiers" ("Pickets inspire legislation and legal action"). This behavior is offensive to the grieving families, and many states have tried to enact legislation that limits […]
A Comparison of Free Speech and Hate Speech in France, Citing Charlie Hebdo Shootings as the Biggest Threat to Free Speech this Year
The line between free speech and hate speech is constantly debated. When does one cross the line from expressing an opinion to openly encouraging hatred of a group? Ridiculing a belief system is protected under free speech, as long as one is not inciting hate or violence against the followers of that belief system. Free speech exists to allow us to openly express our beliefs and argue with others about theirs. France has, for a long time, separated church and […]
Additional example essays.
- My Opinion About Homelessness
- Veterans: Fight for Freedom and Rights
- The Is Immigration Discrimination
- Abortion Rights and the 9th Amendment: Understanding Alabama Amendment Two
- Women in WWII
- Social Responsibility of Media: Realization Rights for Social Media Posts
- Social Media and Beauty Standards: Quest for Perfection and Its Impact on Women
- Mass Incarceration in the U.S
- Why the Death Penalty is Wrong and Ineffective
- Racism in Schools and Its Impact on Students of Color
- Freedom and equality in the Animal Farm
- Poverty and Health: Understanding the Complex Relationship
1. Tell Us Your Requirements
2. Pick your perfect writer
3. Get Your Paper and Pay
Freedom Of Speech And Expression
The freedom of speech and expression is regarded as first condition of liberty. It occupies a preferred and important position in the hierarchy of the liberty, it is truly said about the freedom of speech that it is the mother of all the other liberties. In modern time it is widely accepted that the right to freedom of speech is the essence in the society and it must be safeguarded all the time. The first principle of a free society is an untrammeled flow of words in a open forum. Liberty to express opinions and ideas without hindrance, and especially without fear of punishment plays significant role in the development of the particular society and ultimately for the state. It is one of the most important fundamental liberties guaranteed against state suppression or regulation. The freedom of speech and expression is a very important fundamental right under the Constitution. It is indispensible for the development of one’s own individuality and for the success of parliamentary to democracy. It is said that in a democracy the right to free expression is not only the right of an individual but rather a right of the community to hear and be informed. The freedom of speech and expression is not only guaranteed by the Constitution or statutes of various states but also by various international conventions like Universal Declaration of Human Rights, European Convention on Human Rights and fundamental freedoms, International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights etc. These declarations expressly talks about freedom of speech and expression. Origin of Freedom of Speech And Expression The concept of freedom of speech originated long back. England’s Bill of Rights 1689 adopted freedom of speech as a constitutional right and still in effect. The French Revolution in 1789 adopted the Declaration of Rights of Man and of Citizen. This further affirmed the Freedom of Speech as an undeniable right. The Declaration of Freedom of Speech in Article 11 states: “The free communication of ideas and opinions is one of the most precious of the right of man. Every citizen may, accordingly, speak, write and print with freedom, but shall be responsible for such abuses of this freedom as shall be defined by law”. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights that was adopted in the year 1948 also states that everyone should have the freedom to express their ideas and opinions. The freedom of speech and expression is recognized as a human right under Article 19 and has now formed a part of the international and regional human rights law. In International human rights the freedom of speech and expression is recognized in International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR). Article 19 of the ICCPR states that- “Everyone shall have the right to hold opinions without interference and everyone shall have the right to freedom of speech and expression ; the right shall include freedom to seek, receive, and impart information and ideas of all kinds, regardless of frontiers either orally or the form of writing or print, in the form of art, or through any other media of their choice”. Meaning of Freedom of Speech And Expression The Constitution of India guarantees various fundamental rights to its citizens. One such important right is right to freedom under Article 19. This includes right to freedom of speech and expression, right to assemble peacefully and without arms, freedom to form associations and unions, right to move freely throughout the territory of India, right to reside and settle in any part of the territory of India and right to practice and profession or to carry on any occupation, trade or business. Under this research work, it closely concerns with the Article 19(1)(a) of the Constitution of India. Article 19(1)(a)guarantees that all the citizens have the right to freedom of speech and expression . This right is available only to the citizens of India and not available to any person who is not a citizen of India i.e. foreign nationals. Freedom of speech and expression means the right to express one’s own conviction and opinions freely by means of words of mouth, writing, printing, picture or any other mode. It thus includes the expression of one’s idea through any communicable medium or visible representations such as gesture, signs and the like. The expression connotes also publication and thus the freedom of press is included in this category .The Freedom of press is regarded as a species of which the freedom of expression is a genus. Free propagation of ideas is the necessary objective and this may be done on the platform or through the press. In the Preamble to the Constitution of India, the people of India declared their solemn resolve to secure to all its citizen liberty of thought and expression. The Constitution affirms the right to freedom of expression, which includes the right to voice one’s opinion, the right to seek information and ideas, the right to receive information and the right to impart information. The Indian state is under an obligation to create conditions in which all the citizens can effectively and efficiently enjoy aforesaid rights. In Romesh Thappar v State of Madras, the Supreme Court of India held that the freedom of speech and expression includes freedom to propagate ideas which is ensured by the freedom of circulation of a publication is of little value without circulation. Importance of Freedom of Speech Amd Expression “Give me the liberty to know, to utter, and to argue freely according to conscience, above all liberties”. – John Milton. John argued that without human freedom there can be no progress in science, law or politics, which according to him required free discussion of opinion. Mill’s on Liberty, published in 1859 became a classic defense of the right to freedom of expression. John argued that truth drives out falsity, therefore, the free expression of ideas, true or false should not be feared. The truth is not stable or fixed but evolves with time. John also argued that free discussion is necessary to prevent the “deep slumber of a decided opinion”. The discussion would drive the onwards March of truth and by considering false views the basis of true views could be re-affirmed. An opinion only carries intrinsic value to the owner of that opinion, thus silencing the expression of that opinion is an injustice to a basic human right. For Mill, the only instance in which sped can justifiable suppressed is in order to prevent harm from a clear and direct threat. Neither economic or moral implications, nor the speakers own well-being would justify suppression of speech. “Democracy is based essentially on free debate and open discussion, for that is the only corrective of government action in a democratic setup. If democracy means government of the people by the people and for the people, it is obvious that every citizen must be entitled to participate in the democratic process and in order to enable him to intelligently exercise his right of making a choice, free and general discussion of public matters is absolutely essential”. In 1927, in Whitney v. California, Louis Brandies J, made a classic statement on the freedom of speech in the context of the U.S Constitution: “Those who won our independence believed that the final end of the state was to make men free to develop their faculties. They believed liberty to be secret of happiness and courage to be the secret of liberty. They believed that the freedom to think as you will and to speak and assembly discussion would be futile... that public discussion is a political duty; and that this should be a fundamental principle of the American government.” The Right to freedom of speech and expression as per as Indian Constitution mean the right to express one’s own convictions and opinions freely. The word “freely” means including by words of mouth, writing, printing, banners, signs, and even by way of silence. The supreme court of India has held that hosting the National Flag by citizens is a form of freedom of speech and expression in Union of India v. Naveen Jindal and Anr. The Right to Information (RTI) emerges as a fundamental right under Article 19(1)(a), as a freedom of speech and expression are meaningless without access to information. Under freedom of speech and expression, there is no separate grantee of freedom of press and the same is included in the freedom of expression, which is conferred on all the citizens in Virender v. State of Punjab and Sakal Papers v. Union of India . It has also been by this judgment that freedom of press under the Indian Constitution is not higher than the freedom of an ordinary citizen. Need To Protect Freedom of Speech And Expression Freedom of speech offers human being to express his feelings to other, but this is not the only reason; purpose to protect the freedom of speech. There could be more reasons to protect these essential liberties. These are four important justification for freedom of speech: 1. To discover truth: Historically the most durable argument for a free speech principle has been based on the importance of open discussion to the discovery of truth. It is evident from the famous funeral address given by pedicles as back in 431 BC Athenians, he pedicles out, did not consider public discussion merely something to be put up with; rather they believed that the best interact of the city could not be served with a full discussion of issue before the assemble. If restrictions as speech are tolerated, society prevents the ascertainment and publication of accurate facts and valuable opinion. The best test of truth is power of the thought to get it accepted in the competition of market. The truth would emanate from a ‘free trade in ideas’ on intellectual competition. 2. Non self- fulfillment: A second major theory of free speech sees it as integral aspect of each individual rights to self development and fulfillment. Restrictions inhibit our personality and its growth. The reflective mind, conscious of options and the possibilities for growth, distinguished human beings from animals. Freedom of speech is also closely linked to other fundamental freedoms. Thus, for full- fulfillment development of personality, freedom of speech and expression is highly essential. 3. Democratic value: Freedom of speech is the bulwark of democratic government. This freedom is essential for the proper functioning of the democratic process. It is regarded as the first condition of liberty. It occupies a preferred position in the hierarchy of liberties giving succor and protection to all other liberties. It has been truly said that it is mother of all other liberties. In a democracy, freedom of speech and expression open up channels of the discussion of issues. Freedom of speech plays a critical role in the formation of public opinion in social, political and economic matters. 4. To ensure pluralism: Freedom of speech reflects and re in force pluralism, ensuring that different types of lives are validated and promote the self esteem of those who follow a particular life- style. The French Council Constitutional and Italian Constitutional court have ruled that the free speech rights of media corporations may be limited to ensure that the Constitutional value of pluralism is safeguarded. So, it can be concluded that the freedom of speech enables the discovery of truth, is crucial to the working of a democratic Constitution is an aspect of human self fulfillment or autonomy. It is the speaker’s interest of audience in receiving ideas and information. Grounds For Restriction It is necessary to maintain and preserve freedom of speech and expression in a democracy, so also it is necessary to place some curbs on this freedom for the maintenance of social order. No freedom can be absolute or completely unrestricted. Article 19(2) specifies the grounds to which reasonable restrictions on the freedom of speech and expression can be imposed: a) Security of State: Under Article 19(2) reasonable restrictions can be imposed on freedom of speech and expression in the interest of security of State. The term ‘security of state’ refers only to serious and aggravated forms of public disorder e.g. rebellion, waging war against the State, insurrection and not ordinary breaches of public order and public safety, e.g. unlawful assembly, riot, affray. While, speeches or expressions on the part of an individual, which incite to or encourage the commission of violent crimes, such as murder, are matters which would undermine the security of State. The expression ‘security of the state’ in Article 19(2) does not merely mean as danger to the security of the entire country, but endangering the security of a part of the State would also involve a threat to the security of the State. b) Friendly relations with Foreign stat: This ground was added by the Constitution (First Amendment) Act, 1951. The object behind the provision is to prohibit unrestrained malicious propaganda against a foreign friendly state, which may jeopardy the maintenance of good relations between India and that State. No similar provision is present in any other Constitution of the World. In India, the Foreign Relations Act, (XII of 1932) provides punishment for libel by Indian citizens against foreign dignitaries. Interest of friendly relations with foreign States, would not justify the suppression of fair criticism of foreign policy of the Government. It is to be noted that members of the Commonwealth including Pakistan is not a ‘foreign state’ for the purposes of this Constitution. The question arises before the Supreme Court whether a restriction can be imposed on the freedom of speech and expression on the ground of its prejudicial to a Commonwealth country. The Court stated that a country may not be regarded as a foreign State for the purpose of the Constitution, but may be regarded as a foreign power for other purposes. The result is that freedom of speech and expression cannot be restricted on the ground that the matter is adverse to Pakistan. c) Public Order: This ground was also added by the Constitution (First Amendment) Act, 1951. The concept of ‘public order’ is wider than ‘security of state’. ‘Public order’ is an expression of wide connotation and signifies that state of tranquility which prevails among the members of political society as a result of internal regulations enforced by the Government which they have established. Public order is something more than ordinary maintenance of law and order. ‘Public order’ is synonymous with public peace, safety and tranquility. The test for determining whether an act affects law and order or public order is to see whether the act leads to the disturbances of the current of life of the community so as to amount to a disturbance of the public order or whether it affects merely an individual being the tranquility of the society undisturbed. Anything that disturbs public tranquility or public peace disturbs public order. Thus, communal disturbances and strikes promoted with the sole object of causing unrest among workmen are offences against public order. Public order thus, implies absence of violence and an orderly state of affairs in which citizens can peacefully pursue their normal avocation of life. Thus, creating internal disorder or rebellion would affect public order. However, mere criticism of Government does not necessarily disturb public order. In its external aspect ‘public safety’ means protection of the country from foreign aggression. Under public order the State would be entitled to prevent propaganda for a state of war with India. The words ‘in the interest of public order’ includes not only such utterances as are directly intended to lead to disorder but also those that have the tendency to lead to disorder. Thus, a law punishing utterances made with the deliberate intention to hurt the religious feelings of any class of persons is valid because it imposes a restriction on the right of free speech in the interest of public order since such speech or writing has the tendency to create public disorder even if in some cases those activities may not actually lead to a breach of peace. But there must be reasonable and proper nexus or relationship between the restrictions and the achievements of public order. d) Decency or Morality: These are terms of variable content having no fixed meaning for ideas about decency or morality; vary from society to society and time to time depending on the standards of morals prevailing in the contemporary society. Thus, words ‘morality’ or ‘decency’ are words of wide meaning. Sections 292 to 294 of the Indian Penal Code provide instances of restrictions on the freedom of speech and expression in the interest of decency or morality. These sections prohibit the sale or distribution or exhibition of obscene words, etc. in public places. The Apex Court123 ruled that the words ‘decency and morality’ is not confined to sexual morality alone. The ordinary meaning of the ‘decency’ indicates that the action must be in conformity with the current standards of behavior or propriety. The Court has cited with approval the following observations from an English case. “….Indecency is not confined to sexual indecency; indeed it is difficult to find any limit short of saying that it includes anything which an ordinary decent man or woman would find to be shocking, disgusting or revolting….” e) Contempt of Court: Restriction on the freedom of speech and expression can be imposed if it exceeds the reasonable and fair limit and amounts to contempt of court. It cannot be held as law that in view of the constitutional protection of freedom of speech and expression, no one can be proceeded with for the contempt of court on the allegation of scandalizing or intending to scandalize the authority of any Court. Section 2(a) of the Contempt of Courts Act, 1971, provides that ‘contempt of court’ may be either ‘civil contempt’ or ‘criminal contempt’. f) Defamation: A statement, which injures a man’s reputation, amounts to defamation. Defamation consists in exposing a man to hatred, ridicule, or contempt. According to Winfield, defamation is the publication of a statement which reflects on a person’s reputation and tends to lower him in estimation of right thinking members of society generally or tends to make them shun or avoid him. The civil law relating to defamation is still un codified in India and subject to certain exceptions. Section 499 of the Indian Penal Code, 1860, defines the offence of defamation. It recognizes both slander and libel. g) Incitement to an offence: This ground was also added by the Constitution (First Amendment) Act, s1951. Obviously, freedom of speech and expression cannot confer a right to incite people to commit offences. The word ‘offence’ is defined as any act or omission made punishable by law for the time being in force. The incitement to an offence does not refer to incitement to break a law. Thus, an incitement to a breach of every civil law is not necessarily contemplated by Article 19(2). h) Sovereignty and Integrity of India: This ground was also added to Article 19(2) by the Constitution (Sixteenth Amendment) Act, 1963. The main purpose is to guard the freedom of speech and expression from being used to assail the sovereignty and territorial integrity of the Country. Sedition: It should be noted that the sedition is not mentioned in clause (2) of Article 19 as one of the grounds on which restrictions on freedom of speech and expression may be imposed. As understood by English law, sedition embraces all those practices whether by words, or writing which are calculated to disturb the tranquility of the State and lead ignorant person to subvert the government. The Supreme Court held that section 124-A of the Indian Penal Code, 1860 was limited to acts involving an intention or a tendency to create disorder or disturbance of law and order or incitement to violence and was not violative of Article 19(1)(a) read with Article 19(2) of the Constitution. Conclusion It can be easily concluded that right to freedom of speech and expression is one of the most important fundamental rights. It includes circulating one’s views by words or in writing or through audio-visual instrumentality, advertisements or through any other communication channel. It also comprises of right to information, freedom of press etc. Thus, this fundamental right has a vast scope. From the above case law analysis, it is evident that the Court has always placed a broad interpretation on the value and contents of Article 19(1)(a), making it subjective only to the restrictions permissible under Article 19(2). Efforts by intolerant authorities to curb or choke this freedom have always been firmly repelled, more so when public authorities have betrayed tyrannical tendencies.
Law Article in India
Please drop your comments, you may like.
Balancing Borders And Belon...
Differences Between Suicida...
Importance of Lok Adalats i...
The Impact Of Competition L...
AI And It's impact On Legal...
Differences Between Ante-Mo...
Legal question & answers, lawyers in india - search by city.
How to file for mutual divorce in delhi.
How To File For Mutual Divorce In Delhi Mutual Consent Divorce is the Simplest Way to Obtain a D...
Increased Age For Girls Marriage
It is hoped that the Prohibition of Child Marriage (Amendment) Bill, 2021, which intends to inc...
Facade of Social Media
One may very easily get absorbed in the lives of others as one scrolls through a Facebook news ...
Section 482 CrPc - Quashing Of FIR: Guid...
The Inherent power under Section 482 in The Code Of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (37th Chapter of t...
The Uniform Civil Code (UCC) in India: A...
The Uniform Civil Code (UCC) is a concept that proposes the unification of personal laws across...
Role Of Artificial Intelligence In Legal...
Artificial intelligence (AI) is revolutionizing various sectors of the economy, and the legal i...