Cyber Crime Essay for Students and Children


500+ Words Essay on Cyber Crime

Cyber Crime Essay – Everybody thinks that only stealing someone’s private data is Cyber Crime. But in defining terms we can say that ‘Cyber Crime refers to the use of an electronic device (computer, laptop, etc.) for stealing someone’s data or trying to harm them using a computer.

Besides, it is an illegal activity that involves a series of issues ranging from theft to using your system or IP address as a tool for committing a crime.

Cyber Crime Essay

Types of Cyber Crime

Speaking in a broadway we can say that Cyber Crime are categorized into four major types. These are Financial, Privacy, Hacking, and Cyber Terrorism.

The financial crime they steal the money of user or account holders. Likewise, they also stole data of companies which can lead to financial crimes. Also, transactions are heavily risked because of them. Every year hackers stole lakhs and crores of rupees of businessmen and government.

Privacy crime includes stealing your private data which you do not want to share with the world. Moreover, due to it, the people suffer a lot and some even commit suicide because of their data’s misuse.

In, hacking they intentional deface a website to cause damage or loss to the public or owner. Apart from that, they destroy or make changes in the existing websites to diminish its value.

Modern-day terrorism has grown way beyond what it was 10-20 years ago. But cyber terrorism is not just related to terrorists or terrorist organizations. But to threat some person or property to the level of creating fear is also Cyber Terrorism.

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Cyber Crime in India

Web world or cyberspace is a massive community of millions and billions of users and websites. Also, people access it for different uses like shopping, movies, music, video games, transactions, and e-commerce, etc.

essay on computer crimes

In this Age of Technology and easy access to the internet, anyone can easily reach it. Because of this fast pace growth from the previous decade. Besides, the internet has opened a world of information on which anyone can connect.

Due to, this the rate of crime especially the rate of Cyber Crime has increased much fold. Moreover, the rate of circulation of data is also increased much fold due to the higher speed of internet. Above all, due to all these issues, the Cybersecurity has become a major concern for society.

Laws related to Cyber Crimes

To stop the spread of Cyber Crime and to safeguard the interest of people the government has made several laws related to Cyber Crimes. Also, these laws serve as protection against Cyber Crime. Apart from that, the government has also introduced cyber cells in police stations to counter the problem of Cyber Crime as fast as they can.

Ways of stopping Cyber Crime

Cyber Crime is not something which we cannot deal with our self. Likewise, with little use of our common sense and logic, we can stop Cyber Crimes from happening.

To conclude, we can say that Cyber Crime is a dangerous offense to someone’s privacy or any material. Also, we can avoid Cyber Crime by following some basic logical things and using our common sense. Above all, Cyber Crime is a violation of not only law but of human rights too.

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Computer Crimes: What They Are and How to Prevent Them

24 Oct 2022

Format: APA

Academic level: High School

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Cybercrimes are divided in three forms which are crimes that are aimed at people, those that target the government and crimes against property. Crimes against individuals include instances of cyber bullying and stalking among others. Cyberbullying occurs over digital devices such as cellphones, tablets and computers. It can take place through text messages, social media or on games where people access and share content. A cyber bully posts or shares information that is harmful or false about another person. Stalking is whereby a cyber-bully uses the internet or an electronic means to harass a person or a group of people through false accusation and defamation. For instance, a cybercriminal can post private pictures of person that are disturbing in the public eye. 

Government-targeted Cybercrimes are committed against the sovereignty of the nation which might include hacking, cyber terrorism and pirated software. Hacking is whereby a person identifies the weaknesses of a government’s computer system and uses the weakness to gain access to unauthorized data. They are attacks that are meant to destruct the government’s normal operation to its citizens. Cyber terrorism is used by cyber criminals to cause disruption in government activities or to create fear in society. Software pirating is the act of illegally copying, distributing or using software that is confidential to the government. It is an unlawful act that is related to copyright infringement. For instance, terrorists can spread information about a planned attack on social media which could create fear in people. 

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Online crimes that are aimed against property include computers and servers. This is whereby DOS attacks, viruses get transmitted and computers get vandalized. Denial of service attacks occurs when several systems flood the bandwidth or resources of the system that is targeted which involves one or more web servers. Such attacks compromise multiple computer systems. Virus transmission can cause severe damage to the targeted computer and can be annoying. Computer vandalization damages or destroys a computer through a digital process. For example, the criminals can create malware that damages the computer elements which results in denial of services from the targeted computer. 

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Computer Forensics: Identity Theft Essay

This paper is focused on the peculiarities of the forensic process. In particular, it discusses the investigation of the digital evidence connected with identity theft. The authentication examples that can be used to prevent related crimes and investigate them are provided. The ways to maintain a chain of custody are described. The influences of the First and Fourth Amendments on the investigation of identity theft are pointed out.

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The forensics process that is maintained in the framework of computer-related technologies provides professionals with the opportunity to gather, analyze, and report on the information. The point is to make this digital data legally admissible so that it can be used to prevent or identify a crime and to resolve disputes (Watson & Jones, 2013). The very forensic process usually consists of five steps:

  • Plan. First of all, professionals define the way they are going to act. They develop a kind of a guideline to be followed in order to improve understanding of a case, be aware of all sources of evidence, and use appropriate procedures.
  • Acquire. Digital information should be gathered from all sources. Forensic disk imagination should be maintained.
  • Extract. Data should be extracted from the device so that it can be used in other environments.
  • Analyze. The information taken from various files is to be analyzed using forensic techniques and tools.
  • Report. Results of the analysis should be presented and explained in the report so that other professionals involved in the investigation can resort to them (Global digital forensics, 2017).

Identity theft and computer crime are among the most critical issues discussed in forensics because they have an enormous influence on people’s lives. In order to deal with cases related to them, particular steps should be taken by an examiner:

  • A case is reviewed to become familiar with all facts.
  • A victim is re-interviewed.
  • Obtained information is authenticated.
  • The analysis is maintained.
  • Initial leads of a crime are identified.
  • Evidence is gathered from institutions and governmental agencies.
  • The timeline is developed.
  • All involved actors, locations, and businesses are identified.
  • Link analysis is conducted.
  • Evidence book is created.
  • Common crimes are sought.
  • Information is shared with other professionals (“Investigating identity crime,” n.d).

Identity theft is a rather common issue today. It is observed when a criminal obtains and uses personal information that belongs to another individual. In the majority of cases, this kind of theft is associated with financial issues. As a rule, it is maintained with the purpose of economic gain. Rather often, criminals simply try to get money from people’s bank accounts. However, in some cases, they also use personal information in order to get a loan or commit a credit card, etc. The consequences of this crime may be crucial for a victim because one’s reputation and creditworthiness can be damaged. To avoid costly and time-consuming repairs, various organizations provide their customers with an opportunity to resort to electronic authentication methods and services. They are also considered in the investigative process of identity theft.

In addition to traditional personal usernames and passwords that are unique for every person, some organizations offer their clients special cards, such as Circle Bank. During authentication, people provide a secret number that can be obtained only when using this card. As a result, the second form of authentication is maintained. As no one except for the owner is supposed to have access to this information, fraudulent access can be prevented, and criminals can be identified.

Many institutions start using security tokens these days. They provide one-time passwords that change every minute/hour/day. Users are to copy the correct number to enter their accounts. Other people can hardly obtain an up-to-date password because it changes too often (Bosworth, Kabay, & Whyne, 2014).

In the framework of forensic analysis, professionals have an opportunity to find out whether other people hacked victims’ accounts and stole their personal information or not. They can also compare images and fingerprints that are needed for authentication to check if they are real or not.

When professionals reach a source of information or a particular device, they are supposed to copy information from it in order to analyze it with no changes made to the original version. A chain of custody is used to prove that everything was done properly and this target was reached. The account of the location of every file is to be thoroughly maintained. In particular, it is conducted through chronological documentation of everything that was done to the information. A paper trail can also be used to point out how the information was gathered, stored, controlled, shared, analyzed, and used.

Chain of custody for digital evidence can be maintained in the form of a report. Here, it is critical to state several main factors. First of all, it should be mentioned who worked with the evidence because this person is to bear responsibility for everything done to it. Then, the very procedure that was maintained is to be described for professionals to think of possible alterations that could have been done to the evidence. The timeline is also vital, so it should be stated when collection or transfer took place. The location should be mentioned as well. Finally, a chain of custody should include the information of how and why the evidence was stored/collected/shared.

It is also possible to maintain documentation with the digital evidence management framework. Here, the focus is on the identification, collection, and examination of evidence. Mainly, the same information is to be included because the purpose of this element remains does not change. However, the report is focused on the life cycle of digital evidence. Thus, it is mentioned who, how, and when, etc., identified the evidence, stored it, transported, and examined it. A special form can be used to note this information and obtain an appropriate certificate (Cosic & Cosic, 2012).

When conducting an investigation, professionals are to resort to the Constitution so that no laws and freedoms are violated. Dealing with identity theft, they need to consider the First and Fourth Amendments because they define what is believed to be legal and illegal. In other words, they determine what information can be used in the court.

It is believed that the most controversial issues related to computer crimes and identity theft are connected with the First Amendment. It guarantees major freedoms to the population and limits the information that can be obtained by the professionals and methods used to reach it. For example, those materials that are published online cannot be violated, all communications are generally considered to be secret, and community standards are to be followed as well as legislative acts. The First Amendment allows professionals to define the information the storage and use of, which is considered illegal. It defines obscenity and prohibits the representatives of the general public from using sexual portrayals and situations with children, for instance. The First Amendment protection to children and family is also ensured in this way because it applies standards according to which inappropriate materials are not allowed to be published online and be in free access. Internet gambling is prohibited as well, so if professionals find the information that advertises and broadcasts it, they can treat it as a criminal case. However, the range of restrictions applied to the freedoms of the First Amendment is argued rather often, which makes investigations more complex.

A lot of limitations to the forensic process are made under the Fourth Amendment. In general, it ensures that no interferences with people’s privacy are maintained only when there are enough well-grounded reasons for them. In some cases, it may lead to the delay of an investigation, which gives criminals more time to hide illegal data and escape the punishment. The Fourth Amendment protects personal information that is stored in different devices, including computers, phones, etc. In fact, this kind of information is not easy to reach because it is often protected by passwords. Because of the Amendment, professionals are not allowed to hack the device to get the data. They need to resort to law enforcement and obtain permission to get the information themselves or make a person provide it. What is more critical, in some cases, even if a search is allowed, it may not be possible to maintain it because of sidestep password protections.

Having permission only for visual inspection, professionals may not be able to identify the information that is encrypted and put in misnamed files. Thus, because of the Fourth Amendment, investigators have limited opportunity to identify illegal activity and prevent or solve a crime. In order to have an opportunity to search for all significant information, professionals are to prove the presence of the evidence on the device, including very specific information. While working with networked computers and those that belong to the family members, investigators can face difficulties because they may be immune from searches. However, regardless of the prohibitions and limitations, both Amendments still give space for electronic surveillance. Even though it is often challenged, surveillance protects Americans and gives an opportunity to resolve many computer crimes (Britz, 2013).

Thus, with the development of the Internet, criminals obtained more opportunities to affect the lives of the general population. Maintaining computer crimes, they become able to commit identity theft and reach people’s financial information. As a result, they can spend money on other people and take loans, etc. A proper forensic process focused on digital information can be used to find evidence to resolve the crime and, in some cases, even to prevent it. Authentication techniques that are used by various organizations and are made to ensure the privacy and security of individual information give the general public a chance to reduce the risk of such issues or at least give professionals an opportunity to find a criminal. For the case to be successfully resolved, they maintain a chain of custody of digital evidence, which proves that the information used as evidence was not altered with the help of thorough notes of everything that was done to the data involved in the investigation. Unfortunately, the First and Fourth Amendments provide a range of limitations to the investigation, especially the search procedure. However, they still provide an opportunity to prevent a lot of crimes and protect the population.

Bosworth, S., Kabay, M., & Whyne, E. (Eds.). (2014). Computer security handbook . Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

Britz, M. (2013). Computer forensics and cyber crime: An introduction . New York, NY: Pearson.

Cosic, J., & Cosic, Z. (2012). Chain of custody and life cycle of digital evidence. Computer technology and application, 3 , 126-129.

Global digital forensics. (2017). The computer forensic process: An overview . Web.

Investigating identity crime . (n.d.). Web.

Watson, D., & Jones, A. (2013). Digital forensics processing and procedures . Waltham, MA: Elsevier.

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IvyPanda. (2022, May 10). Computer Forensics: Identity Theft.

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Computer Crime

Computer Crime has become a very large issue in our society today; this paper will look at this issue from a sociological perspective. It will analyze the various crimes that make up computer crime and see what changes it has brought about in the world in which we live in. Computer crime first is a very new problem in our society today and it is crimes that are committed from a computer.

These include embezzling, breaking into other computers, cyber porn and various other crimes that have a drastic affect on the society and the institutions that each of us hold to keep our global society running. To first understand computer crime one must understand first what crime is. According to Diana Kendall, “crime is a behavior that violates criminal law and is punishable with fines, jail or other sanctions”(Kendall 1999; 161). Yet since computer technology is so new it has really no laws to govern it.

A law is formal norms that are enforced, norms being established rules of behavior. Many of the crimes committed on computers often times go unpunished. As stated by David Pitchford in the London journal Focus when writing on pornography on the Internet, ” the only way illegal pornographers can be caught is through chance leads, tip-offs and telephone tracing” (Focus 1995; p10-12). Many of the crimes that are also committed on computers via the Internet are very new also. New subcultures have formed around the Internet for the possibilities it brings.

Computer crime despite the many problems it has brought has also brought some needed social controls to the Internet and as stated before some laws have been formed to protect many of the institutions that because of computer crime have become targets for criminals. Body Now that I have briefly explained computer crime, I will go into further depth into explaining computer crime from the different sociological perspective theories. To start with is the integrationist perspective looks at of society as the sum of the interactions of individuals and groups” (Kendall; 17).

Many of those that commit computer crimes are hackers or people who hack into computer systems for both fun and for gaining access to information. They have formed their own subcultures and hold many different beliefs about the information that is stored in personal computers. Said best by J. Thomas McEwen in the article Computer Ethics many hackers believe that “computerized data [is] free and should be accessible to anyone (McEwen 1991; 8-11). A subculture is a group a group of people who share a different set of beliefs that differ significantly from the larger society (Kendall; 604).

Besides forming subcultures, many hackers have learned their behavior from other hackers. The behavior they learn seems to lend credibility to Edwin Sutherlands Differential Association Theory “which states that individuals are more likely to deviate from societal norms when they frequently associate with persons who are more favorable toward deviance than conformity (Kendall; 165). According to McEwen most “young computer hackers beliefs come from association with other hackers, not family members and teachers (McEwen 1991; 8-11).

Besides the fact that many hackers learn, their ways from other hackers many after arrested are formally labeled as a hacker and a deviant, those who violate cultural norms and beliefs (Kendall; 598) The labeling theory suggests that deviants are those have been labeled as such by others (Kendall; 166). In theory than, after the person has been arrested they than assume that label and act accordingly. As written by David Pitchford in the London magazine, Focus, one hacker after being arrested was not deterred, he instead became a more active and in “92 became cyberspaces first megastar Pitchford; pages 10-13).

It was only after his second arrest that he stopped offences. Besides the interactionist, perspective on computer crime is the conflict theory. “The conflict theory states that people in power maintain their advantage by using the law to protect their own interest. ” (Kendall; 168). Under the conflict perspective, hackers and other computer criminals are seen as deviant because many hackers break into large companies for the “mindless desire for glory (Pitchford; pages 10-13). ” However besides hackers lack of any real criminal desires they are still seen as deviant because they blatantly while doing their hacking.

Since the Internet is a global tool, many of the crimes that are committed extend beyond national borders. For this reason the advent of computer crime have made the global community smaller. What one hacker does on his computer in another country affects you and I. This can be seen with the recent virus “Love bug”, this virus disabled computer systems world wide (Washington Times, 5/18/2000). Yet, because of the quickly advancing computer technology a cultural lag has been created. A cultural lag is a gap between the technical development of a society and its moral and legal institutions.

The “Love bug” virus; a set of commands that change computer programming and sometimes destroy files, one example of a virus is a “worm, which is a self replicating program”(Pitchford pages 10-13). The “love bug” virus in the last month crippled global companies by erasing files of any computer it downloaded into. Yet, since the hacker was from the Philippines, which have no law against “computer hacking he may be able to escape any conviction (Washington Times 5/18/2000). ”

So the hacker who caused damage of 15 billion worldwide could get away with a crime considered a felony in the U. S. Although computer crime and hacking have become a global problem, it does serve a function in society. Under the functionalist perspective, “society seeks equilibrium within the five institutions of the economy, family, education, government and religion (Kendall; 1999, 14). ” So as a hacker destroys either government files or the files on your personal computer, the other institutions are affected. Computer crime serves in society as a way for the computer Internet to police itself by creating better systems that stop hackers from breaking into systems.

After a break in city banks cash management system city bank upgraded it so customers accounts were safer “(Washington Post 1998). New police divisions have also sprung up to keep an eye on the Internet, the FBI and the Chicago police have units that specialize in computer crime (Chicago Tribune; 1998). While computer crime may cause havoc and unrest, it has made the government and those who control it keep everything in balance. The other institutions are effected also but not as drastically as the economy and the government.

Families have become more aware of security on their computers and many people are becoming more educated on those previously shadowy figures known as hackers. Conclusion In conclusion, computer crime does have a drastic affect on the world in which we live. It affects every person no matter where they are from. It has made those who committed the crimes into top head lines. It is ironic that those who in secret break into computers across the world for enjoyment have been labeled as deviance.

Many hackers view the Internet as public space for everyone and do not see their actions as criminal. Hackers are as old as the Internet and many have been instrumental in making the Internet what it is now. Yet, despite this view popular culture and society have labeled hackers and computer criminals as deviance. In my view point hacking and computer crime will be with us for as long as we have the Internet. It is our role to keep the balance between what is a crime and what is done for pure enjoyment.

Luckily, the government is making an effort to control the Internet. Yet, true control over the Internet is impossible, because the reasons the Internet was created. This is why families and the institution of education of is needed, parents need to let their children know what is okay to do on the computer and what is not and to educate them on the repercussions of their actions should they choose to become part of the subculture of hackers. In finishing this paper, the true nature of what computer crime will include in the future is unknown.

What was criminal yesterday may not be a crime the next day because advances in computers may not allow it. Passwords might be replaced for more secure forms of security, and hackers could be a dying breed. This seems unlikely until the world starts the work as one to control the Internet and those that abuse its power and seek to take what is not theirs. Yet, as best said by Richard Power spokesman for the Computer Security Institute, ” the technologies are very new and theyre very vulnerable, we in going to be in a messy situation for a while”(Chicago Tribune; 1998).

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A-Level Essay On Computer-Based Crimes For Free Use

Type of paper: Essay

Topic: Social Issues , Crime , Confidentiality , Information , Computers , Computer , Business , Private

Words: 1500

Published: 03/30/2023



A Computer based crime is misconduct that includes a computer system and a network infrastructure. The workstation might have been utilized in the commission of a crime, or the target of one. Cybercrimes have been defined as: "Crimes that have been committed against entities or sets of people with an illegal motive to deliberately damage the reputation of the target or cause physical harm, or loss, to the target directly or indirectly, using up-to-date networks such as the Internet and different mobile devices. Such criminalities have threatened the nation's security and possibly the financial health. Some of the issues that surround these kinds of crimes have become high-profile, mainly those that surround child pornography, hacking, and copyright infringement. There are also complications with privacy when it comes to dealing with confidential information. The information is interrupted or revealed, legitimately or otherwise. Globally, governmental, state and non-state individuals engage in cybercrimes, including spying, monetary theft, and other crimes.

Analyzing the Computer-based Crime Problem

George Reynolds developed an ethical decision-making approach comprising of seven steps that can be used to analyze the computer-based crime problem.

Getting the Facts

The increased automation of the United States critical infrastructure has opened up more access points that can be used by potential adversaries to target the systems. The new technologies used in the automation process raise new security issues do not exist prior to adoption. The main reason for this is the advancement and the availability of sophisticated malicious software that can be used in cyber warfare to degrade, disrupt, or destroy the critical infrastructure systems. Most criminals who engage in cyber-crimes do not do it for ego but are driven by financial benefits. The criminals used their computer expertise to target to exploit and steal from people and organizations. According to the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), approximately $ 1,070,711,522 was lost through computer-based crimes in 2015 (Federal Bureau of Investigation, 2016). Computer-based crimes like child pornography also have a negative impact on our culture and degrade people’s morals. Copyright infringement brings about intellectual property rights issues where copyrighted material is reproduced and shared with others (Kumra & Mittal, 2010). Finally, computers facilitate global exchange of information on a large scale through the internet. The main issue here is that there is a potential of private information being disclosed to the public thereby violating people’s privacy.

Identifying the Stakeholders

The primary stakeholders in the computer-based crimes include individuals, the private sector, and the government. Individuals are targeted everyday by cyber criminals through activities such as cyber stalking and scams such as phishing to obtain their private information. Individuals should be educated on computer-based crimes, their impacts, and how to protect themselves from the crimes. For example, individuals should be taught about online shopping and how to determine whether a seller is legit or not. Private corporations have also been a target of cyber-crime where criminals use malicious software to gain access to an organization’s systems or damaging the software and hardware of the organization’s systems rendering disrupting them. The methods used by the criminals to target corporations include denial of service attacks and compromising corporate emails. Private corporations should implement early detection framework system, digital identification, and encryption techniques (Gunarto, 2012). Crimes against governments are known as cyber terrorism and although they are not that common they can cause havoc and panic to the civilian population when they happen. The government can develop and adopt smart grids to provide remote control of critical infrastructure.


The above actions will have positive consequences on cyber-crime stakeholders. Educating individuals on computer-based crimes protect them from being victims of the crime. Early detection frameworks will help private corporations quickly detect cyber attacks and prevent any damages to their systems. The digital identification and encryption will prevent any unauthorized access into their systems. Adoption of smart grids will allow the government to prevent any unauthorized use of critical infrastructure.

Evaluating various Ethical Principles

An applicable law in this situation is the citizens right to privacy. This means that no private information of an individual should be publicly disclosed. Procter and Gamble’s policy is focusing on improving the lives of consumers (Procter and Gamble, 2008). Ethical principles that can be used to back up the above law and policy is contractarianism theory and normative theories of business ethics. Contractarianism ethics advocates for upholding of human rights of people who are involved in a situation. The United States governments and several private corporates hold huge amounts of data concerning people’s private information. Public release of this information will be a violation of people’s privacy that is a fundamental right in the United States. Therefore, the government and the corporates should ensure that they protect this information from any type of computer-based crime that might result in the data falling into the wrong hands. Normative theories of business ethics focuses on using corporate resources to make as much profit as possible for stockholders as long as the corporate actions are within the legal limits. This means that corporate managers should a way to balance the interest of all corporate stakeholders without infringing any of their rights. Managers should therefore find ways to prevent cyber-crimes that cost private corporations hundreds of millions of dollars and also protect the privacy of their customers.

Developing and Evaluating Options

Corporations especially those that handle people’s private information should develop computer security policies and strategies to safeguard against cyber-crime. Cyber criminals target data while it is passing through insecure network segments. One way of protecting data in such networks is the use of Advanced Encryption Standards that works on various hardware and software platforms. According to the FBI, corporates lost $ 246,226,016 from the compromise of company emails last year alone (Federal Bureau of Investigation, 2016). To protect company emails, corporates can use digital identification that comprises of a digital signature and public key. Finally, authorizations, passwords and firewalls should be used to protect data in storage.

Reviewing the Decision

Every corporation’s main objective is to make profit while ensuring quality services to its customers. The decisions taken above will ensure that an organization does not lose money through computer-based criminal activities. Part of providing quality services also involves securing customers’ private information. Customers expect their private information to remain secure with corporations. According to my personal values, customers are the most important stakeholders in an organization and their expectations should be given first priority. The organization should protect customer data with the most efficient method no matter the cost. Others will also see this as a right decision because it does not infringe on anybody’s rights.

Evaluating the results

The recommended decisions achieved the desired results. Advanced Encryption Standards used algorithms to encrypt data in transit thereby protecting it from cyber attack in vulnerable sections of the network. The use of digital identification identifies both the sender and receiver and allowing them to communicate privately. The use of authorizations and passwords will prevent unauthorized people from accessing private data. Firewalls will also prevent access of the organization’s system from outside users by isolating the organization’s network from other computer networks.

Ethical Theory Supporting the Decision

The ethical theory that supports the decision is utilitarianism theory. Utilitarianism ethics seeks to make the world a better place by finding the greatest good not only for oneself but for the greatest number of people as well. The recommended decision does not only focus on the benefit of the organization but also consider profits that are beneficial to stockholders and also the well-being of its customers.

Computer-based crimes have led to various ethical issues including national security, privacy of individuals and copyright infringement. This has resulted to various consequences to all stakeholders involved in the issue. To deal with this issue, ethical principle should be used to evaluate the various laws and policies used to prevent the crimes, so as to come up with the best decision. From the evaluation the best decision for organizations to take is to adopt policies that takes into consideration all stakeholders’ needs. The ethical theory that supports this argument is utilitarianism theory that supports good for majority of the people.

Federal Bureau of Investigation. (2016). Cyber Crime. Retrieved June 29, 2016, from Federal Bureau of Investigation, Gunarto, H. (2012). Ethical issues in Cyberspace and IT society. Retrieved from Kumra, R., & Mittal, R. K. (2010). ETHICAL ISSUES IN CYBERAGE. Delhi Business Review, 3(1), . Retrieved from Procter and Gamble. (2008). Our values and policies. Retrieved from


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