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- Telugu News Human Interest Why do earthquakes occur
Why Do Earthquakes Occur?: భూకంపాలు ఎందుకు సంభవిస్తాయి..? కారణాలు ఇవేనా..? శాస్త్రవేత్తలు చెబుతున్నదేమిటి..?
Why do earthquakes occur: ఈ మధ్య కాలంలో భూకంపాలు పెరిగిపోతున్నాయి. ప్రతి రోజు ఏదో ఒక ప్రాంతంలో భూప్రకంపనలు చోటు చేసుకుంటున్నాయి. ఇటీవల .....
Subhash Goud |
Updated on: Dec 30, 2020 | 8:42 PM
Why Do Earthquakes Occur?: ఈ మధ్య కాలంలో భూకంపాలు పెరిగిపోతున్నాయి. ప్రతి రోజు ఏదో ఒక ప్రాంతంలో భూప్రకంపనలు చోటు చేసుకుంటున్నాయి. ఇటీవల హైదరాబాద్లో వరుస భూకంపాలు చోటు చేసుకోగా, ఢిల్లీ పరిసర ప్రాంతాల్లోనూ సంభవించాయి. ఇక దేశంలోని పలు రాష్ట్రాలు భూకంపాలు పెరిగిపోయాయి. తాజాగా దేశంలో చోటు చేసుకుంటున్న భూకంపాల వల్ల ఎలాంటి నష్టం వాటిల్లక పోగా, ప్రజలు భయాందోళనలతో ఇళ్ల నుంచి పరుగులు తీయడం, రాత్రి కాగానే టెన్షన్ పడటం జరుగుతూనే ఉన్నాయి. ప్రకృతి కన్ను తెరిచిందంటే చాలు విలయతాండవం చేస్తుంటుంది. తాజాగా ఇతర దేశాల్లో చోటు చేసుకుంటున్న భూకంపాలు తీవ్ర బీభత్సాన్ని సృష్టిస్తున్నాయి. భవనాలు కుప్పకూలిపోతున్నాయి. దీంతో తీవ్రమైన నష్టాలు చవి చూడాల్సిన దుస్థితి ఏర్పడింది. భూప్రకంపనల కారణంగా క్షణాల్లోనే అల్లకల్లోలం అయిపోతుంది. అసలు భూకంపాలు ఎందుకు చోటు చేసుకుంటున్నాయి..? అందుకు కారణాలు కూడా ఎన్నో ఉన్నాయంటున్నారు శాస్తరవేత్తలు.
భూకంపాలు రావడానికి అనేక రకమైన కారణాలు ఉన్నాయంటున్నారు శాస్త్రవేత్తలు. దీని వల్ల పర్యావరణానికి జరుగుతున్న నష్టం కూడా చాలా ఉందంటున్నారు. అయితే పెద్ద పెద్ద ప్రాజెక్టుల్లో ఉన్న నీటి వల్ల, అధికమైన భూగర్భ జలాన్ని అధిక మొత్తంలో దుర్వినియోగం చేయడం, అడవుల్లో చెట్లను నరికివేయడం వంటి వల్ల భూకంపాలు వచ్చే అవకాశాలు అధికంగా ఉన్నాయంటున్నారు. ప్రాజెక్టుల్లో ఉన్న వందలాది ఘనపు మైళ్ల నీటి ఒత్తిడి భూమిపై పడటం వల్ల భూగర్భంలో మార్పులు జరిగి భూమి కంపిస్తుంది. భూమి తన చుట్టూ తాను తిరుగుతున్న సమయంలో భూమి అంతర్గత పొరల్లో సర్దుబాట్ల ఫలితమే ఈ ప్రకంపనలు జరగడానికి కారణమని శాస్త్రవేత్తలు వెల్లడిస్తున్నారు.
అయితే భూమి లోపల అనేక పొరలు ఉంటాయి. ఒక పొర మందం సుమారు 50 కిలోమీటర్లు ఉన్నట్లయితే, ఆ పొర క్రెస్ట్ లేదా లిథోస్పియర్ అంటారు. దాని కింద పొరను మాంటక్ అంటారు. దాని మందం మూడు వేల కిలోమీటర్లు ఉంటుంది. ఈ పొరతో పొలిస్తే హిమాలయాలు ఎంతో చిన్నవి. భూమిలోని కేంద్ర ప్రాంతాలలో ఉష్ణోగ్రత 8 వేల డిగ్రీల సెల్పియస్. ఆ ప్రాంతంలో మరిగిన లావా మాంటిక్, క్రెస్ట్ లను చేధించుకొని బయటకు రావడం కొన్ని చోట్ల జరుగుతుంది. దీన్ని అగ్ని పర్వతం బద్దలైందని అంటుంటారు.
భూమిలో ఉన్న పొరల కదలికలతో అనేక నష్టం
భూమి లోపల చాలా కఠినమైన పొరలతో పాటు చిన్న పొరలు కూడా ఉంటాయని శాస్త్రవేత్తలు వివరిస్తున్నారు. అవి ఒకదానికొకటి కదులుతూ ఉంటాయి. ఈ కదలిక కారణంగానే అనేక నష్టం వాటిల్లుతుంది. ఇక అధిక ఒత్తిడితో బయటకు వచ్చిన లావా ప్రభావంతో భూమిపై పొరైన క్రెస్ట్ 10 నుంచి 12 చలించే శిలాఫలకాలుగా ఏర్పడుతుంది. అయితే భూమిలో 12 పొరలు ఉంటాయని చెబుతున్నారు. లావా ఒత్తిడి, ఉష్ణోగ్రతలకు ఈ శిలా ఫలకాలలోని కొన్ని భాగాలలో కొన్ని కొన్ని సమస్యలు ఏర్పటంతో శిలాఫలకాలు ఒకదానికొకటి నెట్టుకుంటాయి. దాని వల్ల ఆ శిలాఫలకాలలో పగుళ్లు ఏర్పడి భూకంపలు ఏర్పడే అవకాశాలుంటాయని చెబుతున్నారు. శిలాఫలకాలలో ఏర్పడే పగుళ్ల స్థాయిని బట్టి ఈ భూకంపాలు సంభవిస్తాయి.
1906 సంవత్సరంలో శాన్ ఫ్రాన్సిస్కో నగరంలో సంభవించిన భూకంపంలో రహదారులు, ప్రహరీగోడలు, ఇళ్లు ఇలా అనేకం 20 అడుగుల పక్కకు కదిలిపోయాయి. భారీ ఆనకట్ట వల్ల, అణు ప్రయోగాల వల్ల భూకంపాలు ఏర్పడతాయి. ఈ భూకంపం సమయంలో ధ్వని తప్పనిసరిగా వస్తుంది. సముద్రాలలో కూడా భూకంపాలు సంభవిస్తుంటాయి.
భూ ప్రకంపనలు నమోదు చేసే సాధనం ఏమిటి..?
భూప్రకంపనలు నమోదు చేసే సాధనాన్ని ‘సిస్మోగ్రాఫ్’ అంటారు. రెండో శతాబ్దంలో చైనాలో తొలిసారిగా సిస్మోగ్రాఫ్ ను తయారు చేశారు. దీనిలో స్ట్రింగ్ ల నుంచి స్థిరంగా వేలాడే బరువు కలిగి ఉంటుంది. దీనికి నాలుగు దిశల చలనాలను నమోదు చేయగల సాధనాలు జత చేసి ఉంటుంది. ఈ సిస్మోగ్రాఫ్ వెనుకాల ఒక అద్దం ఉంటుంది. ఏ కారణంగానైనా భూమి కంపిస్తే దాని ద్వారా ఉత్పత్తి అయ్యే విద్యుత్ తరంగాలు వెనుకున్న అద్దాన్ని కదిలిస్తాయి. ఆ అద్దం నుంచి ప్రతిబింబించే కాంతి కిరణాలు నిత్యం తిరిగే గుండ్రని డ్రిమ్ పైకి ఫోకస్ చేయబడి ఉంటాయి. అవి ఫోటో గ్రాఫిక్ ప్లేటు మీద పడుతూ ఉంటాయి. దీని వల్ల డ్రమ్ మీద ఉండే ఫోటో గ్రాఫిక్ ప్లేటు మీద చలించిన గీతలు ఏర్పడతాయి. ఈ విధంగా భూప్రకంపనలు గుర్తించగల్గుతున్నారు శాస్త్రవేత్తలు.
భూకంప తీవ్రతను ఎలా గుర్తిస్తారు.?
భూకంపాలు వచ్చిన సమయంలో దాని తీవ్రను గుర్తిస్తారు అధికారులు. అయితే భూకంప తీవ్రతను కొలిచే సాధనాన్ని అమెరికాకు చెందిన ఛార్లెస్ రిక్టర్ 1935లో కనుగొన్నారు. 3వేల 800 లీటర్ల పెట్రోలు ఇచ్చే శక్తికి సమానమైన శక్తి భూకంపం సందర్భంగా విడుదలవుతుంది. అది రిక్టర్ స్కేలు మీద రూ. 2.5కు సమానం. ఇది ఆరు దాటితో భూకంపం ప్రభావం అధికంగా ఉంటుంది. శాస్త్రవేత్తల పరిశోధనల ప్రకారం జంతువులు, పక్షులు ప్రకృతి వైపరీత్యాలను ముందే ఉహించగలవని శాస్త్రవేత్తలు రుజువు చేశారు. ఇలా భూకంపాలు రావడానికి కారణాలు చాలా మందికి తెలియకపోయినా.. మానవళి చేస్తున్న తప్పిదాల వల్లనే భూప్రకంపనలకు దారి తీస్తుందంటున్నారు.
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- ప్రింట్ (ముద్రణ)
భూకంపం అనేది ఆకస్మిక సంఘటన మరియు ప్రతిస్పందించడానికి ఏ సమయాన్ని ఇవ్వదు. భూకంపం గురించి ముందస్తు హెచ్చరిక లేదా అంచనా వేయడం అంత సులభం కాదు. ముందుగానే అత్యవసర పరిస్థితికి సిద్ధపడటం విలువైన జీవితాలను, మౌలిక సదుపాయాలను మరియు సౌకర్యాలను కాపాడుతుంది. భవనాలు, మౌలిక సదుపాయాలు లేదా ఇతర ఉరి / ఎగిరే వస్తువులు పడటం వలన మరణం మరియు విధ్వంసం జరుగుతుంది.
భూకంపం యొక్క ముందస్తు హెచ్చరిక మరియు అంచనా కోసం ప్రోటోకాల్ ప్రస్తుతం అందుబాటులో లేదు. భారత వాతావరణ శాఖ (ఐ.ఎమ్.డి) దేశవ్యాప్తంగా మరియు చుట్టుపక్కల భూకంప చర్యలను పర్యవేక్షిస్తుంది. భూకంపం సంభవించినప్పుడు భూకంపం మూల పారామితులను ఐ.ఎమ్.డి. అంచనా వేస్తుంది మరియు ఉపశమనం మరియు పునరావాస చర్యలకు బాధ్యత వహించే అన్ని సంబంధిత ఏజెన్సీలకు సమాచారాన్ని వ్యాప్తి చేస్తుంది. ఎస్.ఇ.ఓ.సి. ప్రభావితమయ్యే జిల్లాలకు సమాచారాన్ని అందిస్తుంది. తమిళనాడులో, మూడు భూకంప నెట్వర్క్ స్టేషన్లు అందుబాటులో ఉన్నాయి మరియు వివరాలు ఈ క్రింది విధంగా ఉన్నాయి;
భూకంప పర్యవేక్షణ కేంద్రాల స్థానాలు
చెన్నైలోని అన్నా విశ్వవిద్యాలయం నాలుగు వేర్వేరు ప్రదేశాల నుండి భూకంప సంఘటనలను పర్యవేక్షిస్తుంది:
- రాణిపేటయ్ ఇంజనీరింగ్ కళాశాల, వల్లాజా
- భారతిదాసన్ ఇన్స్టిట్యూట్ ఆఫ్ టెక్నాలజీ, తిరుప్పత్తూరు
- ఇధాయ ఇంజనీరింగ్ కళాశాల, చిన్న సేలం
- పెరియార్ మణియంమై ఇంజనీరింగ్ కళాశాల, హోసూర్
విపత్తు లేని మరియు పూర్వ-విపత్తు
భూకంపానికి హెచ్చరిక సమయం లేనందున మరియు ఈ రెండు దశలు ఒకదానిలో కలిసిపోతాయి.
- భూకంప సంబంధిత విపత్తులను తగ్గించడానికి నిర్మాణ సంబంధిత కార్యకలాపాలలో ముందు జాగ్రత్త చర్యలు మాత్రమే.
- భూకంపం సంభవించే ప్రాంతాల్లో దుర్బలత్వం మరియు రిస్క్ అసెస్మెంట్ చేయవలసి ఉంటుంది మరియు తదనుగుణంగా జోన్ చేయబడి, జిల్లా యంత్రాంగం దాని గురించి అవగాహన కల్పించింది. దుర్బలత్వం మరియు రిస్క్ అసెస్మెంట్ మ్యాప్ను అప్పుడు డి.డిఎమ్.ఎ. / టి.ఎన్.యస్.డి.ఎమ్.ఎ. కి అందుబాటులో ఉంచాలి.
- పాల్గొన్న సంఘాలు, బిల్డర్లు, కాంట్రాక్టర్లు, ప్రభుత్వ అధికారులు మరియు ఇతరుల నుండి వివిధ వాటాదారులలో అవగాహన అవసరం.
- ఇప్పటికే ఉన్న భవనాల స్థిరత్వాన్ని అంచనా వేయాలి.
- టౌన్ ప్లానింగ్ విభాగాలు భూకంప నిరోధక లక్షణాలను అటువంటి మండలాల్లో ప్రోత్సహించాల్సిన అవసరం ఉంది. బిల్డర్లు, కాంట్రాక్టర్లు మరియు రియల్ ఎస్టేట్ ప్రమోటర్లకు శిక్షణా సమావేశాలు సమాజంలో పూర్తిగా సమీకరించబడే సమయం వరకు నిర్వహించాల్సిన అవసరం ఉంది.
- తరచుగా భూకంపాలకు గురయ్యే దేశాలలో విజయవంతమైన బిల్డింగ్ టెక్నాలజీలను ప్రోత్సహించాల్సిన అవసరం ఉంది
- సగటు పౌరుడితో సంబంధం ఉన్న నిర్మాణానికి ఒక నమూనా విధానాన్ని అందించడానికి అటువంటి మండలాల్లో శాశ్వత ప్రదర్శన కేంద్రాన్ని సృష్టించాలి. ఒక మోడల్ హోమ్ – వివిధ దశలలో నిర్మాణ శైలిని సూచించడానికి – ఎక్కువ అవగాహన తీసుకురావడానికి కూడా ఉపయోగపడుతుంది.
- కమ్యూనిటీ హాల్స్, మ్యారేజ్ హాల్స్, మాల్స్, థియేటర్స్ వంటి పెద్ద భవనాలకు భూకంప నిరోధక నిర్మాణాలతో డిజైన్ అనుకూలత అవసరం.
- ఆర్కిటెక్ట్ల కోసం విద్యాసంస్థలు, ప్రభుత్వ మరియు ప్రైవేటు, భూకంప నిరోధక సాంకేతిక పరిజ్ఞానం యొక్క రూపకల్పన అంశాలను వారి సిలబిలో చేర్చడానికి నిర్దేశించాల్సిన అవసరం ఉంది.
- భూకంపం సంభవించడం అందుబాటులో ఉన్న అన్ని మార్గాల్లో వ్యాప్తి చెందాల్సిన అవసరం ఉంది మరియు అలా చేయడానికి డి.ఇ.ఓ.సి. అదనపు ప్రయత్నాలు చేయాలి.
- భూకంపం సంభవించినప్పుడు ఉన్న ఏకైక ఎంపిక ఏమిటంటే, భవనాన్ని వెంటనే వదిలివేసి, బహిరంగ ప్రదేశంలోకి వెళ్లడం, అక్కడ పడిపోయే వస్తువులతో బెదిరించాల్సిన అవసరం లేదు. దీనిని మీడియాలో ఎస్.ఇ.ఓ.సి / డి.ఇ.ఓ.సి. ప్రకటించాలి.
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- Earthquake Essay
Download the Earthquake Essay Available on Vedantu’s Website.
Earthquakes are some of the most devastating natural disasters. Millions of dollars worth of property are damaged and a hundred die every time a big magnitude of eater quake strikes. It is in this regard that everyone must read and know about earthquakes and be prepared to mitigate the damage. Furthermore, the topic of earthquakes is quite often asked in exams. Preparing for this topic will enable them to have an edge and score more marks in the English paper.
To serve the above-mentioned purpose, Vedantu has come up with the Earthquake essay. This essay is prepared by the experts who know what exactly is required to know and weeding out points that are not important. The essay is very precise and would surely allow students to successfully claim marks in the essay question and even stay prepared when an earthquake actually strikes.
What is an Earthquake?
When the earth’s surface shakes, the phenomenon is referred to as an earthquake. Precisely, the sudden trembling of the earth’s surface is the cause of an earthquake. Earthquakes are regarded as one of the deadliest natural disasters. Huge damage and loss of property are caused by earthquakes. There are various types of earthquakes. Some of them are severe in nature. The most dangerous thing about an earthquake is that it is quite unpredictable. It can cause several damages without any previous indication. The intensity of an earthquake is measured by the Richter’s scale. Generally, earthquakes occur due to the movement of tectonic plates under the earth’s surface.
Types of Earthquake
There are four kinds of earthquakes namely
Collapse Earthquake and
It is caused due to the movement of the slab of rocks of uneven shapes that lie underneath the earth’s crust. Apart from that, energy is stored in the earth’s crust. Tectonic plates are pushed away from each other or towards each other due to the energy. A pressure is formed because of the energy and movement as time passes. A fault line is formed due to severe pressure. The center point of this dispersion is the epicenter of the earthquake. Subsequently, traveling of the waves of energy from focus to the surface causes the tremor.
The earthquake caused by volcanic activity is called a volcanic earthquake. These kinds of earthquakes are of weaker magnitudes. Volcanic earthquakes are categorized into two types. In the first type, which is called volcano-tectonic, shaking happens due to input or withdrawal of Magma. In the second type, which is termed as Long-period earthquake, tremors occur due to changing of pressure among the earth’s layers.
Collapse Earthquake is the third type of earthquake that occurs in the caverns and mines. This is another example of a weak magnitude earthquake. Mines collapsed due to underground blasts. Consequently, seismic waves are formed due to this collapsing. Earthquakes occur because of these seismic waves.
The fourth type of earthquake is called an explosive earthquake. This is caused due to the testing of nuclear weapons.
Effects of Earthquake
The effects of earthquakes are very severe and deadly.
It can cause irreparable damage to property and loss of human lives. The lethality of an earthquake depends on its distance from the epicentre.
Damage to establishments is the direct impact of an earthquake. In the hilly areas, several landslides are caused due to earthquakes.
Another major impact of an earthquake is soil liquefaction. Losing the strength of water-saturated granular material is the cause behind this. The rigidity of soil is totally lost due to this.
Since the earthquake affects the electric power and gas lines, it can cause a fire to break out.
Deadly Tsunamis are caused due to earthquakes. Gigantic sea waves are caused by the sudden or abnormal movement of huge volumes of water. This is called an earthquake in the ocean. When tsunamis hit the sea coasts, they cause a massive loss of lives and properties.
Earthquake is termed as one of the most huge and lethal natural disasters in the world. It proves the fact that human beings are just nothing in front of nature. The sudden occurrence of earthquakes shocks everyone. Scientists are working rigorously to prevent the damage of earthquakes, but nothing fruitful has been achieved yet.
Examples of Devastating Earthquake
The city of Kobe in Japan witnessed a devastating earthquake on January 17, 1995, killing more than 6,000 and making more than 45,000 people homeless. The magnitude of the quake was 6.9 at the moment which caused damage of around 100 million dollars. The governor of Kobe spent years on reconstruction and made efforts to bring back fifty thousand people who had left home. Japan geologically is a highly active country. It lies upon four major tectonic plates namely, Eurasian, Philippine, Pacific, and North American which frequently meet and interact.
The second incident is in Nepal where an earthquake struck on April 25, 2015. About 9000 people were killed and almost 600,000 structures were destroyed. The magnitude of the quake was 7.9 and the repels were felt by neighbouring countries like Bangladesh, China and India. The disaster caused severe damage of millions of dollars. All the countries across the world including India garnered to help Nepal by sending monetary aid, medical supplies, transport helicopters and others.
FAQs on Earthquake Essay
1. How to download the Earthquake Essay?
The Earthquake essay is available on Vedantu's website in PDF format. The PDF could be downloaded on any device, be it android, apple or windows. One just has to log on to www.vedantu.com and download the document. The document is totally free of cost and a student does not need to pay any prior registration fee.
2. How to protect oneself during an earthquake?
Earthquakes could be very disastrous and can cause a lot of collateral damage. During an earthquake you can look for the corners to hide. Another safe place to hide is under the table or under the bed. If one is sitting in a multistory building, avoid taking a lift and only use the stairs. In this kind of situation, one should never panic and stay calm. Let the earthquake pass until then keep hiding in the safe spot. Once over, come out to evaluate the situation and take appropriate actions.
3. How to mitigate the effects of an earthquake?
Prevention is better than cure. It is always a better idea to take necessary actions before an earthquake has struck. In the first place, send a copy of all your documents to someone reliable. In case of an earthquake that destroys your important documents, there would always remain a facility to retrieve them. Research and know if your city is in a seismic zone. One should also take note of earthquakes during the construction of a house and lay emphasis on a seismic-proof house.
4. How can one teach people about the effects of an earthquake?
There are many ways one can raise awareness about the effects of earthquakes. There is Youtube and Instagram which could be used to disseminate all the knowledge about the earthquake and its impact on humans. You can also go to schools and colleges to conduct a seminar whereby the students could be told about the mitigation and steps to take when an earthquake strikes. However before that, one must thoroughly research the topic. For this, visit www.vedntu.com and download the earthquake essay for free.
5. Who has written the Earthquake essay?
The earthquake essay provided by Vedantu is prepared by expert teachers who invest a good amount of time and effort to come up with an essay that is highly useful for the students in their personal lives as well as for their academic performance. The students can use this essay to maximize their abilities to cope with the questions on earthquakes and the earthquake itself. The essay is totally reliable and one mustn’t doubt its credibility at all.
Essay on Earthquake in English for Children and Students
Table of Contents
Essay on Earthquake: The earthquake is one of the most terrible natural disasters. Its source can be traced to the early days of earth formation. It is responsible for a great loss of life and property. It is, therefore, a great problem for mankind. The word earthquake is derived from the Greek words, ‘earth’ meaning ground and ‘quake’ meaning shaking or trembling. An earthquake, therefore, is a shaking or trembling of the earth.
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Target Exam ---
Earthquake occurs due to disturbance in the tectonic plates that lie under the surface of Earth. Earthquakes may be brief and mild or big and destructive. Our planet has suffered several severe and mild earthquakes since centuries. Earthquakes are mostly brief but can cause mass destruction within seconds. People around the world have suffered immensely due to earthquakes in the past.
Long and Short Essay on Earthquake in English
Here are essay on Earthquake of varying lengths to help you with the topic in your exam. You can select any Earthquake essay as per you need:
Short Essay on Earthquake in 200 words
Earthquakes occur suddenly, usually without any warning signs, and can cause huge destruction. Though there is a separate branch of science referred to as seismology that study about earthquakes and tries to predicts their occurrence however, it doesn’t help in determining the exact time or date of this natural calamity.
Scientists around the world constantly try to predict the occurrence of earthquakes. While seismology department does warn against Earthquake in certain areas in future however it is unable to find out as to when exactly it would occur.
As it is said, little knowledge is dangerous hence lame predictions about earthquakes do more harm to the people than good. People begin to live in constant fear of earthquake. Panic among people living in such areas can be seen clearly as they can hardly do much about safeguarding themselves from the possible destruction caused due to this natural calamity.
However, earthquakes aren’t always severe and destructive. At times, these are small and mild. Sometimes, these are so mild that people do not even get to know that these have occurred. However, even at the slightest of tremors, it is suggested to evacuate the buildings and come out in an open area to ensure safety.
Essay on Earthquake in 300 words
Earthquakes and volcanoes are two natural calamities that occur due to the changes in the surface of Earth. Man has little or just no role in bringing about these natural disasters. Earthquakes and volcanoes are said to be interrelated. It has been observed that volcanic regions are more prone to earthquakes that often serve as a warning sign of an impending volcano.
Earthquake is basically the shaking of the Earth. Earthquakes either occur due to the movement of tectonic plates under the Earth’s surface or because of the movement of magma in volcanoes. The ones caused due to magma movements may be followed by volcanic eruptions. Earthquakes can be weak as well as violent. While the weak volcanoes are hardly felt, the violent ones can result in the devastation of big buildings and huge loss of life. Numerous earthquakes have occurred in different parts of the world causing severe destructions.
Volcano is the eruption of hot lava from the surface of Earth. It occurs when the Earth’s crust ruptures. Hot lava, poisonous gases and volcanic ash come out by way of volcanic eruptions and can cause vast destruction. Different types of volcanoes include super volcanoes, sub-glacial volcanoes, underwater volcanoes and mud volcanoes.
What is Volcanic Earthquake?
Volcanic earthquake also known as volcano tectonic earthquake is caused due to the movement of magma. This movement exerts pressure and causes changes in the rock around the magma and this eventually leads to volcanic earthquake. These earthquakes are known to cause major destruction that may include ground deformation, uprooting of buildings and ground cracks.
Both earthquakes and volcanoes may result in severe loss for the mankind. While scientists try their best to predict both of these, they haven’t been successful in determining the time and date for these natural disasters. People living in earthquake and volcano prone areas must stay vigilant and be prepared to face these and should act calmly and wisely if such a problem occurs.
Essay on Earthquake in 400 words
Earthquakes are caused due to the movement of magnum or tectonic plates under the Earth’s surface. They may vary in severity, time and other factors. Earthquakes have been classified into various categories. The effect they cause varies based on their type.
Types of Earthquake
There are different types of earthquakes that have been experienced on our planet. Here is a look at the main types of earthquakes:
- Tectonic Earthquake
A tectonic earthquake is an outcome of the breakage of Earth’s crust because of exertion of pressure on rocks and tectonic plates.
This is often a mild earthquake that takes place in the same area that has been hit by a severe earthquake few hours, days or weeks before.
A small earthquake that takes place before a severe earthquake is referred to as a foreshock.
- Explosion Earthquake
This type of earthquake occurs because of explosion of a chemical and nuclear device.
- Volcanic Earthquake
It is an earthquake that occurs due to the combination of tectonic forces and volcanic activities.
- Collapse Earthquake
This type of earthquake is caused due to the explosion of rocks. These are generally mild earthquakes that occur due to mining activities.
- Submarine Earthquake
It is an earthquake that takes place underwater particularly at the bottom of an ocean. It is commonly referred to as Tsunami.
Causes of Earthquake
An earthquake basically is an outcome of the movements of tectonic plates beneath the Earth’s surface. However, these are also caused due to certain other reasons. These are mostly natural reasons however sometimes these can even be man-made. Given below are the various causes of earthquakes:
- Volcanic Eruptions
Volcanic eruptions are a common cause of earthquake. Areas that are faced with frequent volcanic activities are more prone to earthquakes.
- Geological Fault
It occurs because of the displacement of plates from their original position. As the rocks move alongside these planes, it brings about tectonic earthquakes.
- Human Activities
Man is known to influence various natural activities and earthquakes are no exception. Nuclear bombing, building of dams and mining are few such human activities that can cause earthquake.
Effects of Earthquake
Mild earthquakes are harmless however the violent ones can cause mass destruction. Numerous lives are lost, several people are injured and many houses and other buildings are devastated during this natural calamity.
Earthquake is a dangerous natural calamity that has caused huge damage in various parts of the world. It cannot be avoided as the scientists are not able to predict its occurrence accurately.
Also Read: Speech on Earthquake in simple and easy words
Essay on Earthquake in 500 words
Earthquake is a natural calamity which is capable of causing vast destruction and there is no way to stop it from occurring. Our planet has been hit by a number of strong earthquakes of different magnitudes that have led to the loss of many innocent lives and heavy damage to the property. A need for disaster management for earthquake was felt owing to the huge and frequent damage they had been causing around the world.
The seismic department studies earthquakes. The department monitors the environment and the activities that occurs under the Earth’s surface in an attempt to predict earthquakes and their severity. However, it has largely failed in predicting the exact date and time of occurrence of the earthquake.
Since it is almost impossible to forecast and avoid the occurrence of earthquakes, we must prepare ourselves to lower the losses caused by these. Japan for instance is highly prone to earthquakes. However, their preparedness to handle this natural calamity ensures little or no damage to property and life in the country.
The recent earthquakes that jolted India have shown how under-prepared we are to handle this natural calamity. A need to build an environment which is earthquake resistant has been felt. Though, this cannot be full proof however efforts in this direction can certainly help bring down the magnitude of losses.
Extensive research is going on in this direction. Builders are being encouraged to build earthquake resistant structures. Special degree in Earthquake Engineering is being imparted to prepare our future generations to tackle this natural disaster smartly. Structural Earthquake Engineering, Geo-technical Earthquake Engineering, Remote Sensing and Seismology are the fields that are being explored and taught.
Do not Panic during an Earthquake
It is but natural to panic during any difficult situation however doing so only worsens the problem. We must thus not panic during earthquake. We should rather act wisely. Here are few things you can do to lower the possibility of disaster:
- Come out of your house/ office/ shop and gather in an open place.
- Do not use elevator. Take the stairs to go down.
- Make sure you are at a safe place as you come out and not somewhere where there is a possibility of falling objects or collapsing building.
- Get under a table or bed if you cannot move out.
- Stay calm and don’t indulge in negative talks.
- Help those caught inside or in need if you can.
Earthquake: Precautions to be taken
People living in earthquake prone areas must stay alert and prepared to handle this natural disaster at all times. Here are certain things that they must keep handy:
- Necessary medicines
- Canned packaged food
- Camp stoves that can be installed outdoors
- Enough drinking water
- Sanitation stock
- Cash/ Debit card/ Credit Card
- Important Certificates/ documents
It is a good idea to prepare a bag that can be carried easily in case of emergency.
The government must take measures to ensure the destruction caused by this natural calamity is lowered. In case of a severe earthquake, the government must take measures to help people who lose their houses and other important belongings. The government must be prepared to handle such an emergency situation efficiently so that people do not suffer further.
Essay on Earthquake in 600 words
Earthquakes occur when the tectonic plates shift and climb over one another. This leads to mountain building referred to as orogeny which is the cause of severe earthquakes. Thus, the tectonic plates that lie under the surface of Earth are responsible for this natural calamity. Just like many other parts of the world, India has also experienced numerous earthquakes in different areas. While some of these have caused serious destruction others have largely gone unnoticed.
Major Earthquakes in India
Our country has suffered from some major earthquakes in the past that have led to severe damage and immense panic among people. Some of the major earthquakes experienced in India are as follows:
The Hindu Kush Earthquake (26 October 2015) : This was a magnitude 7.5 earthquake that caused vast destruction in South Asia. Jammu and Kashmir in India was jolted by this quake and tremors were felt in many other parts of Northern India. With its epicentre in Afghanistan, the quake caused tremendous destruction in the country as well as in its neighbouring country Pakistan. Statistics reveal that 399 people lost their lives and as many as 2539 were injured during this earthquake.
The May 2015 Nepal Earthquake : Yet another severe earthquake in Nepal that led to havoc in India too as strong tremors were felt in various parts of our country including Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, and Delhi. With its epicentre in Dolakha and Sindhupal Chowk, Nepal it was a 7.3 magnitude earthquake. Considered to be an aftermath of the April 2015 earthquake, it took away 218 lives and injured more than 3200 people.
The April 2015 Nepal Earthquake : This is said to be one of the major earthquakes that has ever occurred in the recent times. It was a 7.8 magnitude earthquake. The epicentre of this earthquake was Gorkha District in Nepal however strong tremors were felt in various parts of India too. It led to the devastation of many buildings and took as many as 9,000 lives. 22,000 people were injured during the event.
Bhuj Earthquake (26 January 2001): This was one of the most devastating natural calamities that ever hit our country. The earthquake with a magnitude of 7.7 lasted for more than 2 minutes and wrecked havoc on the beautiful Indian state of Gujarat. Numerous buildings were devastated as a result of this earthquake. It killed around 20,000 people and injured as many as 167,000 people.
The Latur Earthquake (30 September 1993): The Latur earthquake hit the Indian state of Maharashtra. This 6.2 magnitude earthquake mainly affected the districts of Latur and Osmanabad. It demolished as many as 52 villages in Maharashtra and killed around 10,000 people. As many as 30,000 people were injured during the event.
Uttarkashi Earthquake (2 nd October 1991): The earthquake with a 6.8 magnitude hit Gharwal and Uttarkashi in Uttrakhand. Strong tremors were felt in these two regions and various other parts of Uttar Pradesh. It caused mass destruction. Numerous buildings were wrecked during the event. More than 700 people lost their lives and numerous others became homeless.
Earthquake Prone Areas in India
Almost every part of India has been hit by earthquake at some point or the other. While some areas in the country are highly prone to earthquakes others stand a low chance of being hit by them. Some of the earthquake prone areas in the country include Srinagar, Mumbai, Delhi, Guwahati, Pune, Kolkata, Chennai, Patna, Kochi and Thiruvananthapuram. All these regions have felt strong tremors of earthquake in the past and stand a high chance of experiencing the same in future as well.
India has seen major destruction due to earthquakes. Many buildings have been damaged and several people have lost their lives due to this natural calamity. We wish and pray to God that such strong tremors don’t occur in future.
Essay on Earthquake in 800 words
An earthquake is a tremor that is produced when two surfaces of earth, underneath the surface, slip against each other and release seismic waves. Thus, an earthquake implies a sudden release of energy from within the earth, which takes the form of tremors, generally called earthquake. World over, around fifty thousand earthquakes occur annually, but only about hundred of them are potentially dangerous. Little was understood about them until the 20 th century, when Seismology was introduced as a study of earthquakes. In the following essay we will go through the causes, effects and facts about earthquakes.
Causes of Earthquakes
Earthquakes are caused by the movement or breaking of rocks underneath the surface of earth. Under earth’s surface layers of rocks stay connected to each other. The rocks or plates push each other continuously, but doesn’t move as the forces balance each other.
However, if the rocks break or layers move against each other, seismic waves are produced which reach the surface in form of tremors known as earthquake. Hence earthquake is felt as long as the rocks are rubbing against each other and ceases as soon as the rocks get stuck again. In seismic language, the point immediately below where the rocks break is called the focus and the point immediately above is called the epicenter.
The severity of an earthquake is measured in Richter scale. A strong earthquake has a high value on Richter scale while a low earthquake has a lower value.
An earthquake which measures 6 to 7 on Richter scale is potentially damaging to life and property, while the effects of earthquake measuring 4 to 5 on Richter scale could result only in mild tremors or a little structural damage.
There are many effects of earthquake and may include the following; though, they are not limited to the effects mentioned here below-
1) Tremors or Shaking
Shaking of ground is the first effect of earthquake and is also the most damaging one. The severity of shaking; however, depends on the magnitude of earthquake and the distance of the place from the epicenter. An earthquake measuring around 6 or above on Richter scale has an ability to destroy even the most strongest of buildings, depending on their proximity to the epicenter.
2) Ground Rupture
Sometimes, an earthquake measuring high on Richter scale could cause visible rupture in the ground along the fault line. Sometimes, when the earthquake is potentially high on Richter scale, a ground rupture measuring several meters deep and several kilometers long, may result. Such ground ruptures are considerably harmful to significant structures like dams, nuclear power stations and bridges.
Earthquakes can cause forest fires, as tremors force the trees to rub each other, thereby generating heat and sparks. There have been forest fires recorded after earthquakes. Moreover, an earthquake can cause fire in urban areas also, by rupturing electrical lines and damaging electrical protection systems.
Landslides are the most common aftereffects of earthquake in hilly areas. Shaking of earth displaces the soil on sloppy hills, resulting in a landslide. The landslides sometimes could be potentially more dangerous than the earthquake itself, as they contain debris like trees and rocks, and have a high potential to damage life and property.
Tsunami is the most severe and frightening aftereffect of earthquake. Tsunami is caused when the epicenter of an earthquake lies under the ocean surface. An earthquake in the sea bed results in waves those are not more than a ripple over the epicenter, but as they travel towards the shore, they get bigger, faster and stronger. A wave only measuring 1 meter above the epicenter could measure 100 meters at the shores, resulting in huge loss of life and tremendous damage to the property.
What to do in an Earthquake?
Though the science of studying earthquake has developed significantly, and today it’s possible to forecast an earthquake, even then it might not be possible in every place and situation. Below given are some of the safety precautions you could take when caught in a situation, to save yourself and family from harm.
Situation 1 – Outdoors
If you are outdoors and sense an earthquake, move away from buildings, poles, trees as fast as you can. The greatest danger is immediately outside of a building and near boundaries. When caught outside in an earthquake it’s wise to stand still on a clear ground, away from any structure that could fall upon you.
Situation 2 – Indoors
If you are caught in an earthquake inside a building, the best option for you would be to find some sturdy and strong table or bed and lie down below it, ducking your head under your arms. Stay put in this position until the tremor ceases or help arrives.
Situation 3 – Driving a Vehicle
If you are driving and sense an earthquake, then move as fast as possible from buildings and other high structures and stay inside the vehicle. Even after earthquake, proceed cautiously and avoid bridges if possible, as the tremors might have damaged them.
Earthquakes are a natural phenomenon and despite our knowledge on them, we cannot stop them from occurring; nevertheless, we can always act wisely when caught in the situation, saving our life as well as life of others.
Essay on Earthquake FAQs
What is called an earthquake.
An earthquake is the shaking of the ground caused by sudden movements in Earth's crust.
What makes an earthquake?
Earthquakes happen when the Earth's plates suddenly move or slide past each other, releasing energy that causes the ground to shake.
What is the topic of an earthquake?
The topic of an earthquake revolves around the shaking and vibrations in the Earth's surface caused by geological movements.
What is the meaning of earthquake in English?
Earthquake in English refers to the shaking or trembling of the ground due to geological forces.
What is the introduction of an earthquake?
An earthquake introduction would cover the basics: how it occurs due to tectonic plate movements, causing shaking or trembling of the ground.
How do you write an earthquake essay?
To write an earthquake essay, start with an introduction explaining what an earthquake is, discuss its causes, effects, and safety measures, and conclude with preventive measures.
What is an earthquake in 150 words?
An earthquake is a sudden shaking of the Earth's surface caused by movements in the Earth's crust. These movements release energy, creating seismic waves that make the ground shake, potentially causing damage to structures and landscapes. Safety measures and preparedness are crucial to mitigate the impact of earthquakes.
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2023 morocco earthquake disaster brief | glide n° eq-2023-000166-mar- mena region - september 2023, attachments.
A earthquake of 6.8 magnitude shook Morocco on September 8, 2023, at 11 p.m. local time, followed by a magnitude 4.9 aftershock 19 minutes later. According to USGS, the quake originated deep below the surface, at a depth of 18.5 km with its epicenter identified in the High Atlas Mountains, 71km south-west of the city of Marrakesh. The earthquake was felt as far away as Portugal and Algeria.
At least 2,901 people were killed, mostly in Marrakech and five provinces near the epicenter, and another 5,530 were injured, according to Morocco’s Interior Ministry .According to the GDACS report, approximately 320,000 people were exposed to the earthquake with the remote villages nestled in the High Atlas Mountains, right at the earthquake’s epicenter, suffering substantial losses. According to reuters the destruction in some areas is described as “absolute,” with not a single house left standing.
The continued risk of landslides and the large distances involved complicated the rescue and relief efforts. with emergency services facing difficulties in reaching people in need. While earthquakes of this size in the region are uncommon (since 1900 there have been only nine magnitude 5 events), this earthquake was the deadliest in Morocco since 2004.
NATIONAL SOCIETY SITUATION REPORT
The Moroccan Red Crescent (MRCS) teams are coordinating closely with the local authorities on the ground assessing the situation and providing support to the affected people.
- MRCS deployed 3 operations managers in the initial response.
- In Taroudant Province, 60 paramedics are on the ground. Services provided include evacuation, first aid, transporting the wounded to the hospital, psychological support, reducing panic, organizing with the authorities and Supervision of food supplies, blankets, and tents shipped from the regional warehouse in Agadir. 27 trained first aid volunteers were deployed in the tourist city of Marrakesh. Some of the visitors to the city are doctors and are currently volunteering to support in providing medical support to the injured in the area. MRCS distributed in El Hous: 600 tents, 3000 blankets, food aid for one month, and potable water for 600 families for 15 days.
- The disaster categorization was announced as RED category in 9/11/2023 and an emergency appeal is under development and will be published. Meanwhile, A DREF allocation of CHF 1 million was approved and released to support the response of the national society on the ground.
SCOPE AND SCALE
Damage to shelter and housing : The earthquake impact on shelter and housing has been devastating in most of the affected area, with very high levels of damage to dense residential areas of Marrakesh as well as to villages in the rural and mountains area of the Atlas. Many affected households are sleeping in open air or improvised collective shelters, although many public buildings sustained structural damage as well, rendering them usafe for occupancy. There have been multiple reports of internal displacement with families leaving their villages and moving to urban areas seeking for shelter and humanitarian assistance, thus increasing pressure on early relief efforts.According to reuters villagers in the affected areas have been forced to camp outside for safety as their traditional mud brick houses were flattened by the quake.
Damage assessments are ongoing in parallel with search and rescue efforts, however there aren’t official estimates yet due to the lack of consolidated reports. While the epicenter of the earthquake was not densely populated, the impact on local structures was significant. Several cities, notably Marrakesh, Taroudant, Asmiz and Chichaoua have suffered heavy destructions. The earthquake also caused damage to the old city of Marrakech, a UNESCO World Heritage site, where a minaret toppled over and parts of the historic city walls collapsed along with some traditional houses. According to an Unosat analysis performed on 10/9/2023, there are over 392 damaged structures and over 347 potentially damaged structures. According to Action for Humanity’s published situation report, the provinces of Chichaoua and Taroudant have been the hardest hit in terms of school damage.
Impact on Health systems and structures :According to Islamic Relief’s the earthquake caused significant harm to Morocco’s health infrastructures and systems, with hospitals and clinics unable to function due to structural damage. Moreover, damaged and/or blocked roads prevent ambulances from reaching severely affected communities, especially in mountainous areas where helicopters have been used to transport injured people to the hospitals. Regarding damage to key infrastructure, most of damage has been sustained by the road network. The earthquake wreaked havoc on the local health infrastructure. Many rural areas surrounding Marrakech, including the provinces of al-Haouz, Ouarzazate, Azilal, Chichaoua, and Taroudant, bore the brunt of the disaster. Not only were health facilities damaged, but accessibility to remote villages in the Atlas Mountains became a significant concern, hampering rescue and relief efforts.
People displaced . According to aljazeera Some survivors have fled their destroyed villages and are camping along the Tizi n’Test road, connecting remote valleys to Marrakesh. and according to Acaps the number of people displaced by the earthquake is high because of significant damage to buildings, making shelter needs a priority in al-Haouz . The numbers of people remaining in temporary shelters in their village and those displaced to other villages or provinces are unclear. The earthquake has affected about 100,000 children across all affected areas, who likely need protection assistance.
The earthquake’s most extreme shake zone occurred in an area where residents are relatively lower wealth, and also occurred in a zone with limited access to hospitals and other health facilities . This has resulted in a significant strain on the health system, as the limited access to hospitals and health facilities has made it difficult for those affected by the earthquake to receive the medical attention they need.
Morocco + 1 more
Maghreb (Morocco & Libya) - IBC Monthly Situation Report, November 2023
Morocco earthquake: situation report #5 (november 14, 2023), maghreb (morocco & libya) - ibc situation report, 26 october 2023, morocco earthquake: situation report #4 (october 2, 2023).