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dramatic devices essay

In short, Dramatic devices are techniques used in dramatic works by playwrights to make stories more interesting to audiences. They are a form of literary device.Dramatic devices are elements used by writers in plays or scripts to create drama, tension, and emotion. These can include the use of dialogue, stage directions,…

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In short, Dramatic devices are techniques used in dramatic works by playwrights to make stories more interesting to audiences. They are a form of literary device.

Dramatic devices are elements used by writers in plays or scripts to create drama, tension, and emotion. These can include the use of dialogue, stage directions, monologues, soliloquies, asides, flashbacks, foreshadowing, and more. They are crucial in conveying character emotions, advancing the plot , creating suspense, and enhancing the overall theatrical experience. We will explore the many different dramatic devices and we will look at some examples.

Dramatic devices and techniques

There is a multitude of devices and techniques used in dramatic writing. These terms can be used interchangeably, but for this article, we will call them dramatic devices .

Dramatic devices are conventions that are used in drama to enhance the action on stage. This can be used for many effects, including realism , emphasis or contrast.

Dramatic devices are essential tools in theatre. They serve as stand-ins for reality, enabling the audience to perceive the performance as authentic within its staged context.

Dramatic techniques, or dramatic methods, are specific strategies or methods used by playwrights and directors to tell stories on stage and create an emotional response. These techniques can involve elements of the script, like dialogue and characterisation, as well as theatrical components like lighting, sound, costuming, and set design. Effective use of these techniques can help to deepen audience engagement, create suspense, and bring a play 's themes and characters to life. These techniques transmit information about characters or the plot that could not be conveyed by action alone.

Dramatic methods can also include how the themes and messages of a play are communicated through dialogue, action, symbolism, and metaphor.

Types of dramatic device

There is a multitude of conventions that can be used for different effects or purposes. Some types of dramatic devices include dramatic irony, soliloquy, aside, and paradox.

Dramatic irony

The first device we can look at is dramatic irony .

Dramatic irony describes a situation in which the audience knows some information that some or all of the characters do not.

This results in heightened dramatic tension, especially in scenes that might allude to this information. Certain characters might be perceived differently by the audience than they are by other characters in the play due to unrevealed details or circumstances. Words and actions, therefore, can carry multiple meanings, making the action more interesting and exciting to watch.

Dramatic irony can be used either for comedic or dramatic effects. Audiences may laugh at the obliviousness of the characters on stage, or foresee potential tragedy.

One of the ways in which dramatic irony can be achieved is through a soliloquy .

A soliloquy is a kind of monologue (a long speech spoken by a single character) that is addressed to the speaker themselves as they appear alone onstage.

Usually, the purpose of a soliloquy is to reveal the inner monologue of a character, allowing the audience to understand their thoughts, perspectives and intentions.

The information divulged during a soliloquy may not be privy to other characters in the play, therefore adding a layer of dramatic irony to enhance later action.

Similarly, this can also be achieved using an aside .

An aside is any speech delivered directly to the audience as a representation of a character's thoughts. Asides can be as short as a brief comment or as long as a whole speech.

Asides, like soliloquies, serve to reveal character information through personal thoughts that could not be shared through straightforward action.

The audience, therefore, may begin to feel involved and invested in the play, enhancing the dramatic experience.

Another device is paradox .

A paradox is a statement that only seems like it contradicts itself but actually doesn't.

Paradoxes are used in drama to attract the audience's attention. They might seem to be ridiculous statements that offer humour in obvious self-contradiction; however, they usually still retain validity.

Dramatic devices examples

Now that we have established the major dramatic devices, we can consider some examples of how they can be used to great effect.

Dramatic devices in literature

It is important to look at how great dramatists have inventively used these same conventions as part of their craft to elevate and enhance their writing.

'To be or not to be'

Perhaps the most famous playwright in history, William Shakespeare (1564-1616), expertly deployed dramatic devices in his plays, cleverly using each to create unforgettable characters, stories and action .

The most widely known soliloquy in all literature is largely agreed as Hamlet 's 'To be or not to be' from Act 3, Scene 1 of the play Hamlet (1599-1601). Hamlet's speech explores his deepest thoughts, contemplating suicide and the nature of death.

What makes this soliloquy so culturally impactful is the vulnerability exhibited by the titular character, Hamlet, who shares his innermost thoughts with the audience. There is an honesty conveyed through the soliloquy that can resonate with anyone, creating a feeling of intimacy on stage, especially poignant when considering the critical position that Hamlet finds himself in.

Another dramatic device used by Shakespeare in this scene is dramatic irony. Unbeknownst to Hamlet, his treacherous uncle, King Claudius, and his advisor, Polonius, are eavesdropping in secret. The audience is aware of this and understands the critical repercussions that might occur as a result, creating a sense of foreboding and anticipation.

Asides in Othello

Shakespeare's 1603 play Othello is a play largely concerned with deception and manipulation, particularly by its antagonist, Iago.

Throughout the play, Iago speaks to the audience through various asides, underscoring his treachery and deceit.

Even from his first aside, he cements his position:

With as little a web as this will I ensnare as great a fly as Cassio.

(Act II Scene I)

The dramatic device is quickly associated with Iago's villainy, creating in the audience a sense of dramatic irony of his true nature that is not understood by the rest of the characters.

What forms, therefore, is an inevitable fate that makes the ultimate tragedy of the play even more distressing: the audience is Iago's witness (and perhaps even corroborator) throughout, watching his plan unfold, also helpless to his evil nature.

Dramatic Devices, A dark theatre with red curtains. People are sitting on the stafe with scripts in their hand while a person at the back of the stage is standing and seems to be practising their lines , Vaia

Importance of dramatic devices

Dramatic devices are of incredible importance: with the inclusion of these conventions and techniques, playwrights can incorporate additional complexities, depth and detail into their work, making it a more enjoyable experience for audiences.

The major effect of all dramatic devices is to involve the audience, which makes the plot more immersive.

Straightforward action by itself may not be enough to emotionally involve audiences because they appear to operate from a distance. When an audience feels like they are part of the action on stage, however, the play becomes more believable and meaningful, thereby enhancing the dramatic experience.

Dramatic Devices - Key takeaways

  • Dramatic devices are conventions or techniques used to make stage action more interesting to audiences.
  • Key dramatic devices are dramatic irony, soliloquy, aside and paradox.
  • Many examples of dramatic devices can be found in the works of Shakespeare.
  • The most famous soliloquy is Hamlet's 'To be or not to be'.
  • Dramatic devices serve to immerse the audience more effectively in the action of the play.

Frequently Asked Questions about Dramatic Devices

--> what is the meaning of dramatic devices.

Dramatic devices are conventions that are used in drama to enhance the action on stage.

--> What is an example of a dramatic device?

Dramatic irony is a dramatic device.

--> What are the types of dramatic devices?

The main types of dramatic device include dramatic irony, soliloquy, aside and paradox.

--> What is the function of dramatic devices?

Dramatic devices serve to enhance the action on stage for the audience.

--> What do dramatic devices allow the writer to do?

Dramatic devices allow writers to immerse audiences in the plot action more effectively. These techniques create ways for writers to divulge further information about characters or the plot.

Final Dramatic Devices Quiz

Dramatic devices quiz - teste dein wissen.

True or false: a tragic play is usually about a hero or heroine who goes through trials and tribulations that don't lead to a happy resolution. 

Show answer

Show question

Which of these is  NOT  one of Aristotle's six main elements of tragedy?

According to Aristotle, the purpose of tragedy is...

Which of these plays is an adaptation of a Classical Greek tragedy?

Médée (1635) by Pierre Corneille's

True or false: in 18th and 19th century Europe, the tragedies that were written started to explore the lives of ordinary people.

True or false: Hamletmachine (1977) by Heiner Müller is a tragedy.

True or false: The Romantic poets didn't write tragedies.

The three main types of tragedy are heroic tragedy, revenge tragedy and....?

domestic tragedy

The Conquest of Granada  (1670) by John Dryden is a...?

heroic tragedy

True or false: Death of a Salesman (1949) by Arthur Miller is a domestic tragedy.

Which of these is one of the aspects of tragedy?

True or false: Soliloquies developed as a dramatic device in the 1800s

Soliloquies were popular during the _____________ Age

Elizabethan

The Elizabethan Age is also known as the _________ Age

What verse form is a soliloquy typically written in?

The blank verse is written in what kind of meter?

iambic pentameter

Which of the following works consists of a soliloquy?

The Chronicles of Narnia

Which of the following characters did NOT have a soliloquy in Julius Caesar ?

Augustus Caesar

Which of the following works does NOT contain a soliloquy?

Alice's Adventures in Wonderland

The most famous soliloquy in Shakespeare's Hamlet begins with which line?

Friends, Romans and Countrymen! Lend me your ears!

A scene with a soliloquy features how many characters?

What is a Dramatic Term?

Dramatic terms are the terminology used in the genre of drama to refer to devices that achieve specific effects, as well as to depict types of characters, reference plot structures, or even refer to parts of the stage set.

Are Dramatic Terms also Literary Terms?

Sure, of course. Some dramatic terms are also literary terms and could be also used to describe devices employed in a poem, essay, short story, or novel.

What are the elements of Dramatic Terms?

Literary elements

What are some Dramatic Terms that could also be Literary Terms?

Plot or details of the plot structure such as rising action, climax, and falling action.

What are the Technical Elements of Dramatic Terms?

Generally, the Technical Elements include those related to the set  such as stage, scenery, costumes, and light or sound.

What are the Performance Elements of Dramatic Terms?

Name two types of area stage.

The Globe Theatre

Which famous Greek author wrote about catharsis in tragedy?

Which are elements of Freytag’s Pyramid?

Rising action

What musical genre is like improvisation in acting?

True or false: the protagonist in a comedy doesn't get a happy ending.

True or false: the purpose of comedy in drama is to amuse and entertain.

Which Classical Greek dramatist established comedy as a genre?

 Aristophanes

According to Plato comedy is...

an obstacle to rationality and self-control

Which British form of comedy is NOT inspired by commedia dell'arte?

Drawing room comedy

Who is the most famous writer of classic romantic drama?

 William Shakespeare

Variety is the British equivalent of...

 vaudeville

True or false: comedy of manners uses witty and sophisticated language.

True or false: A Midsummer Night's Dream (1605) is a satirical comedy.

Which of these is an aspect of comedy?

 A parody of the behaviour of people in society

What is a morality play?

A morality play is a genre of theatrical work, originating in the Medieval period, that intended to impart moral lessons as much as to entertain an audience. They were allegorical stories informed by teachings from Christianity, that featured personifications of religious concepts, qualities or abstractions. 

What term is used for the three central kinds of dramas produced during the Middle Ages?

Vernacular drama.

Why is the term vernacular drama  used?

Plays that were classified this way were written and performed in vernacular language, which is the spoken language of a region or area.

What language did plays affiliated with the Church previously have to be written in?

What were the other types of vernacular dramas?

Miracle plays.

What were the two purposes of morality plays?

Education and entertainment.

What kind of thematic shift did morality plays signify in English drama?

The shift from purely liturgical content, to the freedom of secularity.

What is an example of an English morality play?

Everyman (c. 1500).

What is the protagonist of The Castle of Perseverance named, and what is he nicknamed?

Humanum Genus, nicknamed Mankind.

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This section looks at the dramatic devices that Priestley uses, within An Inspector Calls.

  • He juxtaposes the beliefs of Birling with the attitude of the Inspector
  • He also forces the audience to make links between Sheila and the dead girl to highlight the differences in their lives because of their social classes

Priestley uses sound effects again in Act 3 when the telephone ringing heralds the significant information about to be shared

The final denouement is a shocking surprise to the characters on stage and the audience – a ‘twist in the tale’.

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  • Types of Dramatic Devices

Dramatic Irony

Occurs when the reader knows a secret, but the characters in a play or work of fiction do not. Therefore, the words or actions of a character carry a special meaning for the reader but are understood differently by the character.  The characters are blind to facts, but the reader is not.

Is applied to justice, which comes about when an evil act brings about its own punishment and poetic justice prevails.

Is a device used to attract the reader’s attention.  It is a statement that seems contradictory or absurd, but well-founded and true at the same time.

Is a speech given by a character in a play when the speaker is alone. This is presented to inform the audience or reader of what is happening in the mind of a character and to give information about the action of the play.

Pathetic Fallacy

Is a device used by poets and writers whereby nature mirrors the political condition of society. Pathos is a situation that elicits pity from the audience.

A speech made by an actor DIRECTLY TO THE AUDIENCE, but seemingly to himself or herself.  It is always a true reflection of the character’s thoughts. Its function is to reveal character.

A type of drama of human conflict which ends in defeat and suffering. Often the main character (dignified, noble) has a tragic flaw (weakness of character, wrong judgment) that leads to his or her destruction. Sometimes the conflict is with forces beyond the control of the character – fate, evil in the world.

A hint or warning of things to come, making specific events in the plot seems more probable as they unfold.

Using images to describe or compare something, so that the reader forms a picture in his or her mind.

Is an ancient Greek theatre term meaning the error, frailty, mistaken judgment or misstep through which the fortunes of the hero of a tragedy are reversed. Hamartia must express itself through a definite action, or, failure to perform a definite action. Hamartia can result from bad judgment, a bad character,  ignorance, inherited weakness, or accident.  This error does not always result from an error in character.

Tragic Hero

The tragedy is about WASTE, a waste of people and a waste of unrealized potential.  Hamlet has high individual potential, which is wasted by an individual weakness that significantly affects others.  If Hamlet’s potential had been realized, he would have been a hero.  Unrealized potential is the difference between a successful versus an unsuccessful quest.

Related Posts

  • Rhetorical and Poetic Devices
  • Types of Sentence Structures
  • Paragraph Structure and Types
  • DRAMATIC PURPOSE
  • Types of Irony

Author:  William Anderson (Schoolworkhelper Editorial Team)

Tutor and Freelance Writer. Science Teacher and Lover of Essays. Article last reviewed: 2022 | St. Rosemary Institution © 2010-2023 | Creative Commons 4.0

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Essay guide: dramatic devices in Act 1

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Drama elements The elements of drama

The elements of drama are the ingredients that give the work its shape and character. As well as characters, plot and action, consider which dramatic forms and dramatic coventions to use.

The elements of drama

These are the ingredients that give work its shape and character. When devising work, whatever your stimulus close stimulus An inspiration for creative work. You can find a stimulus in an experience, image, emotion, object, text or a combination of stimuli. or theme, you should consider the following elements:

This is the story, or through-line of your piece. A storyline is often called a narrative . Without any narrative the work might be on one level, failing to keep the interest of the audience. The sequence of the plot is something that can be explored once you have brainstormed and improvised your narrative.

Most stories have a beginning, middle and an end. However, your drama doesn’t have to run in this linear order. Some work is non-linear in structure. This means that it doesn’t follow a chronological sequence but moves about in time. This can be an excellent device for building tension and keeping the audience engaged as the story unravels bit by bit. The play, Betrayal by Harold Pinter is an excellent example of this. It begins at the end of the plot and then moves backwards in time scene by scene to how it all began.

A play may contain more than one plot. A separate storyline running parallel to the main story is called a subplot. In Shakespeare’s play, A Midsummer Night’s Dream , the main story is about four young would-be lovers lost in a wood. A comic story about ‘rude mechanicals’ who are rehearsing a play for the Duke Theseus’s wedding runs parallel to it.

An Essay of Dramatic Poesy

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Instead of writing the piece as a short prose essay, Dryden instead employs dialogue: a conversation among characters who are avatars of his friends and patrons. While not strictly speaking a Socratic dialogue (which employs questions and answers to engage reflection and reach consensus), the essay does pay implicit homage to the ancient philosophical method. The essay’s dialogue also provides different points of view, arguments and counterarguments, and varied examples in a spontaneous manner—though the reader knows the end result is scripted. In this way, it reflects the conversations within the essay itself: The dialogue mirrors the poesy of the essay’s title, imitating (and improving) on nature rather than exactly mimicking it.

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How Does Shakespeare Use Dramatic Devices Essay Example

How Does Shakespeare Use Dramatic Devices Essay Example

  • Pages: 5 (1240 words)
  • Published: April 12, 2018
  • Type: Literature Analysis

How Does Shakespeare Use Dramatic Devices In Act 3 Scene 1 Of ” Romeo And Juliet” In Order To Make It Such An Interesting, Exciting And Important Scene? Romeo and Juliet is an Elizabethan play set in Verona. It tells the story of the Montague’s and Capulet’s, 2 families who have a deep hatred for each other.

However the story takes a turn for the worst when Romeo; Montague and Juliet; Capulet become entwined in a dangerous love rollercoaster. Act 3, scene 1 is the scene I have been studying and therefore will be the scene I will be analysing.

The scene is centred around the murders of Mercutio and Tybalt. Both men come about death by fighting, something that is forbidden by the prince of Verona.

At first Tybalt challenges Romeo, because Romeo decl

ines the confrontation Mercutio steps in and takes his place. Romeo try’s his best to stop the continuing duel but just gets in the way, his intervention causes Tybalts sword to slip under the chest of Romeo and pierce the Mercutio’s chest.

Romeo,s attitude changes from happy, calm and joking , to merciless, ruthless and angry instantly. As a result of this quick rage Romeo makes up his mind that either he or Tybalt must die with Mercutio and challengesTybalt, who falls ; Romeo kills him in his stride. The genre of the play Tragedy, lets the audience know that during the play tragic events will take place, . e.

g. the death of both Romeo and Juliet. Tragedy is a form of drama, which is a big genre in theatrical productions/ films and books.

The themes of the pla

are; deceit, love, hate, death conflict, we can tell this through the emotion of the character, for example Mercutio death enrages Romeo with hate, it was love at first sight for Romeo and Juliet, Montague and Capulet are always in some form of conflict. Romeo and Juliet was written by William Shakespeare, an English playwrite. Nobody is sure of the exact birth date of William Shakespeare but we do know that he was baptised as a catholic in April during the year 1564.

He died in 1616 during April.

When he was 18 he met Anne Hathaway and married her, during her twenties they had 3 children together, Suzanne and the twins Hamnet and Judith. Again nobody can make a correct guess as to how many plays Shakespeare wrote, however we know that 38 of his plays and 154 of his sonnets survived until the nineteenth century, when Shakespeare,s works were really appreciated. Shakespeare got the idea of Romeo and Juliet from a similar poem written by Arthur Brooke’s; The Tragical history of Romeus and Juliet (1562). Though Shakespeare play is based on the plot of

Arthur Brooke poem, he quickened the pace of the action, in Brooke’s poem the love of Romeo and Juliet lasts 3 months, were as in Shakespeare version it only lasts one night.

The 1500’s were a development period for modern man, principles, customs and methods were being challenged for the first time. Trades overseas were expanding, providing new opportunities, people were looking into themselves, to become more civilized, more mature. When we go to see a new film we expect a new story line, characters that we can relate

to, a bit of action.

In Elizabethan times it was different, they were happy to be given a recognized story line, just as long as the dramatist’s treatment was new and individual.

Therefore we can tell that the Elizabethans were easily entertained but more sophisticated than twentieth century audiences. The names Montague and Capulet sound familiar to 2 families that lived during the thirteenth century; Montecchi and Capellitti . The irony of this is that these 2 families are believed to have been partly responsible for the civil strife in Italy.

I believe that act three, scene one was written to shock the audience. During the previous scene Romeo and Juliet were married by the friar. This makes the atmosphere calm and relaxed.

In addition the prologue quotes “pair of star crossed lovers take their life”, meaning that the audience are aware of the fact that Romeo and Juliet are going to die. Compiling all the evidence, the quote, the previous scene, the content atmosphere i believe that act 3, scene one is there to shock the audience with Mercutios and Tybalts Death.

The scene starts of using the dramatic device tension. Mercutio and Benvolio in the beginning of act three, scene one creates a tension filled atmosphere by arguing over a difference of opinion.

The action of Mercutio and Benvolio unbalances the atmosphere. The effect of the unstable atmosphere, causes dramatic tension, which unsettles the audience, resulting in anticipation as to what could happen next. The next dramatic devices that are used are conflict and dramatic irony, caused by the entrance of Tybalt and Romeo.

The scene progresses with Tybalt constant insults undermining Romeo,

“boy”, “though art a villain”. Intermission is made by Mercutio; witty banter is thrown in each direction until the situation takes a turn for the worst.

Romeo intervenes in the sword fight between Mercutio and Tybalt; resulting in Tybalt “accidentally” stabbing Mercutio. The conflict in this scene gives the audience an early indication that something terrible is about to happen. As Tybalt doesn’t know that Romeo is married to Juliet and the audience does, this creates dramatic irony.

The effect this has on the audience is that it makes them feel sorry for Romeo. As Romeo has done nothing but love Tybalt and “tender the Capulet name”, also it has a structual effect on the rest of the play as two more character have been taken out of the picture. Therefore Shakespeare has to make the story even more interesting to fill the gap.

As a result of Tybalts actions Romeo vastly changes his character during the later part of the scene, “thee’s days blackfate on more days doth depend; this but begins the woe, others must end”.

The effect this has on Romeo's character causes him to think about the way he has been acting, “oh sweet Juliet, thy beauty hath made me effeminate”, consequently making the change from boy to man. The possible effect Romeo’s change in character could have on the audience is that they will not be surprised, as the change is predictable and you can tell what is going to happen through the way the scene is structured. The scene is structured around events.

It has a three stage line up of typical events, starting with a normal event; Benvolio

Mercutio chatting in the streets, leading to a shocking event; the murder of Mercutio, finishing with a consequent event; Romeo being exiled from Verona for the murder of Tybalt. The structured sequence of events could affect the audience in 2 ways; it could surprise them with the quick change of events throughout the scene or it could bore the audience, as one action sequence makes another predictable, e.

. The death of Mercutio causes the audience to guess that Romeo is going to go and seek revenge. Shakespeare uses a range of language devices to create a number of different moods, atmospheres and effects for the audience. If repetition used in small quantities, it can set a wondrous atmosphere for the audience and get them thinking.

Shakespeare uses this method in act 3 scene 1 when Mercutio repeats a curse 3 times at the time of his death, “a plague a’ both your houses

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dramatic devices essay

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The dramatic devices Essay (972 words)

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Look closely at the opening of the play up to the inspector’s entrance. Analyse the dramatic devices Priestly employs to create atmosphere and set up his central theme. J.B Priestly employs many dramatic devices throughout the play to great effect. Some help add atmosphere whilst others set up his central theme. In turn this enhances the audience’s understanding of, ‘An Inspector Calls’ and enables them to fully appreciate Priestly’s political views.

J.B Priestly is very prescriptive about the set and characterisation. His instructions are precise and clear, therefore not leaving much open to interpretation. When comparing both Priestly’s instructions and the performance itself, there are considerable differences. Priestly wanted the general effect to be ‘heavily comfortable and substantial but not cosy and homelike’. However according to his stage directions there is only one table, centre down stage, with no mention of the rest of the stage. This could lead us to believe that the rest of the stage was plain. Seated round the table are the four Birlings and Gerald Croft . Priestly’s directions are so detailed that he has even written the seating arrangement.

The recent London staging of the play was completely different, but Priestly’s intended effect was nevertheless achieved. The play is set in 1912, although it was not written or performed until 1945. The stage is set out with a trapdoor downstage right and a mailbox just upstage from that. At the very beginning of the play the theatre is meant to look old and run down. Children, who are supposed to be evacuees from 1945, rise up from the trapdoor.

The stage layout demonstrates to the audience that the play is actually set in 1912. The evacuees come up on to the stage and begin playing with the radio. As they touch other props, the stage comes to life, the lights come on and the story, ‘An Inspector Calls,’ begins. There is a phone box downstage right and a lamppost on the street. The house is raised on stilts; I think this is meant to be symbolic, showing the Birling family’s elevated status in society. Edna, the maid is seated on the street lower down. This helps to illustrate the wide gap in society and symbolises Edna’s inferior position.

The house is shut off to the audience, so it is apparent from the beginning of the play that the Birling family wishes to shut itself off from others. It also helps emphasise Arthur Birling ’s idea that every man should look after himself. Laughing and celebrating can be heard from within, but only light can be seen. This helps create a celebratory and carefree atmosphere. The street is fairly rundown, dull and a complete contrast from the house itself. People are throwing rubbish out from the windows and it is raining. This could be to indicate that in 1912 there were far more poor people than well off people like the Birlings. The stilts of the house are flimsy and thin, which reflects the family’s relationship with each other. At the end of the play the house comes crashing down, just like the family’s relationship.

Priestly wanted the lighting to be pink and intimate up until the point when the Inspector arrives. This change in the lighting is an effective dramatic device and creates a complete contrast in atmosphere. The atmosphere changes from celebratory and carefree to tense and uncomfortable. The introductory stage directions set the author’s desired tone for each of the characters. This is to ensure that the actors portray them precisely as Priestly intended. Priestly would like Arthur Birling to be ‘rather portentous’ whilst Sybil, his wife should be ‘rather cold’. Sheila is supposed to be very ‘pleased with life’ and ‘rather excited’, whilst Eric is characterised as ‘half-shy’ and ‘half assertive’. Gerald is described as an ‘easy well bred young man about town’.

The performance was fairly modern therefore more extra effects were added. Although they were obviously not written in the text, if they could have been used when the play was written it is likely Priestly would have included them. Things like smoke to create an eerie atmosphere at the beginning, different music to add suspense, the rain and the staging, all come under this category. J.B Priestly wrote the play ‘An Inspector Calls’ in 1945 just as the Second World War was coming to an end. The play is set in the year 1912, a time when many aspects of society were unjust. Priestly demonstrates this point by creating a microcosm of society in the play ‘An Inspector Calls’.

The gap between the rich and poor was very wide, and life for the unemployed was especially difficult. The people who were generally worse off were the working class young women. In 1912, it should be noted that over 8 million young women were earning less than 25 shillings a week, and it was into this category that Eva Smith fell. The play was written at an exceptionally good time because Priestly and the audiences had seen how the nation pulled together throughout the war and worked together to achieve one common goal.

During the war class did not divide society. There was no rich or poor, everything was rationed so people looked the same, wore similar, drab clothes and ate comparable foods. In the armed forces rich and poor alike shared barracks and were treated equally. Both rich and poor children were evacuated together and lived with each other. Everyone was employed and there was a good sense of morale and togetherness. Barriers built up by class were demolished. Priestly wanted to inspire his audience to create that same atmosphere and that sense of caring for one another now that the war had finished. He wanted the end of the war to promote change, so people worked as a unit, not just for their own appetites or prejudice.

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The New Crisis of Increasing All-Cause Mortality in US Children and Adolescents

  • 1 Department of Family Medicine and Population Health, Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine, Richmond
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Although life expectancy in industrialized countries has lengthened over the past century, increases in US life expectancy ceased after 2010, a trend attributed to rising mortality rates among individuals aged 25 to 64 years. 1 Although midlife mortality rates increased over the past decade, mortality rates among children and older adults continued to decrease. The COVID-19 pandemic altered this trend and resulted in a sharp increase in mortality among older adults, an unsurprising outcome. However, pediatric mortality rates also increased, and COVID-19 contributed little to this surge. This increase in all-cause pediatric mortality has ominous implications. A nation that begins losing its most cherished population—its children—faces a crisis like no other.

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Woolf SH , Wolf ER , Rivara FP. The New Crisis of Increasing All-Cause Mortality in US Children and Adolescents. JAMA. 2023;329(12):975–976. doi:10.1001/jama.2023.3517

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New York Post

New York Post

With the Ukraine war in a stalemate, it’s decision time for Biden

Posted: November 17, 2023 | Last updated: November 17, 2023

Has the war in Ukraine reached a dead end?

A recent essay by Ukraine’s top general, Valerii Zaluzhnyi, in The Economist magazine seems to suggest so. In a sobering read that has led to some tension with President Zelensky’s office, Zaluzhnyi argues that in important ways the two militaries have settled into parity. Short of significant technological advances by either of the two sides, dramatic advances seen earlier in the war are unlikely.

Consider Russia’s offensive efforts around Avdiivka in recent weeks, which have run into obstacles symmetrical to those faced by Ukraine in its offensive earlier: minefields and thick defenses that have not been overcome by the usual Russian tactic of pushing an ever-greater number of recent recruits through the meat grinder.

War of attrition?

Now, the war has not been completely static even if the much-anticipated Ukrainian offensive has failed to secure large territorial gains. Ukrainians have successfully degraded Russia’s Black Sea fleet. Recently, Ukraine has also made an impressive push across the Dnipro river close to Kherson, exposing Russian resupply lines — potentially endangering Crimea.

Still, in a long war of attrition, time seems to be on Russia’s side. Ukraine’s Western supporters, particularly in the United States, are already growing restless. Human losses weigh far more heavily in the calculus in Kyiv than in Moscow.

This is not simply because of Russia’s larger population but more importantly because Ukraine needs and values the lives of its younger generation, which has been building Ukraine’s democracy and a vibrant, innovative market economy since the Maidan Revolution of 2014.

It is impressive that Ukraine’s outright defeat is outside of Moscow’s reach, especially given that the West has been too slow and too reluctant to provide Kyiv with needed weapons.

Some still might make a difference — think more and better air defenses, NATO-grade fighter jets, or German-made Taurus missiles.

If Ukraine does not regain its legal, internationally recognized territory — in large part due to the West’s fecklessness — President Biden and his European colleagues must think carefully about what comes after the war.

“Effectiveness of our military aid to Ukraine cannot be measured,” a French national security official told me recently, “simply in terms of regained territory. We need to strengthen Ukraine’s hand for the coming negotiations.”

While infinitely clearer than the muddled thinking of the Biden administration, that point is not entirely correct. For one, it is unlikely that the conflict will be brought to an end by a negotiated settlement, at least not until Russia fully renounces its war aims, which include Ukraine’s “denazification” and “demilitarization.”

We have yet to see evidence that the current occupant of the Kremlin is able of making such a U-turn after dragging Russia so far down the path of aggressive, militaristic imperialism. Until Russia’s regime changes in fundamental ways, no Russian promises can be trusted as any “cease-fire” or “peace agreement” is simply an opportunity for the Kremlin to regroup and attack again.

Future deterrents

Instead of preparing for future negotiations, therefore, focus must be on deterrence — something at which both Ukraine and the wider West failed at spectacularly in 2014 and in 2022.

Regardless of when and how the current fighting stops, Russia must be kept from trying to attack Ukraine ever again.

Strikingly, the French are among the most vocal supporters of Ukraine’s membership in NATO — an alliance that has been successful in keeping Putin’s Russia away from countries formerly dominated by Soviets. Yet, American politics does not favor that option, as neither President Biden nor leading Republican candidates seem to be interested in bringing Ukraine in any time soon.

Plenty of questions

That is a mistake — but it does not obviate the need to keep Russia from attacking again in the future. Perhaps an Israel-like Ukraine, armed to the teeth and equipped with latest Western technology can provide a sufficient deterrent against Russian revanchism. Yet, notwithstanding Ukraine’s impressive successes on the battlefield, building and sustaining a military of the size and the quality that the country needs is going to be exceedingly costly.

A Ukrainian military build-up, in conjunction with the possibility that Kyiv will have unfinished geopolitical business in the region, may well be a source of future instability.

What are the alternatives? A commitment to defend Ukraine by a coalition of the willing? A large multinational force stationed in Ukraine? Can any country other than the United States successfully underwrite Ukraine’s future security?

Lest the ongoing conflict become a permanent fixture of the global landscape, we may need President Biden to provide compelling answers to such questions very soon.

Dalibor Rohac is a senior fellow at the American Enterprise Institute in Washington DC. Twitter: @DaliborRohac.

With the Ukraine war in a stalemate, it’s decision time for Biden

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Dramatic Device

Another dramatic device is were Mrs Birling is telling the inspector about a young girl (Eva Smith) who had used her family name, Mrs Birling, in the charity organisation were she is chairwomen. Mrs Birling tells the inspector how she turned this desperate girl away when she was pregnant with Eric’s baby. Mrs Birling does not know this but the audience do (dramatic irony). Priestley does this deliberately so we, the audience, dislike her.

This shows how Mrs Birling played a part in Eva’s death.

Mrs Birling sets herself up for a huge downfall which the audience know will happen but they do not know when. This is a dramatic device which creates interest for the audience who then realise that this is a recurring pattern of the play, were characters speak one by one in dramatic irony and they let themselves in for a major collapse. The Inspector questions them individually building them up so they reveal how that particular character was involved in Eva’s death.

The writer uses many dramatic devices, apart from the play being set only in the dining room, Priestley uses lighting to create an atmosphere and change in mood. At the beginning of the play a pink cosy intimate lighting is used in the dining room when the family are happy and chattering. The mood changes when the inspector enters the room and it becomes unpleasant and uneasy, the lighting becomes brighter and harsher. Here Priestley lets the audience know that there is to be a change in the drama which will create more entertainment and suspense.

dramatic devices essay

Proficient in: An Inspector Calls

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The stage directions show this: “The lighting should be pink and intimate until the inspector arrives, then it should be brighter and harsher.”

Dramatic Devices In An Inspector Calls

Stage directions for the characters make the play more appealing for the audience. “Birling and Mrs Birling exchange bewildering and rather frightened glances.” Priestley shows us here that the Birlings are worried and scared abut losing their reputation if people find out that they are involved in Eva Smith’s death. They are not concerned at all about the suicide of Eva but they are just concerned about themselves. By doing this Priestly ensures that the audience continue to dislike the Birlings. Stage directions are a useful dramatic device as Priestley uses this to his advantage by manipulating the audience into forming a bad relationship with these particular characters.

At the end of each act Priestley uses a cliff-hanger ending. At the end of act one Sheila and Gerald are trying to cover up that they are involved in Eva’s death, when suddenly the inspector enters interrupting them, “Well.” By using cliff-hanger endings he creates tension, interest and suspense. Priestley teases the audience towards the next act so they continue to be interested in the play and carry on to enjoy the drama. At the start of the next act the audience will be eager and excited to find out the next part of the story. This is why “An Inspector Calls” has a strong appeal to audiences today.

One theatrical device which is used throughout the play to create interest for both the audiences and characters is the photograph of Eva Smith. This dramatic device is used by the Inspector to create a more tense drama. The photograph of Eva Smith is shown to each character individually by the inspector. This makes the audience and characters curious as to what the girl may look like. During “An Inspector Calls” both the family and audience find that Eva Smith has been using different names including Mrs Birling and Daisy Renton.

Different family members show the audience their involvement with the young girl but under different identities after the inspector shows them the photograph. At the end of the play after the inspector has left, the characters wonder if it was the same photograph they had each been shown, or whether it was two different photographs of two different girls. This information only comes about after the family think the inspector is a fake and it was just a joke.

Priestley does this purposely for the audience and to make them think. This heightens the sense of drama for the audience. “And how do we know she was really Eva Smith or Daisy Renton?” This is a hope by Gerald and the family as they do not want to lose their reputation and their aspiring upper class respect. This frustrates the audience as they want the photograph to be the same one so the family will then get the comeuppance that they deserve for being a part of Eva’s suicide. The audience also want their reputation to be destroyed. This is why the audience enjoys the play as it is a dramatic thriller which involves them in a tense and entertaining way.

“An Inspector Calls” by J.B Priestley is still one of the most frequently performed plays ranging from 1945-2002 and it has a strong appeal to a wide age range of people. It is a dramatic drama which involves the audience throughout by using dramatic and theatrical methods to portray the plays strong message. J.B Priestley wants people to stop being so complacent and start thinking about others more than themselves. He wants his audience to learn from his play that “I” is not always more important then “We” and that we should work as a community. The Inspector important speech shows this, “We are responsible for each other.”

The play is still relevant to audiences today because people still have not learnt Priestley’s message as war and disastrous events still are happening today. This is not the right way to live. Priestley wants people to understand his message and act on it, and not just listen. If the whole would work together and not against each other as enemies, we would live in a more peaceful and happier world. The playwright says the younger generation learn quicker than the older generation were change occurs slower, but if people of all ages, all cultures, and all religions can understand the message of “An Inspector Calls” we can all learn to change for the better and care for each other.

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F.B.I. Seizes Eric Adams’s Phones as Campaign Investigation Intensifies

Days after a raid at Mr. Adams’s chief fund-raiser’s home, federal agents took the mayor’s phones and iPad, two people with knowledge of the matter said.

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Mayor Eric Adams speaks into a microphone.

By William K. Rashbaum ,  Dana Rubinstein and Michael Rothfeld

F.B.I. agents seized Mayor Eric Adams’s electronic devices early this week in what appeared to be a dramatic escalation of a criminal inquiry into whether his 2021 campaign conspired with the Turkish government and others to funnel money into its coffers.

The agents approached the mayor after an event in Manhattan on Monday evening and asked his security detail to step away, a person with knowledge of the matter said. They climbed into his S.U.V. with him and, pursuant to a court-authorized warrant, took his devices, the person said.

The devices — at least two cellphones and an iPad — were returned to the mayor within a matter of days, according to that person and another person familiar with the situation. Law enforcement investigators with a search warrant can make copies of the data on devices after they seize them.

A lawyer for Mr. Adams and his campaign said in a statement that the mayor was cooperating with federal authorities, and had already “proactively reported” at least one instance of improper behavior.

“After learning of the federal investigation, it was discovered that an individual had recently acted improperly,” said the lawyer, Boyd Johnson. “In the spirit of transparency and cooperation, this behavior was immediately and proactively reported to investigators.”

Mr. Johnson said that Mr. Adams has not been accused of wrongdoing and had “immediately complied with the F.B.I.’s request and provided them with electronic devices.” Mr. Adams had attended an anniversary celebration for an education initiative at New York University.

The statement did not identify the individual, detail the conduct reported to authorities or make clear whether the reported misconduct was related to the seizure of the mayor’s devices. It was also not immediately clear whether the agents referred to the fund-raising investigation when they took the mayor’s devices.

Mr. Adams, in his own statement, said that “as a former member of law enforcement, I expect all members of my staff to follow the law and fully cooperate with any sort of investigation — and I will continue to do exactly that.” He added that he had “nothing to hide.”

The surprise seizure of Mr. Adams’s devices was an extraordinary development and appeared to be the first direct instance of the campaign contribution investigation touching the mayor. Mr. Adams, a retired police captain, said on Wednesday that he is so strident in urging his staff to “follow the law” that he can be almost “annoying.” He laughed at the notion that he had any potential criminal exposure.

Spokesmen for the F.B.I. and the U.S. attorney’s office for the Southern District of New York, whose prosecutors are also investigating the matter, declined to comment.

The federal investigation into Mr. Adams’s campaign burst into public view on Nov. 2, when F.B.I. agents searched the home of the mayor’s chief fund-raiser and seized two laptop computers, three iPhones and a manila folder labeled “Eric Adams.”

The fund-raiser, a 25-year-old former intern named Brianna Suggs , has not spoken publicly since the raid.

Mr. Adams responded to news of the raid by abruptly returning from Washington, D.C., where he had only just arrived for a day of meetings with White House and congressional leaders regarding the migrant influx, an issue he has said threatens to “destroy New York City.”

On Wednesday, he said his abrupt return was driven by his desire to be present for his team, and out of concern for Ms. Suggs, who he said had gone through a “traumatic experience.”

“Although I am mayor, I have not stopped being a man and a human,” he said.

But he also said he did not speak with Ms. Suggs on the day of the raid, to avoid any appearance of interfering in an ongoing investigation.

The warrant obtained by the F.B.I. to search Ms. Suggs’s home sought evidence of a conspiracy to violate campaign finance law between members of Mr. Adams’s campaign, the Turkish government or Turkish nationals, and a Brooklyn-based construction company, KSK Construction, whose owners are originally from Turkey. The warrant also sought records about donations from Bay Atlantic University, a Washington, D.C., college whose founder is Turkish and is affiliated with a school Mr. Adams visited when he went to Turkey as Brooklyn borough president in 2015.

The warrant, reviewed by The New York Times, indicated authorities were looking at whether the Turkish government or Turkish nationals funneled donations to Mr. Adams using a so-called straw donor scheme, in which the contributors listed were not the actual source of the money. The warrant also inquired about Mr. Adams’s campaign’s use of New York City’s generous public matching program, in which New York City offers an eight-to-one match of the first $250 of a resident’s donation.

The federal authorities also sought evidence of whether any Adams campaign member provided any benefit to Turkey or the construction company in exchange for campaign donations.

This is not the first time Mr. Adams or people in his orbit have attracted law enforcement scrutiny. In September, Eric Ulrich, Mr. Adams’s former buildings commissioner and senior adviser, was indicted by the Manhattan district attorney, Alvin L. Bragg, on 16 felony charges, including counts of bribetaking and conspiracy.

In July, Mr. Bragg indicted six people, including a retired police inspector who once worked and socialized with Mr. Adams, on charges of conspiring to funnel illegal donations to the mayor’s 2021 campaign.

Separately, the city’s Department of Investigation was investigating the role of Timothy Pearson, one of the mayor’s closest advisers, in a violent altercation at a migrant center in Manhattan.

Mr. Adams has also had skirmishes with the law before becoming mayor. Soon after he was elected Brooklyn borough president, he organized an event to raise money for a new nonprofit, One Brooklyn, which had not yet registered with the state. The invitation list was based on donor rolls for nonprofits run by his predecessor, records show.

A city Department of Investigation inquiry concluded Mr. Adams and his nonprofit appeared to have improperly solicited funding from groups that either had or would soon have matters pending before his office. Mr. Adams’s office emphasized to investigators that the slip-ups had occurred early in his administration and promised to comply with the law going forward.

Earlier, while Mr. Adams was a New York state senator, the state inspector general found that he and other Senate Democrats had fraternized with lobbyists and accepted significant campaign contributions from people affiliated with contenders for a video lottery contract at Aqueduct Racetrack.

In response to a Times examination of his fund-raising record in 2021, Mr. Adams attributed the scrutiny in part to his race.

“Black candidates for office are often held to a higher, unfair standard — especially those from lower-income backgrounds such as myself,” he said in a statement then. “No campaign of mine has ever been charged with a serious fund-raising violation, and no contribution has ever affected my decision-making as a public official.” He added: “I did not go from being a person that enforced the law to become one that breaks the law.”

Mr. Adams is not the first city mayor whose fund-raising has attracted federal scrutiny. In 2017, federal prosecutors examined episodes in which Bill de Blasio, who was then the mayor, or his surrogates sought donations from people seeking favors from the city, and then made inquiries to city agencies on their behalf.

In deciding not to bring charges, the acting United States attorney, Joon H. Kim, cited “the particular difficulty in proving criminal intent in corruption schemes where there is no evidence of personal profit.” Mr. de Blasio received a warning letter about those activities from the city’s Conflicts of Interest Board.

William K. Rashbaum is a senior writer on the Metro desk, where he covers political and municipal corruption, courts, terrorism and law enforcement. He was a part of the team awarded the 2009 Pulitzer Prize for Breaking News. More about William K. Rashbaum

Dana Rubinstein is a reporter on the Metro desk covering New York City politics. Before joining The Times in 2020, she spent nine years at the publication now known as Politico New York. More about Dana Rubinstein

Michael Rothfeld is an investigative reporter on the Metro desk and co-author of the book “The Fixers.” He was part of a team at The Wall Street Journal that won the 2019 Pulitzer Prize for national reporting for stories about hush money deals made on behalf of Donald Trump and a federal investigation of the president's personal lawyer. More about Michael Rothfeld

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dramatic devices essay

In short, Dramatic devices are techniques used in dramatic works by playwrights to make stories more interesting to audiences. They are a form of literary device.Dramatic devices are elements used by writers in plays or scripts to create drama, tension, and emotion. These can include the use of dialogue, stage directions,…

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In short, Dramatic devices are techniques used in dramatic works by playwrights to make stories more interesting to audiences. They are a form of literary device.

Dramatic devices are elements used by writers in plays or scripts to create drama, tension, and emotion. These can include the use of dialogue, stage directions, monologues, soliloquies, asides, flashbacks, foreshadowing, and more. They are crucial in conveying character emotions, advancing the plot , creating suspense, and enhancing the overall theatrical experience. We will explore the many different dramatic devices and we will look at some examples.

Dramatic devices and techniques

There is a multitude of devices and techniques used in dramatic writing. These terms can be used interchangeably, but for this article, we will call them dramatic devices .

Dramatic devices are conventions that are used in drama to enhance the action on stage. This can be used for many effects, including realism , emphasis or contrast.

Dramatic devices are essential tools in theatre. They serve as stand-ins for reality, enabling the audience to perceive the performance as authentic within its staged context.

Dramatic techniques, or dramatic methods, are specific strategies or methods used by playwrights and directors to tell stories on stage and create an emotional response. These techniques can involve elements of the script, like dialogue and characterisation, as well as theatrical components like lighting, sound, costuming, and set design. Effective use of these techniques can help to deepen audience engagement, create suspense, and bring a play 's themes and characters to life. These techniques transmit information about characters or the plot that could not be conveyed by action alone.

Dramatic methods can also include how the themes and messages of a play are communicated through dialogue, action, symbolism, and metaphor.

Types of dramatic device

There is a multitude of conventions that can be used for different effects or purposes. Some types of dramatic devices include dramatic irony, soliloquy, aside, and paradox.

Dramatic irony

The first device we can look at is dramatic irony .

Dramatic irony describes a situation in which the audience knows some information that some or all of the characters do not.

This results in heightened dramatic tension, especially in scenes that might allude to this information. Certain characters might be perceived differently by the audience than they are by other characters in the play due to unrevealed details or circumstances. Words and actions, therefore, can carry multiple meanings, making the action more interesting and exciting to watch.

Dramatic irony can be used either for comedic or dramatic effects. Audiences may laugh at the obliviousness of the characters on stage, or foresee potential tragedy.

One of the ways in which dramatic irony can be achieved is through a soliloquy .

A soliloquy is a kind of monologue (a long speech spoken by a single character) that is addressed to the speaker themselves as they appear alone onstage.

Usually, the purpose of a soliloquy is to reveal the inner monologue of a character, allowing the audience to understand their thoughts, perspectives and intentions.

The information divulged during a soliloquy may not be privy to other characters in the play, therefore adding a layer of dramatic irony to enhance later action.

Similarly, this can also be achieved using an aside .

An aside is any speech delivered directly to the audience as a representation of a character's thoughts. Asides can be as short as a brief comment or as long as a whole speech.

Asides, like soliloquies, serve to reveal character information through personal thoughts that could not be shared through straightforward action.

The audience, therefore, may begin to feel involved and invested in the play, enhancing the dramatic experience.

Another device is paradox .

A paradox is a statement that only seems like it contradicts itself but actually doesn't.

Paradoxes are used in drama to attract the audience's attention. They might seem to be ridiculous statements that offer humour in obvious self-contradiction; however, they usually still retain validity.

Dramatic devices examples

Now that we have established the major dramatic devices, we can consider some examples of how they can be used to great effect.

Dramatic devices in literature

It is important to look at how great dramatists have inventively used these same conventions as part of their craft to elevate and enhance their writing.

'To be or not to be'

Perhaps the most famous playwright in history, William Shakespeare (1564-1616), expertly deployed dramatic devices in his plays, cleverly using each to create unforgettable characters, stories and action .

The most widely known soliloquy in all literature is largely agreed as Hamlet 's 'To be or not to be' from Act 3, Scene 1 of the play Hamlet (1599-1601). Hamlet's speech explores his deepest thoughts, contemplating suicide and the nature of death.

What makes this soliloquy so culturally impactful is the vulnerability exhibited by the titular character, Hamlet, who shares his innermost thoughts with the audience. There is an honesty conveyed through the soliloquy that can resonate with anyone, creating a feeling of intimacy on stage, especially poignant when considering the critical position that Hamlet finds himself in.

Another dramatic device used by Shakespeare in this scene is dramatic irony. Unbeknownst to Hamlet, his treacherous uncle, King Claudius, and his advisor, Polonius, are eavesdropping in secret. The audience is aware of this and understands the critical repercussions that might occur as a result, creating a sense of foreboding and anticipation.

Asides in Othello

Shakespeare's 1603 play Othello is a play largely concerned with deception and manipulation, particularly by its antagonist, Iago.

Throughout the play, Iago speaks to the audience through various asides, underscoring his treachery and deceit.

Even from his first aside, he cements his position:

With as little a web as this will I ensnare as great a fly as Cassio.

(Act II Scene I)

The dramatic device is quickly associated with Iago's villainy, creating in the audience a sense of dramatic irony of his true nature that is not understood by the rest of the characters.

What forms, therefore, is an inevitable fate that makes the ultimate tragedy of the play even more distressing: the audience is Iago's witness (and perhaps even corroborator) throughout, watching his plan unfold, also helpless to his evil nature.

Dramatic Devices, A dark theatre with red curtains. People are sitting on the stafe with scripts in their hand while a person at the back of the stage is standing and seems to be practising their lines , StudySmarter

Importance of dramatic devices

Dramatic devices are of incredible importance: with the inclusion of these conventions and techniques, playwrights can incorporate additional complexities, depth and detail into their work, making it a more enjoyable experience for audiences.

The major effect of all dramatic devices is to involve the audience, which makes the plot more immersive.

Straightforward action by itself may not be enough to emotionally involve audiences because they appear to operate from a distance. When an audience feels like they are part of the action on stage, however, the play becomes more believable and meaningful, thereby enhancing the dramatic experience.

Dramatic Devices - Key takeaways

  • Dramatic devices are conventions or techniques used to make stage action more interesting to audiences.
  • Key dramatic devices are dramatic irony, soliloquy, aside and paradox.
  • Many examples of dramatic devices can be found in the works of Shakespeare.
  • The most famous soliloquy is Hamlet's 'To be or not to be'.
  • Dramatic devices serve to immerse the audience more effectively in the action of the play.

Frequently Asked Questions about Dramatic Devices

--> what is the meaning of dramatic devices.

Dramatic devices are conventions that are used in drama to enhance the action on stage.

--> What is an example of a dramatic device?

Dramatic irony is a dramatic device.

--> What are the types of dramatic devices?

The main types of dramatic device include dramatic irony, soliloquy, aside and paradox.

--> What is the function of dramatic devices?

Dramatic devices serve to enhance the action on stage for the audience.

--> What do dramatic devices allow the writer to do?

Dramatic devices allow writers to immerse audiences in the plot action more effectively. These techniques create ways for writers to divulge further information about characters or the plot.

Final Dramatic Devices Quiz

Dramatic devices quiz - teste dein wissen.

True or false: a tragic play is usually about a hero or heroine who goes through trials and tribulations that don't lead to a happy resolution. 

Show answer

Show question

Which of these is  NOT  one of Aristotle's six main elements of tragedy?

According to Aristotle, the purpose of tragedy is...

Which of these plays is an adaptation of a Classical Greek tragedy?

Médée (1635) by Pierre Corneille's

True or false: in 18th and 19th century Europe, the tragedies that were written started to explore the lives of ordinary people.

True or false: Hamletmachine (1977) by Heiner Müller is a tragedy.

True or false: The Romantic poets didn't write tragedies.

The three main types of tragedy are heroic tragedy, revenge tragedy and....?

domestic tragedy

The Conquest of Granada  (1670) by John Dryden is a...?

heroic tragedy

True or false: Death of a Salesman (1949) by Arthur Miller is a domestic tragedy.

Which of these is one of the aspects of tragedy?

True or false: Soliloquies developed as a dramatic device in the 1800s

Soliloquies were popular during the _____________ Age

Elizabethan

The Elizabethan Age is also known as the _________ Age

What verse form is a soliloquy typically written in?

The blank verse is written in what kind of meter?

iambic pentameter

Which of the following works consists of a soliloquy?

The Chronicles of Narnia

Which of the following characters did NOT have a soliloquy in Julius Caesar ?

Augustus Caesar

Which of the following works does NOT contain a soliloquy?

Alice's Adventures in Wonderland

The most famous soliloquy in Shakespeare's Hamlet begins with which line?

Friends, Romans and Countrymen! Lend me your ears!

A scene with a soliloquy features how many characters?

What is a Dramatic Term?

Dramatic terms are the terminology used in the genre of drama to refer to devices that achieve specific effects, as well as to depict types of characters, reference plot structures, or even refer to parts of the stage set.

Are Dramatic Terms also Literary Terms?

Sure, of course. Some dramatic terms are also literary terms and could be also used to describe devices employed in a poem, essay, short story, or novel.

What are the elements of Dramatic Terms?

Literary elements

What are some Dramatic Terms that could also be Literary Terms?

Plot or details of the plot structure such as rising action, climax, and falling action.

What are the Technical Elements of Dramatic Terms?

Generally, the Technical Elements include those related to the set  such as stage, scenery, costumes, and light or sound.

What are the Performance Elements of Dramatic Terms?

Name two types of area stage.

The Globe Theatre

Which famous Greek author wrote about catharsis in tragedy?

Which are elements of Freytag’s Pyramid?

Rising action

What musical genre is like improvisation in acting?

True or false: the protagonist in a comedy doesn't get a happy ending.

True or false: the purpose of comedy in drama is to amuse and entertain.

Which Classical Greek dramatist established comedy as a genre?

 Aristophanes

According to Plato comedy is...

an obstacle to rationality and self-control

Which British form of comedy is NOT inspired by commedia dell'arte?

Drawing room comedy

Who is the most famous writer of classic romantic drama?

 William Shakespeare

Variety is the British equivalent of...

 vaudeville

True or false: comedy of manners uses witty and sophisticated language.

True or false: A Midsummer Night's Dream (1605) is a satirical comedy.

Which of these is an aspect of comedy?

 A parody of the behaviour of people in society

What is a morality play?

A morality play is a genre of theatrical work, originating in the Medieval period, that intended to impart moral lessons as much as to entertain an audience. They were allegorical stories informed by teachings from Christianity, that featured personifications of religious concepts, qualities or abstractions. 

What term is used for the three central kinds of dramas produced during the Middle Ages?

Vernacular drama.

Why is the term vernacular drama  used?

Plays that were classified this way were written and performed in vernacular language, which is the spoken language of a region or area.

What language did plays affiliated with the Church previously have to be written in?

What were the other types of vernacular dramas?

Miracle plays.

What were the two purposes of morality plays?

Education and entertainment.

What kind of thematic shift did morality plays signify in English drama?

The shift from purely liturgical content, to the freedom of secularity.

What is an example of an English morality play?

Everyman (c. 1500).

What is the protagonist of The Castle of Perseverance named, and what is he nicknamed?

Humanum Genus, nicknamed Mankind.

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  1. An Inspector Calls: Priestley's Dramatic Devices

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COMMENTS

  1. Dramatic Devices: Meaning, Types, Importance

    Dramatic devices are elements used by writers in plays or scripts to create drama, tension, and emotion. These can include the use of dialogue, stage directions, monologues, soliloquies, asides, flashbacks, foreshadowing, and more. They are crucial in conveying character emotions, advancing the plot, creating suspense, and enhancing the overall ...

  2. University Writing Center (UWC)

    An analysis essay breaks a play into parts and then discusses how the parts contribute to the whole effect or theme. This handout will help you conduct your analysis and prepare your work in an essay. ... Dramatic Devices. Dramatic devices are strategies used by a playwright to add interest to the work, create a particular effect on the ...

  3. Dramatic Devices

    Foreshadowing Birling is overconfident when he tells Gerald that he is expecting a knighthood and his throwaway comment about getting into trouble makes the audience expect something bad to happen: 'so long as we behave ourselves. Don't get into the police court or start a scandal - eh?'

  4. Types of Dramatic Devices

    English Types of Dramatic Devices Dramatic Irony Occurs when the reader knows a secret, but the characters in a play or work of fiction do not. Therefore, the words or actions of a character carry a special meaning for the reader but are understood differently by the character. The characters are blind to facts, but the reader is not. Nemesis

  5. Midsummer Nights Dramatic Devices+Tweets+Quotes

    Dramatic Devices. Complete the chart with examples from the text. Include citation - (ACT, LINES) ex: (2, 13-14) Device Definition Example. Pun. A pun is a play on words in which a word or phrase has a double meaning. Soliloquy. A soliloquy occurs when a character speaks their thoughts in an extended speech while alone on stage. Aside

  6. Shakespeare's use of dramatic methods and language

    You will need to think about how Shakespeare crafted his play - the dramatic devices, methods and techniques he employed and his use of language. Below are some examples of the things you could...

  7. Dramatic devices

    Post-1900. Author. J.B. Priestley. Title. An Inspector Calls. An essay guide for GCSE Literature students that encourages them to examine Priestley's use of dramatic devices at the start of Act 1. Refers to context as well as stagecraft and offers structured support for essay writing. 18.29 KB. Download.

  8. Language and dramatic devices

    Language and dramatic devices Language refers to the choices of style and vocabulary made by the writer. When analysing the language Friel uses you should think about: what, the playwright's...

  9. The elements of drama

    Drama elements. The elements of drama are the ingredients that give the work its shape and character. As well as characters, plot and action, consider which dramatic forms and dramatic coventions ...

  10. Dramatic Essay Examples

    Life of Pi: Dramatic Story. Life of Pi is a wild and dramatic story about a young boy raised in India, who attempts to move to Canada on a cargo ship. Something goes awry, and the ship sinks. The main character, Pi Patel, is stranded in the middle of the ocean with an orangutan, a hyena, a zebra, and an adult bengal tiger named Richard Parker.

  11. Midsummer Nights Dramatic Devices+Tweets+Quotes

    Dramatic Devices. Complete the chart with examples from the text. Include citation - (ACT, LINES) ex: (2, 13-14) Device Definition Example. Pun. A pun is a play on words in which a word or phrase has a double meaning. ''I see their knavery: this is to make an ass of me; \ to fright me, if they could.'' (Act 3 Scene 1 lines 59-60, pg. 27) Soliloquy

  12. An Essay of Dramatic Poesy Literary Devices

    An Essay of Dramatic Poesy Nonfiction | Essay / Speech | Adult | Published in 1668 A modern alternative to SparkNotes and CliffsNotes, SuperSummary offers high-quality Study Guides that feature detailed chapter summaries and analysis of major themes, characters, quotes, and essay topics. Download PDF Access Full Guide Study Guide Summary Background

  13. Dramatic devices

    The Ghost Is a Useful Dramatic Device; Essay. is not able to see the ghost, and as a result cannot discourage Hamlet from the actions he may take. This shows that the ghosts impact directly influences characters within the play. By initially only speaking to Hamlet, it can be seen as a dramatic device to forward the plot, the ghost's appearance ...

  14. The Ghost Is a Useful Dramatic Device; Essay

    The Ghost Is a Useful Dramatic Device; Essay. During the Elizabethan period, a ghost was seen as a common feature in most tragedy plays. Shakespeare's Hamlet is a prime example of the use of a `ghost' to entice fear and apprehension amongst the Elizabethan audience. The ghost can be seen as projecting several functions throughout the play, all ...

  15. How Does Shakespeare Use Dramatic Devices Essay Example

    How Does Shakespeare Use Dramatic Devices Essay Example Available Only on StudyHippo Topics: Characters In Romeo And Juliet, Mercutio, William Shakespeare Pages: 5 (1240 words) Published: April 12, 2018 Type: Literature Analysis View Entire Sample Download Sample Text preview

  16. Dramatic Devices Essay (818 words)

    Get help on 【 Dramatic Devices Essay (818 words) 】 on Artscolumbia Huge assortment of FREE essays & assignments The best writers! Get help now. Essay Samples. Back; ... This dramatic device works so well because it makes us as viewers concentrate intently on the Inspector, which allows Priestley to build a complicated and interesting plot ...

  17. Use Of Dramatic Devices In J. B. Priestley's An Inspector Calls

    The Use of Dramatic Devices in An Inspector Calls by J.B. Priestly. An Inspector Calls is a play with a moral. The writer's main cause of writing the play was to teach the people around him how he thinks the world should act. He does this by using the inspector to express all of his ideas and thoughts through the way in which he teaches the ...

  18. Dramatic Devices In An Inspector Calls Free Essay Example

    The following sample essay on Dramatic Devices In An Inspector Calls discusses it in detail, offering basic facts and pros and cons associated with it. To read the essay's introduction, body and conclusion, scroll down.

  19. The dramatic devices Essay (972 words)

    The dramatic devices Essay (972 words) Look closely at the opening of the play up to the inspector's entrance. Analyse the dramatic devices Priestly employs to create atmosphere and set up his central theme. J.B Priestly employs many dramatic devices throughout the play to great effect.

  20. Dramatic devices in "The Inspector Calls" Free Essay Example

    In this essay I am going to consider and discuss Priestley's concerns, his dramatic devices and how they make us feel and how he keeps the audience interested. Priestley is concerned about the welfare of everyone and tries to put this across by showing how Eva Smith was a nice girl but she was not treated how she should have been as she was ...

  21. The New Crisis of Increasing All-Cause Mortality in US Children and

    Although life expectancy in industrialized countries has lengthened over the past century, increases in US life expectancy ceased after 2010, a trend attributed to rising mortality rates among individuals aged 25 to 64 years. 1 Although midlife mortality rates increased over the past decade, mortality rates among children and older adults continued to decrease.

  22. With the Ukraine war in a stalemate, it's decision time for Biden

    A recent essay by Ukraine's top general, Valerii Zaluzhnyi, in The Economist magazine seems to suggest so. ... Short of significant technological advances by either of the two sides, dramatic ...

  23. Dramatic Device Free Essay Example

    Dramatic Device Topics: An Inspector Calls Drama Literary Genre Download Essay, Pages 5 (1039 words) Views 2 Another dramatic device is were Mrs Birling is telling the inspector about a young girl (Eva Smith) who had used her family name, Mrs Birling, in the charity organisation were she is chairwomen.

  24. Dramatic Devices Essays

    859 Words | 2 Pages Under milk wood is a radio play written by Dylan Thomas, it tells the story of a day in the life of a small town called Llareggub. The play is set in the 1950's, and it has two narrators, called Voice 1 and Voice 2, which act as dramatic devices and move the play along in space and time.

  25. F.B.I. Seizes Eric Adams's Phones as Campaign Investigation Intensifies

    F.B.I. agents seized Mayor Eric Adams's electronic devices early this week in what appeared to be a dramatic escalation of a criminal inquiry into whether his 2021 campaign conspired with the ...

  26. Dramatic Devices: Meaning, Types, Importance

    Dramatic devices are elements used by writers in plays or scripts to create drama, tension, and emotion. These can include the use of dialogue, stage directions, monologues, soliloquies, asides, flashbacks, foreshadowing, and more. They are crucial in conveying character emotions, advancing the plot, creating suspense, and enhancing the overall ...