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One of the most common questions we receive at the Writing Center is “what am I supposed to do in my conclusion?” This is a difficult question to answer because there’s no one right answer to what belongs in a conclusion. How you conclude your paper will depend on where you started—and where you traveled. It will also depend on the conventions and expectations of the discipline in which you are writing. For example, while the conclusion to a STEM paper could focus on questions for further study, the conclusion of a literature paper could include a quotation from your central text that can now be understood differently in light of what has been discussed in the paper. You should consult your instructor about expectations for conclusions in a particular discipline.
With that in mind, here are some general guidelines you might find helpful to use as you think about your conclusion.
Begin with the “what”
In a short paper—even a research paper—you don’t need to provide an exhaustive summary as part of your conclusion. But you do need to make some kind of transition between your final body paragraph and your concluding paragraph. This may come in the form of a few sentences of summary. Or it may come in the form of a sentence that brings your readers back to your thesis or main idea and reminds your readers where you began and how far you have traveled.
So, for example, in a paper about the relationship between ADHD and rejection sensitivity, Vanessa Roser begins by introducing readers to the fact that researchers have studied the relationship between the two conditions and then provides her explanation of that relationship. Here’s her thesis: “While socialization may indeed be an important factor in RS, I argue that individuals with ADHD may also possess a neurological predisposition to RS that is exacerbated by the differing executive and emotional regulation characteristic of ADHD.”
In her final paragraph, Roser reminds us of where she started by echoing her thesis: “This literature demonstrates that, as with many other conditions, ADHD and RS share a delicately intertwined pattern of neurological similarities that is rooted in the innate biology of an individual’s mind, a connection that cannot be explained in full by the behavioral mediation hypothesis.”
Highlight the “so what”
At the beginning of your paper, you explain to your readers what’s at stake—why they should care about the argument you’re making. In your conclusion, you can bring readers back to those stakes by reminding them why your argument is important in the first place. You can also draft a few sentences that put those stakes into a new or broader context.
In the conclusion to her paper about ADHD and RS, Roser echoes the stakes she established in her introduction—that research into connections between ADHD and RS has led to contradictory results, raising questions about the “behavioral mediation hypothesis.”
She writes, “as with many other conditions, ADHD and RS share a delicately intertwined pattern of neurological similarities that is rooted in the innate biology of an individual’s mind, a connection that cannot be explained in full by the behavioral mediation hypothesis.”
Leave your readers with the “now what”
After the “what” and the “so what,” you should leave your reader with some final thoughts. If you have written a strong introduction, your readers will know why you have been arguing what you have been arguing—and why they should care. And if you’ve made a good case for your thesis, then your readers should be in a position to see things in a new way, understand new questions, or be ready for something that they weren’t ready for before they read your paper.
In her conclusion, Roser offers two “now what” statements. First, she explains that it is important to recognize that the flawed behavioral mediation hypothesis “seems to place a degree of fault on the individual. It implies that individuals with ADHD must have elicited such frequent or intense rejection by virtue of their inadequate social skills, erasing the possibility that they may simply possess a natural sensitivity to emotion.” She then highlights the broader implications for treatment of people with ADHD, noting that recognizing the actual connection between rejection sensitivity and ADHD “has profound implications for understanding how individuals with ADHD might best be treated in educational settings, by counselors, family, peers, or even society as a whole.”
To find your own “now what” for your essay’s conclusion, try asking yourself these questions:
- What can my readers now understand, see in a new light, or grapple with that they would not have understood in the same way before reading my paper? Are we a step closer to understanding a larger phenomenon or to understanding why what was at stake is so important?
- What questions can I now raise that would not have made sense at the beginning of my paper? Questions for further research? Other ways that this topic could be approached?
- Are there other applications for my research? Could my questions be asked about different data in a different context? Could I use my methods to answer a different question?
- What action should be taken in light of this argument? What action do I predict will be taken or could lead to a solution?
- What larger context might my argument be a part of?
What to avoid in your conclusion
- a complete restatement of all that you have said in your paper.
- a substantial counterargument that you do not have space to refute; you should introduce counterarguments before your conclusion.
- an apology for what you have not said. If you need to explain the scope of your paper, you should do this sooner—but don’t apologize for what you have not discussed in your paper.
- fake transitions like “in conclusion” that are followed by sentences that aren’t actually conclusions. (“In conclusion, I have now demonstrated that my thesis is correct.”)
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What this handout is about.
This handout will explain the functions of conclusions, offer strategies for writing effective ones, help you evaluate conclusions you’ve drafted, and suggest approaches to avoid.
Introductions and conclusions can be difficult to write, but they’re worth investing time in. They can have a significant influence on a reader’s experience of your paper.
Just as your introduction acts as a bridge that transports your readers from their own lives into the “place” of your analysis, your conclusion can provide a bridge to help your readers make the transition back to their daily lives. Such a conclusion will help them see why all your analysis and information should matter to them after they put the paper down.
Your conclusion is your chance to have the last word on the subject. The conclusion allows you to have the final say on the issues you have raised in your paper, to synthesize your thoughts, to demonstrate the importance of your ideas, and to propel your reader to a new view of the subject. It is also your opportunity to make a good final impression and to end on a positive note.
Your conclusion can go beyond the confines of the assignment. The conclusion pushes beyond the boundaries of the prompt and allows you to consider broader issues, make new connections, and elaborate on the significance of your findings.
Your conclusion should make your readers glad they read your paper. Your conclusion gives your reader something to take away that will help them see things differently or appreciate your topic in personally relevant ways. It can suggest broader implications that will not only interest your reader, but also enrich your reader’s life in some way. It is your gift to the reader.
Strategies for writing an effective conclusion
One or more of the following strategies may help you write an effective conclusion:
- Play the “So What” Game. If you’re stuck and feel like your conclusion isn’t saying anything new or interesting, ask a friend to read it with you. Whenever you make a statement from your conclusion, ask the friend to say, “So what?” or “Why should anybody care?” Then ponder that question and answer it. Here’s how it might go: You: Basically, I’m just saying that education was important to Douglass. Friend: So what? You: Well, it was important because it was a key to him feeling like a free and equal citizen. Friend: Why should anybody care? You: That’s important because plantation owners tried to keep slaves from being educated so that they could maintain control. When Douglass obtained an education, he undermined that control personally. You can also use this strategy on your own, asking yourself “So What?” as you develop your ideas or your draft.
- Return to the theme or themes in the introduction. This strategy brings the reader full circle. For example, if you begin by describing a scenario, you can end with the same scenario as proof that your essay is helpful in creating a new understanding. You may also refer to the introductory paragraph by using key words or parallel concepts and images that you also used in the introduction.
- Synthesize, don’t summarize. Include a brief summary of the paper’s main points, but don’t simply repeat things that were in your paper. Instead, show your reader how the points you made and the support and examples you used fit together. Pull it all together.
- Include a provocative insight or quotation from the research or reading you did for your paper.
- Propose a course of action, a solution to an issue, or questions for further study. This can redirect your reader’s thought process and help her to apply your info and ideas to her own life or to see the broader implications.
- Point to broader implications. For example, if your paper examines the Greensboro sit-ins or another event in the Civil Rights Movement, you could point out its impact on the Civil Rights Movement as a whole. A paper about the style of writer Virginia Woolf could point to her influence on other writers or on later feminists.
Strategies to avoid
- Beginning with an unnecessary, overused phrase such as “in conclusion,” “in summary,” or “in closing.” Although these phrases can work in speeches, they come across as wooden and trite in writing.
- Stating the thesis for the very first time in the conclusion.
- Introducing a new idea or subtopic in your conclusion.
- Ending with a rephrased thesis statement without any substantive changes.
- Making sentimental, emotional appeals that are out of character with the rest of an analytical paper.
- Including evidence (quotations, statistics, etc.) that should be in the body of the paper.
Four kinds of ineffective conclusions
- The “That’s My Story and I’m Sticking to It” Conclusion. This conclusion just restates the thesis and is usually painfully short. It does not push the ideas forward. People write this kind of conclusion when they can’t think of anything else to say. Example: In conclusion, Frederick Douglass was, as we have seen, a pioneer in American education, proving that education was a major force for social change with regard to slavery.
- The “Sherlock Holmes” Conclusion. Sometimes writers will state the thesis for the very first time in the conclusion. You might be tempted to use this strategy if you don’t want to give everything away too early in your paper. You may think it would be more dramatic to keep the reader in the dark until the end and then “wow” him with your main idea, as in a Sherlock Holmes mystery. The reader, however, does not expect a mystery, but an analytical discussion of your topic in an academic style, with the main argument (thesis) stated up front. Example: (After a paper that lists numerous incidents from the book but never says what these incidents reveal about Douglass and his views on education): So, as the evidence above demonstrates, Douglass saw education as a way to undermine the slaveholders’ power and also an important step toward freedom.
- The “America the Beautiful”/”I Am Woman”/”We Shall Overcome” Conclusion. This kind of conclusion usually draws on emotion to make its appeal, but while this emotion and even sentimentality may be very heartfelt, it is usually out of character with the rest of an analytical paper. A more sophisticated commentary, rather than emotional praise, would be a more fitting tribute to the topic. Example: Because of the efforts of fine Americans like Frederick Douglass, countless others have seen the shining beacon of light that is education. His example was a torch that lit the way for others. Frederick Douglass was truly an American hero.
- The “Grab Bag” Conclusion. This kind of conclusion includes extra information that the writer found or thought of but couldn’t integrate into the main paper. You may find it hard to leave out details that you discovered after hours of research and thought, but adding random facts and bits of evidence at the end of an otherwise-well-organized essay can just create confusion. Example: In addition to being an educational pioneer, Frederick Douglass provides an interesting case study for masculinity in the American South. He also offers historians an interesting glimpse into slave resistance when he confronts Covey, the overseer. His relationships with female relatives reveal the importance of family in the slave community.
We consulted these works while writing this handout. This is not a comprehensive list of resources on the handout’s topic, and we encourage you to do your own research to find additional publications. Please do not use this list as a model for the format of your own reference list, as it may not match the citation style you are using. For guidance on formatting citations, please see the UNC Libraries citation tutorial . We revise these tips periodically and welcome feedback.
Douglass, Frederick. 1995. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave, Written by Himself. New York: Dover.
Hamilton College. n.d. “Conclusions.” Writing Center. Accessed June 14, 2019. https://www.hamilton.edu//academics/centers/writing/writing-resources/conclusions .
Holewa, Randa. 2004. “Strategies for Writing a Conclusion.” LEO: Literacy Education Online. Last updated February 19, 2004. https://leo.stcloudstate.edu/acadwrite/conclude.html.
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How to Write a Conclusion Paragraph for an Essay
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- An effective conclusion paragraph is vital to writing a successful college essay.
- A strong conclusion restates the thesis, offers new insight, and forms a personal connection.
- Be sure the conclusion doesn't introduce new arguments or analyze points you didn't discuss.
The first steps for writing any college essay are coming up with a strong thesis statement and composing a rough introduction . Once you've done that, you can collect information that supports your thesis, outline your essay's main points, and start writing your body paragraphs . Before you can submit the essay, though, you'll also need to write a compelling conclusion paragraph.
Conclusions aren't especially difficult to write and can even be fun, but you still need to put in effort to make them work. Ultimately, a strong conclusion is just as important as an effective introduction for a successful paper.
Here, we explain the purpose of a conclusion and how to write a conclusion paragraph using a simple three-step process.
The Purpose of a Conclusion Paragraph
A conclusion paragraph does :
- Check Circle Summarize the essay's thesis and evidence to further convince the reader
- Check Circle Elevate your essay by adding new insight or something extra to impress the reader
- Check Circle Leave a personal impression that connects you more closely to the reader
A conclusion paragraph does not :
- X Circle Summarize something the paper does not discuss
- X Circle Introduce a new argument
How to Write a Conclusion in 3 Easy Steps
Step 1: restate your thesis claim and evidence.
The conclusion's primary role is to convince the reader that your argument is valid. Whereas the introduction paragraph says, "Here's what I'll prove and how," the conclusion paragraph says, "Here's what I proved and how." In that sense, these two paragraphs should closely mirror each other, with the conclusion restating the thesis introduced at the beginning of the essay.
In order to restate your thesis effectively, you'll need to do the following:
- Check Circle Reread your introduction carefully to identify your paper's main claim
- Check Circle Pay attention to the evidence you used to support your thesis throughout the essay
- Check Circle In your conclusion, reword the thesis and summarize the supporting evidence
- Check Circle Use phrases in the past tense, like "as demonstrated" and "this paper established"
Here's an example of an introduction and a conclusion paragraph, with the conclusion restating the paper's primary claim and evidence:
It is a known fact that archaic civilizations with clearly defined social classes often survived longer than those without. One anomaly is seventh-century Civilization X. Close analysis of the cultural artifacts of the Civilization X region reveals that a social system that operates on exploitation, rather than sharing, will always fail. This lack of inclusion actually leads to a society's downfall. Excavated military objects, remnants of tapestries and clay pots, and the poetry of the era all demonstrate the clash between exploitation and sharing, with the former leading to loss and the latter leading to success.
In the 600s C.E., Civilization X survived because it believed in inclusion and sharing rather than exploitation. As demonstrated, the civilization was often aware of the choice between sharing with others and taking from them. The cultural artifacts from the era, namely military items, household objects, and verbal art, all indicate that Civilization X believed sharing ensured survival for all, while taking allowed only a few to survive for a shorter time.
Step 2: Provide New and Interesting Insight
In addition to restating the thesis, a conclusion should emphasize the importance of the essay's argument by building upon it. In other words, you want to push your ideas one step beyond your thesis. One intriguing insight at the end can leave your professor pondering your paper well after they finish reading it — and that's a good sign you turned in a well-written essay.
Note that the conclusion paragraph must only mention that this new idea exists and deserves some focus in the future; it shouldn't discuss the idea in detail or try to propose a new argument.
The new insight you raise in your conclusion should ideally come from the research you already conducted. Should a new idea come to you while writing the body paragraphs, go ahead and make a note to remind you to allude to it in your conclusion.
Here are some typical starting points for these new insights:
- Check Circle A new idea that would have prompted you to redesign your thesis if you had the time
- Check Circle A new angle that would further prove your thesis
- Check Circle Evidence you found that refutes your claim but that you can justify anyway
- Check Circle A different topic to which you can apply the same thesis and/or angles
Step 3: Form a Personal Connection With the Reader
The final step when writing a conclusion paragraph is to include a small detail about yourself. This information will help you build a more intimate bond with your reader and help them remember you better. Think of this step as an opportunity to connect the academic research to your and your reader's personal lives — to forge a human bond between the lines.
Formal essay-writing typically avoids first- and second-person pronouns such as "I" and "you." There are, however, two exceptions to this rule, and these are the introduction and conclusion paragraphs.
In the conclusion, you may use first-person pronouns to attempt to establish an emotional connection with the reader.
In the introduction, you may use the words "I" or "me" just once to clarify that the essay's claim is your own. In the conclusion, you may use first-person pronouns to attempt to establish an emotional connection with the reader, as long as this connection is related in some way to the overarching claim.
Here's an example of a conclusion paragraph that uses both first- and second-person pronouns to connect the thesis statement (provided above) to the student's own perspective on stealing:
Civilization X believed that invading Civilization Y would help them survive long, hunger-inducing winters. But all people go through moments when they crave security, especially in times of scarcity. I would certainly never consider taking the belongings of a neighbor, nor, I expect, would you. Yet we must consider the Civilization X artifacts that justify "taking" as signs of more than simple bloodthirst — they are also revelations of the basic human need for security. Perhaps if we had lived during the 600s C.E., you and I would have also taken from others, even while commanding others not to take from us.
Feature Image: Ziga Plahutar / E+ / Getty Images
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How to write an essay: Conclusion
- What's in this guide
- Essay structure
- Additional resources
The last section of an academic essay is the conclusion . The conclusion should reaffirm your answer to the question, and briefly summarise key arguments. It does not include any new points or new information. A conclusion has three sections. First, repeat the thesis statement. It won’t use the exact same words as in your introduction, but it will repeat the point: your overall answer to the question. Then set out your general conclusions , and a short explanation of why they are important.
Finally, draw together the question , the evidence in the essay body, and the conclusion. This way the reader knows that you have understood and answered the question. This part needs to be clear and concise.
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This resource outlines the generally accepted structure for introductions, body paragraphs, and conclusions in an academic argument paper. Keep in mind that this resource contains guidelines and not strict rules about organization. Your structure needs to be flexible enough to meet the requirements of your purpose and audience.
Conclusions wrap up what you have been discussing in your paper. After moving from general to specific information in the introduction and body paragraphs, your conclusion should begin pulling back into more general information that restates the main points of your argument. Conclusions may also call for action or overview future possible research. The following outline may help you conclude your paper:
In a general way,
- Restate your topic and why it is important,
- Restate your thesis/claim,
- Address opposing viewpoints and explain why readers should align with your position,
- Call for action or overview future research possibilities.
Remember that once you accomplish these tasks, unless otherwise directed by your instructor, you are finished. Done. Complete. Don't try to bring in new points or end with a whiz bang(!) conclusion or try to solve world hunger in the final sentence of your conclusion. Simplicity is best for a clear, convincing message.
The preacher's maxim is one of the most effective formulas to follow for argument papers:
Tell what you're going to tell them (introduction).
Tell them (body).
Tell them what you told them (conclusion).
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How to Start a Conclusion
Last Updated: June 8, 2023 References
This article was co-authored by Diane Stubbs . Diane Stubbs is a Secondary English Teacher with over 22 years of experience teaching all high school grade levels and AP courses. She specializes in secondary education, classroom management, and educational technology. Diane earned a Bachelor of Arts in English from the University of Delaware and a Master of Education from Wesley College. This article has been viewed 158,851 times.
A persuasive essay, literary analysis, or research paper should include a thoughtful introduction and conclusion. The conclusion, when written correctly, gives the reader a summary and insights into the reasons for the subject's importance. You may also need to deliver a speech or presentation which needs a good conclusion. Many of the same principles apply, but you should tailor your conclusion carefully.
Things You Should Know
- For an essay, start with a transition sentence that references the original question, avoiding phrases like "in conclusion."
- Go beyond a simple summary, exploring how every point in your essay connects and the significance of your essay question.
- In a presentation, indicate that you’re finishing up and return to the initial question, giving a summary with enthusiasm and conviction.
Writing Template and Sample Conclusion
Writing a Conclusion for an Essay or Paper
- To help you achieve this fluency, you should start with a sentence that links the conclusion to the main body of the text.  X Research source
- This might be a statement that reflects the content of your essay but connects your essay to the wider points that your conclusion will then go on to briefly discuss.
- The sentence "A sense of the impermanence of human achievement permeates this poem", indicates a transition to the conclusion by articulating the key argument in one sentence.
- For example, what if the essay question asks you "to what extent did the Battle of Monte Casino change the course of the Second World War"?
- Here, you could begin with a sentence such as "The Battle of Monte Casino was a crucial moment that reflected the shifting dynamic of WWII, but did not in itself turn the tide of the war".
- A short summary can be useful in a longer essay, but do not simply restate what you have said in the same terms.  X Research source
- Rather, indicate your key points while situating them within a larger context, which displays a deeper understanding and potentially opens up new lines of inquiry.
- In your conclusion structure, this discussion of the broader implications should follow the transition sentences and the explanation of how the different elements of your argument fit together.  X Research source
- This could include universalizing the topic of essay, making a connection to a contemporary issue, or providing a call to action.
Concluding a Presentation or Speech
- Phrases such as "in conclusion", and "to summarise", which you wouldn't use in a written essay, can be useful for a spoken presentation.
- Indicating that you are about to conclude will encourage your listeners to focus on what you are about to say.  X Research source
- For example, you could ask yourself the main question at the start of the conclusion. "So, how do I suggest we improve our sales in the Mid-West?" before going on provide a summary of your key points.
- Generally, listening to a presentation will be more passive than reading an essay, so it is more beneficial to summarise your key points in the conclusion of a spoken presentation.
- The last things your audience hear will most likely be what they take away with them, so be sure all your key points are covered in the conclusion.
- You might also include a short anecdote that supports your argument and acts as a call to action to the other people in the room.
- A strong ending can make a personal connection with the audience, by demonstrating how you can resolve a problem for the audience member.  X Research source
- Using an action verb in your final sentence can highlight exactly how you want your audience to respond.
- For example, when John F. Kennedy said, "Ask not what your country can do for you, ask what you can do or your country," he was encouraging action from the audience.  X Research source
- Finishing this way both demonstrates your personal conviction and indicates that you think your ideas should be followed up.
You Might Also Like
- ↑ http://www.writing.ucsb.edu/faculty/donelan/concl.html
- ↑ http://writingcenter.fas.harvard.edu/pages/ending-essay-conclusions
- ↑ http://leo.stcloudstate.edu/acadwrite/conclude.html
- ↑ http://www.businessinsider.com/worst-ways-to-end-a-presentation-2014-7
- ↑ http://www.ethos3.com/2014/12/the-best-way-to-end-a-professional-presentation/
About This Article
To start a conclusion for an essay, begin with a reference to the original question. If, for example, the essay question asks “How did the Battle of Monte Casino change the course of WWII?”, start with “The Battle of Monte Casino was a crucial moment that reflected the shifting dynamic of WWII.” Additionally, start your conclusion in a natural way, without obvious transitions like "In conclusion." For example, begin with "A sense of the impermanence of human achievement..." instead of, "In conclusion, a sense of the impermanence.." For more advice from our English reviewer, including how to write a conclusion for a presentation or speech, keep reading. Did this summary help you? Yes No
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How to Write a Conclusion for an Essay: 101 Guide & Examples
The conclusion is the last paragraph in your paper that draws the ideas and reasoning together. However, its purpose does not end there. A definite essay conclusion accomplishes several goals:
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- It provides a summary of the arguments;
- It addresses other important questions regarding the topic;
- It makes the reader think about the essay;
- It speculates what will happen in the future.
Therefore, a conclusion usually consists of :
- A restated thesis;
- A brief summary of subpoints;
- A sentence that produces the final impression.
Our experts prepared this guide, where you will find great tips on how to conclude your essay. If you incorporate them into your work, you will be able to write an outstanding essay ending.
🚧 Connect to the Body
⛏️ restate the thesis, 🧱 summarize.
- ⛔ What to Avoid
💯 Conclusion Examples
🏗️ 101 guide on writing a conclusion.
Writing a concluding paragraph is, in a way, similar to writing an introduction . An introduction tells the readers what you are about to say. Meanwhile, a conclusion retells what you said in the essay.
Nevertheless, there are a lot of differences, as well. The conclusion is not about introducing new ideas but restating them. The structure below will help you if you are wondering how to write an excellent conclusion for the essay.
Keep in mind:
When writing a concluding paragraph, you should go from specific information to a general one. Thus, you’ll write it, mirroring the introduction to the paper, which starts with the overall context and ends with a thesis.
You should adequately introduce a conclusion and connect it to the body paragraphs. For that, you can either come up with a transition word or a transition statement .
Make sure to search for something more creative than “to sum up” or “finally.” There are hundreds of ways to conclude an essay. For that, you can search for transition words that look fresh and not overused.
A list of original transitions:
- All things considered
- As a result
- As I stated in the beginning
- This leads back to
- Without a doubt
The next step is to restate the thesis from your introduction. However, you shouldn’t repeat it word to word. Try to find a new effective way to express the same idea and develop it further.
Receive a plagiarism-free paper tailored to your instructions.
The evidence presented in this paper has shown that the controversy on whether a strict dress-code policy is beneficial for schools is yet to be resolved.
Also, the example shows how to start a conclusion. The author makes a transition from the body paragraph by reminding what controversy the essay tried to address.
Instead of repeating your essay point by point, you should give a summary and synthesize the arguments. The conclusory paragraph’s goal is to wrap up the essay and answer a “so what?”. Combining the ideas into a coherent paragraph will do the trick. To help yourself out with this task, try using a main idea generator and use the results as an inspiration for your own summary.
You should aim to show that there is a link between all the points you have made throughout the essay. Let your reader know that you have connected the dots.
In the meantime, one must admit that such outfits are uncomfortable, and the school uniform policy indeed damages students’ self-perception. Even though teenagers who wear uniforms get used to the working environment and improve grades, they lack freedom of individual expression.
Here, the author summarizes all the points by demonstrating the problems of wearing a school uniform. It prepares the reader for the final part of the conclusion—a conclusion statement.
👷 Conclude with a Statement
It is the last part of the essay, and one might claim that it’s the most crucial one. It is your last chance to convince your readers. Besides, an outstanding concluding statement creates a sense of completeness.
Just 13.00 10.40/page , and you can get an custom-written academic paper according to your instructions
You can do it in three ways:
- Connect the statement to the hook. It will create a definite closure in the entire essay as the end will be linked to the beginning. Logical reasoning is exceptionally significant. By coming up with a proper conclusion sentence, you can demonstrate it.
- Make it short and straightforward. You said everything you wanted in the body, and now it’s the time to create a final effect. Uncomplicated and short sentences can help you produce it.
- Create a compound statement or parallel in structure . Such sentences have a sense of balance and look beautiful on the page.
Therefore, school authorities should consider seeking other ways to deal with problems of discipline and inequality on their grounds, rather than implementing only cosmetic changes, which harms students’ originality.
⛔ What to Avoid in a Conclusion
Here are a few tips on ways to conclude an essay by making it more appealing to the reader:
- Do not introduce new ideas. The concluding paragraph should be concise and straightforward. You already had enough time to explain your position and provide evidence for the readers to understand it.
- Do not try to fit everything in your conclusion. If you think the point is essential, then you should include it. Otherwise, cut it off.
- Do not repeat your thesis statement. It is more than paraphrasing or summarizing it—develop it according to the body.
- Do not use too many words. You have to remember about space, as your conclusion should be around 10% of the essay.
- Do not provide your personal opinion out of the blue. If it’s not based on your argumentation and evidence, keep it to yourself.
If you are still wondering: “How do you conclude an essay?” this article can help you learn some essential tips. The sample essay’s conclusion is summarizing and synthesizing the principal points of the piece. It restates the thesis statement and emphasizes the general significance of the topic. You can also try and use a sentence summarizer on your own text to check out a wider variety of examples.
The evidence presented in this paper has shown that the controversy on whether a strict dress-code policy is beneficial for schools is yet to be resolved. In the meantime, one must admit that such outfits are uncomfortable, and the school uniform policy indeed damages students’ self-perception. Even though teenagers who wear uniforms get used to the working environment and improve grades, they lack freedom of individual expression. Therefore, school authorities should consider seeking other ways to deal with problems of discipline and inequality on their grounds, rather than implementing only cosmetic changes, which harms students’ originality.
Thank you for reading this article, and don’t hesitate to share it with your peers. If you want to improve your essay-writing skills, look at the materials provided on our website. We have plenty of tips on how to write better essays !
- Ending the Essay—Conclusions: Pat Bellanca, for the Writing Center at Harvard University
- The Conclusion of the Essay: University of Wollongong
- Conclusions: The Writing Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
- Transitional Words and Phrases: The Writing Center, University of Wisconsin-Wadison
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How to Write a Conclusion for an Essay: 10 Examples of Conclusion Paragraphs
How to write a conclusion for an essay? When it comes to writing an essay, the conclusion is often overlooked as just a summary of the main points. However, a strong conclusion can leave a lasting impression on the reader and tie together all the ideas presented in the essay. In this article, we will explore different strategies for writing an effective conclusion and provide some examples to help you get started.
How To Write a Conclusion for an Essay
Understanding the Purpose of a Conclusion
A conclusion is an essential part of any essay, and it serves a crucial role in summarizing your arguments and providing closure to your readers. In this section, we will discuss the role and importance of a conclusion in an essay.
Role of a Conclusion
The primary role of a conclusion is to bring closure to your essay by summarizing your arguments and restating your thesis statement. It is the final opportunity to leave a lasting impression on your readers and persuade them to take action or think differently about the topic.
Additionally, a conclusion can also provide a sense of completion to your essay by tying up any loose ends and addressing any counterarguments or opposing viewpoints. It should leave your readers with a clear understanding of your position and the significance of your arguments.
Importance of a Strong Conclusion
A strong conclusion can make a significant impact on the overall effectiveness of your essay. It can leave a lasting impression on your readers and persuade them to take action or think differently about the topic.
A weak or poorly written conclusion, on the other hand, can undermine the credibility of your arguments and leave your readers with a sense of confusion or dissatisfaction. It can also fail to provide closure to your essay and leave your readers with unanswered questions or unresolved issues.
To ensure that your conclusion is strong and effective, you should consider the following tips:
- Restate your thesis statement in a new and compelling way.
- Summarize your main arguments and provide a clear and concise summary of your essay.
- Address any counterarguments or opposing viewpoints and explain why your position is the most valid.
- Provide a call to action or suggest further research or exploration on the topic.
In conclusion, a conclusion is an essential part of any essay, and it serves a crucial role in summarizing your arguments and providing closure to your readers. A strong conclusion can leave a lasting impression on your readers and persuade them to take action or think differently about the topic. By following the tips provided in this section, you can ensure that your conclusion is strong and effective.
How to Write a Conclusion for an Essay
Restating the thesis.
One of the most important elements of your conclusion is restating your thesis. This means that you should rephrase your thesis statement in a way that reminds the reader of the main point of your essay. By doing so, you can help ensure that your reader leaves with a clear understanding of your argument.
Summarizing Main Points
In addition to restating your thesis, it can be helpful to summarize the main points of your essay. This can help tie together any loose ends and ensure that your reader understands the full scope of your argument. When summarizing your main points, be sure to be concise and avoid repeating information that you have already covered.
Finally, you should include a closing statement in your conclusion. This should be a sentence or two that leaves a lasting impression on your reader. You may want to consider ending with a thought-provoking question, a call to action, or a memorable quote. Whatever you choose, make sure that it is relevant to your essay and leaves a lasting impression.
Writing Techniques for Effective Conclusions
Using a quote.
One way to add impact to your conclusion is to use a relevant quote. This can be a quote from a famous person, a line from a poem or song, or even a quote from one of the sources you’ve used in your essay. The key is to choose a quote that adds depth and meaning to your conclusion.
For example, if you’re writing an essay about the importance of education, you might conclude with a quote from Nelson Mandela : “Education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to change the world.” This quote not only reinforces the importance of education but also adds a powerful emotional element to your conclusion.
Posing a Question
Another effective technique for writing a conclusion is to pose a thought-provoking question. This can be a rhetorical question or a question that requires further exploration. The goal is to leave your reader thinking about the topic long after they’ve finished reading your essay.
For example, if you’re writing an essay about climate change, you might conclude with a question like: “What kind of world do we want to leave for future generations?” This question encourages your reader to consider the long-term implications of climate change and can leave a lasting impact.
Making a Prediction
Finally, you can use your conclusion to make a prediction about the future. This can be a prediction about the topic you’ve been discussing or a prediction about the impact your essay will have on the reader. The goal is to leave your reader with a sense of hope or inspiration.
For example, if you’re writing an essay about the importance of volunteer work, you might conclude with a prediction like: “As more people become involved in volunteer work, we can look forward to a brighter, more compassionate future.” This prediction not only reinforces the importance of volunteer work but also leaves the reader feeling inspired to make a difference.
Conclusion Paragraph Examples
Example from a literary essay.
In a literary essay, your conclusion should tie together the various themes and motifs that you’ve explored throughout your essay. Here’s an example of a strong conclusion from a literary essay:
“Overall, the use of symbolism in ‘The Great Gatsby’ highlights the stark contrast between the facade of the American Dream and the harsh reality of life in the 1920s. Through the use of the green light, the valley of ashes, and the eyes of Doctor T.J. Eckleburg, Fitzgerald demonstrates the emptiness and corruption that lies at the heart of the American Dream. By exposing the hollowness of this ideal, Fitzgerald challenges us to consider what truly gives our lives meaning.”
Example from a Research Paper
In a research paper, your conclusion should summarize your findings and explain the implications of your research. Here’s an example of a strong conclusion from a research paper:
“In conclusion, our study provides evidence that regular exercise can have a significant impact on reducing the risk of heart disease. Our findings suggest that individuals who engage in regular physical activity are more likely to maintain healthy blood pressure and cholesterol levels, as well as reduce their risk of developing other chronic diseases such as diabetes and obesity. These findings have important implications for public health policy and highlight the need for increased efforts to promote physical activity.”
Example from an Argumentative Essay
In an argumentative essay, your conclusion should summarize your main argument and leave your reader with a clear understanding of your position. Here’s an example of a strong conclusion from an argumentative essay:
“Based on the evidence presented, it is clear that the use of performance-enhancing drugs in professional sports is both unethical and dangerous. While some argue that these drugs are necessary to remain competitive in today’s sports landscape, the risks associated with their use far outweigh any potential benefits. It is up to us as a society to take a stand against this practice and demand that our athletes compete on a level playing field, free from the influence of performance-enhancing drugs.”
Frequently Asked Questions
What are some effective ways to end a conclusion?
One effective way to end a conclusion is to restate the thesis statement in a different way. You can also summarize the main points of your essay and leave the reader with a final thought or a call to action.
How can I write a strong conclusion for a research paper?
To write a strong conclusion for a research paper, you should briefly summarize the main points of the paper and restate the thesis statement. You can also suggest avenues for further research or provide a final thought that leaves a lasting impression on the reader.
What are some words or phrases that can be used to conclude an essay?
Some words and phrases that can be used to conclude an essay include “in conclusion,” “to sum up,” “therefore,” “thus,” “finally,” and “in summary.” However, it’s important to use these words and phrases appropriately and not overuse them.
Can you provide some examples of a conclusion paragraph for a project?
Sure, here’s an example of a conclusion paragraph for a project:
“In conclusion, this project has shown that renewable energy is a viable alternative to fossil fuels. By harnessing the power of wind, solar, and hydroelectricity, we can reduce our dependence on non-renewable resources and mitigate the effects of climate change. While there are still challenges to be overcome, such as cost and infrastructure, the potential benefits of renewable energy make it a promising option for the future.”
How do you write a conclusion for an argumentative essay?
To write a conclusion for an argumentative essay, you should summarize the main points of your argument and restate your thesis statement. You can also provide a final thought or call to action that encourages the reader to take a particular course of action or consider a different perspective.
What is the purpose of a conclusion paragraph in an essay?
The purpose of a conclusion paragraph in an essay is to provide a sense of closure and completeness to the reader. It should summarize the main points of the essay and restate the thesis statement in a different way. Additionally, it can leave the reader with a final thought or a call to action.
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Writing a Research Paper Conclusion | Step-by-Step Guide
Published on October 30, 2022 by Jack Caulfield . Revised on April 13, 2023.
- Restate the problem statement addressed in the paper
- Summarize your overall arguments or findings
- Suggest the key takeaways from your paper
The content of the conclusion varies depending on whether your paper presents the results of original empirical research or constructs an argument through engagement with sources .
Table of contents
Step 1: restate the problem, step 2: sum up the paper, step 3: discuss the implications, research paper conclusion examples, frequently asked questions about research paper conclusions.
The first task of your conclusion is to remind the reader of your research problem . You will have discussed this problem in depth throughout the body, but now the point is to zoom back out from the details to the bigger picture.
While you are restating a problem you’ve already introduced, you should avoid phrasing it identically to how it appeared in the introduction . Ideally, you’ll find a novel way to circle back to the problem from the more detailed ideas discussed in the body.
For example, an argumentative paper advocating new measures to reduce the environmental impact of agriculture might restate its problem as follows:
Meanwhile, an empirical paper studying the relationship of Instagram use with body image issues might present its problem like this:
“In conclusion …”
Avoid starting your conclusion with phrases like “In conclusion” or “To conclude,” as this can come across as too obvious and make your writing seem unsophisticated. The content and placement of your conclusion should make its function clear without the need for additional signposting.
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Having zoomed back in on the problem, it’s time to summarize how the body of the paper went about addressing it, and what conclusions this approach led to.
Depending on the nature of your research paper, this might mean restating your thesis and arguments, or summarizing your overall findings.
Argumentative paper: Restate your thesis and arguments
In an argumentative paper, you will have presented a thesis statement in your introduction, expressing the overall claim your paper argues for. In the conclusion, you should restate the thesis and show how it has been developed through the body of the paper.
Briefly summarize the key arguments made in the body, showing how each of them contributes to proving your thesis. You may also mention any counterarguments you addressed, emphasizing why your thesis holds up against them, particularly if your argument is a controversial one.
Don’t go into the details of your evidence or present new ideas; focus on outlining in broad strokes the argument you have made.
Empirical paper: Summarize your findings
In an empirical paper, this is the time to summarize your key findings. Don’t go into great detail here (you will have presented your in-depth results and discussion already), but do clearly express the answers to the research questions you investigated.
Describe your main findings, even if they weren’t necessarily the ones you expected or hoped for, and explain the overall conclusion they led you to.
Having summed up your key arguments or findings, the conclusion ends by considering the broader implications of your research. This means expressing the key takeaways, practical or theoretical, from your paper—often in the form of a call for action or suggestions for future research.
Argumentative paper: Strong closing statement
An argumentative paper generally ends with a strong closing statement. In the case of a practical argument, make a call for action: What actions do you think should be taken by the people or organizations concerned in response to your argument?
If your topic is more theoretical and unsuitable for a call for action, your closing statement should express the significance of your argument—for example, in proposing a new understanding of a topic or laying the groundwork for future research.
Empirical paper: Future research directions
In a more empirical paper, you can close by either making recommendations for practice (for example, in clinical or policy papers), or suggesting directions for future research.
Whatever the scope of your own research, there will always be room for further investigation of related topics, and you’ll often discover new questions and problems during the research process .
Finish your paper on a forward-looking note by suggesting how you or other researchers might build on this topic in the future and address any limitations of the current paper.
Full examples of research paper conclusions are shown in the tabs below: one for an argumentative paper, the other for an empirical paper.
- Argumentative paper
- Empirical paper
While the role of cattle in climate change is by now common knowledge, countries like the Netherlands continually fail to confront this issue with the urgency it deserves. The evidence is clear: To create a truly futureproof agricultural sector, Dutch farmers must be incentivized to transition from livestock farming to sustainable vegetable farming. As well as dramatically lowering emissions, plant-based agriculture, if approached in the right way, can produce more food with less land, providing opportunities for nature regeneration areas that will themselves contribute to climate targets. Although this approach would have economic ramifications, from a long-term perspective, it would represent a significant step towards a more sustainable and resilient national economy. Transitioning to sustainable vegetable farming will make the Netherlands greener and healthier, setting an example for other European governments. Farmers, policymakers, and consumers must focus on the future, not just on their own short-term interests, and work to implement this transition now.
As social media becomes increasingly central to young people’s everyday lives, it is important to understand how different platforms affect their developing self-conception. By testing the effect of daily Instagram use among teenage girls, this study established that highly visual social media does indeed have a significant effect on body image concerns, with a strong correlation between the amount of time spent on the platform and participants’ self-reported dissatisfaction with their appearance. However, the strength of this effect was moderated by pre-test self-esteem ratings: Participants with higher self-esteem were less likely to experience an increase in body image concerns after using Instagram. This suggests that, while Instagram does impact body image, it is also important to consider the wider social and psychological context in which this usage occurs: Teenagers who are already predisposed to self-esteem issues may be at greater risk of experiencing negative effects. Future research into Instagram and other highly visual social media should focus on establishing a clearer picture of how self-esteem and related constructs influence young people’s experiences of these platforms. Furthermore, while this experiment measured Instagram usage in terms of time spent on the platform, observational studies are required to gain more insight into different patterns of usage—to investigate, for instance, whether active posting is associated with different effects than passive consumption of social media content.
If you’re unsure about the conclusion, it can be helpful to ask a friend or fellow student to read your conclusion and summarize the main takeaways.
- Do they understand from your conclusion what your research was about?
- Are they able to summarize the implications of your findings?
- Can they answer your research question based on your conclusion?
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The conclusion of a research paper has several key elements you should make sure to include:
- A restatement of the research problem
- A summary of your key arguments and/or findings
- A short discussion of the implications of your research
No, it’s not appropriate to present new arguments or evidence in the conclusion . While you might be tempted to save a striking argument for last, research papers follow a more formal structure than this.
All your findings and arguments should be presented in the body of the text (more specifically in the results and discussion sections if you are following a scientific structure). The conclusion is meant to summarize and reflect on the evidence and arguments you have already presented, not introduce new ones.
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What are the strategies for writing a good conclusion?
Don’t introduce new facts or quotes. Restate your thesis, include major points from each body paragraph, and tie them all together logically. Add recommendations for future research and/or admit limitations of your work if it seems fitting.
How should I summarize an article?
Other than using concluding paragraph maker, avoid adding personal thoughts or analysis. Present information in a cool, objective way even if you disagree with something. Choose the most interesting and relevant bits to summarize for your audience.
How to write a concluding sentence?
This is something that should come instinctively. Re-read your closing paragraph: what is the first line that comes to your mind? If you still cannot think of anything, try conclusion sentence generator — it’ll give you ideas.
What is a conclusion maker?
It is an automatic tool that analyzes a text, picks parts from it, and puts them together in one complete paragraph. The efficiency of such machines can be high, but you should still read what they create to make certain everything’s fine.
What is the best way to end an argumentative essay?
You need to repeat thesis and your position by using a strong voice. List the major pieces of evidence you came up with in the body to support your arguments; remind audience of how you arrived at your conclusion. Try conclusion generator for free and get some ideas.
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39 Different Ways to Say ‘In Conclusion’ in an Essay (Rated)
The phrase “In conclusion …” sounds reductive, simple and … well, just basic.
You can find better words to conclude an essay than that!
So below I’ve outlined a list of different ways to say in conclusion in an essay using a range of analysis verbs . Each one comes with an explanation of the best time to use each phrase and an example you could consider.
Read Also: How to Write a Conclusion using the 5C’s Method
List of Ways to Say ‘In Conclusion’ in an Essay
The following are the best tips I have for to say in conclusion in an essay.
1. The Weight of the Evidence Suggests…
My Rating: 10/10
Overview: This is a good concluding phrase for an evaluative essay where you need to compare two different positions on a topic then conclude by saying which one has more evidence behind it than the other.
You could also use this phrase for argumentative essays where you’ve put forward all the evidence for your particular case.
Example: “The weight of the evidence suggests that climate change is a real phenomenon.”
2. A Thoughtful Analysis would Conclude…
My Rating: 9/10
Overview: I would use this phrase in either an argumentative essay or a comparison essay. As an argument, it highlights that you think your position is the most logical.
In a comparison essay, it shows that you have (or have intended to) thoughtfully explore the issue by looking at both sides.
Example: “A thoughtful analysis would conclude that there is substantial evidence highlighting that climate change is real.”
Related Article: 17+ Great Ideas For An Essay About Yourself
3. A Balanced Assessment of the Above Information…
Overview: This phrase can be used to show that you have made a thoughtful analysis of the information you found when researching the essay. You’re telling your teacher with this phrase that you have looked at all sides of the argument before coming to your conclusion.
Example: “A balanced assessment of the above information would be that climate change exists and will have a strong impact on the world for centuries to come.”
4. Across the Board…
My Rating: 5/10
Overview: I would use this phrase in a less formal context such as in a creative discussion but would leave it out of a formal third-person essay. To me, the phrase comes across as too colloquial.
Example: “Across the board, there are scientists around the world who consistently provide evidence for human-induced climate change.”
My Rating: 7/10
Overview: This phrase can be used at the beginning of any paragraph that states out a series of facts that will be backed by clear step-by-step explanations that the reader should be able to follow to a conclusion.
Example: “Logically, the rise of the automobile would speed up economic expansion in the United States. Automobiles allowed goods to flow faster around the economy.
6. After all is Said and Done…
Overview: This is a colloquial term that is more useful in a speech than written text. If you feel that the phrase ‘In conclusion,’ is too basic, then I’d also avoid this term. However, use in speech is common, so if you’re giving a speech, it may be more acceptable.
Example: “After all is said and done, it’s clear that there is more evidence to suggest that climate change is real than a hoax.”
7. All in All…
Overview: ‘All in all’ is a colloquial term that I would use in speech but not in formal academic writing. Colloquialisms can show that you have poor command of the English language. However, I would consider using this phrase in the conclusion of a debate.
Example: “All in all, our debate team has shown that there is insurmountable evidence that our side of the argument is correct.”
8. All Things Considered…
My Rating: 6/10
Overview: This term is a good way of saying ‘I have considered everything above and now my conclusion is..’ However, it is another term that’s more commonly used in speech than writing. Use it in a high school debate, but when it comes to a formal essay, I would leave it out.
Example: “All things considered, there’s no doubt in my mind that climate change is man-made.”
9. As a Final Note…
My Rating: 3/10
Overview: This phrase gives me the impression that the student doesn’t understand the point of a conclusion. It’s not to simply make a ‘final note’, but to summarize and reiterate. So, I would personally avoid this one.
Example: “As a final note, I would say that I do think the automobile was one of the greatest inventions of the 20 th Century.”
10. As Already Stated…
My Rating: 2/10
Overview: I don’t like this phrase. It gives teachers the impression that you’re going around in circles and haven’t organized your essay properly. I would particularly avoid it in the body of an essay because I always think: “If you already stated it, why are you stating it again?” Of course, the conclusion does re-state things, but it also adds value because it also summarizes them. So, add value by using a phrase such as ‘summarizing’ or ‘weighing up’ in your conclusion instead.
Example: “As already stated, I’m going to repeat myself and annoy my teacher.”
11. At present, the Best Evidence Suggests…
My Rating: 8/10
Overview: In essays where the evidence may change in the future. Most fields of study do involve some evolution over time, so this phrase acknowledges that “right now” the best evidence is one thing, but it may change in the future. It also shows that you’ve looked at the latest information on the topic.
Example: “At present, the best evidence suggests that carbon dioxide emissions from power plants is the greatest influence on climate change.”
12. At the Core of the Issue…
Overview: I personally find this phrase to be useful for most essays. It highlights that you are able to identify the most important or central point from everything you have examined. It is slightly less formal than some other phrases on this list, but I also wouldn’t consider it too colloquial for an undergraduate essay.
Example: “At the core of the issue in this essay is the fact scientists have been unable to convince the broader public of the importance of action on climate change.”
13. Despite the shortcomings of…
Overview: This phrase can be useful in an argumentative essay. It shows that there are some limitations to your argument, but , on balance you still think your position is the best. This will allow you to show critical insight and knowledge while coming to your conclusion.
Often, my students make the mistake of thinking they can only take one side in an argumentative essay. On the contrary, you should be able to highlight the limitations of your point-of-view while also stating that it’s the best.
Example: “Despite the shortcomings of globalization, this essay has found that on balance it has been good for many areas in both the developed and developing world.”
My Rating: 4/10
Overview: While the phrase ‘Finally,’ does indicate that you’re coming to the end of your discussion, it is usually used at the end of a list of ideas rather than in a conclusion. It also implies that you’re adding a point rather that summing up previous points you have made.
Example: “Finally, this essay has highlighted the importance of communication between policy makers and practitioners in order to ensure good policy is put into effect.”
15. Gathering the above points together…
Overview: While this is not a phrase I personally use very often, I do believe it has the effect of indicating that you are “summing up”, which is what you want out of a conclusion.
Example: “Gathering the above points together, it is clear that the weight of evidence highlights the importance of action on climate change.”
16. Given the above information…
Overview: This phrase shows that you are considering the information in the body of the piece when coming to your conclusion. Therefore, I believe it is appropriate for starting a conclusion.
Example: “Given the above information, it is reasonable to conclude that the World Health Organization is an appropriate vehicle for achieving improved health outcomes in the developing world.”
17. In a nutshell…
Overview: This phrase means to say everything in the fewest possible words. However, it is a colloquial phrase that is best used in speech rather than formal academic writing.
Example: “In a nutshell, there are valid arguments on both sides of the debate about socialism vs capitalism.”
18. In closing…
Overview: This phrase is an appropriate synonym for ‘In conclusion’ and I would be perfectly fine with a student using this phrase in their essay. Make sure you follow-up by explaining your position based upon the weight of evidence presented in the body of your piece
Example: “In closing, there is ample evidence to suggest that liberalism has been the greatest force for progress in the past 100 years.”
19. In essence…
Overview: While the phrase ‘In essence’ does suggest you are about to sum up the core findings of your discussion, it is somewhat colloquial and is best left for speech rather than formal academic writing.
Example: “In essence, this essay has shown that cattle farming is an industry that should be protected as an essential service for our country.”
20. In review…
Overview: We usually review someone else’s work, not our own. For example, you could review a book that you read or a film you watched. So, writing “In review” as a replacement for “In conclusion” comes across a little awkward.
Example: “In review, the above information has made a compelling case for compulsory military service in the United States.”
21. In short…
Overview: Personally, I find that this phrase is used more regularly by undergraduate student. As students get more confident with their writing, they tend to use higher-rated phrases from this list. Nevertheless, I would not take grades away from a student for using this phrase.
Example: “In short, this essay has shown the importance of sustainable agriculture for securing a healthy future for our nation.”
22. In Sum…
Overview: Short for “In summary”, the phrase “In sum” sufficiently shows that you are not coming to the moment where you will sum up the essay. It is an appropriate phrase to use instead of “In conclusion”.
But remember to not just summarize but also discuss the implications of your findings in your conclusion.
Example: “In sum, this essay has shown the importance of managers in ensuring efficient operation of medium-to-large enterprises.”
23. In Summary…
Overview: In summary and in sum are the same terms which can be supplemented for “In conclusion”. You will show that you are about to summarize the points you said in the body of the essay, which is what you want from an essay.
Example: “In summary, reflection is a very important metacognitive skill that all teachers need to master in order to improve their pedagogical skills.”
24. It cannot be conclusively stated that…
Overview: While this phrase is not always be a good fit for your essay, when it is, it does show knowledge and skill in writing. You would use this phrase if you are writing an expository essay where you have decided that there is not enough evidence currently to make a firm conclusion on the issue.
Example: “It cannot be conclusively stated that the Big Bang was when the universe began. However, it is the best theory so far, and none of the other theories explored in this essay have as much evidence behind them.”
25. It is apparent that…
Overview: The term ‘ apparent ’ means that something is ‘clear’ or even ‘obvious’. So, you would use this word in an argumentative essay where you think you have put forward a very compelling argument.
Example: “It is apparent that current migration patterns in the Americas are unsustainable and causing significant harm to the most vulnerable people in our society.”
26. Last but not least…
Overview: The phrase “last but not least” is a colloquial idiom that is best used in speech rather than formal academic writing. Furthermore, when you are saying ‘last’, you mean to say you’re making your last point rather than summing up all your points you already made. So, I’d avoid this one.
Example: “Last but not least, this essay has highlighted the importance of empowering patients to exercise choice over their own medical decisions.”
My Rating: 7.5/10
Overview: This phrase means ‘taking everything into account’, which sounds a lot like what you would want to do in an essay. I don’t consider it to be a top-tier choice (which is why I rated it 7), but in my opinion it is perfectly acceptable to use in an undergraduate essay.
Example: “Overall, religious liberty continues to be threatened across the world, and faces significant threats in the 21 st Century.”
28. The above points illustrate…
Overview: This phrase is a good start to a conclusion paragraph that talks about the implications of the points you made in your essay. Follow it up with a statement that defends your thesis you are putting forward in the essay.
Example: “The above points illustrate that art has had an overwhelmingly positive impact on humanity since the renaissance.”
29. The evidence presented in this essay suggests that…
Overview: I like this phrase because it highlights that you are about to gather together the evidence from the body of the essay to put forward a final thesis statement .
Example: “The evidence presented in this essay suggests that the democratic system of government is the best for securing maximum individual liberty for citizens of a nation.”
30. This essay began by stating…
Overview: This phrase is one that I teach in my YouTube mini-course as an effective one to use in an essay conclusion. If you presented an interesting fact in your introduction , you can return to that point from the beginning of the essay to provide nice symmetry in your writing.
Example: “This essay began by stating that corruption has been growing in the Western world. However, the facts collected in the body of the essay show that institutional checks and balances can sufficiently minimize this corruption in the long-term.”
31. This essay has argued…
Overview: This term can be used effectively in an argumentative essay to provide a summary of your key points. Follow it up with an outline of all your key points, and then a sentence about the implications of the points you made. See the example below.
Example: “This essay has argued that standardized tests are damaging for students’ mental health. Tests like the SATs should therefore be replaced by project-based testing in schools.”
32. To close…
Overview: This is a very literal way of saying “In conclusion”. While it’s suitable and serves its purpose, it does come across as being a sophomoric term. Consider using one of the higher-rated phrases in this list.
Example: “To close, this essay has highlighted both the pros and cons of relational dialectics theory and argued that it is not the best communication theory for the 21 st Century.”
33. To Conclude…
Overview: Like ‘to close’ and ‘in summary’, the phrase ‘to conclude’ is very similar to ‘in conclusion’. It can therefore be used as a sufficient replacement for that term. However, as with the above terms, it’s just okay and you could probably find a better phrase to use.
Example: “To conclude, this essay has highlighted that there are multiple models of communication but there is no one perfect theory to explain each situation.”
34. To make a long story short…
My Rating: 1/10
Overview: This is not a good phrase to use in an academic essay. It is a colloquialism. It also implies that you have been rambling in your writing and you could have said everything more efficiently. I would personally not use this phrase.
Example: “To make a long story short, I don’t have very good command of academic language.”
35. To Sum up…
Overview: This phrase is the same as ‘In summary’. It shows that you have made all of your points and now you’re about to bring them all together in a ‘summary’. Just remember in your conclusion that you need to do more than summarize but also talk about the implications of your findings. So you’ll need to go beyond just a summary.
Example: “In summary, there is ample evidence that linear models of communication like Lasswell’s model are not as good at explaining 21 st Century communication as circular models like the Osgood-Schramm model .”
Overview: While this phrase does say that you are coming to a final point – also known as a conclusion – it’s also a very strong statement that might not be best to use in all situations. I usually accept this phrase from my undergraduates, but for my postgraduates I’d probably suggest simply removing it.
Example: “Ultimately, new media has been bad for the world because it has led to the spread of mistruths around the internet.”
Overview: If you are using it in a debate or argumentative essay, it can be helpful. However, in a regular academic essay, I would avoid it. We call this a ‘booster’, which is a term that emphasizes certainty. Unfortunately, certainty is a difficult thing to claim, so you’re better off ‘hedging’ with phrases like ‘It appears’ or ‘The best evidence suggests’.
Example: “Undoubtedly, I know everything about this topic and am one hundred percent certain even though I’m just an undergraduate student.”
38. Weighing up the facts, this essay finds…
Overview: This statement highlights that you are looking at all of the facts both for and against your points of view. It shows you’re not just blindly following one argument but being careful about seeing things from many perspectives.
Example: “Weighing up the facts, this essay finds that reading books is important for developing critical thinking skills in childhood.”
39. With that said…
Overview: This is another phrase that I would avoid. This is a colloquialism that’s best used in speech rather than writing. It is another term that feels sophomoric and is best to avoid. Instead, use a more formal term such as: ‘Weighing up the above points, this essay finds…’
Example: “With that said, this essay disagrees with the statement that you need to go to college to get a good job.”
Do you Need to Say Anything?
Something I often tell my students is: “Can you just remove that phrase?”
Consider this sentence:
- “In conclusion, the majority of scientists concur that climate change exists.”
Would it be possible to simply say:
- “ In conclusion, The majority of scientists concur that climate change exists.”
So, I’d recommend also just considering removing that phrase altogether! Sometimes the best writing is the shortest, simplest writing that gets to the point without any redundant language at all.
How to Write an Effective Conclusion
Before I go, I’d like to bring your attention to my video on ‘how to write an effective conclusion’. I think it would really help you out given that you’re looking for help on how to write a conclusion. It’s under 5 minutes long and has helped literally thousands of students write better conclusions for their essays:
You can also check out these conclusion examples for some copy-and-paste conclusions for your own essay.
Well, I had to begin this conclusion with ‘In conclusion…’ I liked the irony in it, and I couldn’t pass up that chance.
Overall, don’t forget that concluding an essay is a way to powerfully summarize what you’ve had to say and leave the reader with a strong impression that you’ve become an authority on the topic you’re researching.
So, whether you write it as a conclusion, summary, or any other synonym for conclusion, those other ways to say in conclusion are less important than making sure that the message in your conclusion is incredibly strong.
Chris Drew (PhD)
Dr. Chris Drew is the founder of the Helpful Professor. He holds a PhD in education and has published over 20 articles in scholarly journals. He is the former editor of the Journal of Learning Development in Higher Education. [Image Descriptor: Photo of Chris]
- Chris Drew (PhD) https://helpfulprofessor.com/author/admin/ 13 Secondary Data Examples
- Chris Drew (PhD) https://helpfulprofessor.com/author/admin/ 31 Instinct Examples (In Humans and Animals)
- Chris Drew (PhD) https://helpfulprofessor.com/author/admin/ Montessori vs Reggio Emilia vs Steiner-Waldorf vs Froebel
- Chris Drew (PhD) https://helpfulprofessor.com/author/admin/ 15 Meritocracy Examples
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Top Essay Writing Services: Unveiled and Unmasked in This Explosive Comparison!
Posted: November 23, 2023 | Last updated: November 23, 2023
Writing essays and academic papers is a familiar task for students, often fraught with challenges like tight deadlines and complex topics. This stress can tempt students to hire essay writers, raising ethical questions and affecting academic integrity. The rise of these essay services, offering to craft essays for a fee, has sparked debates about their legitimacy and impact on education. This article compares prominent services like 99papers, EssayBox, and others, discussing their features, pricing, quality promises, and broader implications in academia.
Overview and Comparison TOP 5 Essay Writing Services
Reviewed by essay expert Michael Adwell
99papers is an essay writing service that positions itself as a go-to solution for students facing academic writing challenges. It is noteworthy for its competitive pricing and professional writing team. Here are some key features of 99papers:
- Affordable Pricing : The service starts at $12.46 per page , making it a relatively budget-friendly option for students. This pricing strategy is particularly appealing to those who need quality writing assistance without breaking the bank.
- Qualified Writers : 99papers employs native English writers who hold degrees, ensuring that the essays and papers are written to a high standard. This focus on hiring qualified writers is crucial for maintaining the quality and accuracy of academic writing.
- Quick Turnaround Times : Understanding the time-sensitive nature of academic assignments, 99papers offers quick turnaround times. This feature is particularly beneficial for students who need their papers completed within a tight deadline.
- Plagiarism-Free Guarantee : The service promises plagiarism-free content, a critical aspect of academic writing. This guarantee ensures that the work provided is original and meets academic standards for authenticity.
In summary, 99papers presents itself as an affordable, reliable, and accessible option for students needing assistance with academic writing, backed by a team of qualified writers and a commitment to originality.
Reviewed by essay expert Jacob Ausley
EssayBox is another notable player in the field of essay writing services, catering to students who require assistance with their academic writing tasks. Here’s an overview of its key features:
- Competitive Pricing : EssayBox offers its services starting from $12.95 per page . This pricing is in line with the market standards and is designed to be affordable for students, particularly considering the level of expertise provided.
- Highly Qualified Writers : One of the standout features of EssayBox is its employment of English as a Native Language (ENL) writers who hold Master’s or PhD degrees. This high level of academic qualification ensures that the papers are written with a deep understanding of the subject matter and adhere to academic standards.
- Round-the-Clock Customer Support : EssayBox provides 24/7 customer support, a crucial feature for students who may need assistance or have queries at any time of the day or night. This continuous availability enhances the reliability and responsiveness of the service.
- Free Revisions and Editing : Understanding the need for perfection in academic papers, EssayBox offers free revisions and editing. This ensures that the final product meets the exact requirements and expectations of the student.
- Discount for First-Time Users : To attract new customers, EssayBox provides a discount for first-time users. This incentive makes the service more appealing to students trying it out for the first time, reducing the financial barrier to entry.
In summary, EssayBox differentiates itself with its team of highly qualified ENL writers, comprehensive customer support, and commitment to customer satisfaction through free revisions and editing, along with an introductory discount for new users.
Reviewed by essay expert Valerie Banford
BookwormLab is another service in the realm of academic essay writing, offering tailored solutions to students. It distinguishes itself with several key features:
- Pricing Structure : BookwormLab’s services start at $14.59 per page, positioning it slightly higher in the pricing spectrum compared to some competitors. This pricing reflects the quality and expertise they claim to provide in their writing services.
- Professional Writers with Verified Diplomas : A significant selling point for BookwormLab is its team of professional writers, each possessing verified academic diplomas. This verification process adds a layer of trust and assurance for students about the qualifications and expertise of the writers handling their academic work.
- Timely Delivery Guarantee : Recognizing the importance of meeting academic deadlines, BookwormLab guarantees timely delivery of their work. This commitment is crucial for students who cannot afford any delays in their academic submissions.
- Confidentiality Assurance : BookwormLab ensures the confidentiality of its service, which is a vital consideration for students concerned about privacy and academic integrity. This assurance protects the identity and information of students using their service.
- Availability of Free Samples : To help potential customers gauge the quality of their work, BookwormLab offers free samples. This transparency allows students to make more informed decisions about whether the service meets their specific needs and quality expectations.
Overall, BookwormLab presents itself as a reliable and professional option for students, backed by a team of qualified writers, a commitment to timely delivery, and a focus on confidentiality and transparency.
EssayFactory stands out in the essay writing service market, particularly catering to students in the United Kingdom. Here are the key features that define their service:
- Pricing in British Pounds : EssayFactory’s pricing starts at £14.87 per page . This pricing, listed in British Pounds, indicates a focus on the UK student market. The rate is competitive, considering the specialized service they offer.
- Qualified British Writers : A significant aspect of EssayFactory is its team of qualified British writers. This focus ensures that the essays and papers are not only of high quality but also align with the specific academic standards and linguistic nuances of the UK education system.
- Guarantee of On-Time Delivery : Understanding the critical nature of deadlines in the academic world, EssayFactory promises on-time delivery of assignments. This guarantee is essential for students who cannot afford any delays in their academic submissions.
- Direct Contact with Writers : EssayFactory allows direct communication between clients and writers. This feature facilitates a more personalized service, enabling students to have more control over the writing process and to directly convey their specific requirements and feedback.
- Money-Back Guarantee : Offering a money-back guarantee, EssayFactory provides an assurance of satisfaction and quality. This policy demonstrates their confidence in the quality of their service and offers peace of mind to students who may be apprehensive about using such services.
In summary, EssayFactory distinguishes itself with its focus on the UK market, employing qualified British writers, and emphasizing timely delivery, direct writer communication, and customer satisfaction guarantees.
Reviewed by essay-expert Oliver Wicks
Essays.io is another service in the competitive field of academic essay writing with a big base of free written college papers, catering to students seeking assistance with their writing tasks. It offers several notable features:
- Affordable Pricing : Essays.io sets its starting price at $11.31 per page , making it one of the more affordable options in the market. This pricing strategy is particularly appealing to students on a tight budget who are seeking quality writing assistance.
- Experienced Academic Writers : The service boasts a team of experienced academic writers. This experience is crucial in ensuring that the essays and papers are not only well-written but also meet the specific requirements and standards of academic writing.
- Availability of Quick Turnarounds : Recognizing the often urgent nature of academic assignments, Essays.io offers quick turnaround options. This feature is beneficial for students who are working against tight deadlines and need prompt service.
- User-Friendly Website : A user-friendly website is a significant plus for Essays.io, as it simplifies the process of placing orders, making inquiries, and communicating with writers. This ease of use enhances the overall customer experience.
- Plagiarism Detection : Essays.io includes plagiarism detection in its services, ensuring that the work provided is original and adheres to academic integrity standards. This feature is essential in maintaining the credibility and authenticity of the academic work produced.
Overall, Essays.io presents itself as an accessible, affordable, and reliable option for students, with a focus on experienced writers, fast service, ease of use, and a commitment to producing original, plagiarism-free academic work.
Comparing Features of Essay Writing Services
When considering hiring an essay writing service, it’s important to compare various aspects such as pricing, writer qualifications, quality assurances, customer service, and delivery times. Here’s a summary based on the provided information:
- 99papers : Initially noted for a starting price of $12.46 per page, this service offers a balance between affordability and quality, considering its range of features.
- EssayBox : Initially, prices were mentioned as starting from $12.95 per page. This service is known for its qualified ENL writers and comprehensive customer support.
- BookwormLab : This service was previously stated to have prices starting from $14.59 per page. BookwormLab is distinguished for its professional writers with verified diplomas and a focus on timely delivery.
- EssayFactory : The starting price for EssayFactory was indicated as £14.87 per page, catering specifically to the UK market with qualified British writers and a promise of on-time delivery.
- Essays.io : Initially, the service was noted for a starting price of $11.31 per page, making it a competitive option with experienced academic writers and quick turnaround times.
- All Services : Employ college-educated, native English writers, ensuring a high standard of language proficiency.
- BookwormLab and EssayFactory : Stand out by having writers with verified diplomas, adding an extra layer of credibility.
- 99papers, EssayBox, and Essays.io : Also boast writers with degrees, ensuring a baseline of academic proficiency.
- General Promise : Most services promise high-quality writing, which is a basic expectation in this market.
- Plagiarism-Free Guarantee : Both EssayFactory and 99papers assure plagiarism-free papers, a crucial aspect for maintaining academic integrity.
- Free Revisions : Essays.io, 99papers, and EssayBox offer free revisions, allowing for adjustments based on client feedback.
- 24/7 Support : Available at EssayBox and 99papers, providing round-the-clock assistance for global customers.
- Direct Writer Contact : Offered by EssayFactory, enhancing personalized service and direct communication.
- User-Friendly Website : Noted for Essays.io, making the process more seamless and accessible for users.
- On-Time Delivery : Guaranteed by EssayFactory and BookwormLab, crucial for meeting academic deadlines.
- Fast Turnaround : Available with 99papers and Essays.io, catering to urgent needs.
- Rush Orders : Offered by several services for those with the shortest deadlines.
In summary, while all these services provide a range of benefits, the choice depends on specific needs like budget constraints, required expertise level, urgency, and additional services like plagiarism checks or revisions. Each service has its unique strengths, so it’s important to choose one that aligns best with your requirements when looking to hire an essay writing service.
FAQ about Hiring Essay Writers
Is it worth it to pay someone to write your essay.
Paying for an essay can be beneficial in terms of convenience, potentially high-quality writing, and securing a good grade, especially if you choose a reputable service. However, it’s important to consider that it can be expensive and poses significant risks. If discovered, it could lead to serious academic consequences.
Can you hire someone to write an essay?
Yes, numerous online essay writing services exist where you can hire or pay writers to create custom essays. However, it’s crucial to note that most educational institutions consider this practice unethical and it may violate academic integrity policies.
How much should I get paid to write an essay?
Compensation for writing essays varies. Typically, experienced essay writers earn between $12 and $20 per page. This rate depends on several factors, including the urgency of the deadline, the academic level of the essay, and the depth of research required.
Can you pay people to do essays?
While it is technically possible to pay individuals or services to write essays, this practice is generally viewed as cheating and is ethically frowned upon in academic settings. Schools often impose strict penalties for such actions, which can include failing grades or more severe academic sanctions.
In conclusion, the decision to hire essay writers carries a mix of pros and cons. On the positive side, such services can provide convenience, potentially high-quality writing, and a route to securing better grades, especially when deadlines are tight, or the subject matter is challenging. The availability of experienced, degree-holding writers across various platforms like 99papers, EssayBox, BookwormLab, EssayFactory, and Essays.io, each with their unique features and pricing models, offers a wide range of options for students seeking such assistance.
However, these benefits are significantly overshadowed by the drawbacks. The primary concern is academic dishonesty. Most educational institutions have strict policies against this practice, and getting caught can lead to severe penalties, including failure in the course or more serious academic sanctions. The ethical implications of presenting someone else’s work as your own cannot be understated, as it undermines the principles of academic integrity and personal growth.
Moreover, the financial cost of hiring these services can be substantial, especially for students on a limited budget. The potential risk of receiving work that does not meet the expected standards or is not delivered on time adds another layer of uncertainty.
Given these considerations, it is advisable to invest effort into doing your own work. The learning and personal development that come from engaging directly with academic tasks are invaluable. Therefore, it’s generally best to avoid using essay writing services. Instead, seek other forms of assistance such as tutoring, collaborating with peers, or consulting with instructors, which can provide the support needed while maintaining academic integrity and personal development.
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