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APA In-Text Citations (7th Ed.) | Multiple Authors & Missing Info

Published on November 4, 2020 by Raimo Streefkerk . Revised on September 30, 2022.

In-text citations briefly identify the source of information in the body text. They correspond to a full reference entry at the end of your paper.

APA in-text citations consist of the author’s last name and publication year. When citing a specific part of a source, also include a page number or range, for example (Parker, 2020, p. 67) or (Johnson, 2017, pp. 39–41) .

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Table of contents

Apa in-text citations explained in 4 minutes, parenthetical vs. narrative citations, apa in-text citations with multiple authors, no author, date or page number, multiple sources in one parenthesis, avoiding ambiguity in apa in-text citations, citing indirect sources (“as cited in”), citing personal communication, general mentions of websites and software, example paragraph with in-text citations, frequently asked questions.

The in-text citation can be placed in parentheses or naturally integrated into a sentence.

  • Parenthetical : There is a correlation between social media usage and anxiety symptoms in teenagers (Parker, 2019) .
  • Narrative: Parker (2019) found a correlation between social media usage and anxiety symptoms in teenagers.

The publication year appears directly after the author’s name when using the narrative format. The parenthetical citation can be placed within or at the end of a sentence, just before the period. Check out a full example paragraph with in-text citations .

If a work has two authors, separate their names with an ampersand (&) in a parenthetical citation or “and” in a narrative citation. If there are three or more authors, only include the first author’s last name followed by “et al.”, meaning “and others”.

Group authors known by their abbreviations (e.g., CDC) are written in full the first time and are abbreviated in subsequent citations.

If the author of a source is unknown, try to determine if there is an organization or government responsible for creating the content. If so, include its name in the in-text citation (and reference entry).

Alternatively, use the source title in place of the author. Italicize the title if it’s italicized in the reference entry (except for court cases , which are italicized in the in-text citation but not the reference entry). Otherwise, enclose it in double quotation marks.

Apply title case capitalization, and shorten long titles. The first word of the title should always be included so readers can easily locate the corresponding reference entry.

  • (“U.S. Flood Risk,” 2015)
  • ( Thinking, Fast and Slow , 2017)

No publication date

If the publication date is unknown, write “n.d.” (no date) in the in-text citation.

No page number (alternative locators)

Page numbers are only required with direct quotes in APA . If you are quoting from a work that does not have page numbers (e.g., webpages or YouTube videos ), you can use an alternative locator, such as:

  • (Liu, 2020, 03:26 )
  • (Johnson, 2019, Chapter 3 )
  • (McCombes, 2016, para. 4 )
  • (Davis, 2016, Slide 15 )
  • (Flores, 2020, Table 5 )
  • (Streefkerk, 2020, “No page number” section )

Note that Bible citations always use chapter and verse numbers, even when page numbers are available:

If a statement is supported by multiple sources, the in-text citations can be combined in one parenthesis. Order the sources alphabetically, and separate them with a semicolon.

When citing multiple works from the same author, list the years of publication separated by a comma.

When in-text citations are ambiguous because they correspond to multiple reference entries, apply the solutions outlined in the table below.

If you want to refer to a source that you have found in another source, you should always try to access the original or primary source .

However, if you cannot find the original source , you should cite it through the secondary source that led you to it, using the phrase “as cited in”.

If the publication date of the primary source is unknown, include only the year of publication of the secondary source.

Only include a reference entry for the secondary source, not the primary source.

Personal communications , such as phone calls, emails, and interviews, are not included in the reference list because readers can’t access them. The in-text citation is also formatted slightly differently.

Include the initials and last name of the person you communicated with, the words “personal communication,” and the exact date in parentheses.

General mentions of a website or software don’t have to be cited with an in-text citation or entry in the reference list. Instead, incorporate relevant information into the running text.

  • The website of Scribbr (www.scribbr.com) contains various useful resources.
  • Statistical software SPSS (version 25) was used to analyze the data.

When citing a webpage or online article , the APA in-text citation consists of the author’s last name and year of publication. For example: (Worland & Williams, 2015). Note that the author can also be an organization. For example: (American Psychological Association, 2019).

If you’re quoting you should also include a locator. Since web pages don’t have page numbers, you can use one of the following options:

  • Paragraph number: (Smith, 2018, para. 15).
  • Heading or section name: ( CDC, 2020, Flu Season section)
  • Abbreviated heading:  ( CDC, 2020, “Key Facts” section)

Instead of the author’s name, include the first few words of the work’s title in the in-text citation. Enclose the title in double quotation marks when citing an article, web page or book chapter. Italicize the title of periodicals, books, and reports.

If the publication date is unknown , use “n.d.” (no date) instead. For example: (Johnson, n.d.).

The abbreviation “ et al. ” (meaning “and others”) is used to shorten APA in-text citations with three or more authors . Here’s how it works:

Only include the first author’s last name, followed by “et al.”, a comma and the year of publication, for example (Taylor et al., 2018).

Always include page numbers in the APA in-text citation when quoting a source . Don’t include page numbers when referring to a work as a whole – for example, an entire book or journal article.

If your source does not have page numbers, you can use an alternative locator such as a timestamp, chapter heading or paragraph number.

If you cite several sources by the same author or group of authors, you’ll distinguish between them in your APA in-text citations using the year of publication.

If you cite multiple sources by the same author(s) at the same point , you can just write the author name(s) once and separate the different years with commas, e.g., (Smith, 2020, 2021).

To distinguish between sources with the same author(s) and  the same publication year, add a different lowercase letter after the year for each source, e.g., (Smith, 2020, 2021a, 2021b). Add the same letters to the corresponding reference entries .

In an APA in-text citation , you use the phrase “ as cited in ” if you want to cite a source indirectly (i.e., if you cannot find the original source).

Parenthetical citation: (Brown, 1829, as cited in Mahone, 2018) Narrative citation: Brown (1829, as cited in Mahone, 2018) states that…

On the reference page , you only include the secondary source (Mahone, 2018).

An APA in-text citation is placed before the final punctuation mark in a sentence.

  • The company invested over 40,000 hours in optimizing its algorithm (Davis, 2011) .
  • A recent poll suggests that EU membership “would be backed by 55 percent of Danish voters” in a referendum (Levring, 2018) .

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Citations with Three or More Authors

  • For works that have three or more authors, list the first author followed by “et al.” (meaning “and others”) Examples: (Connell et al., 2014) Researchers Connell et al. (2015) found . . .

Researchers Connell et al. (2015) point out that one of the purposes of advertising is “framing consumer decisions by directing attention away from product disadvantages” (p. 130). 

Parenthetical:, one of the purposes of advertising is “framing consumer decisions by directing attention away from product disadvantages” (connell et al., 2015, p. 130). , paraphrase / summary:, researchers connell et al. (2015) point out that one of the purposes of advertising is to distract people from an item’s undesirable qualities when they are considering a purchase. , one of the purposes of advertising is to distract people from an item’s undesirable qualities when they are considering a purchase (connell et al., 2015). , * ** remember: each source listed on the reference page must correspond to at least one in-text citation in the body of the paper; each in-text citation must correspond to a source listed on the reference page..

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Home / Guides / Citation Guides / APA Format / APA In-text Citations

APA In-Text Citations

Welcome to our guide on in-text citations! If you’re looking to learn the ins and outs of APA style in-text citations and how to do in-text citations APA, we’ve got you covered in this thorough guide.

The information below follows the 7th edition of the  Publication manual of the American Psychological Association .

Here’s a run through of everything this page includes:

  • APA Style overview
  • In-text citations and why we use them
  • Two types of APA in-text citations
  • Corresponding entry in reference list
  • In-text citations for direct quotes

Paraphrasing in APA

  • In-text citations for sources with one author
  • In-text citations for sources with multiple authors
  • In-text citations for sources with no author or date
  • Additional in-text citation examples

If you’re simply looking for a quick guide, check out our APA parenthetical citation guide, which serves as a lite-version of this page.

Let’s get started!

What is APA?

This is a term that you might hear your teacher, professor, or librarian throw around a lot. This abbreviation stands for

P sychological

A ssociation

This association is kind of a big deal. They do a lot of things related to psychology, but they’re also famous for creating one of the most popular citation styles, APA format . There are other big names on campus, such as MLA format , and Chicago, but this particular style is commonly used by individuals who are writing a science-related paper.

Even if your paper doesn’t necessarily fall into a “science” category, many educators ask their students to cite in this style since it’s so commonly used.

If you’re trying to find information about other commonly used styles, there are more styles on EasyBib.com.

What is an APA In-text Citation?

In plain and simple terms, APA in-text citations are found in the text of a project. Get it? In text. The purpose of an in-text citation in APA is to show the reader, while they’re reading your work, that a piece of information in your project was found elsewhere. They’re placed IN the wording or body of a project, not on the last page; the last page has full references. To learn more about those types of references, check out APA citation .

We’ve all heard about the word plagiarism , and you already know what it means. Simply put, including APA in-text citations are one way to prevent plagiarism.

Here’s what’s included in an APA 7th edition in-text citation:

  • Last name(s) of the author(s) or Group name
  • Year the source was published
  • Page number (if available)

Depending on the number of authors and the source type, some in-text citations look different than others. Read on to learn how to structure an in-text citation for APA. In fact, if you’re looking for an easy route, EasyBib.com has an in-text citation APA generator, which does the work for you. Use our automatic generator to create your full references, and you’ll see an option on the final screen to format your APA in-text citations. An APA in-text citation generator and full reference generator all in one. What could beat that?

Why do we use in-text citations?

When you do a research project, you’re probably going to include facts from websites, databases, books, and other sources. When you add those facts into your project, you must show where those facts came from. It’s the responsible thing to do. It prevents plagiarism. You always give credit to the original author. It’s kind of like thanking them for their contribution to your paper.

Here’s the neat thing about in-text citations. Since they’re IN your project, readers get a quick idea as to where the information you included came from. In-text citations APA are not long and lengthy, like the full references on the APA reference page  or APA bibliography . In-text citations are cute, little, and give us the perfect amount of information we need to understand where a fact came from. If you want to get the full information about the source, then you can flip to the back page of the paper, where the full reference is listed. The in-text citation APA style provides us with a tidbit of information. Just enough to glance at it and keep on going with reading the paper.

To recap, in-text citations are great because:

  • They credit the original author of a work or information
  • They let readers quickly see where the information is coming from
  • Including helps make you an ethical writer

If you’re looking to learn more about footnotes in Chicago format , MLA in-text & parenthetical citations , or want to learn how to cite websites in MLA , EasyBib.com has the information you need to be a citing superstar.

Types of APA In-text Citations

Just like there are two days in the weekend, two types of peanut butter (creamy and nutty), and two types of foods we crave (salty and sweet), there are (you guessed it) two types of in-text citations.

The in-text citation APA option you include in your paper depends on how you craft your sentences.

Narrative In-Text APA Citations:

In-text citation APA format, in narrative form, is one that shows the author’s name in the sentence itself.

Narrative In-text APA Citation Example:

Tyson, Strauss, and Gott (2016) encourage the use of simplified terms when it comes to discussing and defining the universe. For example, a small white star is simply called a white dwarf. Keep it short and sweet because the universe is confusing enough (p. 22).

Parenthetical Citations:

This is a type of APA in-text citation where the author’s name(s) are in parentheses, usually at the end of the fact or quote.

Parenthetical Citation Example

Use simplified terms when discussing and defining the universe. For example, a small white star is simply called a white dwarf. Keep it short and sweet because the universe is confusing enough (Tyson, Strauss, & Gott, 2016, p. 22).

As you can see, the type of APA in-text citation you include, whether it’s a narrative one or one in parentheses, depends on how you decide to structure your sentences. It doesn’t matter if you use all narrative, all parentheses, or a mix of both.

What is important is that you’re a responsible researcher and you properly cite your sources!

Remember, most facts, quotes, stats, and copied and pasted information NEED an APA in-text citation next to it.

What’s the only type of information you don’t need to create an in-text citation APA for? Anything that’s common knowledge. For example, paper is made from trees. You and most people already knew that. That’s an example of common knowledge. It’s a piece of information that everyone already knows.

Now, before you simply include the author’s name(s), the date, and the page number in your project and think you’ve covered all your bases, you’re not quite done yet. In-text citations APA are only part of the puzzle.

The other piece of the puzzle is found on the last page of the project: the reference page. That’s where all of the full references are found in their entirety. In-text citations only include the author’s name, year published, and the page number.

The reference page, on the other hand, includes the title of each source, the publishers, the website addresses, and other information. Continue reading to learn why in-text citations and references on the reference page are the perfect match.

Before we continue, MLA works cited pages are very similar to the ones in this style. EasyBib.com has resources for many styles, to help you learn the ins and outs of referencing your work. We even have full pages on grammar topics too, to keep your paper in tip-top shape. Brush up on your noun , conjunction , and interjection skills with our easy-to-follow, comprehensive guides.

Corresponding entry in APA reference list

Would you ever put on one shoe and walk around without the other? Of course not. The same goes with in-text citations and full references. You must include both in your paper. Where there’s one there has to be the other.

Each and every in-text citation APA must have a matching full reference on the reference page (American Psychological Association, p. 262 ).

If you’re wondering why, it’s to allow the reader to get that sneak peek about the source while reading your paper (the APA in-text citation), and then learn all about it on the final page (the reference page). If the reader wants to get their hands on a copy of the sources you used, all of the information they need can be found on the reference page.

Remember those APA style in-text citation examples found above? Let’s take a peek at them again.

Here’s the one with the authors’ names in parentheses: Use simplified terms when discussing and defining the universe. For example, a small white star is simply called a white dwarf. Keep it short and sweet because the universe is confusing enough (deGrasse, Strauss, & Gott, 2016, p. 22).

Here’s the full reference, which would be found on the final page of the project:

Tyson, N. D., Strauss, M. A., and Gott, J. R. (2016). Welcome to the universe: An astrophysical tour. Princeton University Press.

Notice that in the above in-text citation APA example, the full title of the book, the place the book was published, and the publisher are displayed. If the reader wants to locate the book themselves, all of the information they need is found in the full reference.

One other important thing we’d like to point out is that the same information from the in-text citation APA (Tyson, Strauss, & Gott) matches the first part of the full reference. This is done to allow the reader to easily find the full reference on the final page.

Remember, always include both in-text citations AND full references in your projects.

In the body of projects, in-text citations APA serve an important purpose. They give the reader a snippet of understanding as to the origin of  information. It’s just enough information to allow the reader to continue reading the paper in a natural and fluid manner, without having to trip over long, clunky references. If the reader wants to get a detailed understanding of a source, they can flip to the back page, the reference page, to scope out all of the nitty gritty details.

In the next two sections of this page, we’re going to switch gears and share how to properly format direct quotes and paraphrases.

If you’re looking for specific source types, check out APA citation website and APA book citation . These two resources will explain how to format those specific types of references. If you’re stuck and not sure how to start, check out Chapter 10 of the  Publication manual for some sample citations.

Direct Quotes in APA

As Drake states in his lyrics, “We don’t like to do too much explaining,” so we’re going to keep this one short and to the point.

“Direct quotes” are a fancy term used for any text that has been copied and pasted into your paper. That Drake quote above is a direct quote.

Direct quotes are any words or sentences copied and pasted into your project, but they don’t necessarily have to be a person’s quote. Anytime you copy and paste text into your assignment, you must include an APA in-text citation next to it. This shows the reader that:

  • The information came from another source
  • You’re being a responsible researcher and clearly documenting the outside source.

Here are some guidelines to keep in mind when it comes to direct quotes:

  • Direct quotes are a solid way to show evidence and prove your point, but use them sparingly. Your paper shouldn’t be riddled with copied and pasted text.
  • Put quotation marks around the copied and pasted information. (The exception are APA block quotes , which are direct quotes longer than 40 words and are formatted differently.)
  • Always include the page number for direct quotes, if one is available. When formatting APA page numbers for an in-text citation, include p. before the number. Use pp. for a page range.

To create a narrative APA in-text citation, include the author’s last name in the sentence like this:

  • As Drake (2013) once said “We don’t like to do too much explaining.”
  • In the above APA in-text citation example, the Drake quote was taken from the song, “Started From the Bottom,” in 2013. The title of the source would be included in the reference page.

Or, you include the author’s name in parentheses:

  • “We don’t like to do too much explaining” (Drake, 2013).

If you are looking for more examples, go to page 272 of the American Psychological Association’s official Publication manual .

We said above that your entire paper shouldn’t have direct quotes everywhere. So, another way to include information from a source is by adding a paraphrase . Simply put, a paraphrase is restated information, but formed using your own words and writing style

APA paraphrases still need an in-text citation since the information was obtained elsewhere. Check out this quote from the song, “For Time,” by Drake:

“I like it when money makes a difference, but don’t make you different.”

To include it in your paper, without using the exact quote, make a paraphrase. Here’s one that would work:

Money has the ability to benefit things in your life, but it’s truly great when it doesn’t cause the person to act differently or change who they are (Drake, 2013).

The above APA in-text citation example is one with Drake’s name in parentheses. If you’d like to include the author’s name narratively, here’s an option:

In Drake’s (2013) lyrics, he shares that money has the ability to benefit things in your life. It’s truly great when it doesn’t cause the person to act differently or change who they are.

It is recommended to include page numbers for paraphrased material, but isn’t required.

Here’s more on paraphrases and direct quotes.

Organizing APA In-text Citations

Ready to learn how to structure your in-text citations? The next section dives deep into developing them and answers “How to do in-text citations APA.” Keep in mind that how each one is formed depends on the number of authors and other factors. All the examples below follow rules laid out in Chapter 8 of the Publication manual.

Even though the structure varies, most in-text citations APA are placed in this manner for narrative in-text citations:

Author’s Last Name (Year) “Quote or Paraphrase” (p. number).

For ones in parentheses, most are placed in this manner:

“Quote” or Paraphrase (Author’s Last Name, Year, p. number).

Notice that whether you choose to include a narrative in-text citation APA or one in parentheses, the author names and the year published are always together. They’re pretty much holding hands. Cute, huh?

Read on to learn the ins and outs of structuring various in-text citations.

Don’t forget, EasyBib.com has an in-text citation APA generator. Wondering what it’s all about? Here’s a quick explanation: We work for you so citing is easy for you. Yep, you read that correctly.

Our tools structure your in-text citations the way they’re supposed to be structured. Use our automatic generator to create your full references, and on the final screen you’ll see the option to create your in-text citations. An APA in-text citation generator that’s easy as pie!

Something else we do for you? We have a plagiarism checker that scans your paper for any instances of accidental copying. We also have tons of grammar pages to keep your page in check. Check out our adverb , preposition , and verb pages.

APA In-Text Citations for Sources with One Author

If your source has one author.

If your source has one author, lucky you! Your in-text citation is pretty simple to structure.

Narrative In-text APA Citation:

Author’s Last Name (Year published) are found in the sentence with a “direct quote” or paraphrase (p. number).

Parenthetical APA Citation:

“Direct quote” or Paraphrase (Author’s Last Name, Year published, p. number).

Citing multiple sources by the same author in the same year

You may have a bunch of case studies, articles, or books that you’re referencing, all by the same author. Let’s say you’re analyzing two works by Sigmund Freud, Jokes and Their Relation to the Unconscious and also Fragment of an Analysis of a Case of Hysteria , both of which were published in 1905. Placing (Freud, 1905) in the text would be confusing for the reader. How would the reader determine which source you’re referencing?

If this is the situation you’re in, there’s a pretty simple fix.

Place a lowercase a next to the year in the first source (Freud, 1905a). Place a lowercase b next to the second source (Freud, 1905b). Include those same lowercase letters in the full references on the reference page, like so:

Freud, S. (1905a). Fragment of an analysis of a case of hysteria . https://staferla.free.fr/Freud/Freud%20complete%20Works.pdf

Freud, S. (1905b). Jokes and their relation to the unconscious . https://staferla.free.fr/Freud/Freud%20complete%20Works.pdf

But there’s a catch. When you do this et al. can’t stand for only one author. After all it literally means “and others.” If you have two sources that are identical except for the last author, then you have to write out all the names every time. For example:

Gunderman, Slack, Rausch, and Smith (2017)

Gunderman, Slack, Rausch, and Johnston (2017)

These references are completely the same except for the very last name so you’d have to write all 4 names every time.

If your source has multiple works by the same author

What if you had 2 sources with the same author(s) and same publication year? Lucky for us the solution here is a lot simpler. Just a letter to the publication year!

Gunderman, Slack, and Rausch (2017)

Gunderman, Slack, and Rausch (2017a)

Gunderman, Slack, and Rausch (2017b)

Just remember to also follow this format in your works cited page even if there is an exact publication date available. See page 267 of your Publication Manual (American Psychological Association, 2020) for a further breakdown.

Need to create an APA in-text citation for a source without an author? How about an APA in-text citation for multiple authors? Continue reading to see the other ways to structure an APA style in-text citation.

APA In-Text Citations for Sources with Multiple Authors

Apa in-text citation for sources with two authors.

If your source has two authors, place them in the order they appear on the source. Do not place them in alphabetical order.

Use the word “and” in between the authors’ names.

1st Author’s Last Name and 2nd Author’s Last Name (Year published) are found somewhere in the sentence with a “direct quote” or paraphrase (p. number).

If you choose to include both authors’ names in parentheses, use an ampersand in between their names.

“Here is the direct quote” or Here is the paraphrase (1st Author’s Last Name & 2nd Author’s Last name, Year, p. number).

APA in-text citation for sources three or more authors

Only include the first author’s last name and then add ‘et al.’ Et al. is a fancy way of saying “and others” in Latin.

1st Author’s Last Name et al. (Year published) are found somewhere in the sentence with a “direct quote” or paraphrase (p. number).

“Here is the direct quote” or Paraphrase (1st Author’s Last Name et al., Year published, p. number).

If you have author of multiple works (with multiple authors)

Now here is where things can get a tad bit tricky. Sometimes authors with multiple works can cause some confusion in your citations. Generally when that happens you can tell the difference by the publication year, but when you can’t, that’s when you have to list as many authors as necessary to clear up the confusion.

Say you had the two sources below:

Gunderman, Slack, Rausch, and Maule (2017)

Gunderman, Byrnes, Oxner, Wigginton, and Draeger (2017)

Normally, they’d be written as:

Gunderman et al. (2017)

If you reduced both sources to Gunderman et al. (2017) you wouldn’t be able to tell which source you’re talking about. Instead cite it this way:

Gunderman, Slack, Rausch et al. (2017)

Gunderman, Byrnes, Oxner et al. (2017)

If you’re looking for more information on structuring journal articles, check out our APA journal page.

If you’re looking for a simple solution to referencing multiple authors, EasyBib.com creates in-text citations APA for you! Whether you need to create a reference for one or two authors, or an APA in-text citation for multiple authors, we’ve got you covered!

APA In-text citation no author or date

It’s common to come across sources without any authors. Movies, brochures, website pages often do not have a visible author’s name.

Citing a source with no author

If you find that the source you’re attempting to reference does not have an author, use the first few words from the reference list entry in the APA in-text citation with no author. Most often, it’s the title of the source.

Place the source name in quotation marks if the source is a:

  • website page

Simply italicize the source name if the source is a:

  • Or the full reference starts with italicized information

Remember, you do not have to use the entire title in your in-text citation APA no author. You can use only the first few words from the reference list.

“First few words of the webpage, article, or chapter Title” (Year) along with the “direct quote” or paraphrase (p. number). OR First few words of book, newspaper, report, or brochure (Year) along with the “direct quote” or paraphrase (p. number).

“Here is the direct quote” or paraphrase (“Web page, Article, or Chapter Title,” Year, p. number). OR “Here is the direct quote” or paraphrase ( Book, Newspaper, Report, or Brochure Title , Year, p. number).

Citing source with no date

No date? No problem! An APA in-text citation no date situation is easier to solve than you think. Only include the author’s name and the page number.

APA in-text citation no date example:

(Foster, p. 35).

Additional APA In-Text Citation Examples

Source by a group, organization, company, or government agency.

There are two types of groups: Ones that are abbreviated often and ones that are not abbreviated.

For example, think about these two citation style types: APA and Chicago. One is abbreviated (for the American Psychological Association) and the other is usually written as is (Chicago style).

Abbreviated groups

If the company is often abbreviated, in the first mention in text, display the full name and the abbreviation. In the second and any other subsequent mentions, only use the abbreviation.

1st mention:

Full Company’s Name (Abbreviation, Year) with the “direct quote” or paraphrase (p. number).

2nd mention:

Company Abbrev. (Year) “direct quote” or paraphrase (p. number).

“Direct quote” or paraphrase (Full Company’s Name [Abbreviation], Year, p. number).

“Direct quote” or paraphrase (Abbreviation, Year, p. number).

Non-abbreviated groups

Always include the full group, company, or organization’s name in each and every mention in text.

Full Name of Group (Year) with the “direct quote” or paraphrase (p. number).

“Direct quote” or paraphrase (Full Name of Group, Year, p. number).

Citing sources with different authors with the same last name

We’re not quite sure how the author of The Baby-Sitters Club (Ann M. Martin) could be used in a paper that’s also referencing the author of Game of Thrones (George R. R. Martin), but hey, it could happen! It’s a Martin party! It’s important to show the reader the difference between the two individuals to prevent any confusion. To differentiate between the two authors in the text, include their first initials.

Example of in-text citation APA:

“Here’s a quote” (A. Martin, Year, p. 6). G. Martin (Year) also states “this direct quote” (p. 45).

As always, keep the author names and the dates directly next to each other. They love being together and it’s a best practice.

Citing multiple sources in the same in-text citation

List sources alphabetically and separate with a semicolon.

Be sure to list authors alphabetically.

Johnson (2019), Smith and Adams (2015), and Washington (2017), examined…

“Direct quote” or Paraphrase (Author 1 Last Name, Year published, p. number if needed; Author 2 Last Name, Year published, p. number if needed)

Parenthetical Citation Examples:

(Johnson et al., 2019; Smith & Adams, 2015; Washington, 2017)

(Honda, 2006, p. 107; Sato, 1980)

If you want to emphasize a source because it is particularly important or relevant, add “see also” before the source’s citation. Think of “see also” as synonymous with “for more information see…”

(Johnson et al., 2019; see also Smith & Adams, 2015; Washington, 2017).

Citing a source within a source

Did you stumble upon the perfect quote that’s quoted in another source? It happens all of the time and it can be a little tricky to figure out how to quote a quote.

The American Psychological Association recommends locating the original quote, if possible. Instead of relying on secondary sources, take the time to locate the original source to make sure the quote is accurate. Finding and reading through the original source also provides you with further information on your research topic!

If finding the original source isn’t possible, due to out of print titles, web pages taken down, or other factors, then it’s okay to quote the secondary source. In your writing, use the phrase “as cited in Secondary Author’s Last name, Year.”

On the reference page, include the reference for the secondary source.

As cited in Shapiro’s (2019) article, Carranza stated, “Districts 3 and 15 are showing how we can have the important conversations and take bold action on this issue.”

Carranza stated, “Districts 3 and 15 are showing how we can have the important conversations and take bold action on this issue” (as cited in Shapiro, 2019).

On the reference page, Shapiro’s article would be referenced in its entirety.

Citing audiovisual material

APA in-text citations for YouTube videos , songs, podcasts, television shows, and other audiovisual materials look a bit different than other types of sources. They include an extra piece of information: a time stamp.

Bill Nye (2017) shares that the sun is over four-hundred septillion watts (13:15).

The sun is over four-hundred septillion watts (Bill Nye, 2017, 13:15).

If you’re still scratching your head, and feeling the urge to type “how to do in-text citations APA” into Google, click here for a website that we dig.

If you’re looking for a quick fix to developing your references, EasyBib.com has you covered! Our tools can help you create an APA in-text citation multiple authors, one author, no authors, plus more!

Overview of APA Parenthetical Citations for Websites

Here’s a quick overview of how to create an in-text citation for websites. Notice that since these are for online sources, the in-text citation has no page number.

Once again, if grammar isn’t your thing, and you’re looking for help related to specific parts of speech, check out our adjective , pronoun , and determiner pages, among many, many others!

Follow our EasyBib Twitter feed to find more citing tips, fun grammar facts, and the latest product updates.

apa intext citation with 3 authors

American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.) https:doi.org/10.1037/0000165-000

Published May 21, 2019. Updated October 25, 2020.

Written and edited by Michele Kirschenbaum and Elise Barbeau . Michele Kirschenbaum is a school library media specialist and one of the in-house EasyBib librarians. Elise Barbeau is the Citation Specialist at Chegg. She has worked in digital marketing, libraries, and publishing.

APA Formatting Guide

APA Formatting

  • Annotated Bibliography
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  • Page Numbers
  • Parenthetical Citations
  • Reference Page
  • Sample Paper
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Citation Examples

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An in-text citation is a shortened version of the source being referred to in the paper. As the name implies, it appears in the text of the paper. A reference list entry, on the other hand, details the complete information of the source being cited and is listed at the end of the paper after the main text. An example of an in-text citation and the corresponding reference list entry for a journal article with one author is listed below for your understanding:

In-text citation template and example:

Only the author name and the publication year are used in in-text citations to direct the reader to the corresponding reference list entry.

Author Surname (Publication Year)

Elden (2003)

Parenthetical

(Author Surname, Publication Year)

(Elden, 2003)

Reference list entry template and example:

Complete information of the reference is used to guide the reader to locate the source for further reference. In the below template, “F” and “M” are first and middle initials, respectively. #–# denotes the page range.

Surname, F. M. (Publication Year). Title of the article: Subtitle. Journal Title, Volume (Issue), #–#. DOI

Elden, S. (2003). Plague, panopticon, police. Surveillance & Society, 1 (3), 240–253. https://doi:10.24908/ss.v1i3.3339

When you use APA style, all sources need to have in-text citations. In-text citations direct a reader to the reference entry to get more information on the source being cited in the text. If an in-text citation is not provided, your reader doesn’t know whether there is a source available in the reference list for the idea or topic being discussed in the text. Even if all the basic elements to cite a source are not available, try to provide an in-text citation with the information you do have. For example, if a source does not have an author, use a shortened version of the title in place of the author in your in-text citation. An example is given below for a parenthetical citation.

Author name available:

(Author Surname, Publication Year, p.# for direct quote)

Author name not available:

(“Title of the Work,” Publication Year, p.# for direct quote)

Therefore, in-text citations are essential to guide a reader to locate the corresponding sources in the reference list for the topics discussed in the text.

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APA Format & Citation Style, 7th edition

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  • General Style Guidelines
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Journal Article with Three or More Authors

General Format

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

(Author Surname et al., Year)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Author Surname et al., Year, page number)

References:

Surnames and initials for  up to twenty authors  should be provided in the reference list.  For more than 20 authors, list the first 19, followed by an ellipses, then list the final author.

Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial., Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial., Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial., Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial., Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial., & Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Article title: Subtitle.  Journal Title, Volume (issue), page range. http://doi.org/xx.xxxxxxxxxx [if available]  OR  [nothing - if in an online database and does not have a doi]  OR  URL to document on website if readers can access.

(Yonkers et al., 2001, p. 1859)

Yonkers, K. A., Ramin, S. M., Rush, A. J., Navarrete, C. A., Carmody, T., March, D., Heartwell, S., & Leveno, K. J. (2001). Onset and persistence of postpartum depression in an inner-city maternal health clinic system.  American Journal of Psychiatry, 158 (11), 1856-1863. http://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.158.11.1856

Helpful Tips:

DOI:  If a journal article has a  Digital Object Identifier (DOI)  listed, you will always include this identifier in your reference  as a URL . You will not have to include a different URL or the database from which you retrieved the article if a DOI is available.  Include a DOI for all works that have a DOI, regardless of whether you used the online version or the print version.

Online Database:  If you viewed a journal article in an  online database  and it does not have a DOI, the reference should be the same as the reference for a print version of the work. In other words, nothing after the page numbers will appear.

Website/Online:  If an online work (not including academic research databases), provide the URL in the reference (as long as the URL will work for readers).

Print:  If you viewed a journal article in its  print format , be sure to check if it has a DOI listed. If it does not, your reference to the article would end after you provide the page range of the article.

Date:  When possible, include the year, month, and date in references. If the month and date are not available, use the year of publication.

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Apa quick citation guide.

  • In-text Citation
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Using In-text Citation

Include an in-text citation when you refer to, summarize, paraphrase, or quote from another source. For every in-text citation in your paper, there must be a corresponding entry in your reference list.

APA in-text citation style uses the author's last name and the year of publication, for example: (Field, 2005). For direct quotations, include the page number as well, for example: (Field, 2005, p. 14). For sources such as websites and e-books that have no page numbers , use a paragraph number, for example: (Field, 2005, para. 1). More information on direct quotation of sources without pagination is given on the APA Style and Grammar Guidelines web page.

Example paragraph with in-text citation

A few researchers in the linguistics field have developed training programs designed to improve native speakers' ability to understand accented speech (Derwing et al., 2002; Thomas, 2004). Their training techniques are based on the research described above indicating that comprehension improves with exposure to non-native speech.   Derwing et al. (2002) conducted their training with students preparing to be social workers, but note that other professionals who work with non-native speakers could benefit from a similar program.

Derwing, T. M., Rossiter, M. J., & Munro, M. J. (2002). Teaching native speakers to listen to foreign-accented speech.  Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development , 23 (4), 245-259.

Thomas, H. K. (2004).  Training strategies for improving listeners' comprehension of foreign-accented speech  (Doctoral dissertation). University of Colorado, Boulder.

Citing Web Pages In Text

Cite web pages in text as you would any other source, using the author and date if known. Keep in mind that the author may be an organization rather than a person. For sources with no author, use the title in place of an author.

For sources with no date use n.d. (for no date) in place of the year: (Smith, n.d.). For more information on citations for sources with no date or other missing information see the page on missing reference information on the APA Style and Grammar Guidelines web page. 

Below are examples of using in-text citation with web pages.

Web page with author:

In-text citation

Heavy social media use can be linked to depression and other mental disorders in teens (Asmelash, 2019).

Reference entry

Asmelash, L. (2019, August 14). Social media use may harm teens' mental health by disrupting positive activities, study says . CNN. https://www.cnn.com/2019/08/13/health/social-media-mental-health-trnd/index.html

Web page with organizational author:

More than 300 million people worldwide are affected by depression (World Health Organization, 2018).

World Health Organization. (2018, March 22).  Depression . https://www.who.int/en/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/depression

Web page with no date:

Establishing regular routines, such as exercise, can help survivors of disasters recover from trauma (American Psychological Association [APA], n.d.).

American Psychological Association. (n.d.). Recovering emotionally from disaste r. http://www.apa.org/helpcenter/recovering-disasters.aspx

General Guidelines

In-text references should immediately follow the title, word, or phrase to which they are directly relevant, rather than appearing at the end of long clauses or sentences. In-text references should always precede punctuation marks. Below are examples of using in-text citation.

Author's name in parentheses:

One study found that the most important element in comprehending non-native speech is familiarity with the topic (Gass & Varonis, 1984).

Author's name part of narrative:

Gass and Varonis (1984) found that the most important element in comprehending non-native speech is familiarity with the topic.

Group as author: First citation: (American Psychological Association [APA], 2015) Subsequent citation: (APA, 2015)

Multiple works: (separate each work with semi-colons)

Research shows that listening to a particular accent improves comprehension of accented speech in general (Gass & Varonis, 1984; Krech Thomas, 2004).

Direct quote: (include page number and place quotation marks around the direct quote)

One study found that “the listener's familiarity with the topic of discourse greatly facilitates the interpretation of the entire message” (Gass & Varonis, 1984, p. 85).

Gass and Varonis (1984) found that “the listener’s familiarity with the topic of discourse greatly facilitates the interpretation of the entire message” (p. 85).

Note:  For direct quotations of more than 40 words , display the quote as an indented block of text without quotation marks and include the authors’ names, year, and page number in parentheses at the end of the quote. For example:

This suggests that familiarity with nonnative speech in general, although it is clearly not as important a variable as topic familiarity, may indeed have some effect. That is, prior experience with nonnative speech, such as that gained by listening to the reading, facilitates comprehension. (Gass & Varonis, 1984, p. 77)

Works by Multiple Authors

APA style has specific rules for citing works by multiple authors. Use the following guidelines to determine how to correctly cite works by multiple authors in text. For more information on citing works by multiple authors see the APA Style and Grammar Guidelines page on in-text citation .

Note: When using multiple authors' names as part of your narrative, rather than in parentheses, always spell out the word and. For multiple authors' names within a parenthetic citation, use &.

One author: (Field, 2005)

Two authors: (Gass & Varonis, 1984)

Three or more authors:   (Tremblay et al., 2010)

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APA (7th Edition) Referencing Guide

  • Information for EndNote Users

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Format of authors, order of authors, when the author isn't a person, no author or anonymous, who's the author.

  • In-Text Citations
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  • How many authors do you have?
  • 1-2 Authors
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How many authors?

APA has strict rules for how to show the author's names in the text of your assignment and in your reference list. You need to check the number of authors you have for your work, and then format your references accordingly:

  • 1-2 authors

See the tabs on this box for details.

Things to Note:

Pay attention to the use of commas, the ampersand (&), and the word "and".

  • You use the word "and" when you are using the author's names as part of your sentence, but an "&" when the names are in the brackets or the reference list.
  • In text, you will always use a comma after each author (except the last one) when you have more than two names. In your reference list, you put a comma after each author (except the last one).

You always put a full stop after the al. in et al., because it is short for "et alia" ("and others").

For one or two authors , always mention the names of all authors

Narrative citation: Zhang and Webb (2019) noted that students who read bilingual books performed better in vocabulary tests.

Parenthetical citation: Students who read bilingual books may perform better in vocabulary tests ( Zhang & Webb, 2019).

In Your Reference List:

Zhang, Z., & Webb, S. (2019). The effects of reading bilingual books on vocabulary learning. Reading in a Foreign Language, 31 (1), 109–139.  http://nflrc.hawaii.edu/rfl/April2019/April2019/articles/zhang.pdf

When you have 3 or more authors , you only use the first author's surname in text, and abbreviate the rest of the list with "et al." (Latin for "and others"). In your reference list, you list all of the authors (up to 20) .

Narrative citation: Boers et al.'s (2017) research i  nto the use of pictures in glosses found they may decrease the amount of attention given to the words.

Parenthetical citation: Using pictures to illustrate glosses may, in fact, decrease the amount of attention given to the words ( Boers et al. , 2017).

Boers, F., Warren, P., He, L., & Deconinck , J. (2017). Does adding pictures to glosses enhance vocabulary uptake from reading? System, 66, 113-129. https://doi.org/ 10.1016/j.system.2017.03.017

When you have more than 3 authors (regardless of how many) , you only use the first author's surname in text, and abbreviate the rest of the list with "et al.". In your reference list, you list the first 19 authors and the last one, using an ellipses (...) to show that some authors have been omitted (do not use an ampersand &).

Narrative citation: Tobler et al.'s (2017) research found genetic evidence that suggests Australian Aboriginal people have inhabited the Australian landmass for approximately 50,000 years.

Parenthetical citation: Genetic evidence suggests the Australian Aboriginal people have inhabited the Australian landmass for approximately 50,000 years ( Tobler et al. , 2017).

Always include no more than twenty names, the first 19 and the last one:

Tobler , R., Rohrlach , A., Soubrier , J., Bover , P., Llamas, B., Tuke , J., Bean, N., Abdullah-Highfold , A., Agius , S., O'Donoghue , A., O'Loughlin , I., Sutton, P., Zilio , F., Walshe , K., Williams, A. N., Turney , C. S. M., Williams, M., Richards, S. M., Mitchell, N., ... Cooper, A. (2017) . Aboriginal mitogenomes reveal 50,000 years of regionalism in Australia. Nature, 544 (7649), 180-184. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature21416

  • Use only initials of author's first or given names within the reference list
  • If the author's first name is hyphenated then format as initial, full stop, hyphen and second initial. For example, Jean-Luc Picard is formatted as Picard, J.-L.
  • For hyphenated surnames include both names and the hyphen in the reference list and the in text citation. For example: (Jones-Smith, 2015)
  • For surnames with multiple parts that do not include a hyphen include both names separated by a space in the reference list and the in text citation. For example: Arce Arias, A. (2017).
  • If the surname includes a particle (for example, van, der, den, la, von etc), include the particle before the surname in the reference list and the in text citation. Follow the authors example regarding capitalisation. For example: (van der Woodsen, 2021) (Del Castillo, 2017)
  • If the authors name has a suffix, include the suffix after the second initial in the reference list. For example, Jones, H. W., Jr., & Jones, H. W., Sr. (1941) ... Do not include the suffix in the in-text citation

Some points to remember about authors:

  • Do not alter the order of the authors within a citation (that is, the first, second, third etc authors of a work). You should leave them in the order they appear on the work.
  • Your reference list will be placed in alphabetical order based on the name of the first author for each reference. See the page on Reference list structure for more information about the order of your references.
  • (Corbin, 2015; James & Waterson, 2017; Smith et al., 2016).
  • (Corbin, 2015; 2018)
  • (Queensland Health, 2017a; 2017b)
  • Use only the surnames of your authors in text (e.g., Smith & Brown, 2014) - however, if you have two authors with the same surname who have published in the same year, then you will need to use their initials to distinguish between the two of them (e.g., K. Smith, 2014; N. Smith, 2014). Otherwise, do not use initials in text .

Notes on et al.:

"Et al." is short for "et alia" - which means "and others". Note this is plural - "other s " - you only use it when there is more than one "other" (which is why you never use it for a work with two authors - always name both authors). Never use et al. to replace one person.

If you have the same first author and date for two works, but the other authors are not the same for both works, keep listing authors until the citations are clearly different, and then use et al. for the remaining authors.

For example:

Chan, G. C., Leung, J., Quinn, C., Kelly, A. B., Connor, J. P., Weier, M., & Hall, W. D. (2016). Rural and urban differences in adolescent alcohol use, alcohol supply, and parental drinking. The Journal of Rural Health, 32 (3), 280-286. https://doi.org/10.1111/jrh.12151

Chan, G. C., Kelly, A. B., Connor, J. P., Hall, W., Young, R. M., Toumbourou, J. W., & Williams, J. (2016). Regional versus urban differences in teenage alcohol use: Does parental disapproval account for these differences? Australian Journal of Rural Health, 24 (1), 3-8. https://doi.org/10.1111/ajr.12177

If you used both of these works for your paper you would cite them like this:

(Chan, Leung, et al., 2016)

(Chan, Kelly, et al., 2016)

If the first two or three (etc) authors are the same, keep adding authors until they are different.

(Chan, Kelly, Smith, et al., 2016)

(Chan, Kelly, White, et al., 2016)

Remember, you don't use et al. for only one person, so if there were only three authors and you needed to name the first two authors in your in-text citation, you would name all three authors. If you had only four authors, and you had to include the first three authors to make the citation clear, then you would include all four authors.

When this happens, use an & between your last two authors:

(Smith, Jones & Brown, 2016)

(Taylor, Brown, Gwyrdd & Schwarz, 2016)

There are circumstances where you cannot find a person to use as your author because the "author" is a group, a company or an organisation. Some times there is no author, in which case see " No author or anonymous " below.

Is the author a company or organisation?

  • Government bodies (such as the Australian Bureau of Statistics or the Department of Education and Training) are often the official "author" of the works they publish.
  • Companies are usually the authors of their web pages

Write the company's name in full, the first time you use them, in text, then you can use an acronym. Always write the name in full in the reference list.

For example :

In text, the first time:

Narrative: The American Psychological Association (APA, 2012) noted that...

Parenthetical: The consumer price index is collated by using around a million pricing structures (Australian Bureau of Statistics [ABS], 2018).

In text, subsequent times:

Narrative: As noted by the APA (2012)...

Parenthetical: New weights were used to maximise transaction data (ABS, 2018).

In the reference list:

Do not use acronyms unless the acronym is the official name of the company/organisation - and even then try to find the full version (e.g. CSIRO is Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation). Check the legal information or copyright pages of the organisation's web site.

American Psychiatric Association. (2012). How to write an APA style reference when information is missing . http://blog.apastyle.org/files/missing-pieces---apa-style-reference-table.pdf

Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2018). Consumer price index, Australia, Dec 2017 (No. 6410.0). http://www.abs.gov.au

N.B. Write author names "as is" to the best of your ability. Use their capitalisation, spacing and punctuation. If they use an "and" or and "&" in their name (e.g. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service) retain the version of "and/&" they have used.

Is there a corporate body (like a government department or a company) who is responsible for the work? They're probably your author. Take a look at " When the Author isn't a person " above.

Is the work anonymous, or without a byline?

  • Sometimes newspaper articles and dictionary or encyclopedia entries don't have an author attributed. Editorials in peer reviewed journals may not have a byline. These works are unattributed, but they are not "anonymous".
  • Only list the author as "anonymous" if the article/work has been attributed to "Anonymous" or "Anon". If there is no attribution, follow the advice below.

When there is no attributed author, move the title of the article (or encyclopedia entry, etc) to the first position in the reference list. In text, use the title of the document in "quotation marks" where you would use the author's name. For long titles, it is okay to use only the first few words.

Narrative: In the Nature editorial, "On the March" (2017), it was suggested that crowds might be "painted as hostile" (p. 137) by the media.

Parenthetical: During the 2017 presidential inauguration, there were some moments of awkwardness ("Mrs. Obama Says ‘Lovely Frame’", 2018).

Please note: In text, the title of the article is given title case - that is, major words are capitalised. You do not use title case in the reference list.

On the march. (2017). Nature, 554 , 137. https://www.nature.com/articles/544137a.pdf

Mrs. Obama says ‘lovely frame’ in box during awkward handoff. (2018, February 1). AP News . https://www.apnews.com/31f3520500c94a6ebfdbd2a0db5f4b60

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APA Citation Style, 6th Edition: Three to Five Authors/Editors

  • One Author/Editor
  • Two Authors/Editors
  • Three to Five Authors/Editors
  • Chapter in a Book
  • Edition Other Than the First
  • Electronic Books
  • Journal Article with One Author
  • Journal Article with Two Authors
  • Journal Article with Three to Six Authors
  • Journal Article with Seven or More Authors
  • Government Publication
  • Magazine Articles
  • Newspaper Article
  • Reference List

Books with Three to Five Authors

(this libguide is for apa 6th edition, click   here   to visit our new   apa 7th edition libguide ).

The formatting guidelines below refer to books with three authors. If the book has four or five authors, you would follow this format and add the fourth and fifth author's after the third.

General Format:

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

(Author's Last Name, Author's Last Name, & Author's Last Name, year)

In-Text Citation (Direct Quote):

(Author's Last Name, Author's Last Name, & Author's Last Name, year, page number)

References:

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial., Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial., & Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year).  Book title: Subtitle.  Location of publication: Publisher.

In-text Citation (Paraphrase):

(Ledlow, Manrodt, & Schott, 2017)

Note: In the first in-text citation, include all of the three to five author's last names. After the first in-text citation, all subsequent in-text citations include the first author's last name, et al., and the year. For example: (Ledlow et al., 2017). See table below for more information.

In-text Citation (Direct Quote):

(Ledlow, Manrodt,  & Schott, 2017, p. 52)

Ledlow, G. R., Manrodt, K. B., & Schott, D. (2017).  Health care supply chain management: Elements, operations, and strategies.  Burlington, MA: Bartlett & Jones Learning.

Books with Three to Five Editors

The formatting guidelines below refer to books with three editors. If the book has four or five editors, you would follow this format and add the fourth and fifth editor's name after the third.

(Editor's Last Name, Editor's Last Name, & Editor's Last Name, year)

(Editor's Last Name, Editor's Last Name, & Editor's Last Name, year, page number)

Editor's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial., Editor's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial., & Editor's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial. (Eds.). (Year).  Book title: Subtitle.  Location of publication: Publisher.

(Blumenthal, Diclemente,  Braithwaite & Smith, 2013)

Note:  In the first in-text citation, include all of the three to five editor's last names. After the first in-text citation, all subsequent in-text citations include the first editor's last name, et al., and the year. For example: (Blumenthal et al., 2013). See table below for more information.

(Blumenthal, Diclemente, Braithwaite, & Smith, 2013, p. 52)

Blumenthal, D. S., Diclemente, R.J., Braithwaite, D., & Smith, S.A. (Eds.). (2013).  Community-based participatory health research : Issues, methods, and translation to practice.  New York: Springer Pub.

More than Five Authors or Editors?

If you are looking to cite a book with more than five authors or editors, follow the same format as three to five authors/editors. The only difference is with in-text citations. Even in your first in-text citation, you can shorten to the last name of the first author followed by et al., and the year. For example: Rodgers, Chung, Hightower, Collins, Long, Carr, & Thomas (2016) would be (Rodgers et al., 2016) starting with the first in-text citation. See the table below for more information or page 177 of the APA Manual, 6th Edition.

Citing References in Text

Carrie forbes, mls.

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Page References

Citation information has been adapted from the APA Manual (6th Edition). Please refer to pages 176-177 and 184 of the APA Manual (6th Edition) for more information.

Helpful Tips

-If two or more references of three or more authors/editors and publication year short to the same in-text citation, cite as many last names as needed to differentiate them. Example from p.175 of APA Manual: both Ireys, Chernoff, DeVet, & Kim, 2001 and Ireys, Chernoff, Stein, DeVet, & Silver, 2001 shorten to (Ireys et al., 2001). Instead, use Ireys, Chernoff, DeVet, et al. (2001) and Ireys, Chernoff, Stein, et al. (2001) respectively. Please refer to page 175 of the APA Manual, 6th Edition for more in depth information.

-Be mindful of hyphenated names, particularly hyphenated first names in your reference list. If an author or editor has a hyphenated first name, include first initials for both separated by a hyphen. For example: Lamour, J.-B. for Jean-Baptiste Lamour.

-If your reference list includes publications by two or more authors with the same last name, you should include the first initial in all in-text citations in order to help the reader avoid confusion.

-Suffixes like "Jr." or "III" are not included in in-text citations but are included in the reference list.

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APA Citation Guide

  • Paper Formatting
  • Reference Components
  • Book Examples
  • Article Examples
  • Media Examples
  • Internet Resources Examples
  • Other Examples

In-Text Citation Components

Narrative citations, parenthetical citations, combining citations, secondary sources.

  • Page Numbers etc.

When writing a paper, you will need to provide in-text citations (sometimes called parenthetical citations) for quotes, summaries, and to give credit for ideas. Every in-text citation must have a corresponding entry in the reference list, unless you are told otherwise (examples include personal communications and citing an entire website). There are two ways to cite in-text.

For more guidelines, view sections Chapter 8 in the Publication Manual or consult the APA Style page on In-Text Citations .

APA requires that you provide two pieces of information for an in-text citation:

  • Author last name(s) (this could also be an organization)
  • Publication date

A page number is required for direct quotes , and encouraged for paraphrasing.

You will incorporate this information two ways into your text: parenthetically or narratively.

General Format

Use the last name of the author for your in-text citation.

( Matthews , 2010, p. 14)

Multiple Authors

You will list up to two authors in an in-text citation, separated with an ampersand (&).

( Smith & Miller , 2009)

For references with three or more authors, you will only include the first author and then the words et al.

( Smith et al. , 2009)

Smith et al. (2009) summarized it as...

Organizational Author

If the author of a work is an organization, company, or group, list that group's full name in the in-text citation.

( Santa Fe College , 2019)

If the organization has a common acronym, you may introduce it in your first in-text citation and then use the abbreviation in all subsequent citations.

(American Medical Association [AMA] , 2007)

(AMA, 2007)

You should avoid citing works with no author, because you will be unable to verify authority and credibility. Remember that most resources that do not have an individual author listed will have an organization or group responsible for the content.

If there is truly no author for a reference, you use the title, or first few words of the title. Note that you should capitalize the words in the title for the in-text citation. Place in quotation marks if the title is an article or chapter. Italicize if it is a book, webpage, etc.

( "How To Find," 2009).

( Oxford English Dictionary , 1989).

You will use the year of the resource in the in-text citation. Even if there is a more detailed date provided, only the year is included in the in-text citation.

(Smith, 2010 )

If there is no date for a reference, use the abbreviation n.d. :

(Santa Fe College, n.d. ).

Smith ( n.d. ) states that...

Same Author/Date

If you have two or more distinct works by the same author and published in the same year, differentiate them with letters. Letters will be assigned alphabetically by the order in which they are listed in the references list.

Rowling, J. K. (1999a). Harry Potter and the chamber of secrets . Arthur A. Levine.

(Rowling, 1999a )

Rowling, J. K. (1999b). Harry Potter and the prisoner of Azkaban . Arthur A. Levine.

(Rowling, 1999b )

If both items are using n.d. instead of a year, include a hyphen before the differentiating letter.

(Santa Fe College, n.d.-a )

Recall that page numbers and more specific location information as detailed below are only required for direct quotes , but may be used for paraphrasing if you wish.

Page Numbers

If you are using information from a single page, use the abbreviation p.

(Smith, 2009, p. 12 )

If your quote (or paraphrase) spans multiple pages, use the abbreviation pp. , and separate the two numbers with an en dash (–).

Smith (2009) discusses how the study was received by the media ( pp. 12–13 ).

No Page Numbers

If there are no page numbers on your resource, use section headers, paragraph numbers, or other descriptions to direct your reader to the information you are citing.

  • Conclusions section

One of the author's main points is that "people don't rise from nothing" (Gladwell, 2008, Chapter 1, Section 2, para. 5 ).

If you are citing a direct quotation from a video, you can use the time stamp in place of a page number within the in-text citation.

Pariser (2011) states that "your filter bubble is your own personal, unique universe of information that you live in online. And what's in your filter bubble depends on who you are, and it depends on what you do" (4:12) .

Narrative citations are the preferred method of citing quotes. You may also use them for paraphrasing or summarizing. The strength of narrative citations is that it flows better for a reader. A narrative citations weaves in the author's name(s) into the text, and then adds in the year in parentheses. The page number will bookend the quote at the end.

You will often want to use a signal phrase to introduce a narrative citation. For an overview of signal phrases along with some examples, visit George Mason University's page on Signal Phrases .

Last name (Year) ... "quote" or paraphrase (p. X).

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2011) , rates for pregnancy, STDs and abortion are much higher in the US than in other industrialized countries (para. 1) .

Pink (2009) explains that "rewards, by their very nature, narrow our focus. That’s helpful when there’s a clear path to a solution" (p. 42) .

Valenas et al. (2017) explored the impact of attentional bias and rumination on test anxiety in first-year university students.

Finocchio et al.'s (2021) study found a connection between GERD and non-allergic rhinitis.

A parenthetical citation encompasses the components of the in-text citation in parentheses at the end of the sentence, prior to the closing period. This should mostly be used for paraphrasing, and typically not for direct quotes alone.

Recall that a page number is not necessary for paraphrasing, but is encouraged.

(Author, Date, p. X)

Most college students are limited in their research experience to using Google and struggle to learn how to effectively navigate and use the wide variety of resources available to them (Head, 2013) .

Researchers have cautioned that flipped instruction needs to be carefully designed, both in overall pedagogical design (Banks & Henderson, 2019) and in the design of instructional videos (Obradovich et al., 2015) .

Moreover, Standard II.5.2 explains that school psychologists "do not promote or condone the use of restricted psychological and educational tests…by individuals who are not qualified to use them" (NASP, 2010, p. 9) .

To include two or more different resources in one citation, use a semicolon to separate them:

Poor empathy development has been associated with negative outcomes including increased aggression, poorer quality relationships, and psychopathology across development (Batanova & Loukas, 2014; Gambin & Sharp, 2016) .

A secondary source is a source that is cited in another source. APA strongly suggests that you always track down the original source to use and cite. However, if that is not possible, use the following guidelines.

In your references list, include the source you have in hand . In your in-text citation, use the name/date of the original source, plus the words as cited in and then the source you used.

For example, you are using an article by Akerstedt et al., and they cite information from a study by Wing et al.

Text found in Akerstedt et al: "This issue has not been addressed before, but weekend compensatory sleep seems to counteract obesity in children who have short sleep duration during weekdays (Wing, Li, Li, Zhang, & Kong, 2009)."

Akerstedt, T., Ghilotti, F., Grotta, A., Zhao, H., Adami, H.-O., Trolle-Lagerros, Y., & Bellocco, R. (2019). Sleep duration and mortality – Does weekend sleep matter? Journal of Sleep Research, 28 (1), e12712. https://doi.org/10.1111/jsr.12712

(Wing et al, 2009, as cited in Akerstedt et al., 2019)

Source: Publication Manual , 8.6; Secondary Sources [APA Style]

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APA Citation Guide, 7th edition: Three to Five Authors or Editors

  • General Style Guidelines
  • One Author or Editor
  • Two Authors or Editors
  • Three to Five Authors or Editors
  • Article or Chapter in an Edited Book
  • Article in a Reference Book
  • E-Books, not from a Database
  • Edition other than the First
  • Translation
  • Government Publication
  • Journal Article with One Author
  • Journal Article with 2 Authors
  • Journal Article with 3-20 Authors
  • Journal Article 21 or more Authors
  • Magazine Article
  • Newspaper Article
  • Basic Web Page
  • Web page from a University site
  • Web Page with No Author
  • Entry in a Reference Work
  • Government Document
  • Online Press Release
  • Motion Picture
  • Youtube Video
  • Audio Podcast Episode
  • Music Recording
  • TikTok Video
  • Electronic Image
  • Lecture/PPT
  • Classical Works
  • Secondary Sources
  • Avoiding Plagiarism

About Citing Books

For each type of source in this guide, both the general form and an example will be provided.

The following format will be used:

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase) - entry that appears in the body of your paper when you express the ideas of a researcher or author using your own words.  For more tips on paraphrasing check out The OWL at Purdue .

In-Text Citation (Quotation) - entry that appears in the body of your paper after a direct quote.

References - entry that appears at the end of your paper.

Information on citing and several of the examples were drawn from the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association  (7th ed.).

Numbers in parentheses refer to specific pages in the manual.

Book with Three to Five Authors or Editors (pp. 286, 321-322)

apa intext citation with 3 authors

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  • Introduction
  • Formatting Your Paper
  • In-Text Citations
  • Books and eBooks
  • Business Reports
  • Conference Presentations and Publications
  • Dissertations and Theses
  • Government Documents, Statutes, and Court Cases
  • Images and Advertisements
  • Missing Information
  • Multiple Authors
  • Personal Communications (E-mails, Interviews, etc.)
  • Previous Coursework
  • Religious Works
  • Secondary Source/Indirect Citation (as cited in)
  • Social Media
  • Video and Audio
  • Avoiding Plagiarism
  • Annotated Bibliographies
  • Get Help Now

APA 7th Edition Citation Guide Multiple Authors

Source with two authors.

Rules for citing more than one author apply to all sources, regardless of format. Below is an example of a book with two authors.

Use the word "and" between the authors' names within the text and use an ampersand (&) for parenthetical citations.

Reference Page Format:

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year of Publication). Format the remainder according to resource type.

Reference Page Example:

Loveless, D., & Griffith, B. (2014).  Critical pedagogy for a polymodal world . Birkhäuser.

In-text Citation Examples:

According to Loveless and Griffith (2014) ... ...(Loveless & Griffith, 2014). ...(Loveless & Griffith, 2014, p. 121).

Source with Three to Twenty Authors

For all sources with three to twenty authors, include all of the authors on your References page. 

For in-text citations, sources with three or more authors can be abbreviated to only the first author's last name followed by "et al." For example, (Author et al., Year).

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., Author, C. C. (Year of Publication).  Format the remainder according to resource type .
Somerville, I., Purcell, A., & Morrison, F. (2011). Public relations education in a divided society: PR, terrorism and critical pedagogy in post-conflict Northern Ireland.  Public Relations Review, 37 (5), 548-555. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pubrev.2011.09.008
According to Somerville et al. (2011) ... ... (Somerville et al., 2011). ... (Somerville et al., 2011, p. 549).

Source with Twenty-One or More Authors

For sources with twenty-one or more authors, write out the first twenty authors on the References page, add an ellipsis (...), and end with the last author. 

For in-text citations, sources with more than twenty authors can be abbreviated to only the first author's last name followed by "et al." For example, (Author et al., Year).

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., Author, C. C., Author, D. D., Author, E. E., Author, F. F., Author, G. G., Author, H. H., Author, I. I., Author, J. J., Author, K. K., Author, L. L., Author, M. M., Author, N. N., Author, O. O., Author, P. P., Author, Q. Q., Author, R. R., Author, S. S., Author, T. T., . . . Author, Z. Z. (Year of Publication).  Format the remainder according to resource type .
Aad, G., Abbott, B., Abdallah, J., Abdinov, O., Aben, R., Abolins, M., AbouZeid, O. S., Abramowicz, H., Abreu, H., Abreu, R., Abulaiti, Y., Acharya, B. S., Adamczyk, L., Adams, D. L., Adelman, J., Adomeit, S., Adye, T., Affolder, A. A., Agatonovic-Jovin, T., Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A., Alen, S. P., . . . Woods, N. (2015). Combined measurement of the Higgs boson mass in pp collisions at √s=7 and 8 TeV with the ATLAS and CMS experiments.  Physical Review Letters, 114 (19), 1-33. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.114.191803
According to Aad et al. (2015) ... ... (Aad et al., 2015). ... (Aad et al., 2015, p. 20).
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apa intext citation with 3 authors

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In-text citation

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  • Other styles AGLC4 APA 7th Chicago 17th (A) Notes Chicago 17th (B) Author-Date Harvard MLA 9th Vancouver
  • Referencing home

The APA 7th style uses in-text citations when referring to or quoting people’s work. The essential elements of an in-text citation are the author surname/s and year.

Two types of in-text citations

1. author prominent format.

Use this format if you want to emphasise the author. Their name becomes part of your sentence.

Jones (2018) concluded that the treatment was effective in 74% of cases.

Author prominent citations are also referred to as parenthetical citations.

2. Information prominent format

Use this format if you want to emphasise the information. It cites the author’s name, typically at the end of a sentence.

...as evidenced by a recent Australian study of the treatment's effectiveness (Jones, 2018).

Information prominent citations are also referred to as narrative citations.

The following examples show how to form in-text citations according to number of authors and other considerations.

Surname, Year

Hawkins (2020) reported that the results of the study were inconclusive.

. . . the results of the study were inconclusive (Hawkins, 2020).

Two authors

Both surnames in the order listed on the publication and the year.

For author prominent citations, use “and” between the author names.

For information prominent citations, & between the author names.

Bovey and Hede (2013) argue that . . .

. . . is a significant factor (Bovey & Hede, 2013).

Three or more authors

Cite the first author followed by et al. and year

Robbins et al. (2017) note that leadership empathy and good communication are key to negotiating successful organisational change.

They may be required to work harder now there are … perform the same tasks (Robbins et al., 2017).

Different authors, same surname

When two or more authors have the same surname, add their initials to distinguish between them

P. R. Smith (1945) adopted a unique approach . . . . . . later in the text . . . This idea was first advanced by S. Smith (1935).

Research conducted by W.O. Brown and Jones (1985) was influenced by the work of S.A. Brown and Smith (1961).

The corresponding information prominent citations would be:

(P.R. Smith, 1945)

(S. Smith, 1935)

(W.O. Brown & Jones, 1985)

(S.A. Brown & Smith, 1961)

Multiple authors, ambiguous citations

Distinguish identical multiple-author citations with the same year by adding an additional surname, followed by a comma and et al.

Instead of just Brown et al. (1998), add additional author surnames to distinguish between separate works that Brown co-authored that year:

Brown, Shimamura, et al. (1998)

Brown, Taylor, et al. (1998).

The corresponding information prominent citations would be (Brown, Shimamura, et al., 1998), and (Brown, Taylor, et al., 1998).

  • For further guidance see the APA Style website - Citing multiple works…

Same author, two or more works

Author surname, then years separated by a commas, in chronological order.

Reimer (2017, 2018, 2019) considered this phenomenon across various studies . . .

. . . this phenomenon was considered across various studies (Reimer, 2017, 2018, 2019).

Same author, multiple works and same year

Assign a suffix of a, b, c, d, etc. after the year, according to alphabetical listing by title in the reference list.

Stairs (1992b) examined . . . . . . later in the text . . . According to Stairs (1992a) . . .

. . . was recently considered (Stairs, 1992b) . . . . . . later in the text . . . . . . the results were inconclusive (Stairs, 1992a).

  • For multiple references by the same author with no date, after n.d. add a hyphen and then the suffix e.g. (Dreshcke n.d.-b)

Multiple works from various authors

You may want to cite works from various authors to more strongly support a particular point you are making.

List each work alphabetically by surname in alphabetical order, separated by semicolons.

. . . as proposed by various researchers (Adams et al., 2020; Green, 2019; Hall & Clark, 2021).

Green (2019), Adams et al. (2020), and Hall and Clark (2021) analysed . . .

  • In the author prominent citation there is no requirement to order the citations alphabetically

If the author is identified as 'Anonymous'

Use 'Anonymous' as the surname.

Anonymous (2019)

(Anonymous, 2019)

Unknown author

Give the first few words of the title. If the title is from an article or a chapter, use double quotation marks. If the title is from a periodical, book brochure, or report, then use italics.

. . . the worst election loss in the party's history ("This is the end," 1968).

Corporate or group author

If the organisation has a recognisable abbreviation

First listing: Organisation name [Abbreviation], Year Subsequent: Abbreviation, Year

Where the organisation abbreviation is not widely known

Use the name in full every time

Census data gives valuable insights into... (Australian Bureau of Statistics [ABS], 2021).

Australia's next census will be held on 10th August 2021 (ABS, 2021).

Author quoted directly

Occasionally it may be necessary to include in your work a quotation from an author.

Always include a page number when you have to cite directly from a source.

If no page numbers are available (e.g. in a website), include a paragraph number.

Use accepted abbreviations like p. for page and para. for paragraph

Gittins (2006) suggests that "the key to understanding microeconomics is to realise that its overwhelming focus is on the role of price" (p. 18).

Weston (1988) stated "the darkest days were still ahead" (p. 45).

A patient is in pain when they tell you and "it is important to believe the patient so as to build a trusting relationship" (Phipps et al., 1983, p.45).

Personal communications

Private letters, e-mail and conversations require only an in-text citation, which includes the date of the communication (Month DD, YYYY).

Personal communications are not included in reference lists, as they are not accessible to others.

R. Smith (personal communication, January 28, 2020) . . .

. . . (R. Smith, personal communication, January 28, 2020)

Author referred to in a secondary source

The original author is cited together with the secondary author.

Only do this when the original is unavailable and only include what you have actually read.

Farrow (1968, as cited in Ward & Decan, 1988) . . .

Ward and Decan (1988) cited Farrow (1968) as finding . . .

. . . (Farrow, 1968, as cited in Ward & Decan, 1988).

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APA Citation Style, 7th edition: Journal Article with 3–20 Authors

  • General Style Guidelines
  • One Author or Editor
  • Two Authors or Editors
  • Three to Five Authors or Editors
  • Article or Chapter in an Edited Book
  • Article in a Reference Book
  • Edition other than the First
  • Translation
  • Government Publication
  • Journal Article with 1 Author
  • Journal Article with 2 Authors
  • Journal Article with 3–20 Authors
  • Journal Article 21 or more Authors
  • Magazine Article
  • Newspaper Article
  • Basic Web Page
  • Web page from a University site
  • Web Page with No Author
  • Entry in a Reference Work
  • Government Document
  • Film and Television
  • Youtube Video
  • Audio Podcast
  • Electronic Image
  • Twitter/Instagram
  • Lecture/PPT
  • Conferences
  • Secondary Sources
  • Citation Support
  • Avoiding Plagiarism
  • Formatting Your Paper

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

What is a DOI? A DOI ( digital object identifier ) is a unique alphanumeric string assigned by a registration agency (the International DOI Foundation) to identify content and provide a persistent link to its location on the internet. 

NOTE: It is regarded as the most important part of the citation because it will accurately direct users to the specific article.

Think of it as a "digital fingerprint" or an article's DNA!

The rules for DOIs have been updated in the 7th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. They should be included as URLs, rather than just the alphanumeric string.

Correct:  

  • http://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2288-12-114
  • http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2288-12-114

Incorrect:     

  • doi: 10.1186/1471-2288-12-114
  • Retrieved from http://doi:10.1186/1471-2288-12-114
  • FREE DOI Look-up (Cross-Ref)
  • DOI System: FAQ
  • Looking up a DOI
  • DOI Flowchart

Journal Article with Three to Twenty Authors

Helpful Tips:

DOI: If a journal article has a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) listed, you will always include this identifier in your reference as a URL.

Online Database: For works from databases that publish works of limited circulation (such as the ERIC database) or original, proprietary material available only in that database (such as UpToDate), include the name of the database or archive and the URL of the work. If the URL requires a login or is session specific, meaning it will not resolve for readers, provide the URL of the database or specific archive home page or login page instead of the URL for the work.

Print: If you viewed a journal article in its print format , be sure to check if it has a DOI listed. If it does not, your reference to the article would end after you provide the page range of the article.

Date: When possible, include the year, month, and date in references. If the month and date are not available, use the year of publication.

Surnames and initials for  up to twenty authors  should be provided in the reference list.  For more than 20 authors, list the first 19, followed by an ellipsis, then list the final author.

General Format

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

(Author Surname et al., Year)

NOTE: The in-text citation for works with three or more authors is shortened to the first author's name, followed by et al. and the year.

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Author Surname et al., Year, page number)

References:

Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial., Author Surname, First Initial.Second Initial., & Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Article title: Subtitle. Journal Title, Volume (issue), page range. http://doi.org/xx.xxxxxxxxxx

(Westhues et al., 2001)

(Westhues et al., 2001, p. 40)

Westhues, A., Lafrance, J., & Schmidt, G. (2001). A SWOT analysis of social work education in Canada. Social Work Education, 20 (1), 35-56. http://doi.org/10.1080/02615470020028364

(Dietz et al., 2007)

(Dietz et al., 2007, p. 1518)

Dietz, P. M., Williams, S. B., Callaghan, W. M., Bachman, D. J., Whitlock, E. P., & Hornbrook, M. C. (2007). Clinically identified maternal depression before, during, and after pregnancies ending in live births.  American Journal of Psychiatry, 164 (10), 1515-1520. http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2007.061118936

ePub Ahead of Print

ePub Ahead of Print  articles, also labeled  Advanced Online Publication  articles, may not have a volume number, issue number, or page numbers assigned to them. If you cannot find a fully published version of the article that includes this information, you can cite the article as an advanced online publication, noting its status where you would usually include the volume, issue, and page numbers. If possible, update your reference to the final version of the source when it becomes available.

Muldoon, K., Towse, J., Simms, V., Perra, O., & Menzies, V. (2012). A longitudinal analysis of estimation, counting skills, and mathematical ability across the first school year.  Developmental Psychology . Advance online publication.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0028240

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APA Citations (7th ed.)

  • General Formatting
  • Professional Paper Elements - Title Page
  • Student Paper Elements - Title Page
  • In-text Citation Basics
  • In-text Citation Author Rules
  • Citing Multiple Works
  • Personal Communications
  • Classroom or Intranet Resources
  • Secondary Sources
  • Periodicals
  • Books and Reference Works
  • Edited Book Chapters and Entries in Reference Works
  • Reports and Gray Literature
  • Conference Sessions and Presentations
  • Dissertations and Theses
  • Data Sets and Software
  • Tests, Scales, & Inventories
  • Audiovisual Works
  • Audio Works
  • Visual Works
  • Social Media
  • Webpages & Websites
  • Basics & Formatting
  • Avoiding Plagiarism

Author Rules

APA has different rules for in-text citations depending on:

  • The number of authors of a work
  • Whether you are citing a group author that has an abbreviation
  • If an author is unknown or anonymous
  • If more than one work has the same author and date
  • If multiple authors share surnames

Look to the right to find rules about each of these circumstances.

Number of Authors to Include in In-text Citations

For a work with one or two authors, include the author name(s) in every citation.

     (McCall, 2019)

     (Moyer & Hendricks, 2014)

     Thornton and Manning (2016)

For a work with three or more authors, include the name of only the first author plus "et al." in every citation, including the first citation, unless doing so would create ambiguity.

     (Huerta et al., 2019)

     Kapoor, Bloom, Montez, et al. (2017)

     Kapoor, Bloom, Zucker, et al. (2017)

To learn more about avoiding ambiguity in in-text citations, see pp.266-267 of the manual.

Group Authors, With and Without Abbreviations

Authors may be groups. For example, you may cite a work written by the National Institute of Mental Health, or NIMH.

If a work is authored by one or two groups, include the group author name(s) in every citation.

     (Morningside College, 2019)

     (Harvard University & Cambridge College, 2018)

     (U.S. Department of Agriculture et al., 2019)

If a group author has an abbreviation, introduce the abbreviation in the first citation. In subsequent citations, use the abbreviation in place of the full group name.

      First citation:  (Mothers Against Drunk Driving [MADD], 2015)

      Subsequent citations:  (MADD, 2015)

Unknown or Anonymous Author

For works with an unknown author, include the title and year of publication in the in-text citation.

If the title of the work is italicized in the reference list, also italicize the title in the in-text citation. If the title of the work is not italicized in the reference list, use double quotation marks around the title in the in-text citation.

Capitalize titles in in-text citations using title case, even though sentence case is used in the reference list entry.

      Book with no author:  ( The Future of Entrepreneurship , 2018)

      Magazine article with no author:  ("Towards a Psychology of Collective Memory," 2015)

When the author of a work is overtly designated as "Anonymous," this takes the place of the author name in the in-text citation.

     (Anonymous, 2016)

See pp. 264-265 of the manual for more information.

Works With the Same Author and Same Date

When multiple references have an identical author (or no authors) and publication year, include a lowercase letter after the year. This lowercase letter is also included in the reference entry.

Use only the year with a letter in the in-text citation, even if the reference list entry contains a more specific date.

     (LaBlanc & Ibarra, 2019a)

     (LaBlanc & Ibarra, 2019b)

     (Kirk, n.d.-a, n.d.-b)

Authors With the Same Surname

If the first authors of multiple references share the same surname but have different initials, include the first author's initials in all in-text citations, even if the year of publication differs.

     (J. R. Stuart & Frey, 2016; M. Stuart, 2019)

If the first authors of multiple references share the same surname and the same initials, cite the works in the standard author-date format.

     (Grant, 2019; Grant & Reese, 2017)

If multiple authors within a single reference share the same surname, the initials are not needed in the in-text citations.

     (Chen & Chen, 2018)

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In-text citations

In-text citation examples, personal communications.

  • Articles from Journals, Magazines and Newspapers
  • Dictionary or Encyclopedia
  • Social Media and Blogs
  • Specialized Databases
  • Data Sets and Statistics
  • Paper formatting

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A parenthetical citation includes the last name(s) of the author(s) followed by a comma and the page number(s). The parenthetical citation can be at the end of a sentence or may be in the middle of a sentence if needed to be clear on what is being cited.

A company should always do what is right regardless of the consequences, but doing the right thing tends to result in the best outcomes (Dunn, 2016).

Because doing the right thing is always the best choice (Dunn, 2016), corporate leaders must carefully develop a strong ethical compass.

A narrative citation is used when the author’s name is part of the text. In these cases, the author’s name does not need to be repeated in the parenthetical reference.

Dunn (2016) asserts the view that though a company should do what is right regardless of the potential consequences, ethical actions often produce the best possible outcomes for all (p. 22).

For more on in-text citations of a paraphrase, see opens new window https://apastyle.apa.org/style-grammar-guidelines/citations/paraphrasing

When quoting a source directly, page numbers are used to indicate the location of the quoted text. Though page numbers are not required for a paraphrase, it may be helpful to include page numbers to indicate the location of the paraphrased text. If the source has no page numbers, other location indicators, such as paragraph or section numbers may be used.

“Fundraising is an art and a science” (Garry, 2017, p. 99).

It is hard to predict how donors will respond to an appeal, but in time fundraisers learn to trust their intuition regarding the best approach (Garry, 2017, p. 99).

For more on citing quotations, See opens new window https://apastyle.apa.org/style-grammar-guidelines/citations/quotations

Personal communications are sources that can not be recovered or accessed by the reader because they are not published. This includes emails, texts, conversations (in person, by phone or video conference, etc.), online chats, interviews, classroom lectures, memos, letters, etc. If the information is not available from any recoverable (published) source, it can be cited as a personal communication. Because the reader can not access the information in personal communications, they will not be included in the reference list, but cited in the text only.

In an interview, Benjamin Colby (personal communication, July 25, 2015) mentioned . . . .

A. J. Montoya (personal communication, February 4, 2020) emailed detailed financials to the research team . . . .

In a lecture on November 1, 2021, to a BUS 326 class, Dr. Dash said . . . .

More information is available on the APA Style website .

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APA 7th Edition Citation Guide

  • APA 7th Edition Home
  • Formatting the Paper Itself
  • When and What to Cite
  • In-Text: Multiple Authors
  • In-Text: First and Subsequent Citations
  • In-Text: Authors and Dates Matching
  • In-Text: Direct Quotations
  • In-Text: Secondary Sources
  • Reference Examples: Print
  • Reference Examples: Electronic
  • Reference Examples: Audiovisual Media
  • Step 1: Author (Names)
  • Step 2: Date
  • Step 3: Titles
  • Step 4: Source
  • Help and Training
  • Related Guides

This citation guide is based on The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association  (7th ed., 2020). The contents are accurate to the best of our knowledge.

Content in this guide was copied with permission from Bethel University (TN) Library .

apa intext citation with 3 authors

Reference Examples

Your references should begin on a new page separate from the text of the essay; label this page "References" centered at the top of the page in bold. All text should be double-spaced just like the rest of your essay.

Basic Rules

  • All lines after the first line of each entry in your reference list should be indented 1/2-inch from the left margin. This is called hanging indentation. You can set up Word to do this automatically.
  • If there are 21 or more authors, list the first 19 authors and insert an ellipsis. After the ellipsis, then add the final author's name.
  • Reference list entries should be alphabetized by the last name of the first author of each work.
  • For multiple articles by the same author (or authors listed in the same order), list the entries in chronological order, from earliest to most recent.
  • Present the journal title in full.
  • ReCALL , not RECALL
  • Knowledge Management Research & Practice , not Knowledge Management Research and Practice
  • When referring to the titles of books, chapters, articles, or webpages, capitalize only the first letter of the first word of a title and subtitle, the first word after a colon or a dash in the title, and proper nouns.
  • Note that the distinction here is based on the type of source being cited. Academic journal titles have all major words capitalized, while other sources' titles do not.
  • Italicize titles of longer works such as books and journals.
  • Do not italicize, underline, or put quotes around the titles of shorter works such as journal articles or essays in edited collections.

From the APA Style Blog

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  • How to Create In-Text Citations in APA

LAI203: How to Create In-Text Citations in APA

  • Welcome to LAI203 Guide
  • How to Do Your Research
  • How to Create In-Text Citations in MLA
  • Finding and Citing Images

APA In Text Citations

An in-text citation helps the reader of your work locate where you got the information from. Formatting an APA in-text citation might seem tricky but they are actually very easy.

Please use the information below and from Purdue OWL to assist you in making an accurate in-text citation to ensure you are not plagiarizing borrowed information.

In-text citations require the author's name, publication date, and page number the specific quote appears on (if available).

The basic components:

(Author Last Name(s), Date, p. number).

Using a  signal phrase  to introduce the quote:

Author Last Name(s) (Date)  argue that "..." (p. number).

If referring to an idea from a work but not using a direct quotation or referring to an entire work, do NOT include the page number.

Tutorial Video

In-Text Citation Examples

One author, with signal phrase and without.

Denny (2017)  contends that "inevitably, the data we have about current weather conditions are such that prediction errors are unavoidable, especially given the chaotic nature of key weather phenomena"  (p. 126) .

When considering the data requirements for accurate weather forecasting, one must consider that "inevitably, the data we have about current weather conditions are such that prediction errors are unavoidable, especially given the chaotic nature of key weather phenomena"  (Denny, 2017, p. 126).

Two authors, with signal phrase and without

Teague and Gallicchio (2017) argue that "the coming together and the pooling of resources--of research, of technology, and financially--is key to the next phase in the development of meteorology" (p. 225) .

Looking forward, "the coming together and the pooling of resources--of research, of technology, and financially--is key to the next phase in the development of meteorology" (Teague & Gallicchio, 2017, p. 225).

Three or more authors, with signal phrase and without

Research from Sandel et al. (2011) supports the conclusion that "small-ranged, weakly dispersing species in previously stable regions experiencing high future climate-change velocities will be at greatest extinction risk from anthropogenic climate change" (p. 663).

Research supports that "small-ranged, weakly dispersing species in previously stable regions experiencing high future climate-change velocities will be at greatest extinction risk from anthropogenic climate change" (Sandel et al., 2011, p. 663).

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Citation Basics Guide: APA Citations

  • General Citation Rules
  • APA Citations
  • MLA Citations
  • Citing Sources
  • In-Text Citations
  • Formatting & Best Practice

Citing your Sources

You will most likely be using APA (American Psychological Association) Style. Use the examples below as a helpful guide.

How to cite an article from a library database (such as Academic Search Complete or Criminal Justice Abstracts)

 Here's how you can use the database generated citation:

Step  1:  Once you've accessed the full article, click the circled icon. (It will say "Cite"). 

apa intext citation with 3 authors

Step 2:  A box will pop up that has an alphabetized list of all citation styles, complete with the full, ready-made citation; scroll down a bit and you'll see APA. Feel free to copy and paste that into your source list. 

Step 3: Double check your citations to make sure they are correct and follow the current editions standard for APA

However, you may have used a database that does not have a citation generator tool. If this is the case, you can follow this example:

  • Journal Article: 

Format Author, A. (Year). Title of article.   Title of Publication , Vol.# (Issue #), page range, DOI 

Example Rataj, T. (2014). Video gets personal with body-worn cameras.  Blue Line Magazine ,  26 (8), 38-39,

https://doi.org/10.fhgr109863.12.234

Some other common sources you may have to cite:

  • Web Page or Site

Format      Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year, Month Day) .  Title of document . http://Web address

Example Barak, A., & Sutherland, A. (2014, December 23).  First scientific report shows police body-worn-cameras

can prevent  unacceptable use-of-force . http://www.cam.ac.uk/research/news/first-scientific- report-shows-police-body-worn-cameras-can-prevent-unacceptable-use-of-force  

  

  • Data Report from a website  (ie. tables, charts, statistics)

Format Name of Agency/Organization. (Year). Title of document [Data file]. Retrieved from           http://www.someaddress.com/full/url/ Example Federal Bureau of Investigation. (2012). Crime in the United States [Data file]. Retrieved from         https://www.fbi.gov/about-us/cjis/ucr/crime-in-the-u.s/2012/crime-in-the-u.s.-2012   

  • Online Newspaper Article

Format Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of article.  Title of Newspaper .           http://www.someaddress.com/full/url/

Example Melendez, G. (2016, June 23).  State officials to distribute money for police body cameras. The State.           http://www.thestate.com/latest-news/article85575622.html      

Format A.A. Lastname. (Year, Month Day). Title of document [Web log comment].           http://www.someaddress.com/full/url/ Example J.D. Williamson. (2016, July 11). What to do if you get pulled over by a cop and you’re legally armed  [Web

log comment] . https://www.aclu.org/blog/speak-freely/what-do-if-you-get-pulled-over-cop-and-youre-legally-armed  

General APA rules to keep in mind

1. All of your sources should have a hanging indentation.

Author, A. (2022). Some long article name. Journal of Citations 1(2), 

1-5. Doi: 10.123456.78

2. All authors' names should be inverted (i.e., last names should be provided first).

  • Authors' first and middle names should be written as initials.

3. Give the last name and first/middle initials for all authors of a particular work up to and including 20 authors . Separate each author’s initials from the next author in the list with a comma. Use an ampersand (&) before the last author’s name.

  • If there are 21 or more authors, use an ellipsis (but no ampersand) after the 19th author, and then add the final author’s name.

Example: Less than 20 authors

Nguyen, T., Carnevale, J. J., Scholer, A. A., Miele, D. B., & Fujita, K. (2019). Metamotivational knowledge 

of the role of high-level and low-level construal in goal-relevant task performance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 117(5), 879-899.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pspa0000166

Example: More than 20 authors

Pegion, K., Kirtman, B. P., Becker, E., Collins, D. C., LaJoie, E., Burgman, R., Bell, R., DelSole, R., Min, 

D., Zhu, Y., Li, W., Sinsky, E., Guan, H., Gottschalck, J., Metzger, E. J., Barton, N. P., Achuthavarier, D., Marshak, J., Koster, R., . . .  Kim, H. (2019). The subseasonal experiment (SubX): A multimodel subseasonal prediction experiment. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 100(10), 2043-2061.  https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-18-0270.1

4. Reference list entries should be alphabetized by the last name of the first author of each work.

5. For multiple articles by the same author, or authors listed in the same order, list the entries in chronological order, from earliest to most recent.

6. When referring to the titles of books, chapters, articles, reports, webpages, or other sources, capitalize  ONLY  the  FIRST LETTER  of the  FIRST WORD  of the title and subtitle, the first word after a colon or a dash in the title, and proper nouns.

7. Italicize titles of longer works (e.g., books, edited collections, names of newspapers, and so on).

8. Do not italicize, underline, or put quotes around the titles of shorter works such as chapters in books or essays in edited collections.

9. Include retrieval date when the information from the electronic source is likely to change.

Spaghetti and Meatballs.  (2018, February 25). Budgetbytes. Retrieved November 20,  2023 from 

          https://www.budgetbytes.com/spaghettimeatballs

10. If an online scholarly journal does NOT have a DOI then you do not have to include a link or database.

  • All other online sources require a link to the item.

(From OWL Purdue)

In-Text Citation Guidelines

1 .      You only have to include the page number if you are directly quoting or borrowing specific

        information from another work.

2.      If you introduce the author is the body of your sentence you write the year in parenthesis after the

        name and the page number at the end of the sentence in parenthesis.

  • According to McKlein (2019), "people benefit from extended interactions with therapy animals" (p. 199).

3.      If you do not mention the author's name in the body of your sentence include the author last name,

        year, and page number at the end of the sentence in parenthesis.

  • He mentioned, "People benefit from extended interactions with therapy animals" (McKlein, 2019, p.199). 

4.      Use p. for one page or pp. for multiple pages

  • (p. 201) or (pp. 201-205)

5.       If there are no page numbers use the paragraph number (para.) or refer to the table the information

        is in.

  • McKlein (2019) found a variety of causes for positive responses to therapy animal interactions (paras. 4–5).
  • A meta-analysis of available literature (McKlein, 2019) revealed a consistent correlation between interactions and response to therapy (Table 3).

6.     If you are summarizing or paraphrasing you don't have to include page numbers or ranges.

  • In McKlein's (2019) work he discusses correlations between responses to stress therapy and positive interactions with therapy animals.
  • Positive interactions with therapy animals can have a beneficial relationship with people who are participating in therapy (McKlein, 2019). 

7.     If you there are 3 of more authors only include the first author followed by et al. [There is only a  

        period after al. NOT after et]

Example: 

  • According to Leeds et al. (2017), people may respond differently to various types of therapy animals.
  • People react differently to different types of therapy animals based on the type of therapy they are taking (Leeds et al., 2017).

8.     The punctuation should always come AFTER the parenthesis.

General APA Formatting

1. Papers should be Double Spaced, 8.5/11 in pages with 1 inch margins

2. You should use accessible fonts like:

Sans serif fonts:

  • 11-point Calibri,
  • 11-point Arial, 
  • 10-point Lucida Sans Unicode

Serif fonts:

  • 12-point Times New Roman
  •  11-point Georgia
  •  10-point Computer Modern

3. Papers should include your name, date, and title of the paper:

  • Check with your professor to see if a title page is required.

4.   References on the reference page should be organized alphabetically.

More Resources

Purdue Online Writing Lab

They have simplified explanations and examples of the most commonly used source types for APA, MLA, Chicago, IEEE, AMA, and ASA citation styles. The information provided will be based on the most recent version of those style guides.

APA Style Guide

Has the most recent APA citation style guide, tips for formatting your papers, and grammar examples.

Tips for formatting your paper, and a citation generator**

**The citation generator can be helpful in getting started BUT should always be checked against an official citation style guide.

APA Format Tutorial

This is a tutorial for formatting your papers and citations using APA Style. By the end of the tutorial you should feel more prepared to prepare your citations for your research projects.

APA – Sample Papers

Example papers for you to follow and ensure yours look the way they should!

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In-Text Citations

Resources on using in-text citations in APA style

Reference List

Resources on writing an APA style reference list, including citation formats

Other APA Resources

IMAGES

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COMMENTS

  1. In-Text Citations: Author/Authors

    The APA manual recommends the use of the author-date citation structure for in-text citation references. This structure requires that any in-text citation (i.e., within the body of the text) be accompanied by a corresponding reference list entry. In the in-text citation provide the surname of the author but do not include suffixes such as "Jr.".

  2. APA In-Text Citations (7th Ed.)

    Revised on September 30, 2022. This article reflects the APA 7th edition guidelines. Click here for APA 6th edition guidelines. In-text citations briefly identify the source of information in the body text. They correspond to a full reference entry at the end of your paper.

  3. APA Citation Style, 7th edition: Three to Five Authors or Editors

    NOTE: The in-text citation for works with three or more authors is shortened to the first author's name followed by et al. and the year. In-Text Citation (Direct Quote): (Author Surname et al., Year, page number) References: Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial., Author Surname, First Initial.

  4. Citing Multiple Works With Three or More Authors and the ...

    Citing multiple works with three or more authors and the same publication year is covered in Section 8.18 of the APA Publication Manual, Seventh Edition This guidance is the same as in the 6th edition. Because "et al." is plural (meaning "and others"), it cannot stand for only one name.

  5. Three or More Authors or Editors

    A guide to help users create citations using APA (American Psychological Association) style, 7th edition. ... In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): (Author Surname et al., Year) NOTE: The in-text citation for works with three or more authors is shortened to the first author's name followed by et al. and the year. In-Text Citation (Direct Quote): ...

  6. How to cite in APA when there are multiple authors

    When citing a journal paper in APA with three or more authors, only enter the last name of the first author listed and add "et al." after it. "Et al." is Latin for the phrase "and others," which is why it is used as a substitute for two or more authors' last names. Parenthetical citation for three or more authors:

  7. In-Text Citations: The Basics

    When using APA format, follow the author-date method of in-text citation. This means that the author's last name and the year of publication for the source should appear in the text, like, for example, (Jones, 1998). One complete reference for each source should appear in the reference list at the end of the paper.

  8. Three or More Authors

    Citations with Three or More Authors For works that have three or more authors, list the first author followed by "et al." (meaning "and others") Examples: (Connell et al., 2014) Researchers Connell et al. (2015) found . . . Quotation Narrative:

  9. Reference List: Author/Authors

    The following rules for handling works by a single author or multiple authors apply to all APA-style references in your reference list, regardless of the type of work (book, article, electronic resource, etc.). Cite your source automatically in APA Cite Using citation machines responsibly Powered by

  10. APA In-Text Citations

    APA in-text citation for sources three or more authors. Only include the first author's last name and then add 'et al.' Et al. is a fancy way of saying "and others" in Latin. Narrative In-text APA Citation: 1st Author's Last Name et al. (Year published) are found somewhere in the sentence with a "direct quote" or paraphrase (p ...

  11. In-text citations

    In-text citations are covered in the seventh edition APA Style manuals in the Publication Manual Chapter 8 and the Concise Guide Chapter 8 Date created: September 2019 APA Style provides guidelines to help writers determine the appropriate level of citation and how to avoid plagiarism and self-plagiarism.

  12. Journal Article with 3 or More Authors

    General Format In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): (Author Surname et al., Year) In-Text Citation (Quotation): (Author Surname et al., Year, page number) References: Surnames and initials for up to twenty authors should be provided in the reference list. For more than 20 authors, list the first 19, followed by an ellipses, then list the final author.

  13. Library Guides: APA Quick Citation Guide: In-text Citation

    APA in-text citation style uses the author's last name and the year of publication, for example: (Field, 2005). For direct quotations, include the page number as well, for example: (Field, 2005, p. 14). For sources such as websites and e-books that have no page numbers, use a paragraph number, for example: (Field, 2005, para. 1).

  14. Authors

    When you have 3 or more authors, you only use the first author's surname in text, and abbreviate the rest of the list with "et al." (Latin for "and others").In your reference list, you list all of the authors (up to 20).. In Text: Narrative citation: Boers et al.'s (2017) research i  nto the use of pictures in glosses found they may decrease the amount of attention given to the words

  15. APA Citation Style, 6th Edition: Three to Five Authors/Editors

    Books with Three to Five Authors (THIS Libguide IS FOR APA 6th edition, click here to visit our new APA 7th edition Libguide) The formatting guidelines below refer to books with three authors. If the book has four or five authors, you would follow this format and add the fourth and fifth author's after the third. General Format:

  16. LibGuides: APA Citation Guide: In-Text Citations

    There are two ways to cite in-text. For more guidelines, view sections Chapter 8 in the Publication Manual or consult the APA Style page on In-Text Citations. APA requires that you provide two pieces of information for an in-text citation: Author last name (s) (this could also be an organization)

  17. APA Citation Guide, 7th edition: Three to Five Authors or Editors

    For each type of source in this guide, both the general form and an example will be provided.. The following format will be used: In-Text Citation (Paraphrase) - entry that appears in the body of your paper when you express the ideas of a researcher or author using your own words.For more tips on paraphrasing check out The OWL at Purdue.. In-Text Citation (Quotation) - entry that appears in ...

  18. LibGuides: APA 7th Edition Citation Guide: Multiple Authors

    For in-text citations, sources with three or more authors can be abbreviated to only the first author's last name followed by "et al." For example, (Author et al., Year). Reference Page Format: Author, A. A., Author, B. B., Author, C. C. (Year of Publication). Format the remainder according to resource type. Reference Page Example:

  19. In-text citation

    In-text citation. The APA 7th style uses in-text citations when referring to or quoting people's work. The essential elements of an in-text citation are the author surname/s and year. Two types of in-text citations 1. Author prominent format. Use this format if you want to emphasise the author. Their name becomes part of your sentence.

  20. APA Citation Style, 7th edition: Journal Article with 3-20 Authors

    NOTE: The in-text citation for works with three or more authors is shortened to the first author's name, followed by et al. and the year. In-Text Citation (Quotation): (Author Surname et al., Year, page number) References: Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial., Author Surname, First Initial.Second Initial., & Author Surname, First Initial.

  21. PDF Using "et al." in APA 7: A Quick Rundown

    They would be cited in-text as follows to avoid ambiguity: (Jones, Smith, Liu, et al., 2020) (Jones, Smith, Ruiz, et al., 2020) Note: the above information refers to rules with in-text citations and essay body text only. In your actual References page entries, you would list out each individual author (up to 20 per citation).

  22. LibGuides: APA Citations (7th ed.): In-text Citation Author Rules

    If the title of the work is not italicized in the reference list, use double quotation marks around the title in the in-text citation. Capitalize titles in in-text citations using title case, even though sentence case is used in the reference list entry. Examples: Book with no author: (The Future of Entrepreneurship, 2018)

  23. In-text citations

    From the APA Style web site: APA Style uses the author-date citation system, in which a brief in-text citation directs readers to a full reference list entry. The in-text citation appears within the body of the paper (or in a table, figure, footnote, or appendix) and briefly identifies the cited work by its author and date of publication.

  24. Author-date citation system

    For a work with three or more authors, include the name of only the first author plus "et al." in every citation (even the first citation). The following table shows the basic in-text citation styles: a Define the abbreviation for a group author only once in the text, choosing either the parenthetical or the narrative format.

  25. LibGuides: APA 7th Edition Citation Guide: Reference Examples

    If there are 2 to 20 authors, place an ampersand before the final author's name. If there are 21 or more authors, list the first 19 authors and insert an ellipsis. After the ellipsis, then add the final author's name. Reference list entries should be alphabetized by the last name of the first author of each work.

  26. Research Guides: LAI203: How to Create In-Text Citations in APA

    In-text citations require the author's name, publication date, and page number the specific quote appears on (if available).. The basic components: (Author Last Name(s), Date, p. number). Using a signal phrase to introduce the quote:. Author Last Name(s) (Date) argue that "..."(p. number). If referring to an idea from a work but not using a direct quotation or referring to an entire work, do ...

  27. J. Drake Edens Library: Citation Basics Guide: APA Citations

    In-Text Citation Guidelines . ... 3. If you do not mention the author's name in the body of your sentence include the author last name, ... Has the most recent APA citation style guide, tips for formatting your papers, and grammar examples. Easybib. Tips for formatting your paper, and a citation generator** ...

  28. APA Formatting and Style Guide (7th Edition)

    How to refer to authors in-text, including single and multiple authors, unknown authors, organizations, etc. Reference List. Resources on writing an APA style reference list, including citation formats. Basic Rules Basic guidelines for formatting the reference list at the end of a standard APA research paper

  29. PDF APA 7th Edition Style

    Parenthetical citation: (Watson & Rayner, 1920/2013) Narrative citation: Watson and Rayner (1920/2013) 4. Book published with new foreword by another author When someone other than the original author contributes a new part to the work, such as a foreword or introduction, use this format: Provide the author of the entire book in the main