US South Carolina
Recently viewed courses
Find Your Dream School
COVID-19 Update: To help students through this crisis, The Princeton Review will continue our "Enroll with Confidence" refund policies. For full details, please click here.
Enter your email to unlock an extra $25 off an SAT or ACT program!
Can you apply the rhetorical triangle to a piece of writing? Are you able to argue a position? The AP ® English Language and Composition exam tests topics and skills discussed in your Advanced Placement English Language course. If you score high enough, your AP English Language score could earn you college credit!
Check out our AP English Language Guide for what you need to know about the exam:
- Exam Overview
- Sections and Question Types
- How to Prepare
What’s on the AP English Language & Composition Exam?
The College Board is very detailed in what they require your AP teacher to cover in his or her AP English Language & Composition course. The exam tests your abilities to understand how authors use rhetoric and language to convey their purpose. Students are also expected to apply these techniques to their own writing and research projects. Some of the major skills tested include the ability to:
- Identify an author’s purpose and intended audience
- Recognize rhetorical devices and strategies in an author’s work
- Demonstrate understanding of citations in research papers
- Apply these skills and techniques to their own writing
- Create and organize an argument defended with evidence and reasoning
- Plan, write, and revise cogent, well-written essays
Check out our line of AP guides for a comprehensive content review.
AP English Language Sections & Question Types
The AP English Language & Composition exam is 3 hours and 15 minutes long and consists of two sections: a multiple-choice section and a free response section.
Read More: Review for the exam with our AP English Language Crash Course
For AP English Language multiple-choice questions, you are presented with two Reading Passages and three Writing passages. The two Reading passages are nonfiction passages taken from all sorts of works. The idea is to get you to focus on rhetorical devices, figures of speech and intended purposes, under rigid time constraints and with material you haven’t seen before. The three Writing passages are student-produced essays. The idea is to get you to revise the essay that help the writer accomplish his or her goal.
The AP English Language section contains three essay prompts: a synthesis essay, a rhetorical analysis essay, and an argument essay.
- Synthesis essay: You’ll be given a scenario and tasked with writing a response using at least three of six or seven short accompanying sources for support.
- Rhetorical analysis essay: Asks you to analyze the techniques an author uses, and discuss how they contribute to the author’s purpose.
- Argument essay: Presents a claim or assertion in the prompt and then asks you to argue a position based on your own knowledge, experience, or reading.
How to Interpret AP English Language Scores
AP scores are reported from 1 to 5. Colleges are generally looking for a 4 or 5 on the AP English Language exam, but some may grant AP credit for a 3. Each test is curved so scores vary from year to year. Here’s how AP English Lang students scored on the May 2022 test:
Source: College Board
How can I prepare?
AP classes are great, but for many students they’re not enough! For a thorough review of AP English Language content and strategy, pick the AP prep option that works best for your goals and learning style.
- AP Exams
Explore Colleges For You
Connect with our featured colleges to find schools that both match your interests and are looking for students like you.
Take our short quiz to learn which is the right career for you.
Get Started on Athletic Scholarships & Recruiting!
Join athletes who were discovered, recruited & often received scholarships after connecting with NCSA's 42,000 strong network of coaches.
Best 389 Colleges
165,000 students rate everything from their professors to their campus social scene.
SAT Prep Courses
1400+ course, act prep courses, free sat practice test & events, 1-800-2review, free sat prep try our self-paced plus program - for free, get a 14 day trial, what would you score on the mcat today.
Thank you! Look for the MCAT Review Guide in your inbox.
I already know my score.
1-800-2REVIEW (800-273-8439) ext. 1
1-800-2REVIEW (800-273-8439) ext. 2
- Teach or Tutor for Us
- Enrollment Terms & Conditions
- Cigna Medical Transparency in Coverage
Mon-Fri 9AM-10PM ET
Sat-Sun 9AM-8PM ET
Local Offices: Mon-Fri 9AM-6PM
Mon-Fri 9AM-9PM ET
Sat-Sun 8:30AM-5PM ET
- SAT Subject Tests
- Social Studies
Find the Right College
- College Rankings
- College Advice
- Applying to College
- Financial Aid
School & District Partnerships
- Professional Development
- Advice Articles
- Private Tutoring
- Mobile Apps
- Local Offices
- International Offices
- Work for Us
- Affiliate Program
- Partner with Us
- Advertise with Us
- International Partnerships
- Our Guarantees
- Accessibility – Canada
©2023 TPR Education IP Holdings, LLC. All Rights Reserved. The Princeton Review is not affiliated with Princeton University
TPR Education, LLC (doing business as “The Princeton Review”) is controlled by Primavera Holdings Limited, a firm owned by Chinese nationals with a principal place of business in Hong Kong, China.
- My Preferences
- My Reading List
- AP English Language and Composition: Exam Format
- High School
- AP Biology: Evolution
- AP Biology: Coevolution of Predator and Prey
- AP Biology: Excretory Systems
- AP Biology: Insight into Free-Response Questions
- AP Economics: Micro & Macro Basics
- AP Economics: What Are the Functions of Money?
- AP English Language and Composition: Essays
- AP English Language and Composition: How Your Essays Are Scored
- AP English Language and Composition: Kinds of Questions
- AP English Language and Composition: Multiple-Choice Section
- AP English Language and Composition: Pace Your Essay Writing
- AP English Language and Composition: Reading Passages
- AP English: Pacing Your Exam Essays
- AP Essay Writing: Satire as a Subject
- AP European History: World War I (1914-1918)
- AP Spanish Language: Cloze Passages
- AP Test Prep: The Bill of Rights
- AP Test Prep: English Composition Essay Scoring
- AP Test Prep: Evolution of the Mass Media
- AP Test Prep: The Expansion of Suffrage
- AP Test Prep: Humanism in the Renaissance
- How to Read a History Textbook
Buy This CliffsNotes Book Here !
The multiple-choice questions are designed to test your ability in analyzing prose passages. These passages are drawn from a variety of sources, rhetorical modes, historical or literary periods, and disciplines. You will be asked questions about the passages' style, content, and rhetoric. Expect four reading passages with between 12 and 15 questions per passage. However, do not be surprised if you receive five reading passages, which occasionally happens. If this is the case, the number of questions for each passage will be reduced accordingly. The multiple-choice questions are carefully written and screened by the AP Test Development Committee and the Educational Testing Service (ETS). The committee is ethnically and geographically balanced, and its members represent public and private high schools, as well as colleges and universities. The committee is responsible for choosing the passages for both the multiple-choice section and the essay portion of the exam. All of the multiple-choice questions are pretested in college classes before they are used on AP examinations.
The essays test your writing ability in a variety of modes and for a variety of purposes. These timed essays measure your expository and analytical writing skills, skills that are essential to success in many college exams. In general, expect that the three different essays will give you an opportunity to demonstrate that you can do the following:
Analyze how an author's rhetoric and style create meaning, based on one given reading passage.
Analyze an author's key point(s) in a given passage and create an argument essay that discusses the validity of the author's message.
Synthesize an argument of your own, based on multiple given passages, all dealing with similar subject matter.
The essay examinations are read and scored during a 7-day period in early June. In 2000, more than 300 readers representing the United States, Canada, and other foreign countries read more than 115,000 AP English Language exams; by 2005, more than 700 readers scored essays from 240,000 test-takers. More than half of the AP readers are college or university instructors; less than half are high school teachers. Each reader is assigned to score only one essay question during the reading session; therefore, each student's work is read by at least three different readers. Some essays are read and chosen as samples to be examined by all the readers, while others are checked by the table leaders and question leaders after an individual reader has scored the essay. You can trust that the essay scoring is as professional and accurate as possible. All readers are thoroughly trained and retrained throughout the week of scoring.
Each essay is scored on a scale from 0 to 9. After reading a large number of randomly selected essays, a committee creates a scoring guide that differentiates between the numerical scores for each of the three essay questions. Therefore, the scoring guide is based on the students' actual performance in writing the essays, not how the question writers anticipate they should perform.
Overall, the entire exam is designed to show student awareness of how an author creates meaning through language use, genre conventions, and rhetorical choices. A qualifying score demonstrates your ability to perform college-level work.
Which inequality describes the graph below?
2 x – y > 4
2 x + y ≤ –4, 2 x – y < 4.
has been added to your
Removing #book# from your Reading List will also remove any bookmarked pages associated with this title.
Are you sure you want to remove #bookConfirmation# and any corresponding bookmarks?
AP® English Language
The best ap® english language review guide for 2023.
- The Albert Team
- Last Updated On: April 7, 2023
Navigating the AP® English Language exam is tough. That’s why we wrote this comprehensive AP® English Language study guide.
In this post, we’ll go over key questions you may have about the exam, how to study for AP® English Language, as well as what review notes and practice resources to use as you begin preparing for your exam.
Are you ready? Let’s get started.
What We Review
What’s the Format of the AP® English Language and Composition Exam?
The AP® English Language and Composition exam is broken into two sections: multiple-choice and free-response.
Students are asked to complete 23-25 reading questions focused on rhetorical analysis and 20-22 writing questions focused on making revisions related to diction, syntax, and other grammar concepts. The number of free-response questions remains the same, but they are now scored using an analytic rubric rather than a holistic rubric.
How Long is the AP® English Language and Composition Exam?
The AP® English Language and Composition exam is 3 hours and 15 minutes long. Students will have 1 hour to complete the multiple-choice section (45 questions) and 2 hours and 15 minutes to complete the free-response section (3 questions).
How Many Questions Does the AP® English Language and Composition Exam Have?
Section i: multiple choice.
- 5 passages total: 2 Reading and 3 Writing
- 23–25 Reading questions
- 20–22 Writing questions
Section II: Free Response
- 1 Synthesis question
- 1 Rhetorical Analysis question
- 1 Argument question
Return to the Table of Contents
What Topics are Covered on the AP® English Language and Composition Exam?
There are two types of AP® English Language and Composition questions: multiple-choice and free-response.
Because AP® English Language and Composition is a skills-based course, there’s no way to know what specific passages or topics might make it onto the official exam.
However, we know exactly which skills will be assessed with which passages, so it’s best to center your studying around brushing up on those skills! The charts below will help you understand which skills you should focus on.
Note that, even though there are more writing passages, reading passages have a greater total number of questions.
Like the multiple choice section, the free response section is also skills-based. We cannot predict what specific passages you will be asked to analyze, but we do know the type of essays you will be asked to produce:
- 1 Synthesis essay: After reading 6-7 sources, students are asked to write an essay using at least 3 of the provided sources to support their thesis.
- 1 Rhetorical Analysis essay: Students read a non-fiction text and write an essay that analyzes the writer’s choices and how they contribute to the meaning and purpose of the text.
- 1 Argument essay: Students are given an open-ended topic and asked to write an evidence-based argumentative essay in response to the topic.
What do the AP® English Language and Composition Exam Questions Look Like?
Multiple choice examples.
The Course and Exam Description (CED) for AP® Lang provides 8 practice questions that address reading skills and 9 practice questions that address writing skills.
Below, we’ll look at examples of each question type and the skills and essential knowledge they address.
Skill: 1.A Identify and describe components of the rhetorical situation: the exigence, audience, writer, purpose, context, and message.
Essential Knowledge: RHS-1.B The exigence is the part of a rhetorical situation that inspires, stimulates, provokes, or prompts writers to create a text.
Skill: 3.A Identify and explain claims and evidence within an argument.
Essential Knowledge: CLE-1.A Writers convey their positions through one or more claims that require a defense.
Skill: 5.C Recognize and explain the use of methods of development to accomplish a purpose.
Essential Knowledge: REO-1.J When developing ideas through cause-effect, writers present a cause, assert effects or consequences of that cause, or present a series of causes and the subsequent effect(s).
Skill: 7.B Explain how writers create, combine, and place independent and dependent clauses to show relationships between and among ideas.
Essential Knowledge: STL-1.L The arrangement of clauses, phrases, and words in a sentence can emphasize ideas.
Skill: 2.A Write introductions and conclusions appropriate to the purpose and context of the rhetorical situation.
Essential Knowledge: RHS-1.I The introduction of an argument introduces the subject and/ or writer of the argument to the audience. An introduction may present the argument’s thesis. An introduction may orient, engage, and/or focus the audience by presenting quotations, intriguing statements, anecdotes, questions, statistics, data, contextualized information, or a scenario.
Skill: 4.B Write a thesis statement that requires proof or defense and that may preview the structure of the argument.
Essential Knowledge: CLE-1.I A thesis is the main, overarching claim a writer is seeking to defend or prove by using reasoning supported by evidence.
Skill: 6.A Develop a line of reasoning and commentary that explains it throughout an argument.
Essential Knowledge: REO-1.D Commentary explains the significance and relevance of evidence in relation to the line of reasoning.
Free Response Examples
The Course and Exam Description (CED) for AP® Lang also provides a sample question for each FRQ. Below, we’ll review these examples and which skills they address.
Skills: 2.A, 4.A, 4.B, 4.C, 6.A, 6.B, 6.C, 8.A, 8.B, 8.C
This prompt is long, but it’s important to notice the key task:
- Write an essay that synthesizes material from at least three of the sources and develops your position on the role, if any, that public libraries should serve in the future.
So, your response should:
- Synthesize the material from at least three sources
- Make your position on the topic clear
In a bit, we’ll have a look at the rubric and see this in action.
Skills: 1.A, 2.A, 4.A, 4.B, 4.C, 6.A, 6.B, 6.C, 8.A, 8.B, 8.C
The key task in this prompt is to:
- Write an essay that analyzes the rhetorical choices Rice makes to convey her message to her audience.
- Analyze the author’s rhetorical choices
- Connect those choices to the author’s message and how it’s conveyed to the audience
We’ll also have a look at this rubric and learn how these points can be earned.
The key task here is:
- Write an essay that argues your position on Jordan’s claim that “private wants” threaten national identity.
- Use evidence to back up your position
We’ll break down this rubric in a bit.
Free Response Rubric Breakdowns
With the 2020 redesign came new rubrics for the AP® Lang essay section. Previously, essays were scored using holistic rubrics, on a scale of 0-9. Starting with the 2019 exam, students’ essays will be graded with new analytic rubrics. Each essay is worth up to 6 points.
Switching to an analytic rubric from a holistic rubric can be tricky, especially if you’ve already taken another AP® English class and are used to the holistic version. But, the best thing about an analytic rubric is that it tells you exactly what to include in your essay to earn maximum points.
Think of the new rubrics as a How To Guide to getting a 6 on each essay. Below, we’ll spend some time breaking down each element of each rubric, but first let’s take a look at the Thesis point, which is pretty similar across all 3 essays.
Row A: Thesis
The Thesis row is all or nothing — you either earn the point or you don’t. It’s important to learn the wording of the rubric to make sure you are crafting an AP-level thesis. Note that you will not earn the point if your thesis:
- Just restates the prompt
- Summarizes the issue without also making a claim
- Doesn’t respond to the prompt
That’s all pretty straightforward, but earning the point for this category is a little more tricky than it seems at first. You will earn the point if your thesis:
- Responds to the prompt with a defensible position
- Takes a clear position that does not simply state there are pros and cons to the issue
Notice the second point above. While you may want to include a counter argument in the body of your essay (more on this later), your thesis is not the place to do so.
The purpose of presenting a counter argument is to then refute it and make your own argument stronger. Presenting the opposing argument in your thesis gets confusing for a reader and can make it seem like you aren’t holding strong in your own position, so it’s best to save that for the body of your essay.
The Additional Notes section of the rubric is also important to understand. This gives extra detail on what may or may not earn the thesis point. The main takeaways here are:
- Your thesis may be more than one sentence, as long as those sentences are near one another
- Your thesis doesn’t have to be in your opening paragraph
- Your sources must support your thesis, but you do not necessarily need to cite them
- Your thesis doesn’t have to outline your argument
- Your thesis statement can earn the point independent of whether or not your essay supports it on the whole
The Synthesis Rubric
As we’ve already discussed, the synthesis essay is the first of the three. You will be presented with 6-7 sources related to a given topic and asked to write an essay using at least 3 of those sources to support your thesis.
Let’s take a look at the various elements of the rubric and how you can earn maximum points for each category.
Row B: Evidence and Commentary
The Evidence and Commentary row is a little more flexible than the Thesis row. You can earn between 0 and 4 points depending on the quality of the evidence and commentary that you provide. Note you will not earn any points if your evidence and commentary:
- Does nothing more than restate your thesis
- Repeats already given information
- References fewer than 2 of the sources
- Is just opinion without any textual evidence
The nice thing about this section is that there are lots of places you can earn points! You will earn full points if your evidence and commentary:
- Contains specific evidence from at least 3 of the sources
- Fully supports your claim and line of reasoning
- Explains how the evidence supports your claim and line of reasoning
- Pulls specific words or details from the sources that support your argument
- Supports a line of reasoning that is broken down into supporting claims, with each supporting claim supported by its own pieces of evidence
The final point in the above list is the main difference between earning full points and partial points in this section. AP-level evidence and commentary will not only support your overall claim, but will also support your supporting claims fully.
You can think of supporting claims as each individual body paragraph’s focus. If each body paragraph makes a supporting claim, and that supporting claim is bolstered by specific supporting evidence, you are much more likely to earn the full 4 points here.
The Additional Notes section of the rubric is also important to understand. This gives extra detail on what may or may not earn the thesis point. The main takeaway here is that your argument must be free of grammatical and/or mechanical errors in order to earn full points. This means that if your grammar is not solid, you can only ever earn 3 or fewer points in this section.
If you struggle with grammar or syntax, check out Albert’s Grammar course to help build up those skills!
Row C: Sophistication
Similar to the Thesis point, the Sophistication row is also all or nothing — you either earn the point or you don’t.
Where the Sophistication point differs from the Thesis point is that it’s a bit more difficult to understand how to earn it! The rubric states that essays that earn the point “demonstrate sophistication of thought and/or a complex understanding of the rhetorical situation.”
In plain English, this means that you will not earn the point if your essay:
- Contains sweeping generalizations
- Only hints at other positions on the argument
- Uses complex sentences or language that doesn’t add anything to the argument
You will earn the point if your essay:
- Explores complexities or tensions between the provided sources, creating a more nuanced argument
- Acknowledges implications or limitations of your own argument through counter arguments
- Acknowledges implications or limitations of the sources’ arguments by situating them within the broader context of the argument
- Makes purposeful rhetorical choices that strengthen your argument
- Uses vivid and persuasive style
Note that you will not earn the point for this section if the items listed above are done in a single sentence or two. These elements must be present throughout your argument.
The Rhetorical Analysis Rubric
The rhetorical analysis essay is the second of the three. You will be presented with a non-fiction text and asked to write an essay that analyzes the writer’s choices and how they contribute to the meaning and purpose of the text.
- Gives information irrelevant to the prompt
- Explains how multiple rhetorical choices contribute to your understanding of the author’s argument, purpose, or message
- Pulls specific words or details from the passage that support your argument
- You may address the same rhetorical choice more than once, as long you are addressing different instances of it.
- Your argument must be free of grammatical and/or mechanical errors in order to earn full points. This means that if your grammar is not solid, you can only ever earn 3 or fewer points in this section. If you struggle with grammar or syntax, check out Albert’s Grammar course to help build up those skills!
- Analyze individual rhetorical choices made by the author without also examining the relationships between the choices throughout the passage
- Oversimplify the passage
- Explains the significance of the writer’s rhetorical choices
- Explains the purpose or function of the complexities or tensions in the passage
The Argument Rubric
The argument essay is the last of the three. You will be given an open-ended topic and asked to write an evidence-based argumentative essay in response to the topic.
The final point above might be confusing at first glance. Giving your opinion is natural in an essay that literally asks for your opinion! But, the key is making sure to back up your opinion with evidence.
- Focuses on the importance of specific details to build your argument
- Explores complexities or tensions between the various elements of your argument, creating a more nuanced argument
- Acknowledges implications or limitations of the prompt’s argument by situating it within a broader context
What Can You Bring to the AP® English Language and Composition Exam?
The College Board is rather specific about what you can and cannot bring to an AP® exam. You are at risk of having your score not count if you do not carefully follow instructions. We recommend that you carefully review these guidelines and pack your bag the night before so that you do not have any additional stress on the morning of the exam.
What You Should Bring to Your AP® English Language Exam
If you’re taking the paper AP® English Language exam in-person at school, you should bring:
- At least 2 sharpened No. 2 pencils for completing the multiple choice section
- At least 2 pens with black or blue ink only. These are used to complete certain areas of your exam booklet covers and to write your free-response questions. The College Board is very clear that pens should be black or blue ink only, so be sure to double-check!
- If you are concerned that your exam room may not have an easily visible clock, you are allowed to wear a watch as long as it does not have internet access, does not beep or make any other noise, and does not have an alarm.
- If you do not attend the school where you are taking an exam, you must bring a government issued or school issued photo ID.
- If you receive any testing accommodations , be sure that you bring your College Board SSD Accommodations Letter.
What You Should NOT Bring to Your AP® English Language Exam
If you’re taking the paper AP® English Language exam in-person at school, you should not bring:
- Electronic devices. Phones, smartwatches, tablets, and/or any other electronic devices are expressly prohibited both in the exam room and break areas.
- Books, dictionaries, highlighters, or notes
- Mechanical pencils, colored pencils, or pens that do not have black/blue ink
- Your own scratch paper
- Reference guides
- Watches that beep or have alarms
- Food or drink
This list is not exhaustive. Please check with your teacher or testing site to make sure that you are not bringing any additional prohibited items.
How to Study for AP® English Language and Composition: 7 Steps
Start with a diagnostic test. Ask your teacher if they can assign you one of our full-length practice tests as a jumping-off point. Your multiple choice will be graded for you, and you can self-score your FRQs using the College Board’s scoring guidelines. If you would prefer to take a pencil and paper test, Princeton Review or Barron’s are two reputable places to start. Be sure to record your score.
Once you’ve completed and scored your diagnostic, it’s time to put the results to work and create a study plan.
- If you used Albert, you’ll notice that each question is labeled with the skill that it assesses. If any skills stand out as something you’re consistently getting wrong, those concepts should be a big part of your study plan.
- If you used Princeton Review, Barron’s, or another paper test, do your best to sort your incorrect answers into the skill buckets.
The tables below sort each set of skills into groups based on their Enduring Understandings and Big Ideas.
Big Idea: RHETORICAL SITUATION (RHS)
ENDURING UNDERSTANDING: Individuals write within a particular situation and make strategic writing choices based on that situation.
Big Idea: CLAIMS AND EVIDENCE (CLE)
ENDURING UNDERSTANDING: Writers make claims about subjects, rely on evidence that supports the reasoning that justifies the claim, and often acknowledge or respond to other, possibly opposing, arguments.
Big Idea: REASONING AND ORGANIZATION (REO)
ENDURING UNDERSTANDING: Writers guide understanding of a text’s lines of reasoning and claims through that text’s organization and integration of evidence.
Big Idea: STYLE (STL)
ENDURING UNDERSTANDING: The rhetorical situation informs the strategic stylistic choices that writers make.
Once your list of practice questions is complete, check out our 5 AP® English Language and Composition Multiple Choice Study Tips for some pointers.
Now that you’ve got your multiple-choice study plan in place, it’s time to make a plan for the FRQs. You should have self-scored your essays using the College Board’s scoring guidelines . If you notice that there is one particular prompt you struggled with, use Albert’s AP® Lang FRQ prompts for more practice!
If you didn’t struggle with a particular prompt as much as you did a particular part of the rubric, try to figure out where you went wrong. Does your thesis restate the prompt instead of proposing your own position? Did you remember to provide evidence but forget to bolster it with commentary? Maybe your word choice wasn’t varied enough to earn the sophistication point. Whatever element you struggled with, have a look at our 5 AP® English Language and Composition FRQ Study Tips for some expert advice.
Once you’ve compiled your entire study plan using the link above and identified the skills you need to practice, it’s time to implement your plan! Check your calendar. How many days, weeks, or months do you have until your exam? Pace your studying according to this time frame. Pro-tip: If you only have a few weeks or days to go, prioritize the skills that you scored the lowest on.
About halfway through your study schedule, plan to take a second diagnostic test to check your progress. You can either have your teacher assign another full-length Albert practice test or use one of the additional practice tests included in whatever AP® English Language and Composition review book you purchased. Use these results to inform the rest of your study schedule. Are there skills that you improved on or scored lower on this time? Adjust accordingly, and use our tips in the next section to guide you.
AP® English Language and Composition Review: 15 Must-Know Study Tips
Like anything else, learning to read and write at the AP® level takes time and practice. Whether this is the first AP® class you’ve taken or you’re just looking to brush up on your study skills, this list of tips will put you in a position to earn a passing score in May.
5 AP® English Language and Composition Study Tips for Home
1. Read. Read widely. Read constantly. Read everything.
There’s no substitute for reading. Reading has a number of benefits: a more impressive vocabulary, a better understanding of varied sentence structure and syntax, facility analyzing how and why authors make specific rhetorical choices. The more you read, the better equipped you will be to ace this exam.
2. Flashcards are your friend.
You will need to have a strong understanding of literary devices and rhetorical techniques, and you don’t want to waste time scrambling for definitions on exam day. Make yourself some flashcards with the most common literary devices and rhetorical techniques, and don’t forget to include grammar and punctuation there too. After all, a writer’s use of grammar and punctuation has as much impact on their prose as the words they use!
3. Take your homework assignments seriously, especially summer assignments.
Your teacher didn’t ask you to read that book for no good reason, or to write that essay just because! Summer assignments help to ensure that you are starting your school year off on the right foot. Every time that you complete a homework assignment, you are one step closer to earning a passing score on your exam. “Practice makes perfect” is a well-known phrase for a reason!
4. Seek out extra opportunities for practice!
Many practice books are available for purchase, and sometimes you can even find e-book versions to check out from your local library. Princeton Review and Barron’s are the most popular, but tons more can be found with a simple Google search.
5. Study with your friends!
Studying alone can sometimes be monotonous, and you might not have a lot of motivation if the only person holding you accountable is you. Forming study groups with friends and classmates ensures that you are held accountable, and it never hurts to have multiple perspectives on an essay question or multiple-choice answer. Plus, it’s just plain more fun.
5 AP® English Language and Composition Multiple Choice Study Tips
1. practice answering multiple-choice questions as often as you can. .
AP® English Language and Composition multiple choice questions will fall into one of the following buckets: rhetorical situation, claims and evidence, reasoning and organization, and style. If these categories look familiar to you, that’s because these are also the four Big Ideas outlined in the AP® Lang CED .
2. Exercise your close-reading skills.
The true key to acing the multiple choice section of this exam is staying engaged with the passages provided to you and actively reading. Active reading looks different to different people, so find what works best for you! For some, this can mean annotating as they read the passage. For others, this can mean reading the passage more than once: the first time just to scan for important information, and the second time to gain a deeper understanding.
3. Look over the questions before reading the passage.
This tip doesn’t work for all readers, but it can be helpful if you’re someone who gets easily distracted when reading! If you find your mind wandering when reading AP® Lang passages, knowing the questions beforehand can give your brain a purpose to focus on.
4. Use process of elimination.
Typically, an AP® Lang multiple choice question will have one or two answer choices that can be crossed off pretty quickly. See if you can narrow yourself down to two possible answers, and then choose the best one. If this strategy isn’t working on a particularly difficult question, it’s perfectly okay to circle it, skip it, and come back to it at the end.
5. Remember that it doesn’t hurt to guess.
Guessing on every single question isn’t a good strategy, of course, but you are scored only on the number of correct answers you give, not the number of questions you answer.
5 AP® English Language and Composition FRQ Study Tips
1. practice answering questions from the college board’s archive of past exam questions. .
Typically, the same skills are assessed from year to year, so practicing with released exams is a great way to brush up on your analysis skills.
2. Time yourself.
On test day, you are free to work on all three essays at your own pace so long as you finish within the 2-hour and 15-minute time frame. But, College Board directions recommend that you spend no longer than 40 minutes on each individual essay—not including the 15-minute reading period. So, while you’re practicing with the archive linked in Tip #1, be sure to have a timer handy!
3. Use the rubric!
The best part about the AP® English Language and Composition revised rubrics and scoring guidelines is that it’s very clear what elements are needed to earn full credit for your essay. Ensure that your thesis statement is clear and defensible; you provide specific evidence and commentary that supports your thesis; and you develop a clear and compelling argument.
4. Pay attention to the task verbs used in your FRQ prompts.
The College Board deliberately includes these to help you guide your response. Task verbs you’ll see on the exam are: analyze, argue your position, read, synthesize, and write. Further breakdown of each of these task verbs can be found at the bottom of this College Board Writing Study Skills list.
5. Know your rhetorical devices and techniques.
While you don’t need to call out these techniques and devices by name, you do need to know their purpose and effect on the passage. For example, maybe you know that the author is deliberately understating something for effect and to draw attention to something, but you can’t remember that the term for this is litotes. As long as you can successfully show this understatement’s effect on the overall piece and connect it back to your thesis, you’ll be okay.
The AP® English Language and Composition Exam: 5 Test Day Tips to Remember
1. get everything ready to go the night before..
Nobody wants to be scrambling around the morning of the exam with a million things left to do! Make sure you have everything from our What You Should Bring list in your backpack and ready to go.
2. Make sure you know where your testing site is and how to get there, especially if you’re taking the exam someplace other than your own school.
If you’re getting a ride from a parent or friend, be sure they know the address beforehand. If you’re taking public transit, check the schedule. Don’t get too comfortable if you are taking your exam at your own school. Be sure you know the room number! This is something small but impactful that you can do to reduce your stress the morning of your exam.
3. Be sure to eat.
We know, every teacher tells you this, but it’s for a good reason! If you’re hungry during the exam, it might be harder for you to focus, leading to a lower score or an incomplete exam. Making sure that you’ve eaten before taking your exam eliminates one less distraction, helping you stay focused and on task.
4. Bring mints or gum with you.
The rules say that you can’t have food or drink in the testing room, but mints and/or gum are usually allowed unless it’s against your testing site’s own rules. If you find yourself getting distracted, pop a mint in your mouth! This can help to keep you more awake and focused.
5. Breathe! Seriously, breathe.
If you’ve followed the rest of the tips in this post, listened to your teacher, and done your homework, you’re well-prepared for this exam. Trust that you have done all you can do to prepare and don’t cram the morning of. Last-minute studying helps no one!
AP® English Language and Composition Review Notes and Practice Test Resources
This site provides AP® Lang students and teachers with resources on rhetorical analysis, synthesis, argument, grammar support, and much much more to help guide you through the AP ® English Language and Composition exam.
How to Guide for Rhetorical Analysis Essays
This step-by-step guide will take you through writing a rhetorical analysis essay from beginning to end.
AP® English Language and Composition Survival Guide
This survival guide is a one-stop-shop for everything you need to about multiple choice questions, essay writing, rhetorical terms, and more!
Ms. Effie’s Lifesavers
If you’re a seasoned AP® English teacher, Ms. Effie (Sandra Effinger) probably needs no introduction! Ms. Effie’s Lifesavers has helped many an AP® Lang (and Lit!) teacher plan effective and thoroughly aligned lessons and assignments. Sandra was an AP® Reader for many years, so she knows her stuff. She has tons of free content on her page, as well as a Dropbox full of AP® English goodies for anyone who makes a donation via her PayPal.
AP® Study Notes
This site has some great sample essays written at the AP® level. They also have a section dedicated to rhetorical terms, which is great if you want to make flashcards for review.
Summary: The Best AP® English Language and Composition Review Guide
Remember, the structure of the AP® Lang exam is as follows:
Because AP® English Language and Composition is a skills-based course, there’s no way to know what specific passages or topics might make it onto the official exam. But, we do know exactly which skills will be assessed with which passages, so it’s best to center your studying around brushing up on those skills!
Start with a diagnostic test, either on Albert or with a pencil and paper test via Princeton Review or Barron’s . Once you’ve completed and scored your diagnostic, follow our 7 steps on how to create an AP® English Language and Composition study plan.
Read! The more you read, the better equipped you will be to ace this exam.
Practice answering multiple choice questions on Albert and free-response questions from The College Board’s archive of past exam questions.
Interested in a school license?
AP® Score Calculators
Simulate how different MCQ and FRQ scores translate into AP® scores
AP® Review Guides
The ultimate review guides for AP® subjects to help you plan and structure your prep.
Core Subject Review Guides
Review the most important topics in Physics and Algebra 1 .
SAT® Score Calculator
See how scores on each section impacts your overall SAT® score
ACT® Score Calculator
See how scores on each section impacts your overall ACT® score
Grammar Review Hub
Comprehensive review of grammar skills
Download updated posters summarizing the main topics and structure for each AP® exam.
Interested in a school license?
Bring Albert to your school and empower all teachers with the world's best question bank for: ➜ SAT® & ACT® ➜ AP® ➜ ELA, Math, Science, & Social Studies aligned to state standards ➜ State assessments Options for teachers, schools, and districts.
Choose Your Test
Sat / act prep online guides and tips, expert guide to the ap language and composition exam.
Advanced Placement (AP)
With the 2023 AP English Language and Composition exam happening on Tuesday, May 9, it's time to make sure that you're familiar with all aspects of the exam. In this article, I'll give a brief overview of the test, do a deeper dive on each of the sections, discuss how the exam is scored, offer some strategies for studying, and finally wrap up with some essential exam day tips.
The AP Language and Composition exam tests your rhetorical and composition skills. Essentially, how do authors construct effective arguments in their writing? What tools do they use? How can you use those tools to craft effective writing yourself? That is the essence of rhetorical analysis.
The exam has two parts: the first section is an hour-long, 45 question multiple-choice section. It includes five sets of questions, each based on a passage or passages. In this section, there will be 23-25 rhetorical analysis questions which test your rhetorical skills. There will also be 20-22 writing questions which require you to consider revisions to the texts you're shown.
The second section is free response. It starts with a 15-minute reading period, and then you'll have 120 minutes to write three analytical essays:
- One essay where you synthesize several provided texts to create an argument
- One essay where you analyze a nonfiction passage for its rhetorical construction
- One essay where you create an original argument in response to a prompt.
You will have about 40 minutes to write each essay, but no one will prompt you to move from essay to essay—you can structure the 120 minutes as you wish.
In the next sections I'll go over each section of the exam more closely—first multiple choice, and then free response.
The AP English Language and Composition Multiple-Choice
The multiple-choice section tests you on two main areas. The first is how well you can read and understand nonfiction passages for their use of rhetorical devices and tools. The second is how well you can "think like a writer" and make revisions to texts in composition questions.
You will be presented with five passages, about which you will receive a small amount of orienting information, e.g. "This passage is excerpted from a collection of essays on boating" or "This passage is excerpted from an essay written in 19th-century Haiti." Each passage will be followed by a set of questions.
There are, in general, eight question types you can expect to encounter on the multiple-choice section of the exam. I've taken my examples from the sample questions in the " Course and Exam Description ."
Magic eight-ball says there are eight types of multiple-choice questions!
Type 1: Reading Comprehension
These questions are focused on verifying that you understood what a certain part of the passage was saying on a concrete, literal level. You can identify these questions from phrases like "according to" "refers," etc. The best way to succeed on these questions is to go back and re-read the part of the passage referred to very carefully.
Type 2: Implication
These questions take reading comprehension one step further—they are primarily focused on what the author is implying without directly coming out and saying it. These questions will have a correct answer, though, based on evidence from the passage. Which interpretation offered in the answers does the passage most support? You can identify questions like these from words like "best supported," ‘"implies," "suggests," "inferred," and so on.
Type 3: Overall Passage and Author Questions
These questions ask about overall elements of the passage or the author, such as the author's attitude on the issue discussed, the purpose of the passage, the passage's overarching style, the audience for the passage, and so on.
You can identify these questions because they won't refer back to a specific moment in the text. For these questions, you'll need to think of the passage from a "bird's-eye view" and consider what all of the small details together are combining to say.
Type 4: Relationships Between Parts of the Text
Some questions will ask you to describe the relationship between two parts of the text, whether they are paragraphs or specific lines. You can identify these because they will usually explicitly ask about the relationship between two identified parts of the text, although sometimes they will instead ask about a relationship implicitly, by saying something like "compared to the rest of the passage."
Type 5: Interpretation of Imagery/Figurative Language
These questions will ask you about the deeper meaning or implication of figurative language or imagery that is used in the text. Essentially, why did the author choose to use this simile or this metaphor? What is s/he trying to accomplish?
You can generally identify questions like this because the question will specifically reference a moment of figurative language in the text. However, it might not be immediately apparent that the phrase being referenced is figurative, so you may need to go back and look at it in the passage to be sure of what kind of question you are facing.
Type 6: Purpose of Part of the Text
Still other questions will ask you to identify what purpose a particular part of the text serves in the author's larger argument. What is the author trying to accomplish with the particular moment in the text identified in the question?
You can identify these questions because they will generally explicitly ask what purpose a certain part of the text serves. You may also see words or phrases like "serves to" or "function."
Type 7: Rhetorical Strategy
These questions will ask you to identify a rhetorical strategy used by the author. They will often specifically use the phrase "rhetorical strategy," although sometimes you will be able to identify them instead through the answer choices, which offer different rhetorical strategies as possibilities.
Type 8: Composition
This is the newest question type, first seen in the 2019/2020 school year. For these questions, the student will need to act as though they are the writer and think through different choices writers need to make when writing or revising text.
These questions can involve changing the order of sentences or paragraphs, adding or omitting information to strengthen an argument or improve clarity, making changes to draw reader attention, and other composition-based choices.
Some very important stylish effects going on here.
The AP English Language and Composition Free Response
The free response section has a 15-minute reading period. After that time, you will have 120 minutes to write three essays that address three distinct tasks.
Because the first essay involves reading sources, it is suggested that you use the entire 15-minute reading period to read the sources and plan the first essay. However, you may want to glance at the other questions during the reading period so that ideas can percolate in the back of your mind as you work on the first essay.
Essay One: Synthesis
For this essay, you will be briefly oriented on an issue and then given anywhere from six to seven sources that provide various perspectives and information on the issue. You will then need to write an argumentative essay with support from the documents.
If this sounds a lot like a DBQ , as on the history AP exams, that's because it is! However, this essay is much more argumentative in nature—your goal is to persuade, not merely interpret the documents.
Example (documents not included, see 2022 free response questions ):
Essay Two: Rhetorical Analysis
In the second essay, you'll be presented with an excerpt from a nonfiction piece that advances an argument and asked to write an essay analyzing the rhetorical strategies used to construct the passage's argument. You will also be given some orienting information—where the passage was excerpted from, who wrote it, its approximate date, where it was published (if at all), and to whom it was directed.
Example (excerpt not included, see 2022 free response questions ):
Essay Three: Argument
In the third essay, you will be presented with an issue and asked to write a persuasive essay taking a position on the issue. You will need to support your position with evidence from your "reading, experience, and observations."
This doesn't look like a very well-constructed argument.
How The AP Language and Composition Exam Is Scored
The multiple-choice section of the exam is worth 45% of your score, and the free-response section is worth the other 55%. So each of the three free-response essays is worth about 18% of your score.
As on other APs, your raw score will be converted to a scaled score of 1-5. This exam has a relatively low 5 rate. Only 10% of test takers received a 5 in 2022 , although 56% of students received a score of 3 or higher.
In terms of how the raw score is obtained, the multiple-choice section is similar to other AP multiple-choice sections: you receive a point for every question you answer correctly, and there is no penalty for guessing.
The grading rubrics for the free-response questions were revamped in 2019. They are scored using analytic rubrics instead of holistic rubrics. For each free-response question, you will be given a score from 0-6. The rubrics assess three major areas:
#1: Thesis (0 to 1 points): Is there a thesis, and does it properly respond to the prompt?
#2: Evidence and Commentary (0 to 4 points): Does the essay include supporting evidence and analysis that is relevant, specific, well organized, and supports the thesis?
#3: Sophistication (0 to 1 points): Is the essay well-crafted and does it show a sufficiently nuanced understanding of the prompt?
Each scoring rubric broadly assesses these three factors. However, each task is also different in nature, so the rubrics do have some differences. I'll go over each rubric—and what it really means—for you here.
Synthesis Essay Rubrics
EVIDENCE AND COMMENTARY
Time to synthesize this dough into some cookies.
Rhetorical Analysis Essay Rubrics
Examine your texts closely!
Argumentative Essay Rubrics
The best kind of frenzy is a puppy frenzy!
AP English Language Prep Tips
Unlike its cousin, the AP English Literature and Composition exam, the AP Language and Composition exam (and course) have very little to do with fiction or poetry. So some students used to more traditional English classes may be somewhat at a loss as to what to do to prepare.
Luckily for you, I have a whole slate of preparation tips for you!
Read Nonfiction—In a Smart Way
A major thing you can do to prepare for the AP Lang and Comp exam is to read nonfiction— particularly nonfiction that argues a position , whether explicitly (like an op-ed) or implicitly (like many memoirs and personal essays). Read a variety of non-fiction genres and topics, and pay attention to the following:
- What is the author's argument?
- What evidence do they use to support their position?
- What rhetorical techniques and strategies do they use to build their argument?
- Are they persuasive? What counterarguments can you identify? Do they address them?
Thinking about these questions with all the reading you do will help you hone your rhetorical analysis skills.
Learn Rhetorical Terms and Strategies
Of course, if you're going to be analyzing the nonfiction works you read for their rhetorical techniques and strategies, you need to know what those are! You should learn a robust stable of rhetorical terms from your teacher, but here's my guide to the most important AP Language and Composition terms .
- We've compiled a list of 20 rhetorical devices you should know.
- A heroic individual from Riverside schools in Ohio uploaded this aggressively comprehensive list of rhetorical terms with examples. It's 27 pages long, and you definitely shouldn't expect to know all of these for the exam, but it's a useful resource for learning some new terms.
- Another great resource for learning about rhetorical analysis and how rhetorical devices are actually used is the YouTube Channel Teach Argument , which has videos rhetorically analyzing everything from Taylor Swift music videos to Super Bowl commercials. It's a fun way to think about rhetorical devices and get familiar with argumentative structures.
- Finally, a great book—which you might already use in your class—is " They Say, I Say. " This book provides an overview of rhetoric specifically for academic purposes, which will serve you well for AP preparation and beyond.
You also need to practice argumentative and persuasive writing. In particular, you should practice the writing styles that will be tested on the exam: synthesizing your own argument based on multiple outside sources, rhetorically analyzing another piece of writing in-depth, and creating a completely original argument based on your own evidence and experience.
You should be doing lots of writing assignments in your AP class to prepare, but thoughtful, additional writing will help. You don't necessarily need to turn all of the practice writing you do into polished pieces, either—just writing for yourself, while trying to address some of these tasks, will give you a low-pressure way to try out different rhetorical structures and argumentative moves, as well as practicing things like organization and developing your own writing style.
Not the most auspicious start to an argumentative essay.
Practice for the Exam
Finally, you'll need to practice specifically for the exam format. There are sample multiple-choice questions in the " AP Course and Exam Description ," and old free-response questions on the College Board website.
Unfortunately, the College Board hasn't officially released any complete exams from previous years for the AP English Language and Composition exam, but you might be able to find some that teachers have uploaded to school websites and so on by Googling "AP Language complete released exams." I also have a guide to AP Language and Composition practice tests .
Once you're prepped and ready to go, how can you do your best on the test?
Looking for help studying for your AP exam?
Our one-on-one online AP tutoring services can help you prepare for your AP exams. Get matched with a top tutor who got a high score on the exam you're studying for!
AP Language and Composition Test Day Tips
Here are four key tips for test-day success.
You are one hundred percent success!
Interact With the Text
When you are reading passages, both on the multiple-choice section and for the first two free-response questions, interact with the text! Mark it up for things that seem important, devices you notice, the author's argument, and anything else that seems important to the rhetorical construction of the text. This will help you engage with the text and make it easier to answer questions or write an essay about the passage.
Think About Every Text's Overarching Purpose and Argument
Similarly, with every passage you read, consider the author's overarching purpose and argument. If you can confidently figure out what the author's primary assertion is, it will be easier to trace how all of the other aspects of the text play into the author's main point.
Plan Your Essays
The single most important thing you can do for yourself on the free-response section of the AP English Language exam is to spend a few minutes planning and outlining your essays before you start to write them.
Unlike on some other exams, where the content is the most important aspect of the essay, on the AP Language Exam, organization, a well-developed argument, and strong evidence are all critical to strong essay scores. An outline will help you with all of these things. You'll be able to make sure each part of your argument is logical, has sufficient evidence, and that your paragraphs are arranged in a way that is clear and flows well.
Anticipate and Address Counterarguments
Another thing you can do to give your free responses an extra boost is to identify counterarguments to your position and address them within your essay. This not only helps shore up your own position, but it's also a fairly sophisticated move in a timed essay that will win you kudos with AP graders.
Address counterarguments properly or they might get returned to sender!
The AP Language and Composition exam tests your rhetorical skills. The exam has two sections.
The first section is an hour-long, 45 question multiple-choice test based on the rhetorical techniques and composition choices.
The second section is a two-hour free-response section (with a 15-minute initial reading period) with three essay questions: one where you must synthesize given sources to make an original argument, one where you must rhetorically analyze a given passage, and one where you must create a wholly original argument about an issue with no outside sources given.
You'll receive one point for every correct answer on the multiple-choice section of the exam, which is worth 45% of your score. The free-response section is worth 55% of your score. For each free-response question, you'll get a score based on a rubric from 0-6. Your total raw score will be converted to a scaled score from 1-5.
Here are some test prep strategies for AP Lang:
#1 : Read nonfiction with an eye for rhetoric #2 : Learn rhetorical strategies and techniques #3 : Practice writing to deploy rhetorical skills #4 : Practice for the exam!
Here are some test-day success tips:
#1 : Interact with each passage you encounter! #2 : Consider every text's overarching purpose and argument. #3 : Keep track of time #4 : Plan your essays #5 : Identify and address counterarguments in your essays.
With all of this knowledge, you're ready to slay the AP English Language and Composition beast!
Noble knight, prepare to slay the AP dragon!
Want more AP Lang review? We have a complete collection of released AP Language practice tests , as well as a list of the AP Lang terms you need to know and a guide to the multiple choice section .
Taking the AP Literature exam? Check out our ultimate guide to the AP English Literature test and our list of AP Literature practice tests .
Taking other AP exams? See our Ultimate Guides to AP World History , AP US History , AP Chemistry , AP Biology , AP World History , and AP Human Geography .
Need more AP prep guidance? Check out how to study for AP exams and how to find AP practice tests .
Want to build the best possible college application?
We can help. PrepScholar Admissions is the world's best admissions consulting service. We combine world-class admissions counselors with our data-driven, proprietary admissions strategies . We've overseen thousands of students get into their top choice schools , from state colleges to the Ivy League.
We know what kinds of students colleges want to admit. We want to get you admitted to your dream schools .
Learn more about PrepScholar Admissions to maximize your chance of getting in.
Ellen has extensive education mentorship experience and is deeply committed to helping students succeed in all areas of life. She received a BA from Harvard in Folklore and Mythology and is currently pursuing graduate studies at Columbia University.
Student and Parent Forum
Our new student and parent forum, at ExpertHub.PrepScholar.com , allow you to interact with your peers and the PrepScholar staff. See how other students and parents are navigating high school, college, and the college admissions process. Ask questions; get answers.
Ask a Question Below
Have any questions about this article or other topics? Ask below and we'll reply!
Improve With Our Famous Guides
- For All Students
The 5 Strategies You Must Be Using to Improve 160+ SAT Points
How to Get a Perfect 1600, by a Perfect Scorer
Series: How to Get 800 on Each SAT Section:
Score 800 on SAT Math
Score 800 on SAT Reading
Score 800 on SAT Writing
Series: How to Get to 600 on Each SAT Section:
Score 600 on SAT Math
Score 600 on SAT Reading
Score 600 on SAT Writing
Free Complete Official SAT Practice Tests
What SAT Target Score Should You Be Aiming For?
15 Strategies to Improve Your SAT Essay
The 5 Strategies You Must Be Using to Improve 4+ ACT Points
How to Get a Perfect 36 ACT, by a Perfect Scorer
Series: How to Get 36 on Each ACT Section:
36 on ACT English
36 on ACT Math
36 on ACT Reading
36 on ACT Science
Series: How to Get to 24 on Each ACT Section:
24 on ACT English
24 on ACT Math
24 on ACT Reading
24 on ACT Science
What ACT target score should you be aiming for?
ACT Vocabulary You Must Know
ACT Writing: 15 Tips to Raise Your Essay Score
How to Get Into Harvard and the Ivy League
How to Get a Perfect 4.0 GPA
How to Write an Amazing College Essay
What Exactly Are Colleges Looking For?
Is the ACT easier than the SAT? A Comprehensive Guide
Should you retake your SAT or ACT?
When should you take the SAT or ACT?
Get the latest articles and test prep tips!
Looking for Graduate School Test Prep?
Check out our top-rated graduate blogs here:
GRE Online Prep Blog
GMAT Online Prep Blog
TOEFL Online Prep Blog
Holly R. "I am absolutely overjoyed and cannot thank you enough for helping me!”
Is AP English Language and Composition Hard? A Complete 2022 Guide
Editor & Writer
www.bestcolleges.com is an advertising-supported site. Featured or trusted partner programs and all school search, finder, or match results are for schools that compensate us. This compensation does not influence our school rankings, resource guides, or other editorially-independent information published on this site.
Turn Your Dreams Into Reality
Take our quiz and we'll do the homework for you! Compare your school matches and apply to your top choice today.
- AP courses are college-level classes offered at high schools.
- AP English Language and Composition focuses on thinking critically about various texts.
- The course's exam pass rate is lower than the overall average pass rate for all AP exams.
- The test includes timed multiple-choice questions and three timed essays.
Advanced Placement (AP) courses introduce high school students to the rigorous demands of college academics. AP English Language and Composition is typically a junior-level course that can help prepare students to analyze and to think critically about a variety of texts.
The national AP English Language and Composition exam is offered each spring. In May 2021, 476,735 students worldwide took the exam.
AP courses are known for their quick pace and high level of independent work. So you may be wondering what the hardest AP classes and tests are — and if AP English Language and Composition is one of the harder AP exams.
Learn more about what to expect from AP English Language and Composition.
What Does AP English Language and Composition Cover?
Meant to cover a college-level introductory composition course, AP English Language and Composition focuses on understanding and being able to employ rhetoric.
Students read and analyze a variety of texts to understand how the author's style, structure, and language contribute to their rhetorical argument.
AP English Language and Composition also prepares students to organize their claims to create rhetorical essays. Students learn to form strong claims backed up with specific supportive evidence.
Generally, AP English Language and Composition develops students' abilities to use and understand the following:
- Rhetorical Devices: Being able to read and identify rhetorical devices in pieces of writing and being able to employ rhetorical devices in your own essay writing
- Claims and Evidence: being able to read and identify an author's claims and supporting evidence and being able to employ strong claims and evidence in your own essay writing
- Style: Being able to identify an author's specific style choices and explain how those choices contribute to the author's argument
What Determines the Difficulty of AP English Language and Composition? 3 Key Factors
Before registering for an AP course, you should understand the requirements and level of commitment for the class. The AP English Language and Composition course can be challenging and rigorous.
The Pass Rate
The AP exam is scored on a scale from 1-5. A passing rate is considered a score of 3 or above. The overall pass rate of all AP courses was 71.13% in May 2020, with 19.57% of those test-takers receiving a perfect score of 5.
In comparison, the AP English Language and Composition exam had an overall pass rate of 62.1%, with only 12.6% of those scores being a perfect 5.
Source: College Board
Since the pass rate and the perfect score rate for the AP English Language and Composition exam is lower than the average of all AP exams, it may seem that AP Language and Composition is more difficult. However, ultimately, the difficulty of the course and exam heavily depends on the strength of the school and teacher.
The Course Material
AP English Language and Composition courses explore rhetorical nonfiction writing, including famous speeches, letters, and essays. The writing can be contemporary or date back several centuries.
Each teacher structures their AP English Language and Composition course differently. The amount of course material can also determine the difficulty of the course. If you have a heavy workload and are reading several pieces a week, or writing several essays a month, the course may feel more difficult.
Your Subject Skills
How difficult a course is can be subjective and can rely heavily on whether or not the course covers subject matter you excel in. The following skills and strengths are good to have in an AP English Language and Composition course.
They include the ability to:
- Read and interpret a variety of texts, including significantly older documents
- Organize your thoughts into a strong academic essay
- Cite evidence to support claims
- Identify rhetorical devices in writing and understand how they are being used to create an argument
When Should You Take AP English Language and Composition?
Each school has its own policy on when you are allowed to take AP English Language and Composition. Although College Board does not have a specific grade requirement, most students are offered AP English Language and Composition in their junior year.
Taking the course during your first two years of high school may be challenging, since the course is college-level.
Students can also choose to take the course as a senior. However, many students decide to take AP English Language and Composition as juniors and then enroll in AP English Literature and Composition as seniors.
You should consider your strengths and the course workload while trying to decide when you should take AP English Language and Composition, as well as whether or not you should enroll in other AP classes at the same time.
AP English Language and Composition Exam: What You Need to Know
The following table breaks down how many students earned each of the exam scores. Learn more about how the exam is structured and scored.
How Is the AP English Language and Composition Exam Structured?
The AP Language and Composition exam has two sections : a multiple-choice section and an essay section. Multiple-choice questions may cover reading comprehension, rhetorical devices, and writing strategies.
The second section has three free-response prompts. Test-takers must complete three essays. The three types of essay prompts are a rhetorical analysis, a synthesis essay, and an argument essay.
For the rhetorical analysis, students are given a written passage and must analyze and construct an essay on how that author's passage ties into a larger message or theme.
In the synthesis essay, students are provided several sources and must answer a prompt with an argumentative essay that incorporates evidence from the sources.
The third prompt asks students to construct an argument essay. Test-takers are then given a question, quote, or statement. They must create an essay that either agrees, disagrees, or qualifies the statement.
- Section 1: 45 Multiple-Choice Questions (60 Minutes)
- Section 2: Three Free-Response Questions (2 Hours and 15 Minutes)
How Is the AP English Language and Composition Exam Scored?
Every question in the multiple-choice section is worth 1 point. You are not penalized for having an incorrect answer or leaving an answer blank. This section is 45% of your overall exam score.
Each essay in the essay section of the AP English Language and Composition exam is scored separately on a scale of 0-9. These three scores are added together and averaged. The scorer then plugs your scores into a formula to get a composite score. Each composite number range correlates to a score of 1-5.
Because the essay section is weighted more heavily than the multiple-choice section, students who struggle with essay writing — especially timed essay writing — may have a difficult time with the exam.
AP English Language and Composition: What Score Do I Need for College Credit?
Although a 3 or higher is considered a passing score, each college sets its own policies for accepting AP credit. Typically, a score of 5 for an AP English Language and Composition exam will earn you some college-level composition credit at almost any school.
Some colleges may reward the same credits for a score of 4, or they may offer slightly less college credit. A score of 3 may yield some college credit depending on the school. Check to see what scores your prospective colleges accept.
Should I Take AP English Language and Composition?
AP English Language and Composition, like all AP classes, is a college-level course. Although the difficulty of the course may vary between instructors, you should expect an AP course to move faster than a regular high school class. It will also involve more independent work.
Most schools grade AP courses on a 5-point GPA scale instead of a 4-point scale, so even though the work may be more challenging, you may still be able to maintain a good GPA. Taking the exam is not a requirement of the AP course. So you can always choose not to take the test if you find the course was too challenging.
Ultimately, you need to decide for yourself which AP courses you should take .
Consider your strengths and what the demands of the AP English Language and Composition course are. Asking teachers and past students about the class is a great way to find out how difficult AP English Language and Composition is at your particular school.
Frequently Asked Questions About AP English Language and Composition
- Collapse All
Is AP English Language and Composition worth it?
Depending on your personal and future goals, AP English Language and Composition, or any AP course, can be worth it . If your goal is to earn college credit while in high school, AP courses allow you to do so while receiving the support of a high school teacher.
If you are a strong reader and writer, AP English Language and Composition can introduce you to college-level rigor. It can also help you advance your reading and writing skills before taking on a full-time college course load.
Do colleges care about AP English Language and Composition?
Completing an AP course and earning a decent grade and/or a passing AP exam score can show prospective colleges that you are capable of academically performing at the college level.
How many credits do you get for AP English Language and Composition?
The number of credits you can earn for an AP English Language and Composition exam depends on the college. Most colleges will reward credit for a score of 4 or 5.Although a score of 3 is considered passing, not as many colleges will accept it.
You can always check to see what scores your prospective colleges do accept and how much credit you can earn for those scores.
Feature Image: JAG IMAGES / DigitalVision / Getty Images
Explore More College Resources
Honors vs. ap classes: what’s the difference.
IB vs. AP Classes: Which Should You Take?
What are the easiest ap classes and tests.
BestColleges.com is an advertising-supported site. Featured or trusted partner programs and all school search, finder, or match results are for schools that compensate us. This compensation does not influence our school rankings, resource guides, or other editorially-independent information published on this site.
Compare Your School Options
View the most relevant schools for your interests and compare them by tuition, programs, acceptance rate, and other factors important to finding your college home.
How is the AP® English Language Exam Scored?
The AP ® English Language and Composition Exam tests your ability to analyze text, craft compelling argumentative essays, and demonstrate an awareness of language and rhetoric.
When it comes to how it’s scored, though, it’s not as straightforward.
That’s why we want to break down the scores you need to get on your AP ® English Language and Composition Exam, how the test format impacts that, and even how you can roughly estimate your own score.
Let’s jump in.
How the AP ® English Language and Composition Exam works
A lot of colleges all over the country require you to fulfill a rhetoric or composition credit before you’re allowed to graduate. Luckily, you have the opportunity to fulfill those credits before you’re even accepted into colleges. Through the AP ® English Language and Composition course, you can learn the rhetorical and writing skills necessary to earn the college credit.
The exam is comprehensive when it comes to rhetoric and analysis, covering topics such as:
- Rhetorical analysis of prose
- Reading comprehension
- Written argumentation
- MLA, APA, and Chicago-style citation
- Reputable sourcing
- Synthesis of information from multiple texts
When it comes time to take the exam, you can expect the same format and structure. You’ll have three hours and 15 minutes to complete the exam. There are two sections to it. The first is comprised of excerpts from non-fiction texts with multiple-choice questions. The second is a free-response section made up of three prompts you must answer as handwritten essays.
The prompts cover three areas:
- Synthesis. You will need to read multiple sources and craft an argument that cites at least three of the sources to support your argument.
- Rhetorical analysis. You will need to read a passage of text and then craft an analysis of the author’s intention as well as how the author’s choices in the text support that intent.
- Argument. You will need to craft an argument over a specific topic and support that argument with evidence.
Here’s what the structure of the exam looks like broken down by section and question type, along with how much each section impacts the ultimate score:
- 45 questions that cover excerpts from nonfiction text
- 45% of final exam score
- Three questions with prompts covering synthesis, rhetorical analysis, and argument
- Two hours and 15 minutes including a 15-minute reading time
- 55% of final exam score
Before we explain how each section is scored, let’s take a look at the scores you can get for your entire exam.
How to find the score you need on the AP ® English Language Exam
The AP ® Exam is scored on a scale of one to five. The higher your score, the better it is for you.
Check out the table below for a good break down of what each score means.
When it comes to AP ® English Language and Composition, you’ll want to aim for a score of three or higher. Many colleges will give you college credit or placement out of a required course if you score within that range.
It varies from school to school though. So, if you want to know the score that a specific school will accept in exchange for credit, you’ll need to check with the school’s registrar’s office to find out information about AP ® credit for English Language and Composition. Often, you can find this information on the school’s website. You can also check out the College Board’s search tool for AP ® credit policies .
NOTE: Colleges sometimes change their requirements for awarding college credit or offering placement out of required courses. So always check in with the college to make sure you have the most relevant and recent information.
How the AP ® English Language Exam is scored
The multiple-choice section is scored via computer. When the computer analyzes your answers, it does not deduct points if your answer is incorrect or unanswered. You read that right. You only stand to gain points when you answer questions. It is always in your best interest to answer every question and leave nothing blank.
The free-response section is a bit more complicated, however. Rather than using a computer, the free-response section is scored by actual humans. This occurs during an event called the AP ® Reading, an annual convention in June during which thousands of college professors and AP ® teachers nationwide convene to help judge and score AP ® essays.
The free response essays are each scored on a scale of 0–6, with 6 being the best score you can get and 0 being the worst.
Combined, the raw points you get from both sections give you your composite score. It’s your composite score that determines your scaled score of 1–5.
We know. It’s all very confusing. Stick with us though, and we promise to clear it up for you.
Scoring the free-response section
As mentioned above, the free-response section is scored on a scale of 0-6. The higher your score, the better it is for you.
Here’s a look at the Q2 Analysis Scoring Rubric, a handy table that gives a good break-down of what judges are looking for when awarding points for each essay.
Bottom line: Graders are looking for essays that showcase a strong command of the English language, the ability to craft compelling and well-sourced arguments, and the ability to analyze text for its rhetorical structure.
When you can find out your score
In 2020, all AP ® Exams will take place from May 4th through May 15th.
The English Language and Composition exam will take place on the morning of May 13, 2020 at 8:00 a.m. Exams will take place at designated AP ® test-taking facilities unless you have approved exemptions from the College Board (e.g., if the test is administered outside the United States).
After the exam, you get to spend several long weeks before you find out your score in July 2020.
NOTE: No specific information has been released yet about when the scores will be made available to students and parents. So be sure to check back to Marco Learning over the next few months to stay updated.
As mentioned above, all of the free-response answers for every AP ® Exam are judged during the AP ® Reading. That convention of thousands of professors and AP ® teachers all over the country takes place in the first two weeks of June. Once your free-response question is judged and scored, the College Board needs to compile all the scores before they’re ready to be released.
The best piece of advice once you take your exam is to simply relax. There’s no use sweating over your exam once you’re finished. What’s done is done.
More importantly, be sure to take some time to be proud of your accomplishment. You just invested a lot of time studying and learning valuable information that you’ll be able to carry with you to college and beyond. That’s something you earned regardless of what the score says.
Once you get your score, and you got a good score—congrats! You just earned potential college credit for college.
If your score wasn’t what you were hoping for, don’t worry. You can always retake the AP ® Exam the next year. Check out our resources to help you the next time around.
Please read Marco Learning’s Terms and Conditions, click to agree, and submit to continue to your content.
Please read Marco Learning’s Terms and Conditions, click to agree, and submit at the bottom of the window.
Last Modified: 1/24/2023
Accessing the Website and Account Security
We reserve the right to withdraw or amend this Website, and any service or material we provide on the Website, in our sole discretion without notice. We will not be liable if for any reason all or any part of the Website is unavailable at any time or for any period. From time to time, we may restrict access to some parts of the Website, or the entire Website, to users, including registered users.
If you choose, or are provided with, a user name, password, or any other piece of information as part of our security procedures, you must treat such information as confidential, and you must not disclose it to any other person or entity. You also acknowledge that your account is personal to you and agree not to provide any other person with access to this Website or portions of it using your user name, password, or other security information. You agree to notify us immediately of any unauthorized access to or use of your user name or password or any other breach of security. You also agree to ensure that you exit from your account at the end of each session. You should use particular caution when accessing your account from a public or shared computer so that others are not able to view or record your password or other personal information.
Intellectual Property Rights
The Website and its entire contents, features, and functionality (including but not limited to all information, software, text, displays, images, graphics, video, other visuals, and audio, and the design, selection, and arrangement thereof) are owned by the Company, its licensors, or other providers of such material and are protected by United States and international copyright, trademark, patent, trade secret, and other intellectual property or proprietary rights laws. Your use of the Website does not grant to you ownership of any content, software, code, date or materials you may access on the Website.
- Your computer may temporarily store copies of such materials in RAM incidental to your accessing and viewing those materials.
- You may store files that are automatically cached by your Web browser for display enhancement purposes.
- You may print or download one copy of a reasonable number of pages of the Website for your own personal, non-commercial use and not for further reproduction, publication, or distribution.
- If we provide desktop, mobile, or other applications for download, you may download a single copy to your computer or mobile device solely for your own personal, non-commercial use, provided you agree to be bound by our end user license agreement for such applications.
- If we provide social media features with certain content, you may take such actions as are enabled by such features.
You must not:
- Modify copies of any materials from this site.
- Use any illustrations, photographs, video or audio sequences, or any graphics separately from the accompanying text.
- Delete or alter any copyright, trademark, or other proprietary rights notices from copies of materials from this site.
You must not access or use for any commercial purposes any part of the Website or any services or materials available through the Website.
If you wish to make any use of material on the Website other than that set out in this section, please contact us
Trademarks, logos, service marks, trade names, and all related names, logos, product and service names, designs, and slogans are trademarks of the Company or its affiliates or licensors (collectively, the “ Trademarks ”). You must not use such Trademarks without the prior written permission of the Company. All other names, logos, product and service names, designs, and slogans on this Website are the trademarks of their respective owners.
- In any way that violates any applicable federal, state, local, or international law or regulation (including, without limitation, any laws regarding the export of data or software to and from the US or other countries).
- For the purpose of exploiting, harming, or attempting to exploit or harm minors in any way by exposing them to inappropriate content, asking for personally identifiable information, or otherwise.
- To transmit, or procure the sending of, any advertising or promotional material, including any “junk mail”, “chain letter”, “spam”, or any other similar solicitation.
- To impersonate or attempt to impersonate the Company, a Company employee, another user, or any other person or entity (including, without limitation, by using email addresses or screen names associated with any of the foregoing).
- To engage in any other conduct that restricts or inhibits anyone’s use or enjoyment of the Website, or which, as determined by us, may harm the Company or users of the Website or expose them to liability.
Additionally, you agree not to:
- Use the Website in any manner that could disable, overburden, damage, or impair the site or interfere with any other party’s use of the Website, including their ability to engage in real time activities through the Website.
- Use any robot, spider, or other automatic device, process, or means to access the Website for any purpose, including monitoring or copying any of the material on the Website.
- Use any manual process to monitor or copy any of the material on the Website or for any other unauthorized purpose without our prior written consent.
- Use any device, software, or routine that interferes with the proper working of the Website.
- Introduce any viruses, Trojan horses, worms, logic bombs, or other material that is malicious or technologically harmful.
- Attempt to gain unauthorized access to, interfere with, damage, or disrupt any parts of the Website, the server on which the Website is stored, or any server, computer, or database connected to the Website.
- Attack the Website via a denial-of-service attack or a distributed denial-of-service attack.
- Otherwise attempt to interfere with the proper working of the Website.
If you use, or assist another person in using the Website in any unauthorized way, you agree that you will pay us an additional $50 per hour for any time we spend to investigate and correct such use, plus any third party costs of investigation we incur (with a minimum $300 charge). You agree that we may charge any credit card number provided for your account for such amounts. You further agree that you will not dispute such a charge and that we retain the right to collect any additional actual costs.
The Website may contain message boards, chat rooms, personal web pages or profiles, forums, bulletin boards, and other interactive features (collectively, “ Interactive Services “) that allow users to post, submit, publish, display, or transmit to other users or other persons (hereinafter, “ post “) content or materials (collectively, “ User Contributions “) on or through the Website.
Any User Contribution you post to the site will be considered non-confidential and non-proprietary. By providing any User Contribution on the Website, you grant us and our affiliates and service providers, and each of their and our respective licensees, successors, and assigns the right to use, reproduce, modify, perform, display, distribute, and otherwise disclose to third parties any such material for any purpose.
You represent and warrant that:
- You own or control all rights in and to the User Contributions and have the right to grant the license granted above to us and our affiliates and service providers, and each of their and our respective licensees, successors, and assigns.
You understand and acknowledge that you are responsible for any User Contributions you submit or contribute, and you, not the Company, have full responsibility for such content, including its legality, reliability, accuracy, and appropriateness.
For any academic source materials such as textbooks and workbooks which you submit to us in connection with our online tutoring services, you represent and warrant that you are entitled to upload such materials under the “fair use” doctrine of copyright law. In addition, if you request that our system display a representation of a page or problem from a textbook or workbook, you represent and warrant that you are in proper legal possession of such textbook or workbook and that your instruction to our system to display a page or problem from your textbook or workbook is made for the sole purpose of facilitating your tutoring session, as “fair use” under copyright law.
We are not responsible or liable to any third party for the content or accuracy of any User Contributions posted by you or any other user of the Website.
Monitoring and Enforcement: Termination
We have the right to:
- Remove or refuse to post any User Contributions for any or no reason in our sole discretion.
- Disclose your identity or other information about you to any third party who claims that material posted by you violates their rights, including their intellectual property rights or their right to privacy.
- Take appropriate legal action, including without limitation, referral to law enforcement, for any illegal or unauthorized use of the Website.
Without limiting the foregoing, we have the right to cooperate fully with any law enforcement authorities or court order requesting or directing us to disclose the identity or other information of anyone posting any materials on or through the Website. YOU WAIVE AND HOLD HARMLESS THE COMPANY AND ITS AFFILIATES, LICENSEES, AND SERVICE PROVIDERS FROM ANY CLAIMS RESULTING FROM ANY ACTION TAKEN BY ANY OF THE FOREGOING PARTIES DURING, OR TAKEN AS A CONSEQUENCE OF, INVESTIGATIONS BY EITHER SUCH PARTIES OR LAW ENFORCEMENT AUTHORITIES.
However, we do not undertake to review material before it is posted on the Website, and cannot ensure prompt removal of objectionable material after it has been posted. Accordingly, we assume no liability for any action or inaction regarding transmissions, communications, or content provided by any user or third party. We have no liability or responsibility to anyone for performance or nonperformance of the activities described in this section.
These content standards apply to any and all User Contributions and use of Interactive Services. User Contributions must in their entirety comply with all applicable federal, state, local, and international laws and regulations. Without limiting the foregoing, User Contributions must not:
- Contain any material that is defamatory, obscene, indecent, abusive, offensive, harassing, violent, hateful, inflammatory, or otherwise objectionable.
- Promote sexually explicit or pornographic material, violence, or discrimination based on race, sex, religion, nationality, disability, sexual orientation, or age.
- Infringe any patent, trademark, trade secret, copyright, or other intellectual property or other rights of any other person.
- Be likely to deceive any person.
- Promote any illegal activity, or advocate, promote, or assist any unlawful act.
- Cause annoyance, inconvenience, or needless anxiety or be likely to upset, embarrass, alarm, or annoy any other person.
- Impersonate any person, or misrepresent your identity or affiliation with any person or organization.
- Involve commercial activities or sales, such as contests, sweepstakes, and other sales promotions, barter, or advertising.
- Give the impression that they emanate from or are endorsed by us or any other person or entity, if this is not the case.
(collectively, the “ Content Standards ”)
If you believe that any User Contributions violate your copyright, please contact us and provide the following information:
- An electronic or physical signature of the person authorized to act on behalf of the owner of the copyright interest;
- A description of the copyrighted work that you claim has been infringed;
- A description of where the material you claim is infringing is located on the website (and such description must reasonably sufficient to enable us to find the alleged infringing material);
- Your address, telephone number and email address;
- A written statement by you that you have a good faith belief that the disputed use is not authorized by the copyright owner, its agent, or the law; and
- A statement by you, made under the penalty of perjury, that the above information in your notice is accurate and that you are the copyright owner or authorized to act on the copyright owner’s behalf.
We may terminate the accounts of any infringers.
Reliance on Information Posted
From time to time, we may make third party opinions, advice, statements, offers, or other third party information or content available on the Website or from tutors under tutoring services (collectively, “Third Party Content”). All Third Party Content is the responsibility of the respective authors thereof and should not necessarily be relied upon. Such third party authors are solely responsible for such content. WE DO NOT (I) GUARANTEE THE ACCURACY, COMPLETENESS OR USEFULNESS OF ANY THIRD PARTY CONTENT ON THE SITE OR ANY VERIFICATION SERVICES DONE ON OUR TUTORS OR INSTRUCTORS, OR (II) ADOPT, ENDORSE OR ACCEPT RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE ACCURACY OR RELIABILITY OF ANY OPINION, ADVICE, OR STATEMENT MADE BY ANY TUTOR OR INSTRUCTOR OR ANY PARTY THAT APPEARS ON THE WEBSITE. UNDER NO CIRCUMSTANCES WILL WE BE RESPONSBILE OR LIABLE FOR ANY LOSS OR DAMAGE RESULTING FROM YOUR RELIANCE ON INFORMATION OR OTHER CONENT POSTED ON OR AVAILBLE FROM THE WEBSITE.
Changes to the Website
We may update the content on this Website from time to time, but its content is not necessarily complete or up-to-date. Any of the material on the Website may be out of date at any given time, and we are under no obligation to update such material.
Information About You and Your Visits to the Website
Online Purchases and Other Terms and Conditions
Linking to the Website and Social Media Features
You may link to our homepage, provided you do so in a way that is fair and legal and does not damage our reputation or take advantage of it, but you must not establish a link in such a way as to suggest any form of association, approval, or endorsement on our part without our express written consent.
This Website may provide certain social media features that enable you to:
- Link from your own or certain third-party websites to certain content on this Website.
- Send emails or other communications with certain content, or links to certain content, on this Website.
- Cause limited portions of content on this Website to be displayed or appear to be displayed on your own or certain third-party websites.
You may use these features solely as they are provided by us, and solely with respect to the content they are displayed with and otherwise in accordance with any additional terms and conditions we provide with respect to such features. Subject to the foregoing, you must not:
- Establish a link from any website that is not owned by you.
- Cause the Website or portions of it to be displayed on, or appear to be displayed by, any other site, for example, framing, deep linking, or in-line linking.
- Link to any part of the Website other than the homepage.
You agree to cooperate with us in causing any unauthorized framing or linking immediately to stop. We reserve the right to withdraw linking permission without notice.
We may disable all or any social media features and any links at any time without notice in our discretion.
Links from the Website
If the Website contains links to other sites and resources provided by third parties (“ Linked Sites ”), these links are provided for your convenience only. This includes links contained in advertisements, including banner advertisements and sponsored links. You acknowledge and agree that we have no control over the contents, products, services, advertising or other materials which may be provided by or through those Linked sites or resources, and accept no responsibility for them or for any loss or damage that may arise from your use of them. If you decide to access any of the third-party websites linked to this Website, you do so entirely at your own risk and subject to the terms and conditions of use for such websites.
You agree that if you include a link from any other website to the Website, such link will open in a new browser window and will link to the full version of an HTML formatted page of this Website. You are not permitted to link directly to any image hosted on the Website or our products or services, such as using an “in-line” linking method to cause the image hosted by us to be displayed on another website. You agree not to download or use images hosted on this Website or another website, for any purpose, including, without limitation, posting such images on another website. You agree not to link from any other website to this Website in any manner such that the Website, or any page of the Website, is “framed,” surrounded or obfuscated by any third party content, materials or branding. We reserve all of our rights under the law to insist that any link to the Website be discontinued, and to revoke your right to link to the Website from any other website at any time upon written notice to you.
The owner of the Website is based in the state of New Jersey in the United States. We provide this Website for use only by persons located in the United States. We make no claims that the Website or any of its content is accessible or appropriate outside of the United States. Access to the Website may not be legal by certain persons or in certain countries. If you access the Website from outside the United States, you do so on your own initiative and are responsible for compliance with local laws.
Disclaimer of Warranties
You understand that we cannot and do not guarantee or warrant that files available for downloading from the internet or the Website will be free of viruses or other destructive code. You are responsible for implementing sufficient procedures and checkpoints to satisfy your particular requirements for anti-virus protection and accuracy of data input and output, and for maintaining a means external to our site for any reconstruction of any lost data. TO THE FULLEST EXTENT PROVIDED BY LAW, WE WILL NOT BE LIABLE FOR ANY LOSS OR DAMAGE CAUSED BY A DISTRIBUTED DENIAL-OF-SERVICE ATTACK, VIRUSES, OR OTHER TECHNOLOGICALLY HARMFUL MATERIAL THAT MAY INFECT YOUR COMPUTER EQUIPMENT, COMPUTER PROGRAMS, DATA, OR OTHER PROPRIETARY MATERIAL DUE TO YOUR USE OF THE WEBSITE OR ANY SERVICES OR ITEMS OBTAINED THROUGH THE WEBSITE OR TO YOUR DOWNLOADING OF ANY MATERIAL POSTED ON IT, OR ON ANY WEBSITE LINKED TO IT.
YOUR USE OF THE WEBSITE, ITS CONTENT, AND ANY SERVICES OR ITEMS OBTAINED THROUGH THE WEBSITE IS AT YOUR OWN RISK. THE WEBSITE, ITS CONTENT, AND ANY SERVICES OR ITEMS OBTAINED THROUGH THE WEBSITE ARE PROVIDED ON AN “AS IS” AND “AS AVAILABLE” BASIS, WITHOUT ANY WARRANTIES OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESS OR IMPLIED. NEITHER THE COMPANY NOR ANY PERSON ASSOCIATED WITH THE COMPANY MAKES ANY WARRANTY OR REPRESENTATION WITH RESPECT TO THE COMPLETENESS, SECURITY, RELIABILITY, QUALITY, ACCURACY, OR AVAILABILITY OF THE WEBSITE. WITHOUT LIMITING THE FOREGOING, NEITHER THE COMPANY NOR ANYONE ASSOCIATED WITH THE COMPANY REPRESENTS OR WARRANTS THAT THE WEBSITE, ITS CONTENT, OR ANY SERVICES OR ITEMS OBTAINED THROUGH THE WEBSITE WILL BE ACCURATE, RELIABLE, ERROR-FREE, OR UNINTERRUPTED, THAT DEFECTS WILL BE CORRECTED, THAT OUR SITE OR THE SERVER THAT MAKES IT AVAILABLE ARE FREE OF VIRUSES OR OTHER HARMFUL COMPONENTS, OR THAT THE WEBSITE OR ANY SERVICES OR ITEMS OBTAINED THROUGH THE WEBSITE WILL OTHERWISE MEET YOUR NEEDS OR EXPECTATIONS.
TO THE FULLEST EXTENT PROVIDED BY LAW, THE COMPANY HEREBY DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES OF ANY KIND, WHETHER EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, STATUTORY, OR OTHERWISE, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, NON-INFRINGEMENT, AND FITNESS FOR PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
THE FOREGOING DOES NOT AFFECT ANY WARRANTIES THAT CANNOT BE EXCLUDED OR LIMITED UNDER APPLICABLE LAW.
Limitation on Liability
TO THE FULLEST EXTENT PROVIDED BY LAW, IN NO EVENT WILL THE COMPANY, ITS AFFILIATES, OR THEIR LICENSORS, SERVICE PROVIDERS, EMPLOYEES, AGENTS, OFFICERS, OR DIRECTORS BE LIABLE FOR DAMAGES OF ANY KIND, UNDER ANY LEGAL THEORY, ARISING OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH YOUR USE, OR INABILITY TO USE, THE WEBSITE, ANY WEBSITES LINKED TO IT, ANY CONTENT ON THE WEBSITE OR SUCH OTHER WEBSITES, INCLUDING ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL, CONSEQUENTIAL, OR PUNITIVE DAMAGES, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PERSONAL INJURY, PAIN AND SUFFERING, EMOTIONAL DISTRESS, LOSS OF REVENUE, LOSS OF PROFITS, LOSS OF BUSINESS OR ANTICIPATED SAVINGS, LOSS OF USE, LOSS OF GOODWILL, LOSS OF DATA, AND WHETHER CAUSED BY TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE), BREACH OF CONTRACT, OR OTHERWISE, EVEN IF FORESEEABLE.
THE FOREGOING DOES NOT AFFECT ANY LIABILITY THAT CANNOT BE EXCLUDED OR LIMITED UNDER APPLICABLE LAW.
Governing Law and Jurisdiction
Any proceeding to enforce this arbitration provision, including any proceeding to confirm, modify, or vacate an arbitration award, may be commenced in any court of competent jurisdiction. In the event that this arbitration provision is for any reason held to be unenforceable, any litigation against Company must be commenced only in the federal or state courts located in Monmouth County, New Jersey. You hereby irrevocably consent to the jurisdiction of those courts for such purposes.
Limitation on Time to File Claims
Waiver and Severability
Communications and Miscellaneous
If you provide us your email address, you agree and consent to receive email messages from us. These emails may be transaction or relationship communications relating to the products or services we offer, such as administrative notices and service announcements or changes, or emails containing commercial offers, promotions or special offers from us.
Your Comments and Concerns
This website is operated by Marco Learning LLC, a New Jersey limited liability company with an address of 113 Monmouth Road, Suite 1, Wrightstown, New Jersey 08562.
Please contact us for all other feedback, comments, requests for technical support, and other communications relating to the Website.