Modern Technology’s Impact on Society Essay

Introduction, disadvantages and advantages of technology.

Modern technology has changed the world beyond recognition. Thanks to technology in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries, advances have been made that have revolutionized our lives. Modern man can hardly imagine his life without machines. Every day, new devices either appear, or existing ones are improved. Technology has made the world a better place, bringing people additional conveniences and opportunities for healthy living through advances in science. I believe that the changes that technology has brought to our lives are incredibly positive in many areas.

One of the fields where computing and the Web have introduced improvements is education. Machines can keep large volumes of information in a tiny space, reducing entire library shelves of literature to a single CD-ROM of content (Garsten & Wulff, 2020). The Web also acts as a huge learning tool, linking together data sites and enabling inquisitive individuals to seek out just about any subject conceivable. A single personal computer can hold hundreds of instructional programs, visual and audio tutorials, and provide learners with exposure to an immense quantity of content. In the classroom, virtual whiteboards are replacing conventional whiteboards, allowing teachers to provide interactive content for students and play instructional movies without the need for a projector.

Advanced technology has also dramatically and favorably changed the medical care sector. Developments in diagnostic instruments allow doctors to detect hidden diseases, improving the likelihood of successful therapy and saving lives. Advances in drugs and vaccines have been extremely influential, nearly eradicating diseases such as measles, diphtheria, and smallpox, which once caused massive epidemics (Garsten & Wulff, 2020). Modern medicine allows patients to treat chronic diseases that were once debilitating and life-threatening, such as diabetes and hypertension. Technological advances in medicine have helped improve the lives of people around the world. In addition, the latest technology has dramatically increased the productivity of various techniques.

The computers’ capability to resolve complicated mathematical calculations enables them to accelerate any problem that involves metrics or other calculations. Simulating physical processes on a computer can save time and money in any production situation, giving engineers the ability to simulate any design. Modern technology in transportation allows large distances to be traveled quickly. Electric trains, airplanes, cars, and even rockets are used for this purpose (Garsten & Wulff, 2020). In this way, technology brings positive change for people who love to travel.

Despite all the positive changes, there are also disadvantages to the active development of technology. For example, more and more people are becoming dependent on the computer, TV, or cell phone. They ignore their household chores, studies, or work and spend all their time in front of a laptop or TV screen (Garsten & Wulff, 2020). Because of this, people may become inactive and less willing to work, hoping that technology will do everything for them.

In conclusion, I believe that despite some of the disadvantages, the advantages of gadgets are much more significant. Modern technology saves time and allows people to enjoy life. Moreover, new technologies in medicine also contribute to a longer life expectancy of the population and the cure of diseases that were previously beyond the reach of doctors. In addition to medicine, technology has brought significant positive changes to the fields of communication, education, and engineering. Therefore, I believe that the positive impact of technological progress on human lives cannot be denied.

Garsten, C., & Wulff, H. (2020). New technologies at work: People, screens, and social virtuality . Routledge. Web.

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Promises and Pitfalls of Technology

Politics and privacy, private-sector influence and big tech, state competition and conflict, author biography, how is technology changing the world, and how should the world change technology.

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Josephine Wolff; How Is Technology Changing the World, and How Should the World Change Technology?. Global Perspectives 1 February 2021; 2 (1): 27353. doi:

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Technologies are becoming increasingly complicated and increasingly interconnected. Cars, airplanes, medical devices, financial transactions, and electricity systems all rely on more computer software than they ever have before, making them seem both harder to understand and, in some cases, harder to control. Government and corporate surveillance of individuals and information processing relies largely on digital technologies and artificial intelligence, and therefore involves less human-to-human contact than ever before and more opportunities for biases to be embedded and codified in our technological systems in ways we may not even be able to identify or recognize. Bioengineering advances are opening up new terrain for challenging philosophical, political, and economic questions regarding human-natural relations. Additionally, the management of these large and small devices and systems is increasingly done through the cloud, so that control over them is both very remote and removed from direct human or social control. The study of how to make technologies like artificial intelligence or the Internet of Things “explainable” has become its own area of research because it is so difficult to understand how they work or what is at fault when something goes wrong (Gunning and Aha 2019) .

This growing complexity makes it more difficult than ever—and more imperative than ever—for scholars to probe how technological advancements are altering life around the world in both positive and negative ways and what social, political, and legal tools are needed to help shape the development and design of technology in beneficial directions. This can seem like an impossible task in light of the rapid pace of technological change and the sense that its continued advancement is inevitable, but many countries around the world are only just beginning to take significant steps toward regulating computer technologies and are still in the process of radically rethinking the rules governing global data flows and exchange of technology across borders.

These are exciting times not just for technological development but also for technology policy—our technologies may be more advanced and complicated than ever but so, too, are our understandings of how they can best be leveraged, protected, and even constrained. The structures of technological systems as determined largely by government and institutional policies and those structures have tremendous implications for social organization and agency, ranging from open source, open systems that are highly distributed and decentralized, to those that are tightly controlled and closed, structured according to stricter and more hierarchical models. And just as our understanding of the governance of technology is developing in new and interesting ways, so, too, is our understanding of the social, cultural, environmental, and political dimensions of emerging technologies. We are realizing both the challenges and the importance of mapping out the full range of ways that technology is changing our society, what we want those changes to look like, and what tools we have to try to influence and guide those shifts.

Technology can be a source of tremendous optimism. It can help overcome some of the greatest challenges our society faces, including climate change, famine, and disease. For those who believe in the power of innovation and the promise of creative destruction to advance economic development and lead to better quality of life, technology is a vital economic driver (Schumpeter 1942) . But it can also be a tool of tremendous fear and oppression, embedding biases in automated decision-making processes and information-processing algorithms, exacerbating economic and social inequalities within and between countries to a staggering degree, or creating new weapons and avenues for attack unlike any we have had to face in the past. Scholars have even contended that the emergence of the term technology in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries marked a shift from viewing individual pieces of machinery as a means to achieving political and social progress to the more dangerous, or hazardous, view that larger-scale, more complex technological systems were a semiautonomous form of progress in and of themselves (Marx 2010) . More recently, technologists have sharply criticized what they view as a wave of new Luddites, people intent on slowing the development of technology and turning back the clock on innovation as a means of mitigating the societal impacts of technological change (Marlowe 1970) .

At the heart of fights over new technologies and their resulting global changes are often two conflicting visions of technology: a fundamentally optimistic one that believes humans use it as a tool to achieve greater goals, and a fundamentally pessimistic one that holds that technological systems have reached a point beyond our control. Technology philosophers have argued that neither of these views is wholly accurate and that a purely optimistic or pessimistic view of technology is insufficient to capture the nuances and complexity of our relationship to technology (Oberdiek and Tiles 1995) . Understanding technology and how we can make better decisions about designing, deploying, and refining it requires capturing that nuance and complexity through in-depth analysis of the impacts of different technological advancements and the ways they have played out in all their complicated and controversial messiness across the world.

These impacts are often unpredictable as technologies are adopted in new contexts and come to be used in ways that sometimes diverge significantly from the use cases envisioned by their designers. The internet, designed to help transmit information between computer networks, became a crucial vehicle for commerce, introducing unexpected avenues for crime and financial fraud. Social media platforms like Facebook and Twitter, designed to connect friends and families through sharing photographs and life updates, became focal points of election controversies and political influence. Cryptocurrencies, originally intended as a means of decentralized digital cash, have become a significant environmental hazard as more and more computing resources are devoted to mining these forms of virtual money. One of the crucial challenges in this area is therefore recognizing, documenting, and even anticipating some of these unexpected consequences and providing mechanisms to technologists for how to think through the impacts of their work, as well as possible other paths to different outcomes (Verbeek 2006) . And just as technological innovations can cause unexpected harm, they can also bring about extraordinary benefits—new vaccines and medicines to address global pandemics and save thousands of lives, new sources of energy that can drastically reduce emissions and help combat climate change, new modes of education that can reach people who would otherwise have no access to schooling. Regulating technology therefore requires a careful balance of mitigating risks without overly restricting potentially beneficial innovations.

Nations around the world have taken very different approaches to governing emerging technologies and have adopted a range of different technologies themselves in pursuit of more modern governance structures and processes (Braman 2009) . In Europe, the precautionary principle has guided much more anticipatory regulation aimed at addressing the risks presented by technologies even before they are fully realized. For instance, the European Union’s General Data Protection Regulation focuses on the responsibilities of data controllers and processors to provide individuals with access to their data and information about how that data is being used not just as a means of addressing existing security and privacy threats, such as data breaches, but also to protect against future developments and uses of that data for artificial intelligence and automated decision-making purposes. In Germany, Technische Überwachungsvereine, or TÜVs, perform regular tests and inspections of technological systems to assess and minimize risks over time, as the tech landscape evolves. In the United States, by contrast, there is much greater reliance on litigation and liability regimes to address safety and security failings after-the-fact. These different approaches reflect not just the different legal and regulatory mechanisms and philosophies of different nations but also the different ways those nations prioritize rapid development of the technology industry versus safety, security, and individual control. Typically, governance innovations move much more slowly than technological innovations, and regulations can lag years, or even decades, behind the technologies they aim to govern.

In addition to this varied set of national regulatory approaches, a variety of international and nongovernmental organizations also contribute to the process of developing standards, rules, and norms for new technologies, including the International Organization for Standardization­ and the International Telecommunication Union. These multilateral and NGO actors play an especially important role in trying to define appropriate boundaries for the use of new technologies by governments as instruments of control for the state.

At the same time that policymakers are under scrutiny both for their decisions about how to regulate technology as well as their decisions about how and when to adopt technologies like facial recognition themselves, technology firms and designers have also come under increasing criticism. Growing recognition that the design of technologies can have far-reaching social and political implications means that there is more pressure on technologists to take into consideration the consequences of their decisions early on in the design process (Vincenti 1993; Winner 1980) . The question of how technologists should incorporate these social dimensions into their design and development processes is an old one, and debate on these issues dates back to the 1970s, but it remains an urgent and often overlooked part of the puzzle because so many of the supposedly systematic mechanisms for assessing the impacts of new technologies in both the private and public sectors are primarily bureaucratic, symbolic processes rather than carrying any real weight or influence.

Technologists are often ill-equipped or unwilling to respond to the sorts of social problems that their creations have—often unwittingly—exacerbated, and instead point to governments and lawmakers to address those problems (Zuckerberg 2019) . But governments often have few incentives to engage in this area. This is because setting clear standards and rules for an ever-evolving technological landscape can be extremely challenging, because enforcement of those rules can be a significant undertaking requiring considerable expertise, and because the tech sector is a major source of jobs and revenue for many countries that may fear losing those benefits if they constrain companies too much. This indicates not just a need for clearer incentives and better policies for both private- and public-sector entities but also a need for new mechanisms whereby the technology development and design process can be influenced and assessed by people with a wider range of experiences and expertise. If we want technologies to be designed with an eye to their impacts, who is responsible for predicting, measuring, and mitigating those impacts throughout the design process? Involving policymakers in that process in a more meaningful way will also require training them to have the analytic and technical capacity to more fully engage with technologists and understand more fully the implications of their decisions.

At the same time that tech companies seem unwilling or unable to rein in their creations, many also fear they wield too much power, in some cases all but replacing governments and international organizations in their ability to make decisions that affect millions of people worldwide and control access to information, platforms, and audiences (Kilovaty 2020) . Regulators around the world have begun considering whether some of these companies have become so powerful that they violate the tenets of antitrust laws, but it can be difficult for governments to identify exactly what those violations are, especially in the context of an industry where the largest players often provide their customers with free services. And the platforms and services developed by tech companies are often wielded most powerfully and dangerously not directly by their private-sector creators and operators but instead by states themselves for widespread misinformation campaigns that serve political purposes (Nye 2018) .

Since the largest private entities in the tech sector operate in many countries, they are often better poised to implement global changes to the technological ecosystem than individual states or regulatory bodies, creating new challenges to existing governance structures and hierarchies. Just as it can be challenging to provide oversight for government use of technologies, so, too, oversight of the biggest tech companies, which have more resources, reach, and power than many nations, can prove to be a daunting task. The rise of network forms of organization and the growing gig economy have added to these challenges, making it even harder for regulators to fully address the breadth of these companies’ operations (Powell 1990) . The private-public partnerships that have emerged around energy, transportation, medical, and cyber technologies further complicate this picture, blurring the line between the public and private sectors and raising critical questions about the role of each in providing critical infrastructure, health care, and security. How can and should private tech companies operating in these different sectors be governed, and what types of influence do they exert over regulators? How feasible are different policy proposals aimed at technological innovation, and what potential unintended consequences might they have?

Conflict between countries has also spilled over significantly into the private sector in recent years, most notably in the case of tensions between the United States and China over which technologies developed in each country will be permitted by the other and which will be purchased by other customers, outside those two countries. Countries competing to develop the best technology is not a new phenomenon, but the current conflicts have major international ramifications and will influence the infrastructure that is installed and used around the world for years to come. Untangling the different factors that feed into these tussles as well as whom they benefit and whom they leave at a disadvantage is crucial for understanding how governments can most effectively foster technological innovation and invention domestically as well as the global consequences of those efforts. As much of the world is forced to choose between buying technology from the United States or from China, how should we understand the long-term impacts of those choices and the options available to people in countries without robust domestic tech industries? Does the global spread of technologies help fuel further innovation in countries with smaller tech markets, or does it reinforce the dominance of the states that are already most prominent in this sector? How can research universities maintain global collaborations and research communities in light of these national competitions, and what role does government research and development spending play in fostering innovation within its own borders and worldwide? How should intellectual property protections evolve to meet the demands of the technology industry, and how can those protections be enforced globally?

These conflicts between countries sometimes appear to challenge the feasibility of truly global technologies and networks that operate across all countries through standardized protocols and design features. Organizations like the International Organization for Standardization, the World Intellectual Property Organization, the United Nations Industrial Development Organization, and many others have tried to harmonize these policies and protocols across different countries for years, but have met with limited success when it comes to resolving the issues of greatest tension and disagreement among nations. For technology to operate in a global environment, there is a need for a much greater degree of coordination among countries and the development of common standards and norms, but governments continue to struggle to agree not just on those norms themselves but even the appropriate venue and processes for developing them. Without greater global cooperation, is it possible to maintain a global network like the internet or to promote the spread of new technologies around the world to address challenges of sustainability? What might help incentivize that cooperation moving forward, and what could new structures and process for governance of global technologies look like? Why has the tech industry’s self-regulation culture persisted? Do the same traditional drivers for public policy, such as politics of harmonization and path dependency in policy-making, still sufficiently explain policy outcomes in this space? As new technologies and their applications spread across the globe in uneven ways, how and when do they create forces of change from unexpected places?

These are some of the questions that we hope to address in the Technology and Global Change section through articles that tackle new dimensions of the global landscape of designing, developing, deploying, and assessing new technologies to address major challenges the world faces. Understanding these processes requires synthesizing knowledge from a range of different fields, including sociology, political science, economics, and history, as well as technical fields such as engineering, climate science, and computer science. A crucial part of understanding how technology has created global change and, in turn, how global changes have influenced the development of new technologies is understanding the technologies themselves in all their richness and complexity—how they work, the limits of what they can do, what they were designed to do, how they are actually used. Just as technologies themselves are becoming more complicated, so are their embeddings and relationships to the larger social, political, and legal contexts in which they exist. Scholars across all disciplines are encouraged to join us in untangling those complexities.

Josephine Wolff is an associate professor of cybersecurity policy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy at Tufts University. Her book You’ll See This Message When It Is Too Late: The Legal and Economic Aftermath of Cybersecurity Breaches was published by MIT Press in 2018.

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  • Technology Essay


Essay on Technology

The word "technology" and its uses have immensely changed since the 20th century, and with time, it has continued to evolve ever since. We are living in a world driven by technology. The advancement of technology has played an important role in the development of human civilization, along with cultural changes. Technology provides innovative ways of doing work through various smart and innovative means. 

Electronic appliances, gadgets, faster modes of communication, and transport have added to the comfort factor in our lives. It has helped in improving the productivity of individuals and different business enterprises. Technology has brought a revolution in many operational fields. It has undoubtedly made a very important contribution to the progress that mankind has made over the years.

The Advancement of Technology:

Technology has reduced the effort and time and increased the efficiency of the production requirements in every field. It has made our lives easy, comfortable, healthy, and enjoyable. It has brought a revolution in transport and communication. The advancement of technology, along with science, has helped us to become self-reliant in all spheres of life. With the innovation of a particular technology, it becomes part of society and integral to human lives after a point in time.

Technology is Our Part of Life:

Technology has changed our day-to-day lives. Technology has brought the world closer and better connected. Those days have passed when only the rich could afford such luxuries. Because of the rise of globalisation and liberalisation, all luxuries are now within the reach of the average person. Today, an average middle-class family can afford a mobile phone, a television, a washing machine, a refrigerator, a computer, the Internet, etc. At the touch of a switch, a man can witness any event that is happening in far-off places.  

Benefits of Technology in All Fields: 

We cannot escape technology; it has improved the quality of life and brought about revolutions in various fields of modern-day society, be it communication, transportation, education, healthcare, and many more. Let us learn about it.

Technology in Communication:

With the advent of technology in communication, which includes telephones, fax machines, cellular phones, the Internet, multimedia, and email, communication has become much faster and easier. It has transformed and influenced relationships in many ways. We no longer need to rely on sending physical letters and waiting for several days for a response. Technology has made communication so simple that you can connect with anyone from anywhere by calling them via mobile phone or messaging them using different messaging apps that are easy to download.

Innovation in communication technology has had an immense influence on social life. Human socialising has become easier by using social networking sites, dating, and even matrimonial services available on mobile applications and websites.

Today, the Internet is used for shopping, paying utility bills, credit card bills, admission fees, e-commerce, and online banking. In the world of marketing, many companies are marketing and selling their products and creating brands over the internet. 

In the field of travel, cities, towns, states, and countries are using the web to post detailed tourist and event information. Travellers across the globe can easily find information on tourism, sightseeing, places to stay, weather, maps, timings for events, transportation schedules, and buy tickets to various tourist spots and destinations.

Technology in the Office or Workplace:

Technology has increased efficiency and flexibility in the workspace. Technology has made it easy to work remotely, which has increased the productivity of the employees. External and internal communication has become faster through emails and apps. Automation has saved time, and there is also a reduction in redundancy in tasks. Robots are now being used to manufacture products that consistently deliver the same product without defect until the robot itself fails. Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning technology are innovations that are being deployed across industries to reap benefits.

Technology has wiped out the manual way of storing files. Now files are stored in the cloud, which can be accessed at any time and from anywhere. With technology, companies can make quick decisions, act faster towards solutions, and remain adaptable. Technology has optimised the usage of resources and connected businesses worldwide. For example, if the customer is based in America, he can have the services delivered from India. They can communicate with each other in an instant. Every company uses business technology like virtual meeting tools, corporate social networks, tablets, and smart customer relationship management applications that accelerate the fast movement of data and information.

Technology in Education:

Technology is making the education industry improve over time. With technology, students and parents have a variety of learning tools at their fingertips. Teachers can coordinate with classrooms across the world and share their ideas and resources online. Students can get immediate access to an abundance of good information on the Internet. Teachers and students can access plenty of resources available on the web and utilise them for their project work, research, etc. Online learning has changed our perception of education. 

The COVID-19 pandemic brought a paradigm shift using technology where school-going kids continued their studies from home and schools facilitated imparting education by their teachers online from home. Students have learned and used 21st-century skills and tools, like virtual classrooms, AR (Augmented Reality), robots, etc. All these have increased communication and collaboration significantly. 

Technology in Banking:

Technology and banking are now inseparable. Technology has boosted digital transformation in how the banking industry works and has vastly improved banking services for their customers across the globe.

Technology has made banking operations very sophisticated and has reduced errors to almost nil, which were somewhat prevalent with manual human activities. Banks are adopting Artificial Intelligence (AI) to increase their efficiency and profits. With the emergence of Internet banking, self-service tools have replaced the traditional methods of banking. 

You can now access your money, handle transactions like paying bills, money transfers, and online purchases from merchants, and monitor your bank statements anytime and from anywhere in the world. Technology has made banking more secure and safe. You do not need to carry cash in your pocket or wallet; the payments can be made digitally using e-wallets. Mobile banking, banking apps, and cybersecurity are changing the face of the banking industry.

Manufacturing and Production Industry Automation:

At present, manufacturing industries are using all the latest technologies, ranging from big data analytics to artificial intelligence. Big data, ARVR (Augmented Reality and Virtual Reality), and IoT (Internet of Things) are the biggest manufacturing industry players. Automation has increased the level of productivity in various fields. It has reduced labour costs, increased efficiency, and reduced the cost of production.

For example, 3D printing is used to design and develop prototypes in the automobile industry. Repetitive work is being done easily with the help of robots without any waste of time. This has also reduced the cost of the products. 

Technology in the Healthcare Industry:

Technological advancements in the healthcare industry have not only improved our personal quality of life and longevity; they have also improved the lives of many medical professionals and students who are training to become medical experts. It has allowed much faster access to the medical records of each patient. 

The Internet has drastically transformed patients' and doctors’ relationships. Everyone can stay up to date on the latest medical discoveries, share treatment information, and offer one another support when dealing with medical issues. Modern technology has allowed us to contact doctors from the comfort of our homes. There are many sites and apps through which we can contact doctors and get medical help. 

Breakthrough innovations in surgery, artificial organs, brain implants, and networked sensors are examples of transformative developments in the healthcare industry. Hospitals use different tools and applications to perform their administrative tasks, using digital marketing to promote their services.

Technology in Agriculture:

Today, farmers work very differently than they would have decades ago. Data analytics and robotics have built a productive food system. Digital innovations are being used for plant breeding and harvesting equipment. Software and mobile devices are helping farmers harvest better. With various data and information available to farmers, they can make better-informed decisions, for example, tracking the amount of carbon stored in soil and helping with climate change.

Disadvantages of Technology:

People have become dependent on various gadgets and machines, resulting in a lack of physical activity and tempting people to lead an increasingly sedentary lifestyle. Even though technology has increased the productivity of individuals, organisations, and the nation, it has not increased the efficiency of machines. Machines cannot plan and think beyond the instructions that are fed into their system. Technology alone is not enough for progress and prosperity. Management is required, and management is a human act. Technology is largely dependent on human intervention. 

Computers and smartphones have led to an increase in social isolation. Young children are spending more time surfing the internet, playing games, and ignoring their real lives. Usage of technology is also resulting in job losses and distracting students from learning. Technology has been a reason for the production of weapons of destruction.

Dependency on technology is also increasing privacy concerns and cyber crimes, giving way to hackers.


FAQs on Technology Essay

1. What is technology?

Technology refers to innovative ways of doing work through various smart means. The advancement of technology has played an important role in the development of human civilization. It has helped in improving the productivity of individuals and businesses.

2. How has technology changed the face of banking?

Technology has made banking operations very sophisticated. With the emergence of Internet banking, self-service tools have replaced the traditional methods of banking. You can now access your money, handle transactions, and monitor your bank statements anytime and from anywhere in the world. Technology has made banking more secure and safe.

3. How has technology brought a revolution in the medical field?

Patients and doctors keep each other up to date on the most recent medical discoveries, share treatment information, and offer each other support when dealing with medical issues. It has allowed much faster access to the medical records of each patient. Modern technology has allowed us to contact doctors from the comfort of our homes. There are many websites and mobile apps through which we can contact doctors and get medical help.

4. Are we dependent on technology?

Yes, today, we are becoming increasingly dependent on technology. Computers, smartphones, and modern technology have helped humanity achieve success and progress. However, in hindsight, people need to continuously build a healthy lifestyle, sorting out personal problems that arise due to technological advancements in different aspects of human life.

How has technology changed - and changed us - in the past 20 years?

An internet surfer views the Google home page at a cafe in London, August 13, 2004.

Remember this? Image:  REUTERS/Stephen Hird

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about modern technology essay

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200-500 Word Example Essays about Technology

Got an essay assignment about technology check out these examples to inspire you.

Technology is a rapidly evolving field that has completely changed the way we live, work, and interact with one another. Technology has profoundly impacted our daily lives, from how we communicate with friends and family to how we access information and complete tasks. As a result, it's no surprise that technology is a popular topic for students writing essays.

But writing a technology essay can be challenging, especially for those needing more time or help with writer's block. This is where comes in. is an innovative AI tool explicitly designed for students who need help writing essays. With, students can quickly and easily generate essays on various topics, including technology.

This blog post aims to provide readers with various example essays on technology, all generated by These essays will be a valuable resource for students looking for inspiration or guidance as they work on their essays. By reading through these example essays, students can better understand how technology can be approached and discussed in an essay.

Moreover, by signing up for a free trial with, students can take advantage of this innovative tool and receive even more support as they work on their essays. is designed to help students write essays faster and more efficiently, so they can focus on what truly matters – learning and growing as a student. Whether you're a student who is struggling with writer's block or simply looking for a convenient way to generate essays on a wide range of topics, is the perfect solution.

The Impact of Technology on Society and Culture


Technology has become an integral part of our daily lives and has dramatically impacted how we interact, communicate, and carry out various activities. Technological advancements have brought positive and negative changes to society and culture. In this article, we will explore the impact of technology on society and culture and how it has influenced different aspects of our lives.

Positive impact on communication:

Technology has dramatically improved communication and made it easier for people to connect from anywhere in the world. Social media platforms, instant messaging, and video conferencing have brought people closer, bridging geographical distances and cultural differences. This has made it easier for people to share information, exchange ideas, and collaborate on projects.

Positive impact on education:

Students and instructors now have access to a multitude of knowledge and resources because of the effect of technology on education. Students may now study at their speed and from any location thanks to online learning platforms, educational applications, and digital textbooks.

Negative impact on critical thinking and creativity:

Technological advancements have resulted in a reduction in critical thinking and creativity. With so much information at our fingertips, individuals have become more passive in their learning, relying on the internet for solutions rather than logic and inventiveness. As a result, independent thinking and problem-solving abilities have declined.

Positive impact on entertainment:

Technology has transformed how we access and consume entertainment. People may now access a wide range of entertainment alternatives from the comfort of their own homes thanks to streaming services, gaming platforms, and online content makers. The entertainment business has entered a new age of creativity and invention as a result of this.

Negative impact on attention span:

However, the continual bombardment of information and technological stimulation has also reduced attention span and the capacity to focus. People are easily distracted and need help focusing on a single activity for a long time. This has hampered productivity and the ability to accomplish duties.

The Ethics of Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning

The development of artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) technologies has been one of the most significant technological developments of the past several decades. These cutting-edge technologies have the potential to alter several sectors of society, including commerce, industry, healthcare, and entertainment. 

As with any new and quickly advancing technology, AI and ML ethics must be carefully studied. The usage of these technologies presents significant concerns around privacy, accountability, and command. As the use of AI and ML grows more ubiquitous, we must assess their possible influence on society and investigate the ethical issues that must be taken into account as these technologies continue to develop.

What are Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning?

Artificial Intelligence is the simulation of human intelligence in machines designed to think and act like humans. Machine learning is a subfield of AI that enables computers to learn from data and improve their performance over time without being explicitly programmed.

The impact of AI and ML on Society

The use of AI and ML in various industries, such as healthcare, finance, and retail, has brought many benefits. For example, AI-powered medical diagnosis systems can identify diseases faster and more accurately than human doctors. However, there are also concerns about job displacement and the potential for AI to perpetuate societal biases.

The Ethical Considerations of AI and ML

A. Bias in AI algorithms

One of the critical ethical concerns about AI and ML is the potential for algorithms to perpetuate existing biases. This can occur if the data used to train these algorithms reflects the preferences of the people who created it. As a result, AI systems can perpetuate these biases and discriminate against certain groups of people.

B. Responsibility for AI-generated decisions

Another ethical concern is the responsibility for decisions made by AI systems. For example, who is responsible for the damage if a self-driving car causes an accident? The manufacturer of the vehicle, the software developer, or the AI algorithm itself?

C. The potential for misuse of AI and ML

AI and ML can also be used for malicious purposes, such as cyberattacks and misinformation. The need for more regulation and oversight in developing and using these technologies makes it difficult to prevent misuse.

The developments in AI and ML have given numerous benefits to humanity, but they also present significant ethical concerns that must be addressed. We must assess the repercussions of new technologies on society, implement methods to limit the associated dangers, and guarantee that they are utilized for the greater good. As AI and ML continue to play an ever-increasing role in our daily lives, we must engage in an open and frank discussion regarding their ethics.

The Future of Work And Automation

Rapid technological breakthroughs in recent years have brought about considerable changes in our way of life and work. Concerns regarding the influence of artificial intelligence and machine learning on the future of work and employment have increased alongside the development of these technologies. This article will examine the possible advantages and disadvantages of automation and its influence on the labor market, employees, and the economy.

The Advantages of Automation

Automation in the workplace offers various benefits, including higher efficiency and production, fewer mistakes, and enhanced precision. Automated processes may accomplish repetitive jobs quickly and precisely, allowing employees to concentrate on more complex and creative activities. Additionally, automation may save organizations money since it removes the need to pay for labor and minimizes the danger of workplace accidents.

The Potential Disadvantages of Automation

However, automation has significant disadvantages, including job loss and income stagnation. As robots and computers replace human labor in particular industries, there is a danger that many workers may lose their jobs, resulting in higher unemployment and more significant economic disparity. Moreover, if automation is not adequately regulated and managed, it might lead to stagnant wages and a deterioration in employees' standard of life.

The Future of Work and Automation

Despite these difficulties, automation will likely influence how labor is done. As a result, firms, employees, and governments must take early measures to solve possible issues and reap the rewards of automation. This might entail funding worker retraining programs, enhancing education and skill development, and implementing regulations that support equality and justice at work.

IV. The Need for Ethical Considerations

We must consider the ethical ramifications of automation and its effects on society as technology develops. The impact on employees and their rights, possible hazards to privacy and security, and the duty of corporations and governments to ensure that automation is utilized responsibly and ethically are all factors to be taken into account.


To summarise, the future of employment and automation will most certainly be defined by a complex interaction of technological advances, economic trends, and cultural ideals. All stakeholders must work together to handle the problems and possibilities presented by automation and ensure that technology is employed to benefit society as a whole.

The Role of Technology in Education


Nearly every part of our lives has been transformed by technology, and education is no different. Today's students have greater access to knowledge, opportunities, and resources than ever before, and technology is becoming a more significant part of their educational experience. Technology is transforming how we think about education and creating new opportunities for learners of all ages, from online courses and virtual classrooms to instructional applications and augmented reality.

Technology's Benefits for Education

The capacity to tailor learning is one of technology's most significant benefits in education. Students may customize their education to meet their unique needs and interests since they can access online information and tools. 

For instance, people can enroll in online classes on topics they are interested in, get tailored feedback on their work, and engage in virtual discussions with peers and subject matter experts worldwide. As a result, pupils are better able to acquire and develop the abilities and information necessary for success.

Challenges and Concerns

Despite the numerous advantages of technology in education, there are also obstacles and considerations to consider. One issue is the growing reliance on technology and the possibility that pupils would become overly dependent on it. This might result in a lack of critical thinking and problem-solving abilities, as students may become passive learners who only follow instructions and rely on technology to complete their assignments.

Another obstacle is the digital divide between those who have access to technology and those who do not. This division can exacerbate the achievement gap between pupils and produce uneven educational and professional growth chances. To reduce these consequences, all students must have access to the technology and resources necessary for success.

In conclusion, technology is rapidly becoming an integral part of the classroom experience and has the potential to alter the way we learn radically. 

Technology can help students flourish and realize their full potential by giving them access to individualized instruction, tools, and opportunities. While the benefits of technology in the classroom are undeniable, it's crucial to be mindful of the risks and take precautions to guarantee that all kids have access to the tools they need to thrive.

The Influence of Technology On Personal Relationships And Communication 

Technological advancements have profoundly altered how individuals connect and exchange information. It has changed the world in many ways in only a few decades. Because of the rise of the internet and various social media sites, maintaining relationships with people from all walks of life is now simpler than ever. 

However, concerns about how these developments may affect interpersonal connections and dialogue are inevitable in an era of rapid technological growth. In this piece, we'll discuss how the prevalence of digital media has altered our interpersonal connections and the language we use to express ourselves.

Direct Effect on Direct Interaction:

The disruption of face-to-face communication is a particularly stark example of how technology has impacted human connections. The quality of interpersonal connections has suffered due to people's growing preference for digital over human communication. Technology has been demonstrated to reduce the usage of nonverbal signs such as facial expressions, tone of voice, and other indicators of emotional investment in the connection.

Positive Impact on Long-Distance Relationships:

Yet there are positives to be found as well. Long-distance relationships have also benefited from technological advancements. The development of technologies such as video conferencing, instant messaging, and social media has made it possible for individuals to keep in touch with distant loved ones. It has become simpler for individuals to stay in touch and feel connected despite geographical distance.

The Effects of Social Media on Personal Connections:

The widespread use of social media has had far-reaching consequences, especially on the quality of interpersonal interactions. Social media has positive and harmful effects on relationships since it allows people to keep in touch and share life's milestones.

Unfortunately, social media has made it all too easy to compare oneself to others, which may lead to emotions of jealousy and a general decline in confidence. Furthermore, social media might cause people to have inflated expectations of themselves and their relationships.

A Personal Perspective on the Intersection of Technology and Romance

Technological advancements have also altered physical touch and closeness. Virtual reality and other technologies have allowed people to feel physical contact and familiarity in a digital setting. This might be a promising breakthrough, but it has some potential downsides. 

Experts are concerned that people's growing dependence on technology for intimacy may lead to less time spent communicating face-to-face and less emphasis on physical contact, both of which are important for maintaining good relationships.

In conclusion, technological advancements have significantly affected the quality of interpersonal connections and the exchange of information. Even though technology has made it simpler to maintain personal relationships, it has chilled interpersonal interactions between people. 

Keeping tabs on how technology is changing our lives and making adjustments as necessary is essential as we move forward. Boundaries and prioritizing in-person conversation and physical touch in close relationships may help reduce the harm it causes.

The Security and Privacy Implications of Increased Technology Use and Data Collection

The fast development of technology over the past few decades has made its way into every aspect of our life. Technology has improved many facets of our life, from communication to commerce. However, significant privacy and security problems have emerged due to the broad adoption of technology. In this essay, we'll look at how the widespread use of technological solutions and the subsequent explosion in collected data affects our right to privacy and security.

Data Mining and Privacy Concerns

Risk of Cyber Attacks and Data Loss

The Widespread Use of Encryption and Other Safety Mechanisms

The Privacy and Security of the Future in a Globalized Information Age

Obtaining and Using Individual Information

The acquisition and use of private information is a significant cause for privacy alarm in the digital age. Data about their customers' online habits, interests, and personal information is a valuable commodity for many internet firms. Besides tailored advertising, this information may be used for other, less desirable things like identity theft or cyber assaults.

Moreover, many individuals need to be made aware of what data is being gathered from them or how it is being utilized because of the lack of transparency around gathering personal information. Privacy and data security have become increasingly contentious as a result.

Data breaches and other forms of cyber-attack pose a severe risk.

The risk of cyber assaults and data breaches is another big issue of worry. More people are using more devices, which means more opportunities for cybercriminals to steal private information like credit card numbers and other identifying data. This may cause monetary damages and harm one's reputation or identity.

Many high-profile data breaches have occurred in recent years, exposing the personal information of millions of individuals and raising serious concerns about the safety of this information. Companies and governments have responded to this problem by adopting new security methods like encryption and multi-factor authentication.

Many businesses now use encryption and other security measures to protect themselves from cybercriminals and data thieves. Encryption keeps sensitive information hidden by encoding it so that only those possessing the corresponding key can decipher it. This prevents private information like bank account numbers or social security numbers from falling into the wrong hands.

Firewalls, virus scanners, and two-factor authentication are all additional security precautions that may be used with encryption. While these safeguards do much to stave against cyber assaults, they are not entirely impregnable, and data breaches are still possible.

The Future of Privacy and Security in a Technologically Advanced World

There's little doubt that concerns about privacy and security will persist even as technology improves. There must be strict safeguards to secure people's private information as more and more of it is transferred and kept digitally. To achieve this goal, it may be necessary to implement novel technologies and heightened levels of protection and to revise the rules and regulations regulating the collection and storage of private information.

Individuals and businesses are understandably concerned about the security and privacy consequences of widespread technological use and data collecting. There are numerous obstacles to overcome in a society where technology plays an increasingly important role, from acquiring and using personal data to the risk of cyber-attacks and data breaches. Companies and governments must keep spending money on security measures and working to educate people about the significance of privacy and security if personal data is to remain safe.

In conclusion, technology has profoundly impacted virtually every aspect of our lives, including society and culture, ethics, work, education, personal relationships, and security and privacy. The rise of artificial intelligence and machine learning has presented new ethical considerations, while automation is transforming the future of work. 

In education, technology has revolutionized the way we learn and access information. At the same time, our dependence on technology has brought new challenges in terms of personal relationships, communication, security, and privacy. is an AI tool that can help students write essays easily and quickly. Whether you're looking, for example, for essays on any of these topics or are seeking assistance in writing your essay, offers a convenient solution. Sign up for a free trial today and experience the benefits of AI-powered writing assistance for yourself.

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How To Write An Ielts Essay On Modern Technology?

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Updated on 13 April, 2023

Mrinal Mandal

Mrinal Mandal

Study abroad expert.

Mrinal Mandal

An IELTS essay is structured like all other essays - introduction, body, and conclusion. Task 2 or the essay writing test of the IELTS writing section needs to be completed within 40 minutes, and the minimum word count is 250 words. The questions around general interest topics are mostly repeated by changing the question pattern and wording. Essays on modern technology have been frequently included as a part of task 2 over the years. 

Success in IELTS task 2 is purely based on technique and practice. These tips and samples of   IELTS essays on modern technology   will help aspirants prepare for the writing task.

Table of Contents

  • Modern technology is a Gift of God. Discuss the Advantages and disadvantages.
  • Start Your Preparation Now With these Free Guides

Modern technologies have boosted the Agricultural Sector. Give Your Opinion.

Tips to write a winning essay, popular study abroad destinations, essay on modern technology: sample 1, modern technology is a gift of god. discuss the advantages and disadvantages. .

It was not very long ago when we had to actually pull out a large folded map to get directions while traveling. Nowadays, we click on Google Maps or ask Siri and we can access the entire map on our devices. The modern generation is quite technical and we can access any information with ease. Now, we like everything to be 'quick'. The days of searching for a book in the library are gone. The world is at our fingertips with the help of smartphones, the internet, technology, and various smart devices. Throughout the day, we use technologies to accomplish our daily tasks and assist in our routine activities.

However, it is disheartening that modern technology has changed the way societies were tied to each other. Bonds were emotional and genuine, cultural aspects were there, and humans were more physically active. These shiny pieces of tech do have some drawbacks. Let us take a look at some of the advantages and disadvantages of modern technology. 

Modern technologies have helped us stay connected with people from all across the world. We have taken to technology like fish to water and it has become very difficult to survive without it. 

How many lives have been saved so far with the help of modern medical technologies? Well, the numbers are uncountable. Modern equipment, technology, and better healthcare facilities have helped humans defeat chronic and acute health crises. 

Secondly, satellite communications continuously broadcast data around the globe to our computers and handheld devices. We get to watch our favorite shows, movies, news; know the weather conditions, forthcoming disasters, and even trade-in stock markets. 

Thirdly, the education system has improved. It is due to modern technology that the students were able to study from home during the pandemic. Modern technologies have helped mankind with a better standard of living. Innovative technologies for household chores and modern facilities have made a significant contribution towards better living conditions. At times, it seems like a gift of god for the betterment of mankind. But it has its drawbacks too.

Ours is a technology-dominated society. Even the simplest of things are done with the help of a machine or devices. Eventually, everything seems artificial. Below are some of the threats that individuals need to be careful of. 

Simply put, even the things that need little effort are now being done with the help of technology. We prefer to read on a light-emitting device and instead of books. We prefer to drive instead of walking a mile. Our social skills are also getting compromised as we believe in communication through online modes. Gone are the days when we used to understand non-verbal cues more than the texts.

What impact does it have on our minds? Will technologies like AI and ML replace manpower in the coming years? Maybe! Without realizing the extent of dependency and the cons associated with it, we are blindly adopting modern tech to make life easier. It makes everything virtual and impairs the power of real human interaction. We tend to find more value in communication through a device rather than face-to-face interaction. 

By making things easier, modern technologies have also invited a lot of crimes. Modern technologies open more opportunities for crime. Smart devices and technological advancements are being used in negative ways too. Many illegal activities are carried out online through social media platforms, targeting the young generation.

Technological dependency has made the lifestyle sluggish and costly too. Our standard of living is getting higher and higher with more expensive technologies coming into our day-to-day lives. Hence, we end up taking the massive burden to get more materialistic happiness. 

Technology is changing the way we used to live. The famous saying 'technology is a useful servant but a dangerous master' needs to be implemented in our lives. Nowadays, it is apparent that we are not controlling our smart devices, but our devices are controlling us. Modern technologies have both advantages and disadvantages to offer to mankind, it depends upon how sensibly we embrace them.

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IELTS Essay on Modern Technology: Sample 2

Agriculture & Food Production is one domain which has been in dire need of innovation and technological advancement. Climatic change, low awareness among farmers, natural hazards, resource depletion, floods, and opaque supply chains have led to low productivity and profitability in farming. Modern technologies have developed a digital agricultural presence, where the high yield makes the country self-sustaining. Modern technologies like artificial intelligence, GIS Software, big data, applications, sensors, and cloud computing have boosted agricultural productivity. In my opinion, the incorporation of modern technologies has been a blessing to the agricultural sector. 

Modern technologies in precision agriculture have been developing new ways of managing farms, treatment of crops, and food systems. Digital presence has made agriculture profitable, safe, and effective. Modern farms get significant benefits from digital agriculture. Let us check some of the ways modern technologies have helped agriculture. 

Firstly, GIS Software or Geographic Information System is a digital technology that helps the farmers stay alert about the changes that are taking place in the farms like plant health, crop yield, changes in moisture, and temperature. The GPS integrated software applications enable pesticide optimization and fertilizer control so that the farmers can treat a specific affected area and not the entire farm. This helps in the conservation of time, manpower, and capital.

Secondly, drones offer data from the sky. It takes images of the large farmlands with high precision. Several conditions like crop height, mass cultivation, soil erosion, waterlogging, and level of precipitation can be traced. These drones help the farmers monitor each part of the land effectively. Within a short time frame, drones can offer every information and data about a large farm. Various hazards are prevented and decision-making has become easier with the application of drones in farming. 

Thirdly, mobile applications have kept the entire agricultural supply chain transparent and in proper coordination. Through these mobile applications, retailers, farmers, sellers, and suppliers can communicate with one another and receive all the latest updates and insights. Mobile applications help in decision-making and awareness increase, which results in productivity, transparency, and profitability. 

Fourthly, agriculture has incorporated Artificial intelligence and Machine Learning to produce healthy crops, organize data for farmers, control pests, workload management, and decision-making throughout the agricultural supply chain. Data is important. AI and ML process the unstructured data into a useful insight that can be used to make better decisions regarding the productivity of agriculture. Artificial Intelligence makes the farmers aware of the weather forecasting so that they sow and reap the crops accordingly to reap maximum yield. 

Simply put, modern technologies are not only automating the entire agricultural sector but also enabling precise cultivation with high productivity and sustainability. The concerns of labor, resource depletion, soil health, data, and opaque supply chain in agriculture are slowly being eradicated with modern technology.

More Resources to Read About IELTS:

  • The minimum word limit for  writing task 2 is 250 words. If test takers submit an essay below 250 words, they will lose marks. 
  • The time limit is 40 minutes for task 2 essay writing. Plan your essay, so that you complete it within the time given. 
  • Practice common topics like art, crime, education, modern technology, historical sites, social problems, public smoking, and many others. 
  • There are various types of essays that are asked in task 2. Practice all the types of essays. Some of the common ones are opinion-based essays, advantage and disadvantage essays, problem-solution essays, and agree-disagree essays.
  • Learn vocabulary relevant to topics. You need a rich vocabulary to come up with good ideas and avoid repetition of words. 
  • Understand how task 2 is evaluated. The important criteria are lexical resources, vocabulary, grammar, and coherence. Focus on all the aspects. 
  • If you are writing an opinion essay, you need to give your opinion after you discuss both sides (agreeing and disagreeing). Stick to the same opinion from introduction to conclusion.
  • For an advantage and disadvantage essay, you need to write an introduction, then two paragraphs on the advantages and disadvantages of the issue, followed by your opinion and a conclusion. Give equal weight to both advantage and disadvantage. One side should not be outweighed unless the question demands. 
  • The introduction should have an outline or overview of some of the most important features and facts about the topic. 
  • Organize your essay in short paragraphs. This increases the readability of the essay. 
  • Proofread your essay to scan minor and major mistakes.

Practicing essay samples are helpful for IELTS task 2 preparation. Writing task 2 contributes to 66% of the total writing score. It is important to learn and practice the right writing skills. For more information related to task 2 essay on modern technology or other topics, get in touch with the experts of  upGrad Abroad .

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Essay on Technology – A Boon or Bane for Students


500+ Words Essay on Technology for Students

In this essay on technology, we are going to discuss what technology is, what are its uses, and also what technology can do? First of all, technology refers to the use of technical and scientific knowledge to create, monitor, and design machinery. Also, technology helps in making other goods that aid mankind.

Essay on Technology – A Boon or Bane?

Experts are debating on this topic for years. Also, the technology covered a long way to make human life easier but the negative aspect of it can’t be ignored. Over the years technological advancement has caused a severe rise in pollution . Also, pollution has become a major cause of many health issues. Besides, it has cut off people from society rather than connecting them. Above all, it has taken away many jobs from the workers class.

Essay on technology

Familiarity between Technology and Science

As they are completely different fields but they are interdependent on each other. Also, it is due to science contribution we can create new innovation and build new technological tools. Apart from that, the research conducted in laboratories contributes a lot to the development of technologies. On the other hand, technology extends the agenda of science.

Vital Part of our Life

Regularly evolving technology has become an important part of our lives. Also, newer technologies are taking the market by storm and the people are getting used to them in no time. Above all, technological advancement has led to the growth and development of nations.

Negative Aspect of Technology

Although technology is a good thing, everything has two sides. Technology also has two sides one is good and the other is bad. Here are some negative aspects of technology that we are going to discuss.

Get the huge list of more than 500 Essay Topics and Ideas

With new technology the industrialization increases which give birth to many pollutions like air, water, soil, and noise. Also, they cause many health-related issues in animals, birds, and human beings.

Exhaustion of Natural Resources

New technology requires new resources for which the balance is disturbed. Eventually, this will lead to over-exploitation of natural resources which ultimately disturbs the balance of nature.


A single machine can replace many workers. Also, machines can do work at a constant pace for several hours or days without stopping. Due to this, many workers lost their job which ultimately increases unemployment .

Types of Technology

Generally, we judge technology on the same scale but in reality, technology is divided into various types. This includes information technology, industrial technology , architectural technology, creative technology and many more. Let’s discuss these technologies in brief.

Industrial Technology

This technology organizes engineering and manufacturing technology for the manufacturing of machines. Also, this makes the production process easier and convenient.

Creative Technology

This process includes art, advertising, and product design which are made with the help of software. Also, it comprises of 3D printers , virtual reality, computer graphics, and other wearable technologies.

Information Technology

This technology involves the use of telecommunication and computer to send, receive and store information. Internet is the best example of Information technology.

about modern technology essay

FAQs on Essay on Technology

Q.1 What is Information technology?

A –  It is a form of technology that uses telecommunication and computer systems for study. Also, they send, retrieve, and store data.

Q.2 Is technology harmful to humans?

 A – No, technology is not harmful to human beings until it is used properly. But, misuses of technology can be harmful and deadly.

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Essays on Modern Technology

Research Question:  What affect does identity theft have on the economy? Thesis Statement:  While financial and health institutions are rolling out modern ways of identifying and interacting with their clients, the rate of identity is alarming and the economy is losing billions of dollars annually. Thus, strict policies and public awareness...

Healthcare has made a lot of progress recently. There are many models that have been developed to explain how health care is delivered and how it is paid for. The value-based reimbursement approach investigates how to pay medical staff and facilities based on the value they contribute to patients. They...

The university must continue to keep track of its cloning operations because it has been accused of breaking the Human Cloning Act. It complies with Section 300 of the Human Cloning Act, which mandates that organizations involved in human cloning maintain records on each cloning for a time span of...

Six organizations that share intelligence information have made exclusive investments in their websites so that visitors can access pertinent content like publications, articles, and training courses. IACP and other intelligence rules are present on some websites. Additionally, complex police-related areas are addressed, like undercover operations. By addressing problems with policy-making, analysis,...

Thanks to improved services like technology that have reshaped the typical workplace over the past few decades, workplaces have recently evolved and changed for the best. The office of the past is no longer there; it has been replaced by the technology that has quickly advanced and enabled workers to...

Due to the fact that we rely on social media for communication, networking, and keeping in touch, it has become an essential part of our daily existence. However, we must take into account how this might be impacting our interpersonal connections and interactions. Social media has many negative effects, most...

Words: 3355

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The emergence of organized infantry masses that demonstrated a sense of community through the use of spears is the subject of Lee s chapter three thesis, Men in Line with Spears. Lee starts off by pointing out how a spear was a complex and practical weapon that was...

Nearly all educational institutions regularly use technology for educational reasons, and many other organizations also use it to carry out their core business operations. (Lenhart et al. 356). The level of online interaction via broadcasting has reached a peak recently thanks to the rise in computer usage and the development...

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Closed-circuit television (CCTV), also known as video cameras, is a common component of contemporary monitoring. The tendency has accelerated as a result of the availability of ever-cheaper cameras and the fear of terrorism, with both public and private security officials using advanced systems that are problematic for contemporary society. (Choi...

According to this study's authors (Kaufman, Sauvé, Renaud, Sixsmith, & Mortenson, 2016), playing digital games can improve seniors' quality of life by enhancing their cognitive, social, and physical skills. The research identifies playing patterns, associated socio-emotional and cognitive benefits, and difficulties adults face when playing digital games. Researchers are curious...

Since the beginning of time, conflict has been a component of human existence due to the diversity of human viewpoints. Humanity as a whole uses conflict frequently in daily living, including in government regulations, trade, and even technology. Due to technological advancement, the world is both growing larger and smaller,...

The majority of studies in the applied sciences and engineering have shown that technology is an environmental factor that contributes to increased innovations and inventions. (Arthur, 2009). Technology has had a significant effect on a wide range of industries, including the advertising industry. Most of the time, modern technology has...

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September 1, 2022

Essay on Modern Technology- Suitable for all students

Essay on Modern Technology

Modern Technology Essay- 1

Essay on Modern Technology -Introduction: This is not only an age of science but also an age of technology. Both science and technology are closely related. The dreams of yesterday have become the realities today. Modern technology plays a vital role in all respects and aspects of life. It is becoming a part and parcel or indispensable part of all operations in agriculture, industry, transport, communication, information entertainment, space. underground etc.

New Vitals : From the Stone Age upto the Hi-tech Age the human race travelled a long distance. But today it finds itself on the threshold of new discoveries, invention and explorations of unparalleled excitements. Modern technology has opened new vitals of opportunities for us.

The Technology pattern: Under the towering tutelage of technology patterns of employment are getting more and more daunting and rewarding. The pattern of employment in the fast changing scenario both at home and abroad would have remained static but they would be molded by the demands of market forces under the single or so to speak overall umbrella of technology.

Employment opportunities may shrink for those who are rolling stones, but vastly expanding for those who keep pace with the turns and twists of technology in day to day human quest; aspirations and achievements. As a result, patterns of employment need holding degrees or diplomas in liberal education.

Don’t Forget to Check: Essay in English

But those who are claiming to be the jack of all trades but they are the masters of none, they may not find the going as lucrative us the demand for those who are experts and specialists in their respective aspects, The way technology is entering into our lives, finding employment with the ordinary or general degrees would not be a child’s play.

A change in attitude towards work and lifestyle enables enterprising professionals to start an independent set up in a comfortable home. The educated women, under the rapidly increasing influence of technology, can become compatible and co-operative to their own husbands whose business operations are generally piloted or, done, and maintained from residential premises.

New mechanism: We are now rapidly moving into a world where there will be mills, factories, and industries without workers, agro-based productions without farms of farmers. In agriculture, farm mechanization has drastically reduced the farm labor force. Computerized robots are being used in farms for more production.

Conclusion: Until recently, the craze for government jobs was a compulsive obsession with most job seekers. The same mania drove the best brains to the higher echelons of administrative services. But now the outlines on the horizons of employment have changed drastically and dramatically. Now the steering is in the reverse gear and the most ambitions are looking towards the corporate sector.

Whereas the new thinkers perdict that rapid techonological developments generally lead to unprecedented job retrenchments worldwide, and the resulting employment crisis is structural in nature and may get increasingly worsened in the foresecable future. The present technological developments amount to the Third Industrial Revolution. The first industrial revolution in the 19th century was characterized by coal and the steam engine. The Second Industrial Revolution in the 1920s by oil and electronic name, the third is driven by information technology and the new biotechnologies. The technology is advancing fast and production is rising or increasing ambitiousbut jobs are being lost.

about modern technology essay

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Technology Essay

Technology has changed our daily lives. Technology has made the world closer and more connected. With increasing globalization and liberalization, all benefits are now within the reach of people. Today, the average middle-class family can afford mobile phones, televisions, washing machines, refrigerators, computers, the internet, and more. We can witness events unfolding far away at the touch of a button. Here are a few sample essays on the topic ‘technology’.

100 Words Essay On Technology

200 words essay on technology, 500 words essay on technology, importance of technology in education, importance of technology in health sector, disadvantages of technology.

Technology Essay

Communication has become much faster and easier with the advent of technology such as telephones, fax machines, mobile phones, the Internet, multimedia, and email. There is no more resorting to sending physical letters and waiting days for a reply. Technology has made communication so easy that we can connect with anyone from anywhere by making a call on our mobile phones or sending a message. Innovation in communication technology has a powerful impact on social life. Human socializing has become easier with the use of social networking sites, dating services, and even matrimonial and gaming services available on mobile applications and websites. Technology has proven to be a boon to society in all aspects.

Technology is the study and application of technical aspects of materials, science, and nature to design mechanical, electrical, biological, and information systems to increase efficiency and make life easier. The history of technology dates back to the Neolithic Age or earlier. Pre-Neolithic people put their skills, resources, and developed technologies to their best use. Since then, technology has brought incredible advances to people's lives.

The first visible use of large-scale technology began in the 18th century as the Industrial Revolution, when the human hand was replaced by machine tools. After that, many researchers, scientists, and engineers tried to bring technology closer to humans. This human-technology connection has made our lives more technology-dependent and child's play.

Technology has moved from the atomic level to the gross level of our daily lives. Life without technology is unimaginable. The implementation of technology has made it possible to see other planets several light-years away. Technology has also mobilized our economy. People can easily hang out with friends and relatives, near or far, as they like. We can easily find the existence of technology such as shopping, automation, IT, medicine, space, education, and communication. Technology has therefore made the lives of human beings easier and efficient.

Technology is the scientific knowledge used to manufacture things. As technology advances, we all gravitate toward new tools and techniques. From an early age, children observe how their parents and family use technology. In this regard, they begin to adapt as well. We recognize that technology is booming in today's world—that is contributing to human development. We all depend on technology and its applications. Everyone uses technology to make life easier. Technologies used in our daily lives include consumer electronics, computers, laptops, mobile phones, gadgets, and applications. Most importantly, it improves the quality of life and overall human development. Needless to say, technology is used in many fields such as science, medicine, agriculture, space, education, and research.

With growing educational technology, children experience a better learning environment. They can extract and learn tough concepts. With the help of technology, children can share and discuss their questions with their teachers. Also, they can network with people around the world to gain knowledge and also access resources for exams and project work.

Technology continues to improve the education industry over time. Technology puts a variety of learning tools at our fingertips for students and parents. Teachers can collaborate with classrooms around the world and share ideas and resources online. Students have instant access to a wealth of great information on the Internet. Teachers and students can access numerous resources available on the Internet and use them for project work, research, and more. Online learning has changed the education system.

The COVID-19 pandemic has brought about a paradigm shift through the use of technology. School-age children continue to be educated at home, and schools are making it easier for teachers to provide education online from home. The student learned and used his 21st-century skills and tools such as virtual classrooms, AR (augmented reality), and robotics. All of these have greatly improved communication and collaboration.

Technological advancements have improved the quality of life and longevity of individuals and the lives of many medical professionals and students training to become medical professionals. It allows quick access to each patient's medical records. The Internet has dramatically changed the patient-physician relationship. Everyone can stay on top of the latest medical discoveries, share treatment information, and support each other in dealing with medical issues. Thanks to modern technology, it is now possible to contact a doctor from the comfort of your home. There are many websites and apps for contacting doctors and getting medical help.

Breakthrough innovations in surgery, artificial organs, brain implants, and connected sensors are examples of groundbreaking developments in the healthcare industry. Hospitals use a variety of tools and applications to perform administrative tasks and use digital marketing to promote their services.

People have become dependent on various gadgets and machines, leading to a lack of exercise and an increasingly sedentary lifestyle. Computers and smartphones are increasing social isolation. Young children spend a lot of time surfing the internet, playing games, and ignoring real life. The use of technology also leads to unemployment and discourages students from learning. Dependence on technology also increases privacy concerns and cybercrime, giving way to hackers.

Explore Career Options (By Industry)

  • Construction
  • Entertainment
  • Manufacturing
  • Information Technology

Bio Medical Engineer

The field of biomedical engineering opens up a universe of expert chances. An Individual in the biomedical engineering career path work in the field of engineering as well as medicine, in order to find out solutions to common problems of the two fields. The biomedical engineering job opportunities are to collaborate with doctors and researchers to develop medical systems, equipment, or devices that can solve clinical problems. Here we will be discussing jobs after biomedical engineering, how to get a job in biomedical engineering, biomedical engineering scope, and salary. 

Data Administrator

Database professionals use software to store and organise data such as financial information, and customer shipping records. Individuals who opt for a career as data administrators ensure that data is available for users and secured from unauthorised sales. DB administrators may work in various types of industries. It may involve computer systems design, service firms, insurance companies, banks and hospitals.

Geotechnical engineer

The role of geotechnical engineer starts with reviewing the projects needed to define the required material properties. The work responsibilities are followed by a site investigation of rock, soil, fault distribution and bedrock properties on and below an area of interest. The investigation is aimed to improve the ground engineering design and determine their engineering properties that include how they will interact with, on or in a proposed construction. 

The role of geotechnical engineer in mining includes designing and determining the type of foundations, earthworks, and or pavement subgrades required for the intended man-made structures to be made. Geotechnical engineering jobs are involved in earthen and concrete dam construction projects, working under a range of normal and extreme loading conditions. 


How fascinating it is to represent the whole world on just a piece of paper or a sphere. With the help of maps, we are able to represent the real world on a much smaller scale. Individuals who opt for a career as a cartographer are those who make maps. But, cartography is not just limited to maps, it is about a mixture of art , science , and technology. As a cartographer, not only you will create maps but use various geodetic surveys and remote sensing systems to measure, analyse, and create different maps for political, cultural or educational purposes.

GIS officer work on various GIS software to conduct a study and gather spatial and non-spatial information. GIS experts update the GIS data and maintain it. The databases include aerial or satellite imagery, latitudinal and longitudinal coordinates, and manually digitized images of maps. In a career as GIS expert, one is responsible for creating online and mobile maps.

Ethical Hacker

A career as ethical hacker involves various challenges and provides lucrative opportunities in the digital era where every giant business and startup owns its cyberspace on the world wide web. Individuals in the ethical hacker career path try to find the vulnerabilities in the cyber system to get its authority. If he or she succeeds in it then he or she gets its illegal authority. Individuals in the ethical hacker career path then steal information or delete the file that could affect the business, functioning, or services of the organization.

Database Architect

If you are intrigued by the programming world and are interested in developing communications networks then a career as database architect may be a good option for you. Data architect roles and responsibilities include building design models for data communication networks. Wide Area Networks (WANs), local area networks (LANs), and intranets are included in the database networks. It is expected that database architects will have in-depth knowledge of a company's business to develop a network to fulfil the requirements of the organisation. Stay tuned as we look at the larger picture and give you more information on what is db architecture, why you should pursue database architecture, what to expect from such a degree and what your job opportunities will be after graduation. Here, we will be discussing how to become a data architect. Students can visit NIT Trichy , IIT Kharagpur , JMI New Delhi . 

Data Analyst

The invention of the database has given fresh breath to the people involved in the data analytics career path. Analysis refers to splitting up a whole into its individual components for individual analysis. Data analysis is a method through which raw data are processed and transformed into information that would be beneficial for user strategic thinking.

Data are collected and examined to respond to questions, evaluate hypotheses or contradict theories. It is a tool for analyzing, transforming, modeling, and arranging data with useful knowledge, to assist in decision-making and methods, encompassing various strategies, and is used in different fields of business, research, and social science.

Bank Probationary Officer (PO)

A career as Bank Probationary Officer (PO) is seen as a promising career opportunity and a white-collar career. Each year aspirants take the Bank PO exam . This career provides plenty of career development and opportunities for a successful banking future. If you have more questions about a career as  Bank Probationary Officer (PO),  what is probationary officer  or how to become a Bank Probationary Officer (PO) then you can read the article and clear all your doubts. 

Finance Executive

A career as a Finance Executive requires one to be responsible for monitoring an organisation's income, investments and expenses to create and evaluate financial reports. His or her role involves performing audits, invoices, and budget preparations. He or she manages accounting activities, bank reconciliations, and payable and receivable accounts.  

Investment Banker

An Investment Banking career involves the invention and generation of capital for other organizations, governments, and other entities. Individuals who opt for a career as Investment Bankers are the head of a team dedicated to raising capital by issuing bonds. Investment bankers are termed as the experts who have their fingers on the pulse of the current financial and investing climate. Students can pursue various Investment Banker courses, such as Banking and Insurance , and  Economics to opt for an Investment Banking career path.

Bank Branch Manager

Bank Branch Managers work in a specific section of banking related to the invention and generation of capital for other organisations, governments, and other entities. Bank Branch Managers work for the organisations and underwrite new debts and equity securities for all type of companies, aid in the sale of securities, as well as help to facilitate mergers and acquisitions, reorganisations, and broker trades for both institutions and private investors.

Treasury analyst career path is often regarded as certified treasury specialist in some business situations, is a finance expert who specifically manages a company or organisation's long-term and short-term financial targets. Treasurer synonym could be a financial officer, which is one of the reputed positions in the corporate world. In a large company, the corporate treasury jobs hold power over the financial decision-making of the total investment and development strategy of the organisation.

Product Manager

A Product Manager is a professional responsible for product planning and marketing. He or she manages the product throughout the Product Life Cycle, gathering and prioritising the product. A product manager job description includes defining the product vision and working closely with team members of other departments to deliver winning products.  


An underwriter is a person who assesses and evaluates the risk of insurance in his or her field like mortgage, loan, health policy, investment, and so on and so forth. The underwriter career path does involve risks as analysing the risks means finding out if there is a way for the insurance underwriter jobs to recover the money from its clients. If the risk turns out to be too much for the company then in the future it is an underwriter who will be held accountable for it. Therefore, one must carry out his or her job with a lot of attention and diligence.

Transportation Planner

A career as Transportation Planner requires technical application of science and technology in engineering, particularly the concepts, equipment and technologies involved in the production of products and services. In fields like land use, infrastructure review, ecological standards and street design, he or she considers issues of health, environment and performance. A Transportation Planner assigns resources for implementing and designing programmes. He or she is responsible for assessing needs, preparing plans and forecasts and compliance with regulations.

Individuals in the architecture career are the building designers who plan the whole construction keeping the safety and requirements of the people. Individuals in architect career in India provides professional services for new constructions, alterations, renovations and several other activities. Individuals in architectural careers in India visit site locations to visualize their projects and prepare scaled drawings to submit to a client or employer as a design. Individuals in architecture careers also estimate build costs, materials needed, and the projected time frame to complete a build.

Landscape Architect

Having a landscape architecture career, you are involved in site analysis, site inventory, land planning, planting design, grading, stormwater management, suitable design, and construction specification. Frederick Law Olmsted, the designer of Central Park in New York introduced the title “landscape architect”. The Australian Institute of Landscape Architects (AILA) proclaims that "Landscape Architects research, plan, design and advise on the stewardship, conservation and sustainability of development of the environment and spaces, both within and beyond the built environment". Therefore, individuals who opt for a career as a landscape architect are those who are educated and experienced in landscape architecture. Students need to pursue various landscape architecture degrees, such as  M.Des , M.Plan to become landscape architects. If you have more questions regarding a career as a landscape architect or how to become a landscape architect then you can read the article to get your doubts cleared. 

An expert in plumbing is aware of building regulations and safety standards and works to make sure these standards are upheld. Testing pipes for leakage using air pressure and other gauges, and also the ability to construct new pipe systems by cutting, fitting, measuring and threading pipes are some of the other more involved aspects of plumbing. Individuals in the plumber career path are self-employed or work for a small business employing less than ten people, though some might find working for larger entities or the government more desirable.

Construction Manager

Individuals who opt for a career as construction managers have a senior-level management role offered in construction firms. Responsibilities in the construction management career path are assigning tasks to workers, inspecting their work, and coordinating with other professionals including architects, subcontractors, and building services engineers.

Carpenters are typically construction workers. They stay involved in performing many types of construction activities. It includes cutting, fitting and assembling wood.  Carpenters may help in building constructions, bridges, big ships and boats. Here, in the article, we will discuss carpenter career path, carpenter salary, how to become a carpenter, carpenter job outlook.

An individual who opts for a career as a welder is a professional tradesman who is skilled in creating a fusion between two metal pieces to join it together with the use of a manual or fully automatic welding machine in their welder career path. It is joined by intense heat and gas released between the metal pieces through the welding machine to permanently fix it. 

Environmental Engineer

Individuals who opt for a career as an environmental engineer are construction professionals who utilise the skills and knowledge of biology, soil science, chemistry and the concept of engineering to design and develop projects that serve as solutions to various environmental problems. 

Orthotist and Prosthetist

Orthotists and Prosthetists are professionals who provide aid to patients with disabilities. They fix them to artificial limbs (prosthetics) and help them to regain stability. There are times when people lose their limbs in an accident. In some other occasions, they are born without a limb or orthopaedic impairment. Orthotists and prosthetists play a crucial role in their lives with fixing them to assistive devices and provide mobility.

Veterinary Doctor

A veterinary doctor is a medical professional with a degree in veterinary science. The veterinary science qualification is the minimum requirement to become a veterinary doctor. There are numerous veterinary science courses offered by various institutes. He or she is employed at zoos to ensure they are provided with good health facilities and medical care to improve their life expectancy.


A career in pathology in India is filled with several responsibilities as it is a medical branch and affects human lives. The demand for pathologists has been increasing over the past few years as people are getting more aware of different diseases. Not only that, but an increase in population and lifestyle changes have also contributed to the increase in a pathologist’s demand. The pathology careers provide an extremely huge number of opportunities and if you want to be a part of the medical field you can consider being a pathologist. If you want to know more about a career in pathology in India then continue reading this article.


Gynaecology can be defined as the study of the female body. The job outlook for gynaecology is excellent since there is evergreen demand for one because of their responsibility of dealing with not only women’s health but also fertility and pregnancy issues. Although most women prefer to have a women obstetrician gynaecologist as their doctor, men also explore a career as a gynaecologist and there are ample amounts of male doctors in the field who are gynaecologists and aid women during delivery and childbirth. 

Radiation Therapist

People might think that a radiation therapist only spends most of his/her time in a radiation operation unit but that’s not the case. In reality, a radiation therapist’s job is not as easy as it seems. The job of radiation therapist requires him/her to be attentive, hardworking, and dedicated to his/her work hours. A radiation therapist is on his/her feet for a long duration and might be required to lift or turn disabled patients. Because a career as a radiation therapist involves working with radiation and radioactive material, a radiation therapist is required to follow the safety procedures in order to make sure that he/she is not exposed to a potentially harmful amount of radiation.

Recreational Worker

A recreational worker is a professional who designs and leads activities to provide assistance to people to adopt a healthy lifestyle. He or she instructs physical exercises and games to have fun and improve fitness. A recreational worker may work in summer camps, fitness and recreational sports centres, nature parks, nursing care facilities, and other settings. He or she may lead crafts, sports, music, games, drama and other activities.

An oncologist is a specialised doctor responsible for providing medical care to patients diagnosed with cancer. He or she uses several therapies to control the cancer and its effect on the human body such as chemotherapy, immunotherapy, radiation therapy and biopsy. An oncologist designs a treatment plan based on a pathology report after diagnosing the type of cancer and where it is spreading inside the body.

Surgical Technologist

When it comes to an operation theatre, there are several tasks that are to be carried out before as well as after the operation or surgery has taken place. Such tasks are not possible without surgical tech and surgical tech tools. A single surgeon cannot do it all alone. It’s like for a footballer he needs his team’s support to score a goal the same goes for a surgeon. It is here, when a surgical technologist comes into the picture. It is the job of a surgical technologist to prepare the operation theatre with all the required equipment before the surgery. Not only that, once an operation is done it is the job of the surgical technologist to clean all the equipment. One has to fulfil the minimum requirements of surgical tech qualifications. 

Also Read: Career as Nurse

For an individual who opts for a career as an actor, the primary responsibility is to completely speak to the character he or she is playing and to persuade the crowd that the character is genuine by connecting with them and bringing them into the story. This applies to significant roles and littler parts, as all roles join to make an effective creation. Here in this article, we will discuss how to become an actor in India, actor exams, actor salary in India, and actor jobs. 

Individuals who opt for a career as acrobats create and direct original routines for themselves, in addition to developing interpretations of existing routines. The work of circus acrobats can be seen in a variety of performance settings, including circus, reality shows, sports events like the Olympics, movies and commercials. Individuals who opt for a career as acrobats must be prepared to face rejections and intermittent periods of work. The creativity of acrobats may extend to other aspects of the performance. For example, acrobats in the circus may work with gym trainers, celebrities or collaborate with other professionals to enhance such performance elements as costume and or maybe at the teaching end of the career.

Video Game Designer

Career as a video game designer is filled with excitement as well as responsibilities. A video game designer is someone who is involved in the process of creating a game from day one. He or she is responsible for fulfilling duties like designing the character of the game, the several levels involved, plot, art and similar other elements. Individuals who opt for a career as a video game designer may also write the codes for the game using different programming languages. Depending on the video game designer job description and experience they may also have to lead a team and do the early testing of the game in order to suggest changes and find loopholes.

Talent Agent

The career as a Talent Agent is filled with responsibilities. A Talent Agent is someone who is involved in the pre-production process of the film. It is a very busy job for a Talent Agent but as and when an individual gains experience and progresses in the career he or she can have people assisting him or her in work. Depending on one’s responsibilities, number of clients and experience he or she may also have to lead a team and work with juniors under him or her in a talent agency. In order to know more about the job of a talent agent continue reading the article.

If you want to know more about talent agent meaning, how to become a Talent Agent, or Talent Agent job description then continue reading this article.

Radio Jockey

Radio Jockey is an exciting, promising career and a great challenge for music lovers. If you are really interested in a career as radio jockey, then it is very important for an RJ to have an automatic, fun, and friendly personality. If you want to get a job done in this field, a strong command of the language and a good voice are always good things. Apart from this, in order to be a good radio jockey, you will also listen to good radio jockeys so that you can understand their style and later make your own by practicing.

A career as radio jockey has a lot to offer to deserving candidates. If you want to know more about a career as radio jockey, and how to become a radio jockey then continue reading the article.

An individual who is pursuing a career as a producer is responsible for managing the business aspects of production. They are involved in each aspect of production from its inception to deception. Famous movie producers review the script, recommend changes and visualise the story. 

They are responsible for overseeing the finance involved in the project and distributing the film for broadcasting on various platforms. A career as a producer is quite fulfilling as well as exhaustive in terms of playing different roles in order for a production to be successful. Famous movie producers are responsible for hiring creative and technical personnel on contract basis.

Fashion Blogger

Fashion bloggers use multiple social media platforms to recommend or share ideas related to fashion. A fashion blogger is a person who writes about fashion, publishes pictures of outfits, jewellery, accessories. Fashion blogger works as a model, journalist, and a stylist in the fashion industry. In current fashion times, these bloggers have crossed into becoming a star in fashion magazines, commercials, or campaigns. 


Photography is considered both a science and an art, an artistic means of expression in which the camera replaces the pen. In a career as a photographer, an individual is hired to capture the moments of public and private events, such as press conferences or weddings, or may also work inside a studio, where people go to get their picture clicked. Photography is divided into many streams each generating numerous career opportunities in photography. With the boom in advertising, media, and the fashion industry, photography has emerged as a lucrative and thrilling career option for many Indian youths.

Copy Writer

In a career as a copywriter, one has to consult with the client and understand the brief well. A career as a copywriter has a lot to offer to deserving candidates. Several new mediums of advertising are opening therefore making it a lucrative career choice. Students can pursue various copywriter courses such as Journalism , Advertising , Marketing Management . Here, we have discussed how to become a freelance copywriter, copywriter career path, how to become a copywriter in India, and copywriting career outlook. 

Careers in journalism are filled with excitement as well as responsibilities. One cannot afford to miss out on the details. As it is the small details that provide insights into a story. Depending on those insights a journalist goes about writing a news article. A journalism career can be stressful at times but if you are someone who is passionate about it then it is the right choice for you. If you want to know more about the media field and journalist career then continue reading this article.

For publishing books, newspapers, magazines and digital material, editorial and commercial strategies are set by publishers. Individuals in publishing career paths make choices about the markets their businesses will reach and the type of content that their audience will be served. Individuals in book publisher careers collaborate with editorial staff, designers, authors, and freelance contributors who develop and manage the creation of content.

In a career as a vlogger, one generally works for himself or herself. However, once an individual has gained viewership there are several brands and companies that approach them for paid collaboration. It is one of those fields where an individual can earn well while following his or her passion. Ever since internet cost got reduced the viewership for these types of content has increased on a large scale. Therefore, the career as vlogger has a lot to offer. If you want to know more about the career as vlogger, how to become a vlogger, so on and so forth then continue reading the article. Students can visit Jamia Millia Islamia , Asian College of Journalism , Indian Institute of Mass Communication to pursue journalism degrees.

Individuals in the editor career path is an unsung hero of the news industry who polishes the language of the news stories provided by stringers, reporters, copywriters and content writers and also news agencies. Individuals who opt for a career as an editor make it more persuasive, concise and clear for readers. In this article, we will discuss the details of the editor's career path such as how to become an editor in India, editor salary in India and editor skills and qualities.

Public Relation Executive

Public relation officer qualifications should enable him or her to handle various activities like developing, implementing, monitoring, and evaluating communications strategy in order to support the communication objectives and maximize positive exposure in local, national, and international markets. The day-to-day tasks in the career as a public relations officer can vary depending on the industry, active PR campaigns, PR team size, and other factors. However, the job of PR officer often includes, writing press releases to announce company-related news, creating fact sheets and media kits about the company to send to media teams for brand-building and several other activities. In the career a public relations officer, individuals are also responsible for tracking and measuring their PR efforts.

Brand Manager

Brand management is a function of marketing that uses techniques to increase the recognised value of a product line or brand over time. Effective brand management enables the price of products to go up and builds loyal customers through positive brand associations and images or a strong awareness of the brand. As the name suggests, the career as a brand manager refers to the management of the brand’s image by creating a lasting impression among consumers and improving product sales and market share.

Advertising Manager

Advertising managers consult with the financial department to plan a marketing strategy schedule and cost estimates. We often see advertisements that attract us a lot, not every advertisement is just to promote a business but some of them provide a social message as well. There was an advertisement for a washing machine brand that implies a story that even a man can do household activities. And of course, how could we even forget those jingles which we often sing while working?

Production Manager

Production Manager Job Description: A Production Manager is responsible for ensuring smooth running of manufacturing processes in an efficient manner. He or she plans and organises production schedules. The role of Production Manager involves estimation, negotiation on budget and timescales with the clients and managers. 

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A QA Lead is incharge of the QA Team. The role of QA Lead comes with the responsibility of assessing services and products in order to determine that they meet the quality standards. He or she develops, implements and manages test plans. 

A Team Leader is a professional responsible for guiding, monitoring and leading the entire group. He or she is responsible for motivating team members by providing a pleasant work environment to them and inspiring positive communication. A Team Leader contributes to the achievement of the organisation’s goals. He or she improves the confidence, product knowledge and communication skills of the team members and empowers them.


A career as a merchandiser requires one to promote specific products and services of one or different brands, to increase the in-house sales of the store. Merchandising job focuses on enticing the customers to enter the store and hence increasing their chances of buying a product. Although the buyer is the one who selects the lines, it all depends on the merchandiser on how much money a buyer will spend, how many lines will be purchased, and what will be the quantity of those lines. In a career as merchandiser, one is required to closely work with the display staff in order to decide in what way a product would be displayed so that sales can be maximised. In small brands or local retail stores, a merchandiser is responsible for both merchandising and buying. 

Quality Systems Manager

A Quality Systems Manager is a professional responsible for developing strategies, processes, policies, standards and systems concerning the company as well as operations of its supply chain. It includes auditing to ensure compliance. It could also be carried out by a third party. 

Production Planner

Individuals who opt for a career as a production planner are professionals who are responsible for ensuring goods manufactured by the employing company are cost-effective and meets quality specifications including ensuring the availability of ready to distribute stock in a timely fashion manner. 

Procurement Manager

The procurement Manager is also known as  Purchasing Manager . The role of Procurement Manager is to source products and services for a company. Procurement Managers are involved in developing a purchasing strategy, including the company's budget and the supplies and as well as the vendors who can provide goods and services to the company. His or her ultimate goal is to bring the right products or services at the right time with cost-effectiveness.

ITSM Manager

ITSM Manager is a professional responsible for heading the ITSM (Information Technology Service Management) or (Information Technology Infrastructure Library) processes. He or she ensures that operation management provides appropriate resource levels for problem resolutions. The ITSM Manager oversees the level of prioritisation for the problems, critical incidents, planned as well as proactive tasks. 

Information Security Manager

Individuals in the information security manager career path involves in overseeing and controlling all aspects of computer security. The IT security manager job description includes planning and carrying out security measures to protect the business data and information from corruption, theft, unauthorised access, and deliberate attack 

Computer Programmer

Careers in computer programming primarily refer to the systematic act of writing code and moreover include wider computer science areas. The word 'programmer' or 'coder' has entered into practice with the growing number of newly self-taught tech enthusiasts. Computer programming careers involve the use of designs created by software developers and engineers and transforming them into commands that can be implemented by computers. These commands result in regular usage of social media sites, word-processing applications and browsers.

Computer System Analyst

Individuals in the computer systems analyst career path study the hardware and applications that are part of an organization's computer systems, as well as how they are used. They collaborate closely with managers and end-users to identify system specifications and business priorities, as well as to assess the efficiency of computer systems and create techniques to boost IT efficiency. Individuals who opt for a career as a computer system analyst support the implementation, modification, and debugging of new systems after they have been installed.

Test Manager

A Test Manager is a professional responsible for planning, coordinating and controlling test activities. He or she develops test processes and strategies to analyse and determine test methods and tools for test activities. The test manager jobs involve documenting tests that have been carried out, analysing and evaluating software quality to determine further recommended procedures. 

An IS Analyst is responsible for monitoring computer networks for security issues. He or she investigates security breaches and other cybersecurity incidents. The role of IS Analyst involves installing security measures and operating software to protect systems and information infrastructure.

Site Administrator

A site administrator is a person who provides administrative support to other employees in a team. Career as Site Administrator requires help in   implementing office procedures. His or her role involves regularly filing and maintaining documentation. In addition to being able to provide administrative support, a site administrator also has to ensure that the work environment is in compliance with company policies and regulations.

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Economic Times

Modern Technology: Impact on Society

Technology plays an immense role in modern society, and it is impossible to imagine the current state of the world without various innovations. While people now have access to such technologies as smartphones, televisions, and the Internet, there is still ongoing research and scientific developments that could make people’s lives easier. Nevertheless, while there are those who relish the idea of innovations, there are also those who oppose this behavior. The latter believe that technology leads to harsh consequences and makes the issues of the 21st century more acute. However, a plethora of studies indicates that technology, especially smartphones, has a positive impact on society by bringing awareness and eradicating social inequality.

Breakthrough: The Smartphone

People were separated from the rest of humanity throughout most of history. Still, the necessity to contact each other was so strong that it transformed how people communicated and provided them with new opportunities. Nowadays, about two-thirds of the world’s population has a smartphone, which links billions of people in unprecedented ways (The Smartphone). In only one generation, it transformed the telephone from a means of communication to something that has grown to rule people’s lives.

A Morse code, circuits, and signal transmission were among the steps taken to build a method for conveying messages swiftly across large distances. First, scientists researching the modern phenomenon of electricity and materials made an astounding revelation in the early 19th century (The Smartphone). It was discovered that an electrical current might generate a magnetic attraction. As a result, Morse created a receiver that could send signals using a pen through an electric signal.

Morse’s telegraph quickly linked Americans all throughout the country. Within a few decades, a massive network of electrical cables had covered the globe. High-speed electronic communication evolved into the international nervous system of business, media, and politics. Later, in the nineteenth century, Alexander Graham Bell developed the prototype of the telephone (The Smartphone). Guglielmo Marconi also questioned whether cables were required to convey telegraph signals (The Smartphone). Using antennas, Marconi concluded that messages could be received from far distances.

However, one man was ready to take the human speech in a very unexpected direction. Homer Dudley, an engineer, was attempting to discover how it could be possible to send voice via an intercontinental cable in the early 1930s (The Smartphone). The bandwidth of the wires was insufficient to convey human speech. It was later feasible to build a machine that could convey messages using numerous frequencies.

The crucial component that eventually aided in the invention of the smartphone was introduced in the 1940s. Hedy Lamarr, an American actress, pioneered signal hopping, which is the foundation of all current wireless communications. The hypothesis proposed fragmenting a message and sending it in bits. Later, in the 1950s, Jack Kilby invented the integrated circuit (The Smartphone). These technologies enabled the mobile network, which allows users to send billions of megabytes of data daily. These developments also aided in the introduction of new types of technology and the miniaturization of gadgets such as smartphones. As a consequence, engineer Philippe Kahn communicated the first digital image over a cellphone in 1997 (The Smartphone). Consequently, video-sharing and smartphone applications could be introduced.

Impact of the Technology on Modern American Society

The issue of technology and its impact on society is discussed by many. While many claim that technology contributes to the rapid lowering of the literacy rate, others assert that technology is a conduit to spread awareness in various fields. For example, Bowman claims that video has been a critical instrument in the battle for human rights and political justice for the past 60 years. His study focuses on crucial historical times when the video played an important role in revealing systematic racism and violation of human rights. As the battle for social and economic justice and equitable legal protection proceeds in our generation, new media technologies act as judges against unjust imprisonment and brutality against racial minorities and vulnerable communities.

Bowman further discusses how community journalists’ use of mobile phones and the internet has supplanted experienced reporters’ use of cameras, notepads, and pencils to chronicle human rights violations. People around the countrywide used smartphones to record the brutal choking of Eric Garner and the atrocious killing of Walter Scott, among many other occurrences (Bowman). The recording of these instances was significant in giving a vivid image of confrontation with police forces and spurring debate about police and racial relations concerns (Bowman). Simultaneously, footage shared on social media and shown on national TV has played an essential role in organizing measures to fight for equal legal support, holding law enforcement authorities responsible for their conduct, and spreading awareness about wrongdoing and inequality in America.

Similarly, a study conducted by Tynes observes the impact of technology on overall awareness and social inequality. Even though a connection between trauma exposure on TV and poor mental health consequences was identified, not much is known about the role smartphones and social media, and other types of online communication play. According to the most current Pew Internet Research poll from 2018 on teenage technology usage, 95% of adolescents have access to a smartphone, and 45% claim they are online almost all the time (Tynes). The use of cellphones, video sharing sites, and social networking sites provides unparalleled access to information about police violence and other crucial concerns (Tynes). This greater awareness has resulted in significant movements centered on the problems of underprivileged people, as well as the installation of accountability mechanisms such as body cameras.

Another study focuses on technology’s positive influence on politics and public concerns in the 21st century. According to the researchers, these issues comprise a broad range of political communication and indicate the pervasiveness of political expression in modern culture and non-electoral times. Without efficient circuits of such outlets capable of delivering political statements, the political system cannot operate in a proper way (ul Ghafar and Zahir). Political communication is concerned not just with electoral campaigns but also with enabling people to make educated decisions in order to participate effectively in an election system.

This study conducted a survey in which smartphone and social media influence was assessed to provide further evidence. According to the independent data research, 70 % of participants believe that the Facebook application regularly provides political news and opinions, compared to 52% for Twitter and 50% for WhatsApp applications (ul Ghafar and Zahir). Thus, smartphones serve as a conduit for additional information on ongoing matters in this respect. Smartphones and other technologies increase awareness in populations by accentuating the most significant issues and providing opinions on various events.

Pang also illuminates the impact of technology on modern political communication. The researcher claims that smartphones have radically altered the trajectory of political communication in past decades by increasing individuals’ access to political material and possibilities to voice their own viewpoints within social connections. Prior studies have revealed a link between informative usage of mobile phones and civic and political participation in social life (Pang). This study, which is congruent with this field of inquiry, investigated how smartphone use impacts levels of political engagement as well as offline engagement, offering a portrayal of a new sort of mobile political expression.

According to Pang’s hierarchical regression study, browsing media and microblogging on smartphones are positively related to political communication. Furthermore, the findings show that smartphone political expression has a direct impact on offline political involvement (Pang). Moreover, the findings support political speech as a moderator of particular smartphone use and offline political engagement. Lastly, the report examines future studies’ possibilities and limitations.

Sekabira studies the influence of technology from a different perspective. Researcher asserts that smartphone technology has been widely embraced in several developing nations since the year 2000. Available literature suggests that small farmers’ market access and revenue have improved as a result of their usage of smartphones (Sekabira). Aside from money, mobile phones may have an impact on other aspects of social security (Sekabira). Such more significant social welfare implications have rarely been studied up to this point (Sekabira). A great deal of work has examined the impact of smartphone usage on access to the market, input and output pricing, agriculture trends, and family income using micro-level statistics.

Nevertheless, the author claims that smartphones may have an impact on other aspects of social welfare, including gender equality. Recognizing such larger implications is critical, particularly in light of the United Nations’ Sustainable Growth Goals, which go much further than a restricted range of financial development metrics (Sekabira). While several new studies have examined how smartphones may affect food sufficiency and other aspects of well-being, empirical data is limited (Sekabira). The researchers address this issue in this study by utilizing panel data from a survey conducted.

After adjusting for any influencing variables, the findings of Sekabira’s study revealed that smartphone use is strongly and positively linked with average earnings, gender equality, and nutrition. Female smartphone usage is significantly connected with household income and social well-being than male smartphone usage alone, according to gender differentiation. Women appear to gain substantially from smartphone technology, which is understandable given that many women are frequently restricted in their economic opportunities (Sekabira). As a result, the technological innovation that reduces transaction costs and provides new kinds of communication can be very beneficial to women (Sekabira). Women’s pay increases and greater access to education have a favorable impact on their negotiating power within the home, promoting gender equality and other social welfare factors.

Hence, modern technology plays an integral role in contemporary society by illuminating the acute problems of the 21st century. It took a long time to create the technology as people know it now. However, after so many generations, people can make new discoveries and contribute to the improvement of society. Nowadays, millions of people have access to smartphones or other gadgets. This allows them to not only connect and communicate with each other but spread information. While many people can consider technology an enemy of society, technology helps people gain insights into the ongoing issues and gain awareness, therefore, helping eradicate the problems.

Works Cited

Bowman, Michael. “TV, Cell Phones and Social Justice: A Historical Analysis of How Video Creates Social Change.” Race, Gender & Class , vol. 24, no.1-2, 2017, pp. 16-26.

Pang, Hua. “Mobile Communication and Political Participation: Unravelling the Effects of Mobile Phones on Political Expression and Offline Participation Among Young People.” International Journal of Electronic Governance , vol. 10, no. 1, 2018, pp. 3-23.

Sekabira, Haruna, and Matin Qaim. “Can Mobile Phones Improve Gender Equality and Nutrition? Panel Data Evidence from Farm Households in Uganda.” Food Policy , vol. 73, 2017, pp. 95-103.

“The Smartphone.” Breakthrough: The Ideas That Changed the World , directed by Sean Smith and Ben Harding, Bigger Bang Communications Ltd., 2019.

Tynes, Brendesha M., et al. “Race-related Traumatic Events Online and Mental Health Among Adolescents of Color.” Journal of Adolescent Health , vol. 65, no. 3, 2019, pp. 371-377.

ul Ghafar, Majid, Muhammad Shahzad, and Neelam Zahir. “Impact of Smartphone Applications on Political Behaviour of Youth.” World Conference on Media and Mass Communication , vol. 4, no. 2, 2018, pp. 36-43.

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November 7, 2023

‘ChatGPT Detector’ Catches AI-Generated Papers with Unprecedented Accuracy

A new tool based on machine learning uses features of writing style to distinguish between human and AI authors

By McKenzie Prillaman & Nature magazine

A computer screen and keyboard with the home page of the artificial intelligence OpenAI web site, displaying its chatGPT robot.

A new AI detection tool can accurately identify chemistry papers written by ChatGPT.

Marco Bertorello/AFP via Getty Images

A machine-learning tool can easily spot when chemistry papers are written using the chatbot ChatGPT, according to a study published on 6 November in  Cell Reports Physical Science . The specialized classifier, which outperformed two existing artificial intelligence (AI) detectors, could help academic publishers to identify papers created by AI text generators.

“Most of the field of text analysis wants a really general detector that will work on anything,” says co-author Heather Desaire, a chemist at the University of Kansas in Lawrence. But by making a tool that focuses on a particular type of paper, “we were really going after accuracy.”

The findings suggest that efforts to develop AI detectors could be boosted by tailoring software to specific types of writing, Desaire says. “If you can build something quickly and easily, then it’s not that hard to build something for different domains.”

The elements of style

Desaire and her colleagues first described their ChatGPT detector in June, when they applied it to Perspective articles from the journal  Science . Using machine learning, the detector examines 20 features of writing style, including variation in sentence lengths, and the frequency of certain words and punctuation marks, to determine whether an academic scientist or ChatGPT wrote a piece of text. The findings show that “you could use a small set of features to get a high level of accuracy,” Desaire says.

In the latest study, the detector was trained on the introductory sections of papers from ten chemistry journals published by the American Chemical Society (ACS). The team chose the introduction because this section of a paper is fairly easy for ChatGPT to write if it has access to background literature, Desaire says. The researchers trained their tool on 100 published introductions to serve as human-written text, and then asked ChatGPT-3.5 to write 200 introductions in ACS journal style. For 100 of these, the tool was provided with the papers’ titles, and for the other 100, it was given their abstracts.

When tested on introductions written by people and those generated by AI from the same journals, the tool identified ChatGPT-3.5-written sections based on titles with 100% accuracy. For the ChatGPT-generated introductions based on abstracts, the accuracy was slightly lower, at 98%. The tool worked just as well with text written by ChatGPT-4, the latest version of the chatbot. By contrast, the AI detector ZeroGPT identified AI-written introductions with an accuracy of only about 35–65%, depending on the version of ChatGPT used and whether the introduction had been generated from the title or the abstract of the paper. A text-classifier tool produced by OpenAI, the maker of ChatGPT, also performed poorly — it was able to spot AI-written introductions with an accuracy of around 10–55%.

The new ChatGPT catcher even performed well with introductions from journals it wasn’t trained on, and it caught AI text that was created from a variety of prompts, including one aimed to confuse AI detectors. However, the system is highly specialized for scientific journal articles. When presented with real articles from university newspapers, it failed to recognize them as being written by humans.

Wider issues

What the authors are doing is “something fascinating,” says Debora Weber-Wulff, a computer scientist who studies academic plagiarism at the HTW Berlin University of Applied Sciences. Many existing tools try to determine authorship by searching for the predictive text patterns of AI-generated writing rather than by looking at features of writing style, she says. “I’d never thought of using stylometrics on ChatGPT.”

But Weber-Wulff points out that there are other issues driving the use of ChatGPT in academia. Many researchers are under pressure to quickly churn out papers, she notes, or they might not see the process of writing a paper as an important part of science. AI-detection tools will not address these issues, and should not be seen as “a magic software solution to a social problem.”

This article is reproduced with permission and was first published on January 27 2023.

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What the Doomsayers Get Wrong About Deepfakes

By Daniel Immerwahr

A photoillustration of a deep fake being made.

“There’s a video of Gal Gadot having sex with her stepbrother on the internet.” With that sentence, written by the journalist Samantha Cole for the tech site Motherboard in December, 2017, a queasy new chapter in our cultural history opened. A programmer calling himself “deepfakes” told Cole that he’d used artificial intelligence to insert Gadot’s face into a pornographic video. And he’d made others: clips altered to feature Aubrey Plaza, Scarlett Johansson, Maisie Williams, and Taylor Swift.

Porn, as a Times headline once proclaimed, is the “low-slung engine of progress.” It can be credited with the rapid spread of VCRs, cable, and the Internet—and with several important Web technologies. Would deepfakes, as the manipulated videos came to be known, be pornographers’ next technological gift to the world? Months after Cole’s article, a clip appeared online of Barack Obama calling Donald Trump “a total and complete dipshit.” At the end of the video, the trick was revealed. It was the comedian Jordan Peele’s voice; A.I. had been used to turn Obama into a digital puppet.

The implications, to those paying attention, were horrifying. Such videos heralded the “coming infocalypse,” as Nina Schick, an A.I. expert, warned, or the “collapse of reality,” as Franklin Foer wrote in The Atlantic . Congress held hearings about the potential electoral consequences. “Think ahead to 2020 and beyond,” Representative Adam Schiff urged; it wasn’t hard to imagine “nightmarish scenarios that would leave the government, the media, and the public struggling to discern what is real.”

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As Schiff observed, the danger wasn’t only disinformation. Media manipulation is liable to taint all audiovisual evidence, because even an authentic recording can be dismissed as rigged. The legal scholars Bobby Chesney and Danielle Citron call this the “liar’s dividend” and note its use by Trump, who excels at brushing off inconvenient truths as fake news. When an “Access Hollywood” tape of Trump boasting about committing sexual assault emerged, he apologized (“I said it, I was wrong”), but later dismissed the tape as having been faked. “One of the greatest of all terms I’ve come up with is ‘fake,’ ” he has said. “I guess other people have used it, perhaps over the years, but I’ve never noticed it.”

Deepfakes débuted in the first year of Trump’s Presidency and have been improving swiftly since. Although the Gal Gadot clip was too glitchy to pass for real, work done by amateurs can now rival expensive C.G.I. effects from Hollywood studios. And manipulated videos are proliferating. A monitoring group, Sensity, counted eighty-five thousand deepfakes online in December, 2020; recently, Wired tallied nearly three times that number. Fans of “Seinfeld” can watch Jerry spliced convincingly into the film “Pulp Fiction,” Kramer delivering a monologue with the face and the voice of Arnold Schwarzenegger, and so, so much Elaine porn.

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There is a small academic field, called media forensics , that seeks to combat these fakes. But it is “fighting a losing battle,” a leading researcher, Hany Farid, has warned. Last year, Farid published a paper with the psychologist Sophie J. Nightingale showing that an artificial neural network is able to concoct faces that neither humans nor computers can identify as simulated. Ominously, people found those synthetic faces to be trustworthy; in fact, we trust the “average” faces that A.I. generates more than the irregular ones that nature does.

This is especially worrisome given other trends. Social media’s algorithmic filters are allowing separate groups to inhabit nearly separate realities. Stark polarization, meanwhile, is giving rise to a no-holds-barred politics. We are increasingly getting our news from video clips, and doctoring those clips has become alarmingly simple. The table is set for catastrophe.

“Remember how we used to stay up all night drinking wine listening to music and discussing my family issues”

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And yet the guest has not arrived. Sensity conceded in 2021 that deepfakes had had no “tangible impact” on the 2020 Presidential election. It found no instance of “bad actors” spreading disinformation with deepfakes anywhere. Two years later, it’s easy to find videos that demonstrate the terrifying possibilities of A.I. It’s just hard to point to a convincing deepfake that has misled people in any consequential way.

The computer scientist Walter J. Scheirer has worked in media forensics for years. He understands more than most how these new technologies could set off a society-wide epistemic meltdown, yet he sees no signs that they are doing so. Doctored videos online delight, taunt, jolt, menace, arouse, and amuse, but they rarely deceive. As Scheirer argues in his new book, “ A History of Fake Things on the Internet ” (Stanford), the situation just isn’t as bad as it looks.

There is something bold, perhaps reckless, in preaching serenity from the volcano’s edge. But, as Scheirer points out, the doctored-evidence problem isn’t new. Our oldest forms of recording—storytelling, writing, and painting—are laughably easy to hack. We’ve had to find ways to trust them nonetheless.

It wasn’t until the nineteenth century that humanity developed an evidentiary medium that in itself inspired confidence: photography. A camera, it seemed, didn’t interpret its surroundings but registered their physical properties, the way a thermometer or a scale would. This made a photograph fundamentally unlike a painting. It was, according to Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr., a “mirror with a memory.”

Actually, the photographer’s art was similar to the mortician’s, in that producing a true-to-life object required a lot of unseemly backstage work with chemicals. In “ Faking It ” (2012), Mia Fineman, a photography curator at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, explains that early cameras had a hard time capturing landscapes—either the sky was washed out or the ground was hard to see. To compensate, photographers added clouds by hand, or they combined the sky from one negative with the land from another (which might be of a different location). It didn’t stop there: nineteenth-century photographers generally treated their negatives as first drafts, to be corrected, reordered, or overwritten as needed. Only by editing could they escape what the English photographer Henry Peach Robinson called the “tyranny of the lens.”

From our vantage point, such manipulation seems audacious. Mathew Brady, the renowned Civil War photographer, inserted an extra officer into a portrait of William Tecumseh Sherman and his generals. Two haunting Civil War photos of men killed in action were, in fact, the same soldier—the photographer, Alexander Gardner, had lugged the decomposing corpse from one spot to another. Such expedients do not appear to have burdened many consciences. In 1904, the critic Sadakichi Hartmann noted that nearly every professional photographer employed the “trickeries of elimination, generalization, accentuation, or augmentation.” It wasn’t until the twentieth century that what Hartmann called “straight photography” became an ideal to strive for.

Were viewers fooled? Occasionally. In the midst of writing his Sherlock Holmes stories, Arthur Conan Doyle grew obsessed with photographs of two girls consorting with fairies. The fakes weren’t sophisticated—one of the girls had drawn the fairies, cut them out, and arranged them before the camera with hatpins. But Conan Doyle, undeterred, leaped aboard the express train to Neverland. He published a breathless book in 1922, titled “ The Coming of the Fairies ,” and another edition, in 1928, that further pushed aside doubts.

A greater concern than teen-agers duping authors was dictators duping citizens. George Orwell underscored the connection between totalitarianism and media manipulation in his novel “ Nineteen Eighty-Four ” (1949), in which a one-party state used “elaborately equipped studios for the faking of photographs.” Such methods were necessary, Orwell believed, because of the unsteady foundation of deception on which authoritarian rule stood. “Nineteen Eighty-Four” described a photograph that, if released unedited, could “blow the Party to atoms.” In reality, though, such smoking-gun evidence was rarely the issue. Darkroom work under dictators like Joseph Stalin was, instead, strikingly petty: smoothing wrinkles in the uniforms (or on the faces) of leaders or editing disfavored officials out of the frame.

Still, pettiness in the hands of the powerful can be chilling. A published high-school photograph of the Albanian autocrat Enver Hoxha and his fellow-students features a couple of odd gaps. If you look carefully below them, you can see the still-present shoes in which two of Hoxha’s erased classmates once stood.

It’s possible to take comfort from the long history of photographic manipulation, in an “It was ever thus” way. Today’s alarm pullers, however, insist that things are about to get worse. With A.I., a twenty-first-century Hoxha would not stop at awkwardly scrubbing individuals from the records; he could order up a documented reality à la carte. We haven’t yet seen a truly effective deployment of a malicious deepfake deception, but that bomb could go off at any moment, perhaps detonated by Israel’s war with Hamas. When it does, we’ll be thrown through the looking glass and lose the ability to trust our own eyes—and maybe to trust anything at all.

The alarmists warn that we’re at a technological tipping point, where the artificial is no longer distinguishable from the authentic. They’re surely right in a narrow sense—some deepfakes really are that good. But are they right in a broader one? Are we actually deceived? Even if that Gal Gadot video had been seamless, few would have concluded that the star of the “Wonder Woman” franchise had paused her lucrative career to appear in low-budget incest porn. Online, such videos typically don’t hide what they are; you find them by searching specifically for deepfakes.

One of the most thoughtful reflections on manipulated media is “ Deepfakes and the Epistemic Apocalypse ,” a recent article by the philosopher Joshua Habgood-Coote that appeared in the journal Synthese . Deepfake catastrophizing depends on supposing that people—always other people—are dangerously credulous, prone to falling for any evidence that looks sufficiently real. But is that how we process information? Habgood-Coote argues that, when assessing evidence, we rarely rely on our eyes alone. We ask where it came from, check with others, and say things like, “If Gal Gadot had actually made pornography, I would have heard about it.” This process of social verification is what has allowed us to fend off centuries of media manipulation without collapsing into a twitching heap.

And it is why doctored evidence rarely sways elections. We are, collectively, good at sussing out fakes, and politicians who deal in them often face repercussions. Likely the most successful photo manipulation in U.S. political history occurred in 1950, when, the weekend before an election, the Red-baiter Joseph McCarthy distributed hundreds of thousands of mailers featuring an image of his fellow-senator Millard Tydings talking with the Communist Earl Browder. (It was actually two photographs pasted together.) Tydings lost his reëlection bid, yet the photograph helped prompt an investigation that ultimately led, in 1954, to McCarthy becoming one of only nine U.S. senators ever to be formally censured.

“Everybody wants to meet the author but nobody wants to read the book.”

The strange thing about the Tydings photo is that it didn’t even purport to be real. Not only was the doctoring amateurish (the lighting in the two halves didn’t match at all), the caption identified the image plainly as a “composite picture.” To Scheirer, this makes sense. “A fake image could be more effective in a democracy if it were obviously fake,” he writes. A transparent fake can make insinuations—planting the idea of Tydings befriending Communists—without technically lying, thus partly protecting its author from legal or electoral consequences.

In dictatorships, leaders needn’t fear those consequences and can lie with impunity. This makes media deception more common, though not necessarily more effective. The most notorious form of totalitarian photo manipulation, erasing purged officials—especially popular in Soviet Russia—was not exactly subtle. (Fans of Seasons 1-4 of the Bolshevik Revolution, in which Nikolai Bukharin was a series regular, surely noticed when, in Season 5, he was written off the show—or when, in the nineteen-eighties reboot, he was retconned back in.) Official photographs were often edited so vigorously that the comrades who remained, standing with glazed faces in front of empty backgrounds, looked barely real.

Was reality even the point? Scheirer argues that the Albanian functionaries who spent hours retouching each Hoxha photograph were unlikely to have left his classmates’ shoes in a shot by mistake. Those shoes were defiant symbols of Hoxha’s power to enforce his own truth, no matter how visibly implausible. Similarly, a famous 1976 photograph of a line of Chinese leaders from which the “Gang of Four” had been crudely excised included a helpful key in which the vanished figures’ names were replaced by “X”s. In many Stalin-era books, enemies of the state weren’t erased but effaced, their heads unceremoniously covered by inkblots. Nor was this wholly backroom work, done furtively by nameless bureaucrats in windowless ministries. Teachers and librarians did the inking, too.

Three months after the Berlin Wall fell, in 1989, Photoshop was commercially released. Orwell had worried about the state monopolizing the means of representation, but the rise of digital cameras, computer editing, and the Internet promised to distribute them widely. Big Brother would no longer control the media, though this did not quell the anxieties. From one viewpoint, it made things worse: now anyone could alter evidence.

Seeing the digital-disinformation threat looming, media-forensics experts rushed to develop countermeasures. But to hone them, they needed fake images, and, Scheirer shows, they struggled to find any. So they made their own. “For years, media forensics was purely speculative,” Scheirer writes, “with published papers exclusively containing experiments that were run on self-generated examples.”

The experts assumed that this would soon change, and that they’d be mobilized in a hot war against malevolent fakers. Instead, they found themselves serving as expert witnesses in child-pornography trials, testifying against defendants who falsely claimed that incriminating images and videos were computer-generated. “To me, this was shocking,” one expert told Scheirer. Having spent years preparing to detect fake images, these specialists were called on to authenticate real ones. The field’s “biggest challenge,” Scheirer reflects, was that “it was trying to solve a problem that didn’t exist.”

Scheirer witnessed that challenge firsthand. The U.S. military gave his lab funding to develop tampering-detection tools, along with images designed to simulate the problem. Scheirer was, he says, “far more interested in the real cases,” so he set students hunting for manipulated photos on the Internet. They returned triumphant, bags brimming with fakes. They didn’t find instances of sophisticated deception, though. What they found was memes.

This is an awkward fact about new media technologies. We imagine that they will remake the world, yet they’re often just used to make crude jokes. The closest era to our own, in terms of the rapid decentralization of information technology, is the eighteenth century, when printing became cheaper and harder to control. The French philosophe the Marquis de Condorcet prophesied that, with the press finally free, the world would be bathed in the light of reason. Perhaps, but France was also drowned in a flood of pornography, much of it starring Marie Antoinette. The trampling of the Queen’s reputation was both a democratic strike against the monarchy and a form of vicious misogyny. According to the historian Lynn Hunt, such trolling “helped to bring about the Revolution.”

The first-ever issue of an American newspaper crackled with its own unruly energy. “If reports be true,” it declared, the King of France “used to lie” with his son’s wife. It was a fitting start to a centuries-long stream of insinuation, exaggeration, satire, and sensationalism that flowed through the nineteenth century’s political cartoons to today’s gossip sites. This is the trashy side of the news, against which respectable journalism defines itself. It’s tempting to call it the fringe, but it’s surprisingly large. In the late nineteen-seventies, the supermarket tabloid the National Enquirer was sometimes the country’s top-selling newspaper; people bought nearly four copies of it for every copy bought of the Sunday New York Times .

There is something inherently pornographic about this side of the media, given its obsession with celebrity, intimacy, and transgression. In 2002, Us Weekly began publishing paparazzi shots of actors caught in unflattering moments in a feature called “Stars—They’re Just Like Us. ” The first one brought the stars to earth with invasive photos of them scarfing fast food. It was not a big leap, once everything went online, to the up-skirt photo and the leaked sex tape. YouTube was created by former PayPal employees responding partly to the difficulty of finding videos online of the Janet Jackson–Justin Timberlake “wardrobe malfunction” at the 2004 Super Bowl. YouTube’s first clip, appropriately, was a dick joke.

This is the smirking milieu from which deepfakes emerged. The Gadot clip that the journalist Samantha Cole wrote about was posted to a Reddit forum, r/dopplebangher, dedicated to Photoshopping celebrities’ faces onto naked women’s bodies. This is still, Cole observes, what deepfake technology is overwhelmingly used for. Able to depict anything imaginable, people just want to see famous women having sex. A review of nearly fifteen thousand deepfake videos online revealed that ninety-six per cent were pornographic. These clips are made without the consent of the celebrities whose faces appear or the performers whose bodies do. Yet getting them removed is impossible, because, as Scarlett Johansson has explained, “the Internet is a vast wormhole of darkness that eats itself.”

Making realistic deepfakes requires many images of the target, which is why celebrities are especially vulnerable. The better A.I. gets, though, the wider its net will spread. After the investigative reporter Rana Ayyub criticized India’s governing political party for supporting those accused of raping and murdering a Kashmiri child in 2018, a fake porn video of Ayyub started circulating online and fed into an intimidation campaign so fierce that the United Nations stepped in. “From the day the video was published,” Ayyub reflected later that year, “I have not been the same person.”

The most prominent deepfake pornography Web site, for no obvious reason but in a way that feels exactly right, uses the sneering face of Donald Trump as its logo. When Trump retweeted an altered video in 2020, the Atlantic contributor David Frum gravely announced an “important milestone” in history: “the first deployment of Deep Fake technology for electioneering purposes in a major Western democracy.” Yet the object of Frum’s distress was an inane gif , first tweeted by a user named @SilERabbit, in which Joe Biden appeared to be waggling his tongue lasciviously. This was less Big Brother than baby brother: a juvenile insult meant to wind up the base.

A child surrounded by fairies.

Frum and others fear that deepfakes will cross over from pornography and satire to contaminate mainstream journalism. But the content doesn’t seem to thrive in that environment. The same antibodies that have long immunized us against darkroom tricks—our skepticism, common sense, and reliance on social verification—are protecting us from being duped by deepfakes. Instead of panicking about what could happen if people start mistaking fakes for real, then, we might do better to ask about the harm that fakes can do as fakes. Because even when they don’t deceive, they may not be great for the Republic.

The state of the media today is clearly unhealthy. Distressing numbers of people profess a belief that COVID is a hoax, that the 2020 election was rigged, or that Satan-worshipping pedophiles control politics. Still, none of these falsehoods rely on deepfakes. There are a few potentially misleading videos that have circulated recently, such as one of Representative Nancy Pelosi slurring her speech and one of Biden enjoying a song about killing cops. These, however, have been “cheapfakes,” made not by neural networks but by simple tricks like slowing down footage or dubbing in music.

Simple tricks suffice. People seeking to reinforce their outlook get a jolt of pleasure from a Photoshopped image of Pelosi in a hijab, or perhaps Biden as “Dark Brandon,” with glowing red eyes. There is something gratifying about having your world view reflected visually; it’s why we make art. But there is no need for this art to be realistic. In fact, cartoonish memes, symbolically rich and vividly expressive, seem better suited for the task than reality-conforming deepfakes.

The most effective fakes have been the simplest. Vaccines cause autism, Obama isn’t American, the election was stolen, climate change is a myth—these fictions are almost entirely verbal. They are too large to rely on records, and they have proved nearly impervious to evidence. When it comes to “deep stories,” as the sociologist Arlie Russell Hochschild calls them, facts are almost irrelevant. We accept them because they affirm our fundamental beliefs, not because we’ve seen convincing video.

This is how Arthur Conan Doyle fell for fairies. He’d long been interested in the supernatural, but the First World War—during which his son and brother-in-law died—pushed him over the edge. Unwilling to believe that the dead were truly gone, he decided that an invisible world existed; he then found counterevidence easy to bat away. Were the fairies in the photographs not catching the light in a plausible way? That’s because fairies are made of ectoplasm, he offered, which has a “faint luminosity of its own.” But why don’t the shots of them dancing show any motion blur? Because fairies dance slowly, of course. If Conan Doyle’s Sherlock Holmes tales describe a detective who, from a few stray facts, sees through baffling mysteries, his “Coming of the Fairies” tells the story of a man who, with all the facts in the world, cannot see what is right in front of his face.

Where deep stories are concerned, what’s right in front of our faces may not matter. Hundreds of hours of highly explicit footage have done little to change our opinions of the celebrities targeted by deepfakes. Yet a mere string of words, a libel that satisfies an urge to sexually humiliate politically ambitious women, has stuck in people’s heads through time: Catherine the Great had sex with a horse.

If by “deepfakes” we mean realistic videos produced using artificial intelligence that actually deceive people, then they barely exist. The fakes aren’t deep, and the deeps aren’t fake. In worrying about deepfakes’ potential to supercharge political lies and to unleash the infocalypse, moreover, we appear to be miscategorizing them. A.I.-generated videos are not, in general, operating in our media as counterfeited evidence. Their role better resembles that of cartoons, especially smutty ones.

Manipulated media is far from harmless, but its harms have not been epistemic. Rather, they’ve been demagogic, giving voice to what the historian Sam Lebovic calls “the politics of outrageous expression.” At their best, fakes— gif s, memes, and the like—condense complex thoughts into clarifying, rousing images. But, at their worst, they amplify our views rather than complicate them, facilitate the harassment of women, and help turn politics into a blood sport won by insulting one’s opponent in an entertaining way.

Those are the problems we’re facing today. They’re not unprecedented ones, though, and they would seem to stem more from shortcomings in our democratic institutions than from the ease of editing video. Right now, media-forensics specialists are racing to develop technologies to ferret out fakes. But Scheirer doubts that this is our most urgent need, and rightly so. The manipulations we’ve faced so far haven’t been deceptive so much as expressive. Fact-checking them does not help, because the problem with fakes isn’t the truth they hide. It’s the truth they reveal. ♦

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Room-Temperature Superconductor Discovery Is Retracted

It was the second paper led by Ranga P. Dias, a researcher at the University of Rochester, that the journal Nature has retracted.

Ranga Dias stands with his arms folded in front of a blackboard, which is covered in various diagrams and formulas written in colored chalk. He wears a blue sweater over a collared shirt.

By Kenneth Chang

Nature, one of the most prestigious journals in scientific publishing, on Tuesday retracted a high-profile paper it had published in March that claimed the discovery of a superconductor that worked at everyday temperatures.

It was the second superconductor paper involving Ranga P. Dias, a professor of mechanical engineering and physics at the University of Rochester in New York State, to be retracted by the journal in just over a year. It joined an unrelated paper retracted by another journal in which Dr. Dias was a key author.

Dr. Dias and his colleagues’ research is the latest in a long list of claims of room-temperature superconductors that have failed to pan out. But the retraction raised uncomfortable questions for Nature about why the journal’s editors publicized the research after they had already scrutinized and retracted an earlier paper from the same group.

A spokesman for Dr. Dias said that the scientist denied allegations of research misconduct. “Professor Dias intends to resubmit the scientific paper to a journal with a more independent editorial process,” the representative said.

First discovered in 1911, superconductors can seem almost magical — they conduct electricity without resistance. However, no known materials are superconductors in everyday conditions. Most require ultracold temperatures, and recent advances toward superconductors that function at higher temperatures require crushing pressures.

A superconductor that works at everyday temperatures and pressures could find use in M.R.I. scanners, novel electronic devices and levitating trains.

Superconductors unexpectedly became a viral topic on social networks over the summer when a different group of scientists, in South Korea, also claimed to have discovered a room-temperature superconductor, named LK-99. Within a couple of weeks, the excitement died away after other scientists were unable to confirm the superconductivity observations and came up with plausible alternative explanations.

Even though it was published in a high-profile journal, Dr. Dias’s claim of a room-temperature superconductor did not set off euphoria like LK-99 did because many scientists in the field already regarded his work with doubt.

In the Nature paper published in March, Dr. Dias and his colleagues reported that they had discovered a material — lutetium hydride with some nitrogen added — that was able to superconduct electricity at temperatures of up to 70 degrees Fahrenheit. It still required pressure of 145,000 pounds per square inch, which is not difficult to apply in a laboratory. The material took on a red hue when squeezed, leading Dr. Dias to nickname it “reddmatter” after a substance in a “Star Trek” movie .

Less than three years earlier, Nature published a paper from Dr. Dias and many of the same scientists. It described a different material that they said was also a superconductor although only at crushing pressures of nearly 40 million pounds per square inch. But other researchers questioned some of the data in the paper. After an investigation, Nature agreed, retracting the paper in September 2022 over the objections of the authors.

In August of this year, the journal Physical Review Letters retracted a 2021 paper by Dr. Dias that described intriguing electrical properties, although not superconductivity, in another chemical compound, manganese sulfide.

James Hamlin, a professor of physics at the University of Florida, told Physical Review Letters’ editors that the curves in one of the paper’s figures describing electrical resistance in manganese sulfide looked similar to graphs in Dr. Dias’s doctoral thesis that described the behavior of a different material.

Outside experts enlisted by the journal agreed that the data looked suspiciously similar, and the paper was retracted . Unlike the earlier Nature retraction, all nine of Dr. Dias’s co-authors agreed to the retraction. Dr. Dias was the lone holdout and maintained that the paper accurately portrayed the research findings.

In May, Dr. Hamlin and Brad J. Ramshaw, a professor of physics at Cornell University, sent editors at Nature their concerns about the lutetium hydride data in the March paper.

After the retraction by Physical Review Letters, most of the authors of the lutetium hydride paper concluded that the research from their paper was flawed too.

In a letter dated Sept. 8, eight of the 11 authors asked for the Nature paper to be retracted .

“Dr. Dias has not acted in good faith in regard to the preparation and submission of the manuscript,” they told the Nature editors.

The writers of the letter included five recent graduate students who worked in Dr. Dias’s lab, as well as Ashkan Salamat, a professor of physics at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas, who collaborated with Dr. Dias on the two earlier retracted papers. Dr. Dias and Dr. Salamat founded Unearthly Materials, a company that was meant to turn the superconducting discoveries into commercial products.

Dr. Salamat, who was the company’s president and chief executive, is no longer an employee there. He did not respond to a request for comment on the retraction.

In the retraction notice published on Tuesday, Nature said that the eight authors who wrote the letter in September expressed the view that “the published paper does not accurately reflect the provenance of the investigated materials, the experimental measurements undertaken and the data-processing protocols applied.”

The issues, those authors said, “undermine the integrity of the published paper.”

Dr. Dias and two other authors, former students of his, “have not stated whether they agree or disagree with this retraction,” the notice said. A Nature spokeswoman said they did not respond to the proposed retraction.

“This has been a deeply frustrating situation,” Karl Ziemelis, the chief editor for applied and physical sciences at Nature, said in a statement.

Mr. Ziemelis defended the journal’s handling of the paper. “Indeed, as is so often the case, the highly qualified expert reviewers we selected raised a number of questions about the original submission, which were largely resolved in later revisions,” he said. “This is how peer review works.”

He added, “What the peer-review process cannot detect is whether the paper as written accurately reflects the research as it was undertaken.”

For Dr. Ramshaw, the retraction provided validation. “When you are looking into someone else’s work, you always wonder whether you are just seeing things or overinterpreting,” he said.

The disappointments of LK-99 and Dr. Dias’s claims may not deter other scientists from investigating possible superconductors. Two decades ago, a scientist at Bell Labs, J. Hendrik Schön, published a series of striking findings, including novel superconductors. Investigations showed that he had made up most of his data.

That did not stymie later major superconductor discoveries. In 2014, a group led by Mikhail Eremets, of the Max Planck Institute for Chemistry in Germany, showed that hydrogen-containing compounds are superconductors at surprisingly warm temperatures when squeezed under ultrahigh pressures. Those findings are still broadly accepted.

Russell J. Hemley, a professor of physics and chemistry at the University of Illinois Chicago who followed up Dr. Eremets’s work with experiments that found another material that was also a superconductor at ultrahigh pressure conditions, continues to believe Dr. Dias’s lutetium hydride findings. In June, Dr. Hemley and his collaborators reported that they had also measured the apparent vanishing of electrical resistance in a sample that Dr. Dias had provided, and on Tuesday, Dr. Hemley said he remained confident that the findings would be reproduced by other scientists.

After the Physical Review Letters retraction, the University of Rochester confirmed that it had started a “comprehensive investigation” by experts not affiliated with the school. A university spokeswoman said that it had no plans to make the findings of the investigation public.

The University of Rochester has removed YouTube videos it produced in March that featured university officials lauding Dr. Dias’s research as a breakthrough.

Kenneth Chang has been at The Times since 2000, writing about physics, geology, chemistry, and the planets. Before becoming a science writer, he was a graduate student whose research involved the control of chaos. More about Kenneth Chang


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