Reading a Scholarly Article

  • Parts of a Scholarly Article
  • How to Read a Scholarly Article
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Sources consulted.

Anatomy of a Scholarly Article: NCSU Libraries . (2009, July 13).

Evelyn, S. (2021). LibGuides: Evaluating Information: How to Read a Scholarly Article . Read

Rempel, H. (2021). LibGuides: FW 107: Orientation to Fisheries and Wildlife: 5. The Anatomy of a Scholarly Article . c.php?g=286038&p=1905154

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Anatomy of a Scholarly Article

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Presented here are the first and last pages of a scholarly article. Click on the highlighted areas of the article to learn about clues to look for when identifying scholarly articles.

The title of a scholarly article is generally (but not always) an extremely brief summary of the article's contents. It will usually contain technical terms related to the research presented.

The abstract is a brief summary of the contents of the article, usually under 250 words. It will contain a description of the problem and problem setting; an outline of the study, experiment, or argument; and a summary of the conclusions or findings. It is provided so that readers examining the article can decide quickly whether the article meets their needs.

Scholarly articles frequently contain charts, graphs, equations, and statistical data related to the research. Pictures are rare unless they relate directly to the research presented in the article.

The body of an article is usually presented in sections, including an introduction , a literature review , one or more sections describing and analyzing the argument , experiment or study . Scientific research articles typically include separate sections addressing the Methods and Results of the experiment, and a Discussion of the research findings. Articles typically close with a conclusion summarizing the findings. The parts of the article may or may not be labeled, and two or more sections may be combined in a single part of the text. The text itself is typically highly technical, and assumes a familiarity with the topic. Jargon , abbreviations , and technical terms are used without definition.

A scholarly article will end with a conclusion , where the authors summarize the results of their research. The authors may also discuss how their findings relate to other scholarship, or encourage other researchers to extend or follow up on their work.

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Scientists all over the world, in laboratories and in the field, work hard every day. They spend countless hours trying to find answers to research questions. Often this all leads up to an "ah-ha!" (or a "that's strange...") moment, when they discover something interesting or something that can change what we know about science.

But once they've made a discovery, what happens? Does the whole world automatically know about their work? Of course not — that would be too easy. In order to spread news of their findings, scientists have to write and publish articles that outline what they did and what they found.

When scientists write these papers, they don't usually write them for the public. Instead, they write them for other scientists. So, if you aren't a scientist, how might you figure out what's in a paper?

How to Read a Scientific Paper

Below, we've mapped out the "gross anatomy" of an article — basically an overview of what goes where in a paper. After you know the basics of what you can expect to find in a scientific article, take a shot at reading one on our Article Dissection page. Together these sections provide tips you can use when reading a scientific paper.

Parts of an Article

Just like you have a name, so does every research paper that is published. Usually the title offers a general idea of the subject of the paper. Sometimes it will also include information on what the scientists found. Show me an example | 1 |

Give credit where credit is due. People that made a large contribution to the project usually end up as an author. If there is more than one author, they are called co-authors. Sometimes, when a lot of people are involved, this makes for a very long list of authors. Show me an example | 1 |

Author affiliations

It may seem odd, but scientists aren't the only ones involved in the completion of a study. Often times the university or institution where the study was completed also had an important role, in providing funds for the work, for example. The universities or institutions that sponsored the work are usually listed under the authors' names. To see which author came from what institution, you can usually match the numbers or symbols listed next to the author and institution names.

The abstract is a one paragraph summary of the most important parts of the article. Reading the abstract is a good way to figure out if you are interested in reading the rest of the paper. Abstracts can also have a ton of information though, so they can sometimes be difficult to read. Show me an example | 1 |

Author Summary

Certain journals like to have the authors of the article write a simplified version of the abstract. This is often written for non-scientists or scientists from other fields. If an article has an author summary, it might be good to read it before you read the abstract. Show me an example | 1 |


Background is very important. If you're trying to learn about a specific lizard, for example, it would be useful to know where the lizard species lives, what it eats, and what kind of behaviors it might show. The introduction of a paper is where the scientists give you all of the relevant background information so you can better understand the study. Show me an example| 1 |

Materials and Methods

It would be great if scientific information would magically appear. But it doesn't. Instead, it takes days, months, or years to carry out experiments for a study. In the materials and methods section, the scientists explain exactly how they did their study. It is kind of a "how to" or "DIY" for other scientists. Because of the complicated nature of some studies, the materials and methods section can sometimes be the toughest part of the paper to read.

But this section can also give you the best idea of how research is done.  Show me an example | 1 |

Results (with figures and tables)

Do you ever listen to an overly long story and wish that the storyteller would just get to the point? If you do, the results section will probably be your favorite. This is the heart of the paper, where the scientists tell you exactly what they found. This is usually where you will also find the figures and tables, though some papers put all the figures at the very end. A lot of results are pretty raw data (meaning the data hasn't been interpreted). Interpretation is saved for the next section. Show me an example | 1 |

If you read the results section, you probably take in a lot of numbers, some useful graphs, and you have a good idea of what was found overall. But what does any of it mean? Are the findings important? These questions are answered in the discussion section. Here, scientists present what they learned from the study and what effect the new information will have on science. They also discuss any problems with the experiment in this section. There is one thing to be wary of when reading the discussion...sometimes data can be interpreted in different ways. The interpretation presented in a discussion is not always the only interpretation possible. This is why the discussion section is kept separate from the results section. Show me an example | 1 |

Some journal articles have a conclusion section,  which is basically a summary of the study that is really heavy on findings and what those findings mean. If you want the quick version of what impact the study will have on science, look for a conclusions section. Show me an example | 1 |


Some studies involve many, many people that contribute, sometimes in relatively small ways. If someone helps out but didn't do enough to be an author on a paper, they still get credit for their work by being listed in the acknowledgments section. Show me an example | 1 |

Author Contributions

While an author list tells us which people were most important to completing a study, it doesn't tell us what each author contributed to the process. Some journals don't include an author contributions section, but when they do, they list which author did what during the study. Show me an example | 1 |

You may have heard the phrase that things "do not exist in vacuums." The reference section is proof of that idea. Throughout the entire paper, scientists used other published information to help give you background on their work, to explain why they used certain methods, or to compare their findings to others. The references section is where all those other published studies are listed. As you read through an article,  you will often see either tiny numbers in superscript or last names in parentheses at the end of some sentences. These are cues that link you to specific published articles that are all listed in the reference section. This section is especially helpful if you want to get more information related to the article you are reading. Show me an example | 1 |

Scientific journals

Supplementary Materials

Some studies produce a lot of important information that the scientists want to share with the world. Yet, if you want someone to read a journal article, it can only be so long. Sometimes, if there is too much information for too little of an article, information that can be considered "extra" is listed in a different section of supplementary materials.

Read more about: Anatomy of an Article

View citation, bibliographic details:.

  • Article: Anatomy of an Article
  • Author(s): Karla Moeller
  • Publisher: Arizona State University School of Life Sciences Ask A Biologist
  • Site name: ASU - Ask A Biologist
  • Date published: June 12, 2014
  • Date accessed: November 22, 2023
  • Link:

Karla Moeller. (2014, June 12). Anatomy of an Article. ASU - Ask A Biologist. Retrieved November 22, 2023 from

Chicago Manual of Style

Karla Moeller. "Anatomy of an Article". ASU - Ask A Biologist. 12 June, 2014.

MLA 2017 Style

Karla Moeller. "Anatomy of an Article". ASU - Ask A Biologist. 12 Jun 2014. ASU - Ask A Biologist, Web. 22 Nov 2023.

5 parts of the article

More than just highlighting text, reading a scientific paper requires skills in reading and dissecting the story.

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Anatomy of an Article

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Article I  assigns the responsibility for making laws to the Legislative Branch (Congress). Congress is divided into two parts, or “Houses,” the House of Representatives and the Senate. The bicameral Congress was a compromise between the large states, which wanted representation based on population, and the small ones, which wanted the states to have equal representation.

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Research Skills

Parts of an article.

The academic articles that you will find and use can be difficult to understand and use if you are unfamiliar with the formalized way they are assembled. Therefore, it is very important that you understand that academic/peer-reviewed/scholarly articles have a conventional structure, one that cuts across disciplines. The overwhelming majority of academic articles are broken down into sections with subheadings and make similar rhetorical moves in the same order. Knowing what this structure is and what important information is contained in each section will save you a great deal of confusion. The more frequently you practice navigating such articles in your discipline, the easier they will become for you to decipher.  We will now look at the these sections and at what they contain. Then, in a research toolbox, we will look at some representative articles and their sections so that you can see how they all use a structure that recurs across the disciplines.

  • Parts of An Article. Authored by : Kerry Bowers. Provided by : The University of Mississippi. Project : WRIT 250 Committee OER Project. License : CC BY-SA: Attribution-ShareAlike

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Reading Scholarly Articles

Evaluating information sources: reading scholarly articles.

  • Evaluate Your Sources
  • Publication Types and Bias
  • Impact Factors and Citation Counts
  • Predatory Publishing

Before you write about an article, you need to understand it. However, do not plan to read a scholarly or scientific journal article the same way you would a book or a magazine article. This page focuses on the elements of the scholarly article and offers recommended steps to reading it. For information on writing your paper, quoting from what your read and avoiding plagiarism, visit the links below.

  • Organizing Research for Arts and Humanities Papers and Theses
  • Organizing Your Social Sciences Research Paper

Also be aware some papers have been retracted. Visit:

  • Retraction Watch

Structure of Scientific Papers

Research papers generally follow a specific format. Here are the different parts of the scholarly article.

Abstract (Summary)

The abstract, generally written by the author(s) of the article, provides a concise summary of the whole article. Usually it highlights the focus, study results and conclusion(s) of the article. 

Introduction (Why)

In this section, the authors introduce their topic, explain the purpose of the study, and present why it is important, unique or how it adds to existing knowledge in their field. Look for the author's hypothesis or thesis here. 

Introduction - Literature Review (Who else)

Many scholarly articles include a summary of previous research or discussions published on this topic, called a "Literature Review".  This section outlines what others have found and what questions still remain.

Methodology  / Materials and Methods (How) 

Find the details of how the study was performed in this section. There should be enough specifics so that you could repeat the study if you wanted. 

Results   (What happened)

This section includes the findings from the study. Look for the data and statistical results in the form of tables, charts, and graphs. Some papers include an analysis here.

Discussion  / Analysis  (What it means)

This section should tell you what the authors felt was significant about their results. The authors analyze their data and describe what they believe it means.

Conclusion (What was learned)

Here the authors offer their final thoughts and conclusions and may include: how the study addressed their hypothesis, how it contributes to the field, the strengths and weaknesses of the study, and recommendations for future research. Some papers combine the discussion and conclusion.

Reading a Scholarly Article

A scholarly paper can be difficult to read. Instead of reading straight through, try focusing on the different sections and asking specific questions at each point.

What is your research question? 

When you select an article to read for a project or class, focus on your topic. Look for information in the article that is relevant to your research question. 

Read the abstract first  as it covers basics of the article. Questions to consider: 

  • What is this article about? What is the working hypothesis or thesis?
  • Is this related to my question or area of research?

Second: Read the introduction and discussion/conclusion.  These sections offer the main argument and hypothesis of the article. Questions to consider for the introduction: 

  • What do we already know about this topic and what is left to discover?
  • What have other people done in regards to this topic?
  • How is this research unique?
  • Will this tell me anything new related to my research question?

Questions for the discussion and conclusion: 

  • What does the study mean and why is it important?
  • What are the weaknesses in their argument?
  • Is the conclusion valid?

Next: Read about the Methods/Methodology.  If what you've read addresses your research question, this should be your next section. Questions to consider:

  • How did the author do the research? Is it a qualitative or quantitative project?
  • What data are the study based on?
  • Could I repeat their work? Is all the information present in order to repeat it?

Finally: Read the Results and Analysis.  Now read the details of this research. What did the researchers learn? If graphs and statistics are confusing, focus on the explanations around them. Questions to consider: 

  • What did the author find and how did they find it?
  • Are the results presented in a factual and unbiased way?
  • Does their analysis agree with the data presented?
  • Is all the data present?
  • What conclusions do you formulate from this data? (And does it match with the Author's conclusions?)

Review the References (anytime): These give credit to other scientists and researchers and show you the basis the authors used to develop their research.  The list of references, or works cited, should include all of the materials the authors used in the article. The references list can be a good way to identify additional sources of information on the topic. Questions to ask:

  • What other articles should I read?
  • What other authors are respected in this field?
  • What other research should I explore?

Additional Reading Tips

When you read these scholarly articles, remember that you will be writing based on what you read.

While you are Reading:

  • Keep in mind your research question
  • Focus on the information in the article relevant to your question (feel free to skim over other parts)
  • Question everything you read - not everything is 100% true or performed effectively
  • Think critically about what you read and seek to build your own arguments
  • Read out of order! This isn't a mystery novel or movie, you want to start with the spoiler
  • Use any keywords printed by the journals as further clues about the article
  • Look up words you don't know

How to Take Notes on the Article

Try different ways, but use the one that fits you best. Below are some suggestions:

  • Print the article and highlight, circle and otherwise mark while you read (for a PDF, you can use the highlight text  feature in Adobe Reader)
  • Take notes on the sections, for example in the margins (Adobe Reader offers pop-up  sticky notes )
  • Highlight only very important quotes or terms - or highlight potential quotes in a different color
  • Summarize the main or key points

Reflect on what you have read - draw your own conclusions . As you read jot down questions that come to mind. These may be answered later on in the article or you may have found something that the authors did not consider. Here are a few questions that might be helpful:

  • Have I taken time to understand all the terminology?
  • Am I spending too much time on the less important parts of this article?
  • Do I have any reason to question the credibility of this research?
  • What specific problem does the research address and why is it important?
  • How do these results relate to my research interests or to other works which I have read?

For more information

  • Anatomy of a Scholarly Article (Interactive tutorial) Andreas Orphanides, North Carolina State University Libraries, 2009
  • How to Read an Article in a Scholarly Journal (Research Guide) Cayuga Community College Library, 2016
  • How To Read a Scholarly Journal Article (YouTube Video) Tim Lockman, Kishwaukee College Library, 2012.
  • How To Read a Scientific Paper (Interactive tutorial) Michael Fosmire, Purdue University Libraries, 2013. PDF
  • How to Read a Scientific Paper (Online article) Science Buddies, 2012
  • How to Read a Scientific Research Paper (Article) Durbin Jr., C. G. Respiratory Care, 2009
  • The Illusion of Certainty and the Certainty of Illusion: A Caution when Reading Scientific Articles (Article) T. A. Lang, International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 2011,
  • Infographic: How to Read Scientific Papers Natalia Rodriguez, Elsevier, 2015
  • Library Research Methods: Read & Evaluate Culinary Institute of America Library, 2016
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FW 107: Orientation to Fisheries and Wildlife

  • 1. Get Started with Research for FW 107
  • 2. Create Research Questions
  • 3. Find Scholarly Articles
  • 4. Identify a Scholarly Article

Anatomy of a Scholarly Article

Introduction, literature review, methodology.

  • 6. Read and Evaluate Scholarly Articles
  • 7. Cite Using the Journal of Wildlife Management Style

For a quick overview of the parts of a scholarly article, click on the link below to see an example of a scholarly article and its parts. We will look at the different parts more closely on the rest of this page.

Open access

An abstract is a summary of the main article. An abstract will include information about why the research study was done, what the methodology was and something about the findings of the author(s). The abstract is always at the beginning of the article and will either be labeled "abstract" or will be set apart from the rest of the article by a different font or margins.

The abstract should tell you what the research study is about, how the research was done (methodology), who the research sample was, what the authors found and why this is important to the field.

Most articles will start with an introductory section, which may be labeled introduction. This section introduces the research study, the thesis statement and why the research being conducted is important.

Questions to ask while you read:

  • What is the thesis? What are the authors trying to prove or disprove?
  • What is the contribution that the authors are making to the field?

The literature review section of an article is a summary or analysis of all the research the author read before doing his/her own research. This section may be part of the introduction or in a section called Background. It provides the background on who has done related research, what that research has or has not uncovered and how the current research contributes to the conversation on the topic. When you read the lit review ask:

  • Does the review of the literature logically lead up to the research questions?
  • Do the authors review articles relevant to their research study?
  • Do the authors show where there are gaps in the literature?

The lit review is also a good place to find other sources you may want to read on this topic to help you get the bigger picture.

The methodology section or methods section tells you how the author(s) went about doing their research. It should let you know a) what method they used to gather data (survey, interviews, experiments, etc.), why they chose this method, and what the limitations are to this method.

The methodology section should be detailed enough that another researcher could replicate the study described. When you read the methodology or methods section:

  • What kind of research method did the authors use? Is it an appropriate method for the type of study they are conducting?
  • How did the authors get their tests subjects? What criteria did they use?
  • What are the contexts of the study that may have affected the results (e.g. environmental conditions, lab conditions, timing questions, etc.)
  • Is the sample size representative of the larger population (i.e., was it big enough?)
  • Are the data collection instruments and procedures likely to have measured all the important characteristics with reasonable accuracy?
  • Does the data analysis appear to have been done with care, and were appropriate analytical techniques used? 

A good researcher will always let you know about the limitations of his or her research.

The results section in a scholarly article is where the author(s) talk about what they found in their research study. Most scholarly articles will have a section labeled results or findings.

Research articles are full of data . The data should be complete and directly support the conclusions the authors' draw about their research question.

Tables, graphs, and charts are good indicators that this is a research article. The tables should represent the data in a clear and readable manner.

The discussion section is where the author(s) write about what they found and what they think it means. The authors may also draw some conclusions about the research and what significance it has in this section. This section will also tell you what some of the issues were with the research or using a specific population for a research study.

The final section is usually called the conclusion or recommendations. Here is where the authors summarize what they found, why they think their research is significant and, if appropriate, make recommendations about future actions or future research that needs to be conducted. In some cases, the conclusion is part of the discussion section.

At the end of a scholarly article, you will find a list of the works cited by the author(s). This list is called a reference list, works cited or bibliography. In scholarly articles, this list will generally be quite long and include articles, books, and other sources.

When you look at the references, take a look at the dates of the articles and books listed. Are they recent?  Does this list include both historic and current articles? If you know something about the topic, do you recognize any of the authors listed?

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  • Next: 6. Read and Evaluate Scholarly Articles >>
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5 parts of the article

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  • Amendment XIV [Privileges and Immunities, Due Process, Equal Protection, Apportionment of Representatives, Civil War Disqualification and Debt (1868)] (see explanation )
  • Amendment XV [Rights Not to Be Denied on Account of Race (1870)] (see explanation )
  • Amendment XVI [Income Tax (1913)] (see explanation )
  • Amendment XVII [Election of Senators (1913)] (see explanation )
  • Amendment XVIII [Prohibition (1919)] (see explanation )
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  • Amendment XX [Presidential Term and Succession (1933)] (see explanation )
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  • Amendment XXII [Two Term Limit on President (1951)] (see explanation )
  • Amendment XXIII [Presidential Vote in D.C. (1961)] (see explanation )
  • Amendment XXIV [Poll Tax (1964)] (see explanation )
  • Amendment XXV [Presidential Succession (1967)] (see explanation )
  • Amendment XXVI [Right to Vote at Age 18 (1971)] (see explanation )
  • Amendment XXVII [Compensation of Members of Congress (1992)] (see explanation )
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  • Research Guides

BSCI 1510L Literature and Stats Guide: 3.2 Components of a scientific paper

  • 1 What is a scientific paper?
  • 2 Referencing and accessing papers
  • 2.1 Literature Cited
  • 2.2 Accessing Scientific Papers
  • 2.3 Traversing the web of citations
  • 2.4 Keyword Searches
  • 3 Style of scientific writing
  • 3.1 Specific details regarding scientific writing

3.2 Components of a scientific paper

  • 4 For further information
  • Appendix A: Calculation Final Concentrations
  • 1 Formulas in Excel
  • 2 Basic operations in Excel
  • 3 Measurement and Variation
  • 3.1 Describing Quantities and Their Variation
  • 3.2 Samples Versus Populations
  • 3.3 Calculating Descriptive Statistics using Excel
  • 4 Variation and differences
  • 5 Differences in Experimental Science
  • 5.1 Aside: Commuting to Nashville
  • 5.2 P and Detecting Differences in Variable Quantities
  • 5.3 Statistical significance
  • 5.4 A test for differences of sample means: 95% Confidence Intervals
  • 5.5 Error bars in figures
  • 5.6 Discussing statistics in your scientific writing
  • 6 Scatter plot, trendline, and linear regression
  • 7 The t-test of Means
  • 8 Paired t-test
  • 9 Two-Tailed and One-Tailed Tests
  • 10 Variation on t-tests: ANOVA
  • 11 Reporting the Results of a Statistical Test
  • 12 Summary of statistical tests
  • 1 Objectives
  • 2 Project timeline
  • 3 Background
  • 4 Previous work in the BSCI 111 class
  • 5 General notes about the project
  • 6 About the paper
  • 7 References

Nearly all journal articles are divided into the following major sections: abstract, introduction, methods, results, discussion, and references.  Usually the sections are labeled as such, although often the introduction (and sometimes the abstract) is not labeled.  Sometimes alternative section titles are used.  The abstract is sometimes called the "summary", the methods are sometimes called "materials and methods", and the discussion is sometimes called "conclusions".   Some journals also include the minor sections of "key words" following the abstract, and "acknowledgments" following the discussion.  In some journals, the sections may be divided into subsections that are given descriptive titles.  However, the general division into the six major sections is nearly universal.

3.2.1 Abstract

The abstract is a short summary (150-200 words or less) of the important points of the paper.  It does not generally include background information.  There may be a very brief statement of the rationale for conducting the study.  It describes what was done, but without details.  It also describes the results in a summarized way that usually includes whether or not the statistical tests were significant.  It usually concludes with a brief statement of the importance of the results.  Abstracts do not include references.  When writing a paper, the abstract is always the last part to be written.

The purpose of the abstract is to allow potential readers of a paper to find out the important points of the paper without having to actually read the paper.  It should be a self-contained unit capable of being understood without the benefit of the text of the article . It essentially serves as an "advertisement" for the paper that readers use to determine whether or not they actually want to wade through the entire paper or not.  Abstracts are generally freely available in electronic form and are often presented in the results of an electronic search.  If searchers do not have electronic access to the journal in which the article is published, the abstract is the only means that they have to decide whether to go through the effort (going to the library to look up the paper journal, requesting a reprint from the author, buying a copy of the article from a service, requesting the article by Interlibrary Loan) of acquiring the article.  Therefore it is important that the abstract accurately and succinctly presents the most important information in the article.

3.2.2 Introduction

The introduction provides the background information necessary to understand why the described experiment was conducted.  The introduction should describe previous research on the topic that has led to the unanswered questions being addressed by the experiment and should cite important previous papers that form the background for the experiment.  The introduction should also state in an organized fashion the goals of the research, i.e. the particular, specific questions that will be tested in the experiments.  There should be a one-to-one correspondence between questions raised in the introduction and points discussed in the conclusion section of the paper.  In other words, do not raise questions in the introduction unless you are going to have some kind of answer to the question that you intend to discuss at the end of the paper. 

You may have been told that every paper must have a hypothesis that can be clearly stated.  That is often true, but not always.  If your experiment involves a manipulation which tests a specific hypothesis, then you should clearly state that hypothesis.  On the other hand, if your experiment was primarily exploratory, descriptive, or measurative, then you probably did not have an a priori hypothesis, so don't pretend that you did and make one up.  (See the discussion in the introduction to Experiment 4 for more on this.)  If you state a hypothesis in the introduction, it should be a general hypothesis and not a null or alternative hypothesis for a statistical test.  If it is necessary to explain how a statistical test will help you evaluate your general hypothesis, explain that in the methods section. 

A good introduction should be fairly heavy with citations.  This indicates to the reader that the authors are informed about previous work on the topic and are not working in a vacuum.  Citations also provide jumping-off points to allow the reader to explore other tangents to the subject that are not directly addressed in the paper.  If the paper supports or refutes previous work, readers can look up the citations and make a comparison for themselves. 

"Do not get lost in reviewing background information. Remember that the Introduction is meant to introduce the reader to your research, not summarize and evaluate all past literature on the subject (which is the purpose of a review paper). Many of the other studies you may be tempted to discuss in your Introduction are better saved for the Discussion, where they become a powerful tool for comparing and interpreting your results. Include only enough background information to allow your reader to understand why you are asking the questions you are and why your hyptheses are reasonable ones. Often, a brief explanation of the theory involved is sufficient. …

Write this section in the past or present tense, never in the future. " (Steingraber et al. 1985)

3.2.3 Methods (taken verbatim from Steingraber et al. 1985)

The function of this section is to describe all experimental procedures, including controls. The description should be complete enough to enable someone else to repeat your work. If there is more than one part to the experiment, it is a good idea to describe your methods and present your results in the same order in each section. This may not be the same order in which the experiments were performed -it is up to you to decide what order of presentation will make the most sense to your reader.

1. Explain why each procedure was done, i.e., what variable were you measuring and why? Example:

Difficult to understand : First, I removed the frog muscle and then I poured Ringer’s solution on it. Next, I attached it to the kymograph.

Improved: I removed the frog muscle and poured Ringer’s solution on it to prevent it from drying out. I then attached the muscle to the kymograph in order to determine the minimum voltage required for contraction.

2. Experimental procedures and results are narrated in the past tense (what you did, what you found, etc.) whereas conclusions from your results are given in the present tense.

3. Mathematical equations and statistical tests are considered mathematical methods and should be described in this section along with the actual experimental work.

4. Use active rather than passive voice when possible.  [Note: see Section 3.1.4 for more about this.]  Always use the singular "I" rather than the plural "we" when you are the only author of the paper.  Throughout the paper, avoid contractions, e.g. did not vs. didn’t.

5. If any of your methods is fully described in a previous publication (yours or someone else’s), you can cite that instead of describing the procedure again.

Example: The chromosomes were counted at meiosis in the anthers with the standard acetocarmine technique of Snow (1955).

3.2.4 Results (with excerpts from Steingraber et al. 1985)

The function of this section is to summarize general trends in the data without comment, bias, or interpretation. The results of statistical tests applied to your data are reported in this section although conclusions about your original hypotheses are saved for the Discussion section.

Tables and figures should be used when they are a more efficient way to convey information than verbal description. They must be independent units, accompanied by explanatory captions that allow them to be understood by someone who has not read the text. Do not repeat in the text the information in tables and figures, but do cite them, with a summary statement when that is appropriate.  Example:

Incorrect: The results are given in Figure 1.

Correct: Temperature was directly proportional to metabolic rate (Fig. 1).

Please note that the entire word "Figure" is almost never written in an article.  It is nearly always abbreviated as "Fig." and capitalized.  Tables are cited in the same way, although Table is not abbreviated.

Whenever possible, use a figure instead of a table. Relationships between numbers are more readily grasped when they are presented graphically rather than as columns in a table.

Data may be presented in figures and tables, but this may not substitute for a verbal summary of the findings. The text should be understandable by someone who has not seen your figures and tables.

1. All results should be presented, including those that do not support the hypothesis.

2. Statements made in the text must be supported by the results contained in figures and tables.

3. The results of statistical tests can be presented in parentheses following a verbal description.

Example: Fruit size was significantly greater in trees growing alone (t = 3.65, df = 2, p < 0.05).

Simple results of statistical tests may be reported in the text as shown in the preceding example.  The results of multiple tests may be reported in a table if that increases clarity. (See Section 11 of the Statistics Manual for more details about reporting the results of statistical tests.)  It is not necessary to provide a citation for a simple t-test of means, paired t-test, or linear regression.  If you use other tests, you should cite the text or reference you followed to do the test.  In your materials and methods section, you should report how you did the test (e.g. using the statistical analysis package of Excel). 

It is NEVER appropriate to simply paste the results from statistical software into the results section of your paper.  The output generally reports more information than is required and it is not in an appropriate format for a paper. Tables

  • Do not repeat information in a table that you are depicting in a graph or histogram; include a table only if it presents new information.
  • It is easier to compare numbers by reading down a column rather than across a row. Therefore, list sets of data you want your reader to compare in vertical form.
  • Provide each table with a number (Table 1, Table 2, etc.) and a title. The numbered title is placed above the table .
  • Please see Section 11 of the Excel Reference and Statistics Manual for further information on reporting the results of statistical tests. Figures

  • These comprise graphs, histograms, and illustrations, both drawings and photographs. Provide each figure with a number (Fig. 1, Fig. 2, etc.) and a caption (or "legend") that explains what the figure shows. The numbered caption is placed below the figure .  Figure legend = Figure caption.
  • Figures submitted for publication must be "photo ready," i.e., they will appear just as you submit them, or photographically reduced. Therefore, when you graduate from student papers to publishable manuscripts, you must learn to prepare figures that will not embarrass you. At the present time, virtually all journals require manuscripts to be submitted electronically and it is generally assumed that all graphs and maps will be created using software rather than being created by hand.  Nearly all journals have specific guidelines for the file types, resolution, and physical widths required for figures.  Only in a few cases (e.g. sketched diagrams) would figures still be created by hand using ink and those figures would be scanned and labeled using graphics software.  Proportions must be the same as those of the page in the journal to which the paper will be submitted. 
  • Graphs and Histograms: Both can be used to compare two variables. However, graphs show continuous change, whereas histograms show discrete variables only.  You can compare groups of data by plotting two or even three lines on one graph, but avoid cluttered graphs that are hard to read, and do not plot unrelated trends on the same graph. For both graphs, and histograms, plot the independent variable on the horizontal (x) axis and the dependent variable on the vertical (y) axis. Label both axes, including units of measurement except in the few cases where variables are unitless, such as absorbance.
  • Drawings and Photographs: These are used to illustrate organisms, experimental apparatus, models of structures, cellular and subcellular structure, and results of procedures like electrophoresis. Preparing such figures well is a lot of work and can be very expensive, so each figure must add enough to justify its preparation and publication, but good figures can greatly enhance a professional article, as your reading in biological journals has already shown.

3.2.5 Discussion (taken from Steingraber et al. 1985)

The function of this section is to analyze the data and relate them to other studies. To "analyze" means to evaluate the meaning of your results in terms of the original question or hypothesis and point out their biological significance.

1. The Discussion should contain at least:

  • the relationship between the results and the original hypothesis, i.e., whether they support the hypothesis, or cause it to be rejected or modified
  • an integration of your results with those of previous studies in order to arrive at explanations for the observed phenomena
  • possible explanations for unexpected results and observations, phrased as hypotheses that can be tested by realistic experimental procedures, which you should describe

2. Trends that are not statistically significant can still be discussed if they are suggestive or interesting, but cannot be made the basis for conclusions as if they were significant.

3. Avoid redundancy between the Results and the Discussion section. Do not repeat detailed descriptions of the data and results in the Discussion. In some journals, Results and Discussions are joined in a single section, in order to permit a single integrated treatment with minimal repetition. This is more appropriate for short, simple articles than for longer, more complicated ones.

4. End the Discussion with a summary of the principal points you want the reader to remember. This is also the appropriate place to propose specific further study if that will serve some purpose, but do not end with the tired cliché that "this problem needs more study." All problems in biology need more study. Do not close on what you wish you had done, rather finish stating your conclusions and contributions.

3.2.6 Title

The title of the paper should be the last thing that you write.  That is because it should distill the essence of the paper even more than the abstract (the next to last thing that you write). 

The title should contain three elements:

1. the name of the organism studied;

2. the particular aspect or system studied;

3. the variable(s) manipulated.

Do not be afraid to be grammatically creative. Here are some variations on a theme, all suitable as titles:




Sometimes it is possible to include the principal result or conclusion in the title:


Note for the BSCI 1510L class: to make your paper look more like a real paper, you can list all of the other group members as co-authors.  However, if you do that, you should list you name first so that we know that you wrote it.

3.2.7 Literature Cited

Please refer to section 2.1 of this guide.

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Research Basics Tutorial: Parts of a Scholarly Article

  • Tutorial Menu
  • College-Level Research
  • What Do Researchers Do?
  • Parts of a Scholarly Article
  • How to Search
  • Finding Books & Articles
  • Evaluating Sources
  • Literature Reviews
  • Web vs. Google Scholar
  • Citing Sources

Qualitative Methods

Key components of a scholarly article.

Components of a Research Article

The title may include terms like “outcomes,” “effects,” “treatments,” and “reactions” that indicate the article deals with research. Example:

Human touch effectively and safely reduces pain in the newborn intensive care unit

Provides the author(s) name(s) and publication information. Example:

Herrington, C. J., & Chiodo, L. M. (2014). Human touch effectively and safely reduces pain in the newborn intensive care unit. Pain Management Nursing , 15 (1), 107-115. doi:10.1016/j.pmn.2012.06.007

Used by readers to quickly evaluate the overall article content. Introduces topic and specific research question, usually provides statement regarding methodology and a general statement about the results and findings.

This was a feasibility pilot study to evaluate the efficacy of the nonpharmacologic pain management technique of gentle human touch (GHT) in reducing pain response to heel stick in premature infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Eleven premature infants ranging from 27 to 34 weeks’ gestational age, in a level III NICU in a teaching hospital, were recruited and randomized to order of treatment in this repeated-measures crossover-design experiment. Containment with GHT during heel stick was compared with traditional nursery care (side lying and “nested” in an incubator). Heart rate, respiratory rate, oxygen saturation, and cry were measured continuously beginning at baseline and continuing through heel warming, heel stick, and recovery following the heel stick. Infants who did not receive GHT had decreased respiration, increased heart rate, and increased cry time during the heel stick... No significant differences were noted in oxygen saturation in either group. GHT is a simple nonpharmacologic therapy that can be used by nurses and families to reduce pain of heel stick in premature infants in the NICU.


Introduces the broad overall topic and provides basic background information.  Then narrows down to the specific research question relating to the topic. Provides the purpose and focus for the rest of the article and sets the justification for the research. Sometimes this includes a literature review that describes past important research and relates it specifically to the research question.

Background: Nearly 13% of all pregnancies result in premature birth (infants born before 37 weeks’ completed gestation) every year in the U.S. ( Martin, Hamilton, Sutton, Ventura, Mathews, & Osterman, 2010 ). It is estimated that 50%–70% of infants born prematurely develop neurobehavioral deficits/delays that are often undiagnosed until preschool and early school age…. Although multiple mechanisms affect overall neurobehavioral development in these infants, increased scientific attention has focused on the detrimental effects of minor repetitive pain exposure in the newborn intensive care unit (NICU) ( Fitzgerald & Walker, 2009 ; Grunau, 2002 ; Hack, Klein, & Taylor, 1995 ). . . .

Study Aim: The present study was designed to test the efficacy of gentle human touch in reducing pain response in premature infants undergoing heel stick for medically indicated blood sampling compared with standard nursery care of positioning with nonhuman confinement using “blanket nesting.”

Describes the research design and methodology used to complete the study.  Includes the sample of who was studied and sample size.

Study Design: This was an experimental pilot feasibility study using a repeated-measures crossover study design. Pain response was measured around two medically indicated heel sticks for blood sampling. Each infant received one heel stick with GHT intervention and one heel stick without GHT. Infants served as their own controls with random assignment to order of treatment (GHT vs. no GHT) in blocks of four to maximize study power. . . .

Sample: Sample size was determined using feasibility considerations of the number of premature infants treated in the unit where the study was conducted. . . .

Results of the analysis are presented that are directly related to the research or problem.

Data Analysis: Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the demographic data and evaluate distributions, measures of central tendency, and outcome variable variability (HR, RR, SaO 2 , and cry). In SPSS (version 20), repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to analyze the effects of intervention versus no intervention. . . .

Discussion / Conclusion

This section should be a discussion of the results, and the implications on the field. The research question should be answered and validated by the interpretation of the results. This section could also discuss how results relate to previous research, any cautions about the findings, and potential for future research.

Discussion: The data reported here provide evidence of the ability of gentle human touch to reduce pain response in premature infants undergoing heel stick for medically indicated blood sampling compared with standard nursery care of positioning with nonhuman confinement using “blanket nesting. . . .”

Study Limitations: There are study limitations that need to be considered as the findings are interpreted. Although statistical significance was noted in several between-group comparisons, the sample was small, thus threatening study validity. However, the clinical significance is important. . . .

Recommendations for Future Research: …Future research should examine the efficacy of GHT to reduce pain response over the duration of the NICU stay and the potential for sensitization to the GHT when used consistently for pain reduction. . . .

Summary: This study presents new evidence supporting the feasibility and effectiveness of gentle human touch for relief of pain of heel stick in the NICU. GHT is a quick and easy intervention that can be provided by nurses to reduce pain.

This section should be an alphabetized list of all the academic sources of information utilized in the paper.

Axelin, A., Salantera, S., Lehtonen, L. (2006). Facilitated tucking by parents’ in pain management of preterm infants—A randomized crossover trial. Early Human Development, 82 (4) (2006), pp. 241–247.

Fitzgerald, M., Walker, S.M. (2009). Infant pain management: A developmental neurobiological approach . Nature Clinical Practice. Neurology, 5 (1) pp. 35–50.

A Few Basic Types of Scholarly Articles

Peer review isn't a tough concept. It just means that the article was reviewed by scholars and meets certain standards with regards to a publication or a discipline. These articles are typically written by professors or specialists. A great clue that something is peer reviewed or scholarly: The article contains a list of references or cites.

Qualitative research seeks to understanding some aspect of social life, and its methods (usually) generate words, rather than numbers, as data for analysis. These research methods seek to understand the experiences and attitudes of the people being studied. They answer questions about the “what,” “how, “ or “why” of a phenomenon rather than “how many” or “how much,” which are answered by quantitative methods.

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Home » University Of New Hampshire » What Are The 5 Parts Of A News Article?

What Are The 5 Parts Of A News Article?

Table of Contents

The following list explains the five major components, or parts, of a news article.

  • Headline (Heading) The headline is the title of the news article.
  • Byline. This line tells who is writing the article.
  • Location. This is usually placed at the beginning of the article in bold print.
  • Lead Paragraph(s)
  • Supporting Paragraph(s)

What are the 6 parts of a newspaper article?

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  • Masthead. When you’re talking about the news, a masthead refers to the banner with the newspaper’s name and logo, found at the top of the newspaper’s front page.
  • Headline. This refers to a short phrase at the top of an online or printed article.

What are the parts of a newspaper article?

The newspaper structure can be broken down into four key sections which includes the headline, byline, the lead, the body, and the tail .

How do you structure a news article?

The structure of an article for a newspaper, magazine or website, is usually in three parts:

  • introduction – engaging the reader, or outlining the main point of the article to follow.
  • middle – making clear and interesting points about the topic.
  • end – a concluding paragraph that draws the points together.

What are the elements of an article?

Articles are generally composed of four parts the headline, lead, body, and conclusion . The headline and lead introduce the article and define its focus, while the body backs up the premise. The conclusion ties all the information together into one neat package.

What are the 5 news values?

The secret to getting those news placements is in understanding this news values list: impact, timeliness, prominence, proximity, the bizarre, conflict, currency and human interest . The newsworthiness of a story is determined by these eight guiding principles.

What are the 7 elements of news?

In no particular order, here are the seven news values:

  • Timeliness. An event is more newsworthy the sooner it is reported.
  • Proximity. Events are more newsworthy the closer they are to the community reading about them.
  • Prominence.

What are the 8 parts of newspaper?

Newspaper Sections and Terms

  • Front Page. The first page of a newspaper includes the title, all the publication information, the index, and the main stories that will capture the most attention.
  • News Article.
  • Feature Articles.
  • Editorials.
  • Editorial Cartoons.
  • Letters to the Editor.

What is the format of article?

The format has three components- Heading, Byline, and Body . As the name suggests, the heading of the article includes the brief topic of the article. It should be written in not more than 5-6 words. From the exam point of view, make sure to write a catchy heading for your article.

What are the basic elements of news?

Read All About It! The Eight Elements of News

  • Immediacy. Has it just happened?
  • Proximity. Is the news geographically local to the readership or close to their hearts?
  • Prominence. Is your information or news about something that is highly topical today?
  • Consequence.

What is the body of a newspaper article?

The newspaper body includes all the details of the news story and should be split in paragraphs to help the reader digest the information.

What is the news structure?

The inverted pyramid structure is the most commonly used structure for news writing. The inverted pyramid presents the most important information in a news story first, followed in descending order by less-important information. This structure works well for two reasons.

What’s the first part of an article?

1. Abstract : This is the first part of the article, normally at the top and set apart from the rest of the article. The abstract describes what the article is about. 2.

What makes a good news article?

The best story is a well-told tale about something the reader feels is relevant or significant . The best stories are more complete and more comprehensive. They contain more verified information from more sources with more viewpoints and expertise. They exhibit more enterprise, more reportorial effort.

What are the factors of news?

Following are few basic factors that make NEWS valuable:

  • Timeliness.
  • Size or magnitude.
  • Bizarreness.

What are the four types of news readers?

4 Types of News Readers

  • Passerbys. Passerbys are people who stumble upon your website, usually via search or their social media feeds.
  • Occasionals.
  • Super Fans.

What are the 10 elements of news?

Terms in this set (11)

  • List the 10 Elements of News. Timeliness, Proximity, Impact, Prominence, Drama, Oddity, Conflict, Sex, Emotion, Progress.
  • Timeliness. It is happening and important right now.

What are the principles of news writing?

Basic Principles of News Writing

  • Interviewing. – Research your article subject as well as the person you are going to interview beforehand so you can be prepared.
  • Quotes. Using quotes is one of the most important and essential parts of news writing.

What are the 12 news values?

Conclusion. The 12 news values in journalism are Proximity, Controversy, Personal Influence, Suitability, Impact, Bizarre, Human-Interest, Timeliness, Progress, Genuineness, Completeness, and Negativeness that increase the newsworthiness.

What is a newspaper layout?

The layout of a newspaper is designed to attract readership and to optimize the newspaper’s effectiveness in presenting information . Rules and conventions have evolved over the years and almost all western newspapers share well-established layout principles.

What is the most important part of a newspaper?

The lead, or opening paragraph , is the most important part of a news story. With so many sources of information – newspapers, magazines, TV, radio and the internet – audiences simply are not willing to read beyond the first paragraph (and even sentence) of a story unless it grabs their interest.

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By Cary Hardy

Hi there! I'm Cary Hardy, an education expert and consultant. I've worked with students of all ages and backgrounds, and I love helping them unlock their full potential. I'm also a big believer in lifelong learning- there's always something new to learn!

I got my start in education as a teacher, working with students in grades K-12. After several years of teaching, I transitioned into the world of educational consulting. I've since worked with schools and districts all over the country, helping them improve their curriculums and instruction methods.

I'm passionate about helping people achieve their dreams, and I believe that education is the key to unlocking everyone's potential. Thanks for reading!

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Article 5 of the constitution summary.

Click here or scroll down for a summary of Article 5 of the Constitution.

Article 5 of the Constitution “The Congress, whenever two thirds of both Houses shall deem it necessary, shall propose Amendments to this Constitution, or, on the Application of the Legislatures of two thirds of the several States, shall call a Convention for proposing Amendments, which, in either Case, shall be valid to all Intents and Purposes, as Part of this Constitution, when ratified by the Legislatures of three fourths of the several States, or by Conventions in three fourths thereof, as the one or the other Mode of Ratification may be proposed by the Congress; Provided that no Amendment which may be made prior to the Year One thousand eight hundred and eight shall in any Manner affect the first and fourth Clauses in the Ninth Section of the first Article; and that no State, without its Consent, shall be deprived of its equal Suffrage in the Senate.”

Article 5 of the Constitution summarizes how the United States Constitution can be changed or amended from its original wording.

Table of Contents

The Constitutional Amendment Process Was Built Into the Constitution

A way to change the Constitution was needed because the  writers of the Constitution knew that they had not created a finished document. It was important to allow for further changes.

Several important  constitutional amendments  needed to be passed right away for the Constitution to get ratified, as some states vowed not to ratify the Constitution without these amendments.

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Article 5 of the United States Constitution explains the Amendment Process.

These first amendments – ten in all – are collectively called the  Bill of Rights .

Writers of the Constitution Allowed Change in the Future

Why did the framers of the constitution include the amendment process.

Knowing that the country would change over time, the framers wanted the Constitution to change with the country’s times and needs.

To enable these changes, they wrote an amendment process into the Constitution. This amendment process is described in Article 5 of the Constitution.

Under the procedures specified in Article 5, the United States Constitution has been amended twenty-seven times.

The Bill of Rights and the 27th Amendment

The first ten were adopted in 1791 as the Bill of Rights. The other seventeen amendments were adopted between 1795 and 1992.

The 27th Amendment prohibits Congress from changing its salary compensation until after the mid-term election.

The Amendment Process

There are two ways to amend the Constitution. The first method is that an  amendment can be proposed when two-thirds of both Houses deem it necessary, and it is sent to the state legislatures for approval.

The second method is for a state or states to call for  a constitutional convention . 

Both Houses need to approve these proposals in Congress.

How many states must ratify an amendment?

In either case, an amendment proposal must pass in both the House and Senate by a two-thirds majority and then be ratified by three-quarters of the state legislatures (this would currently require ratification by 38 states).

Ratification is the process by which the states approve an amendment or a constitution to become law.

The 3rd and 4th Ways To Amend the Constitution.

However, looking deeper, there are four ways to propose amendments to the US Constitution. Here are the four ways the Constitution can be amended:

  • A proposal by Congress with ratification by state legislatures.
  • A proposal by a convention of states with ratification by state conventions.
  • A proposal by a convention of states with ratification by state legislatures.
  • A proposal by Congress with ratification by state conventions.

The first is the method used for all but one of the amendments.

The fourth method was used for the  21st Amendment  (which repealed the  18th Amendment , ending Prohibition ).

Methods two and three have never been used to pass a constitutional amendment.

Another version of method three is that the states can call on Congress to convene a constitutional convention.

Usually, a time limit is imposed in the amendment’s writing (typically seven years) so that the process will not be dragged out indefinitely.

If the time limit expires before the required three-fourths majority ratifies the amendment, the amendment fails to become law.

The Difficult Process of Amending the Constitution

The four methods to amend the Constitution are tedious and challenging to achieve. The requirement to work through both houses of Congress and the state governments’ legislatures is a significant obstacle to overcome.

A considerable number of legislators in each legislature need to agree on the need for and wording of the proposed constitutional amendment.

A two-thirds majority must be reached in the federal government legislature in both the House and Senate, and at least three-quarters of the states must ratify it. Otherwise, the proposed amendment will be defeated.

There are numerous places in this adoption process where it can go awry. For an amendment to succeed in being adopted, there must be a high degree of bipartisan cooperation.

Maintaining the Stability of the Federal Government

Why did the framers make changing the constitution so difficult in article 5.

One reason was that the framers needed to lock in the political deals made to get the Constitution ratified. Several states said they would not vote in favor of the Constitution if certain rights were not guaranteed.

Even as the Constitution’s merits were being debated in the state legislatures, the framers worked on the first twelve amendments to be adopted immediately.

Two of those amendments were rejected, but ten were ratified (the Bill of Rights) soon after the Constitution was adopted. As a result, Article V was created to allow amendments to be adopted to the Constitution.

Article 5 was visionary.

The more important reason for making the amendment process  difficult was a more visionary idea.  The framers , like James Madison and Founding Father George Washington, felt duty-bound to make changing the Constitution a lengthy and difficult process in order to help maintain the stability of the nation’s laws.

They did not want it to be possible for arbitrary changes to be made to the Constitution, yet if changes were needed, the difficulty would guarantee that the change was needed and well thought out.

Article 5 References Article 1, Section 9

Another safeguard to keep the nation’s ruling document stable is that Article V stipulates that no amendment  may change the 1st and 4th clauses in the Ninth Section of  Article 1 .

Moreover, Article 5 says no amendment can deprive a state of its full representation in the United States Senate.

Article 5 also says that the  US President  has no role in any part of the formal amendment process.

Constitutional Change Can Be Quick If Necessary

Though there have only been 27 amendments over more than 200 years (a rate far lower than many other countries), this does not mean that constitutional change cannot happen quickly when necessary.

The 19th Amendment was ratified less than one year after being submitted to the states for consideration – proving that swift action can be taken when needed. 

Specific Requirements For Passing An Amendment

First, two-thirds of both houses of Congress—the House of Representatives and Senate—must propose a new amendment or approve one proposed by state legislatures.

Once passed by Congress, three-fourths of all states (38 out of 50) must ratify it within seven years from when it was first introduced in either house of Congress.

If this does not happen, then the proposal will fail unless extended by Congress itself.

In addition to these constitutional parameters, public opinion also impacts whether an amendment succeeds or fails.

If enough people oppose a particular measure, then legislators may choose not to pursue its passage further.

Ultimately, passing an amendment takes time and effort, but with careful adherence to Article 5’s guidelines, such changes are possible even today.

Choosing How To Propose An Amendment

When considering how best to amend the constitution, it’s important to weigh up several factors.

How much support does your amendment need?

Will it require ratification from only Congress, or will other entities, such as state legislatures, need to sign off too?

Are you able to get unanimous agreement from all fifty states?

It’s essential to understand clearly which route you should take when looking at amending the constitution.

Considering all possible routes available when attempting to amend the Constitution is paramount for success. Furthermore, understanding what level of approval each option needs before passing is key; this could range from two-thirds majority votes in both houses of Congress down to a simple yes from all fifty states collectively.

Understanding these requirements ahead of time is vital for anyone seeking to introduce changes via constitutional amendment.

Why Have The 2nd And 3rd Methods Never Been Used

Surprisingly, the second and third methods of proposing an amendment to the United States Constitution have never been utilized.

The two methods in question are proposing amendments by a convention called for by Congress at the request of 2/3rds of state legislatures and proposals from state legislatures.

While these two avenues have yet to be exercised, there is still a high level of interest regarding why they haven’t been used thus far.

According to statistics, over 11,000 constitutional amendments have been proposed since 1789, with only 27 being ratified into law.

One primary reason that neither method has ever seen implementation could be attributed to the difficulty associated with either one.

For example, if we look at calling a convention as outlined in Article 5 of the constitution summary, it would require two-thirds or 34 out of 50 states to request Congress to convene such a convention.

This means that nearly all states must come together on some sort of agreement before anything happens. Additionally, 38 states need to ratify any new amendment proposed by this convention before it can become a federally binding law – making it practically impossible for certain types of amendments to pass without more widespread support across many states.

The other option available – proposing amendments through state legislatures – also presents its own set of difficulties due to differences between each individual state’s legislative process.

Each legislature is independent and may choose not to submit an amendment proposal when put forth by their constituents or another state’s legislature, let alone agree on what should constitute said proposal itself!

There are four main hurdles that make this route difficult:

  • Diverse opinions throughout different geographic regions
  • Unwillingness within state governments
  • Political motivations
  • Fear of unforeseen consequences post ratification.

These potential roadblocks ensure that few ideas can successfully navigate the path toward becoming part of our nation’s governing document.

It is clear then that although unconventional routes exist for amending the U.S. Constitution, both present unique challenges which discourage their use in practice today – leaving us still wondering why they remain untapped after so much time has passed.

Time Limit Imposed On Ratification Process

Article 5 of the Constitution sets out the rules for amending it.

It states that an amendment must be proposed by either Congress or a national convention, and then ratified by three-fourths of all state legislatures or conventions in those states. One part of this process is a time limit imposed on ratification – any amendment not ratified within seven years after its proposal will not become effective as part of the Constitution.

The importance of these time limits can’t be overstated. They ensure that amendments don’t stay dormant indefinitely, waiting to gain enough support for ratification.

If no deadline was set, there would be no guarantee when an amendment might take effect, if ever. This could lead to confusion among citizens, who wouldn’t know whether something had been passed into law.

However, despite Article 5 stating two other methods besides congressional action for proposing amendments, neither has ever been used due to the difficulty in obtaining such widespread agreement.

The 7-year timeline makes gaining such unanimous consensus even more difficult since, without it, decisions can remain pending until sufficient support is achieved.

Importance Of Bipartisan Cooperation In Passing An Amendment

Passing an amendment to the Constitution is a daunting task, requiring as much cooperation as teamwork. As our founding fathers demonstrated so many years ago, bipartisan collaboration can be a powerful tool in achieving success and ratifying important changes to our country’s most sacred text.

Like two pieces of a puzzle fitting together perfectly, when Democrats and Republicans come together for the greater good, amazing feats can be accomplished – such as amending the Constitution.

When it comes to passing any Amendment, the importance of bipartisan agreement cannot be overstated. Here are five ways that working together across party lines makes this challenging process easier:

  • Compromise between branches – Each branch of government has its own stance on different issues; finding common ground helps get all parties on board with any proposed Constitutional change.
  • Unanimous support from Congress – To pass an Amendment requires both Houses of Congress to unanimously move forward with the proposal. Without majority support from both sides of the aisle, these efforts will fail miserably.
  • Strong public opinion – In order for an Amendment to become part of the US Constitution, there must also be strong public sentiment behind it. This means having popular backing from citizens across multiple states and like-minded political ideologies and backgrounds alike.
  • A shared goal – All involved need to share a mutual aim: enacting lasting change through constitutional amendments that benefit everyone equally regardless of their creed or beliefs.
  • Respectful dialogue – Having respectful conversations about difficult topics allows people to understand each other’s perspectives and find solutions beneficial for all stakeholders at hand.

Though bipartisanship may not always seem easy nor possible during times of disagreement, it remains essential in ensuring the successful passage of Amendments into law and helping protect our nation’s core values for future generations.

Working together towards a common cause is made infinitely easier by understanding one another’s viewpoints and appreciating diverse opinions—ultimately leading us closer to creating more inclusive societies that embrace democracy at its best!

Which of the 27 Amendments has not had bipartisan support?

It is difficult to say which specific amendments to the United States Constitution have not had bipartisan support, as the level of support for an amendment can vary depending on the political climate and the specific issues at play.

However, in general, some amendments that have been contentious or divisive, such as the 16th, 17th, and 18th amendments, which established the federal income tax, direct election of senators, and prohibition of alcohol respectively, have not had unanimous support from both parties.

The 27th Amendment, which requires that any changes to congressional pay must take effect after the next election of representatives, has not had bipartisan support. It was hard to find common ground.

This is opposed to the 19th Amendment, which was widely accepted. 

The 19th Amendment was a landmark in American history, granting women the right to vote. It was ratified on August 18th, 1920 and was widely accepted by the American public.

This amendment was the culmination of a long struggle for women’s rights and equality, and it has had a lasting impact on our society.

Reason Why Framers Made Passing An Amendment So Hard

Framers of the constitution put specific guidelines in place to make sure passing an amendment would not be too easy.

This was intentional because they wanted amendments to have broad support from both sides before being passed. This means bipartisan cooperation was essential. If one party opposed an amendment, chances were high that it wouldn’t pass due to the difficulty of doing so under this system.

To understand why framers made passing an amendment so hard, consider the fact that any changes made could affect many aspects of life for Americans. They had good reason to require consensus building between the parties involved.

To ensure that only proposed amendments that had been thoughtfully discussed and considered by both sides were passed, framers set up a series of steps requiring approval from Congress and state legislatures.

In order for an amendment to become part of the Constitution today, two-thirds of each chamber must agree on it before sending it out for ratification by three-fourths of states’ legislatures or conventions. This arduous process ensures only amendments supported by the majority across political lines can be added successfully.

Article 5, Part of a Well-Crafted Document

In Article 5, the  US Constitution  writers carefully crafted a document to ensure the new country’s strength and stability. As a result, the Constitution has helped maintain the United States federal government’s stability for well over 200 years.

Lesson Plan on Article 5

Decoding Article 5: Uncovering the Constitution’s Secret Paths to Amendment

12th-grade students will be able to analyze and understand the processes outlined in Article 5 of the U.S. Constitution for amending the document and evaluate why alternative methods to congressional action have never been utilized.

  • A copy of the U.S. Constitution for each student
  • Whiteboard and markers
  • Handout with key terms and concepts related to Article 5
  • Images and infographics related to the constitutional amendment process

Introduction (15 minutes):

  • Start by asking students to brainstorm what they know about the process of amending the U.S. Constitution.
  • Write their responses on the whiteboard and ask them to validate their answers with evidence.
  • Explain to students that there are two alternative methods to congressional action outlined in Article 5 of the U.S. Constitution, which they will be exploring in detail.

Direct Instruction (30 minutes):

  • Provide a brief overview of the provisions of Article 5 and the steps involved in proposing and ratifying a constitutional amendment.
  • Use images and infographics to help explain the complex processes involved.
  • Discuss the 7-year time limit imposed on ratification, and its significance in ensuring that amendments don’t remain dormant indefinitely.
  • Highlight why the alternative methods outlined in Article 5 have never been utilized and the challenges associated with gaining widespread agreement.
  • Assign the handout as homework for students to review key terms and concepts related to Article 5.

Guided Practice (30 minutes):

  • Divide students into small groups and provide each group with a specific task related to the processes outlined in Article 5.
  • For example, one group could analyze the 7-year time limit and its implications, while another group could evaluate the difficulties in obtaining widespread agreement for a convention called by Congress.
  • Provide guidance and support as needed to help students understand the concepts.
  • Encourage students to share their findings with the class, and facilitate a discussion based on their presentations.

Conclusion (15 minutes):

  • Summarize the key points covered during the lesson and emphasize the significance of Article 5 in shaping the future of the U.S. Constitution.
  • Ask students to reflect on the alternative methods outlined in Article 5, and evaluate why they have never been utilized.
  • Encourage students to think about the role of citizens in shaping the nation’s governing document and the responsibility that comes with that power.
  • Conclude by encouraging students to continue exploring the U.S. Constitution and the processes involved in amending it.


  • Student participation in group activities and class discussions
  • Completion and understanding of the handout
  • Written reflection on the significance of Article 5 in shaping the future of the U.S. Constitution.

Article 5 Quiz

If you would like to download a PDF with our quiz, then please go to:

Download the quiz PDF

Alternatively, you can take our online quiz here:


Resources related to “Article 5 of the Constitution Summary”:

  • List of the 27 Amendments
  • What Is The Constitutional Amendment Process?
  • Article 1 of the Constitution

Article 2 of the Constitution

Article 3 of the constitution.

  • Article 4 of the Constitution

Article 6 of the Constitution Summary

Article 7 of the constitution.

  • Who Were the Framers of the Constitution?
  • Why was the constitution written?
  • Constitution Quiz: Article 5 PDF
  • Articles of the Constitution

Edward Savey

7 responses.

the United State need to learn to live with in it mean. and not on the mean of future american.

No, we don’t. That’s what people say who do not understand government accounting.

Remember President Bush? Set us up with a 3 trillion dollar debt for two wars, and we just managed to lose the earlier one in 2001. 3 trillion dollars, didn’t hear you bitching about that.

What did we get for Obama’s 9 trillion?

Article 5 .. a number of States can call a Convention of States and amend the Constitution. Like, when Comey says using a hammer on disk drives .. no one would prosecute?? We need to reign in DC’s power and return it to the States. FDR needed the Senior Vote so Social Security and Medicare and Medicaid from LBJ kept them in office even after JFK shot in Dallas. So, we have a federal police force. They are called Marshals and they are Constitutional. End DEA, FBI, and all the agencies in DC. Our States are nations unto themselves and can pass any law that is Constitutional. Ergo, things like Prohibition and Drug laws only enrich the sellers and destroy our youth for $$$.

So… according to the Constitution Article 5 ,”…no Amendment which may be made prior to the Year One thousand eight hundred and eight shall in any Manner affect the first and fourth Clauses in the Ninth Section of the first Article”

Article. I. Section. 9. 1st Clause: The Migration or Importation of such Persons as any of the States now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited by the Congress prior to the Year one thousand eight hundred and eight, but a Tax or duty may be imposed on such Importation, not exceeding ten dollars for each Person. 4th Clause: No Capitation, or other direct, Tax shall be laid, unless in Proportion to the Census or enumeration herein before directed to be taken.

That makes the 16th Amendment VOID AND NULL! We all know it was not truly ratified because they needed to start enforcing the Communist Manifesto rules into our county but really it doesn’t matter… it is still to be considered VOID. They can’t lay direct taxes

The Sixteenth Amendment was passed by 3 Democrats, depriving the states of the right to suffrage. Even to this day, the Sixteenth Amendment continues to deny states the right to vote. In my book, it is repugnant to the Constitution and therefore voidable as if it were never passed. The Constitution exists to protect the Governed and free states from an abusive overreaching federal corporation. The Government exists to protect our rights and is not supposed to find ways to circumvent the Supreme laws taking powers that do not belong to them.

The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the several States, and without regard to any census or enumeration.

Damnit man, I came here to make the exact effing point! But good on you brother. I’m so happy to know I’m not alone in what you must also know as one of the most stuptifying engagements anyone can endure with convincing others just to consider the idea of being true. So thank you for existing. I’ve been making this point Art 1, Sec 9, Clause 4 for over 20 years now!!!

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Parts of Speech – What is an Article?

What is an article.

While we typically use words such as “the,” “a,” and “an,” without giving them much thought, they actually have a special name, articles, and there are some very specific details that define when you use these words. 

What is an article, you ask?  Articles are a part of speech   used to express whether something is specific or unspecific. Still confused? Sit up, pay attention, and get ready for a grammar lesson.

Using “the”

This is the article that is used to define something specific.

For example:  “This is the house,” or “this is the new car.”

Used in this way, it presumes that the house or car were already previously mentioned and made known to the audience or reader. In other words, the article makes reference to a specific house and car, not a generic one. Because of this, “the,” is known as the definite article.

Using “a,” or “an”

Conversely, if the reader or audience has not been made aware of the subject, you would use “a,” or “an.” In these cases, the subject is unspecified, and as such these articles are known as the indefinite articles.

For example:  “This is a house,” or “this is a new car.”

Things to Remember

  • For example, use “an” for both of these sentences: “We are going to an appointment.” “I will be there in an hour.”
  • Articles precede adjectives (as shown above with “the new car” ).
  • For example, you wouldn’t say “play me a music,” you would say, “ play me music,” or “play me some music.”
  • Articles are not used with possessive adjectives or possessive nouns, such as my , yours , his or hers .

While you have been using these words for most of your life, now you can brush up on your article speaking skills and know just when (and when not!) to use each one!

Love learning about Language and Grammar? Check out our other posts on the subject, and make sure to play some Language quizzes on Sporcle!

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The first amendment, legislative branch.

Signing Details

Signed in convention September 17, 1787. Ratified June 21, 1788. A portion of Article I, Section 2, was changed by the 14th Amendment; a portion of Section 9 was changed by the 16th Amendment; a portion of Section 3 was changed by the 17th Amendment; and a portion of Section 4 was changed by the 20th Amendment

Section 1: Congress

All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives.

Interpretations & Debate

Read interpretations of article i, section 1.

5 parts of the article

Section 2: The House of Representatives

The House of Representatives shall be composed of Members chosen every second Year by the People of the several States, and the Electors in each State shall have the Qualifications requisite for Electors of the most numerous Branch of the State Legislature.

No Person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained to the Age of twenty five Years, and been seven Years a Citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State in which he shall be chosen.

Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States which may be included within this Union, according to their respective Numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole Number of free Persons, including those bound to Service for a Term of Years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three fifths of all other Persons. The actual Enumeration shall be made within three Years after the first Meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every subsequent Term of ten Years, in such Manner as they shall by Law direct.The number of Representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty Thousand, but each State shall have at Least one Representative; and until such enumeration shall be made, the State of New Hampshire shall be entitled to chuse three, Massachusetts eight, Rhode-Island and Providence Plantations one, Connecticut five, New-York six, New Jersey four, Pennsylvania eight, Delaware one, Maryland six, Virginia ten, North Carolina five, South Carolina five, and Georgia three.

When vacancies happen in the Representation from any State, the Executive Authority thereof shall issue Writs of Election to fill such Vacancies.

The House of Representatives shall chuse their Speaker and other Officers;and shall have the sole Power of Impeachment.

Read Interpretations of Article I, Section 2

5 parts of the article

Section 3: The Senate

The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, chosen by the Legislature thereof, for six Years; and each Senator shall have one Vote.

Immediately after they shall be assembled in Consequence of the first Election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three Classes. The Seats of the Senators of the first Class shall be vacated at the Expiration of the second Year, of the second Class at the Expiration of the fourth Year, and of the third Class at the Expiration of the sixth Year, so that one third may be chosen every second Year; and if Vacancies happen by Resignation, or otherwise, during the Recess of the Legislature of any State, the Executive thereof may make temporary Appointments until the next Meeting of the Legislature, which shall then fill such Vacancies.

No Person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty Years, and been nine Years a Citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State for which he shall be chosen.

The Vice President of the United States shall be President of the Senate, but shall have no Vote, unless they be equally divided.

The Senate shall chuse their other Officers, and also a President pro tempore, in the Absence of the Vice President, or when he shall exercise the Office of President of the United States.

The Senate shall have the sole Power to try all Impeachments. When sitting for that Purpose, they shall be on Oath or Affirmation. When the President of the United States is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside: And no Person shall be convicted without the Concurrence of two thirds of the Members present.

Judgment in Cases of Impeachment shall not extend further than to removal from Office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any Office of honor, Trust or Profit under the United States: but the Party convicted shall nevertheless be liable and subject to Indictment, Trial, Judgment and Punishment, according to Law.

Read Interpretations of Article I, Section 3

5 parts of the article

Section 4: Elections

The Times, Places and Manner of holding Elections for Senators and Representatives, shall be prescribed in each State by the Legislature thereof; but the Congress may at any time by Law make or alter such Regulations, except as to the Places of chusing Senators.

The Congress shall assemble at least once in every Year, and such Meeting shall be on the first Monday in December, unless they shall by Law appoint a different Day.

Read Interpretations of Article I, Section 4

5 parts of the article

Section 5: Powers and Duties of Congress

Each House shall be the Judge of the Elections, Returns and Qualifications of its own Members,and a Majority of each shall constitute a Quorum to do Business; but a smaller Number may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized to compel the Attendance of absent Members, in such Manner, and under such Penalties as each House may provide.

Each House may determine the Rules of its Proceedings, punish its Members for disorderly Behaviour, and, with the Concurrence of two thirds, expel a Member.

Each House shall keep a Journal of its Proceedings, and from time to time publish the same, excepting such Parts as may in their Judgment require Secrecy; and the Yeas and Nays of the Members of either House on any question shall, at the Desire of one fifth of those Present, be entered on the Journal.

Neither House, during the Session of Congress, shall, without the Consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other Place than that in which the two Houses shall be sitting.

Read Interpretations of Article I, Section 5

5 parts of the article

Section 6: Rights and Disabilities of Members

The Senators and Representatives shall receive a Compensation for their Services, to be ascertained by Law, and paid out of the Treasury of the United States.They shall in all Cases, except Treason, Felony and Breach of the Peace, be privileged from Arrest during their Attendance at the Session of their respective Houses, and in going to and returning from the same; and for any Speech or Debate in either House, they shall not be questioned in any other Place.

No Senator or Representative shall, during the Time for which he was elected, be appointed to any civil Office under the Authority of the United States, which shall have been created, or the Emoluments whereof shall have been encreased during such time; and no Person holding any Office under the United States, shall be a Member of either House during his Continuance in Office.

Read Interpretations of Article I, Section 6

5 parts of the article

Section 7: Legislative Process

All Bills for raising Revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives; but the Senate may propose or concur with Amendments as on other Bills.

Every Bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives and the Senate, shall, before it become a Law, be presented to the President of the United States; If he approve he shall sign it, but if not he shall return it, with his Objections to that House in which it shall have originated, who shall enter the Objections at large on their Journal, and proceed to reconsider it. If after such Reconsideration two thirds of that House shall agree to pass the Bill, it shall be sent, together with the Objections, to the other House, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two thirds of that House, it shall become a Law. But in all such Cases the Votes of both Houses shall be determined by Yeas and Nays, and the Names of the Persons voting for and against the Bill shall be entered on the Journal of each House respectively. If any Bill shall not be returned by the President within ten Days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the Same shall be a Law, in like Manner as if he had signed it, unless the Congress by their Adjournment prevent its Return, in which Case it shall not be a Law.

Every Order, Resolution, or Vote to which the Concurrence of the Senate and House of Representatives may be necessary (except on a question of Adjournment) shall be presented to the President of the United States; and before the Same shall take Effect, shall be approved by him, or being disapproved by him, shall be repassed by two thirds of the Senate and House of Representatives, according to the Rules and Limitations prescribed in the Case of a Bill.

Read Interpretations of Article I, Section 7

5 parts of the article

Section 8: Powers of Congress

The Congress shall have Power To lay and collect Taxes, Duties, Imposts and Excises , to pay the Debts and provide for the common Defence and general Welfare of the United States; but all Duties, Imposts and Excises shall be uniform throughout the United States;

To borrow Money on the credit of the United States;

To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian Tribes;

To establish a uniform Rule of Naturalization, and uniform Laws on the subject of Bankruptcies throughout the United States;

To coin Money, regulate the Value thereof, and of foreign Coin, and fix the Standard of Weights and Measures;

To provide for the Punishment of counterfeiting the Securities and current Coin of the United States;

To establish Post Offices and post Roads;

To promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts, by securing for limited Times to Authors and Inventors the exclusive Right to their respective Writings and Discoveries;

To constitute Tribunals inferior to the supreme Court;

To define and punish Piracies and Felonies committed on the high Seas, and Offenses against the Law of Nations;

To declare War, grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal, and make Rules concerning Captures on Land and Water;

To raise and support Armies, but no Appropriation of Money to that Use shall be for a longer Term than two Years;

To provide and maintain a Navy;

To make Rules for the Government and Regulation of the land and naval Forces;

To provide for calling forth the Militia to execute the Laws of the Union, suppress Insurrections and repel Invasions;

To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining, the Militia, and for governing such Part of them as may be employed in the Service of the United States, reserving to the States respectively, the Appointment of the Officers, and the Authority of training the Militia according to the discipline prescribed by Congress;

To exercise exclusive Legislation in all Cases whatsoever, over such District (not exceeding ten Miles square) as may, by Cession of particular States, and the Acceptance of Congress, become the Seat of the Government of the United States, and to exercise like Authority over all Places purchased by the Consent of the Legislature of the State in which the Same shall be, for the Erection of Forts, Magazines, Arsenals, dock-Yards and other needful Buildings;-And

To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers, and all other Powers vested by this Constitution in the Government of the United States, or in any Department or Officer thereof.

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Section 9: Powers Denied Congress

The Migration or Importation of such Persons as any of the States now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited by the Congress prior to the Year one thousand eight hundred and eight, but a Tax or duty may be imposed on such Importation, not exceeding ten dollars for each Person.

The Privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in Cases of Rebellion or Invasion the public Safety may require it.

No Bill of Attainder or ex post facto Law shall be passed.

No Capitation, or other direct, Tax shall be laid, unless in Proportion to the Census or Enumeration herein before directed to be taken.

No Tax or Duty shall be laid on Articles exported from any State.

No Preference shall be given by any Regulation of Commerce or Revenue to the Ports of one State over those of another: nor shall Vessels bound to, or from, one State, be obliged to enter, clear, or pay Duties in another.

No Money shall be drawn from the Treasury, but in Consequence of Appropriations made by Law; and a regular Statement and Account of the Receipts and Expenditures of all public Money shall be published from time to time.

No Title of Nobility shall be granted by the United States: And no Person holding any Office of Profit or Trust under them, shall, without the Consent of the Congress, accept of any present, Emolument, Office, or Title, of any kind whatever, from any King, Prince, or foreign State.

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Section 10: Powers Denied to the States

No State shall enter into any Treaty, Alliance, or Confederation; grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal; coin Money; emit Bills of Credit; make any Thing but gold and silver Coin a Tender in Payment of Debts; pass any Bill of Attainder, ex post facto Law, or Law impairing the Obligation of Contracts, or grant any Title of Nobility.

No State shall, without the Consent of the Congress, lay any Imposts or Duties on Imports or Exports, except what may be absolutely necessary for executing it's inspection Laws: and the net Produce of all Duties and Imposts, laid by any State on Imports or Exports, shall be for the Use of the Treasury of the United States; and all such Laws shall be subject to the Revision and Controul of the Congress.

No State shall, without the Consent of Congress, lay any Duty of Tonnage, keep Troops, or Ships of War in time of Peace, enter into any Agreement or Compact with another State, or with a foreign Power, or engage in War, unless actually invaded, or in such imminent Danger as will not admit of delay.

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Who Are the Palestinian Prisoners Who Could Be Released in a Hostage Deal?

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People hold placards with faces of people.

By Karen Zraick

  • Published Nov. 21, 2023 Updated Nov. 22, 2023, 4:15 a.m. ET

Negotiations around the release of Israeli women and children held hostage in Gaza have centered on an exchange for Palestinian women and minors held in Israeli prisons. The size of that group has grown quickly during the six weeks of war and upheaval since the Oct. 7 Hamas attack on Israel, according to a Palestinian prisoners’ rights group.

The group, Addameer, says that about 200 boys, most of them teenagers, were in Israeli detention as of this week, along with about 75 women and five teenage girls. Before Oct. 7, about 150 boys and 30 women and girls were in Israeli prisons, it said, and since then, many other detentions have occurred, as well as many releases.

Addameer said that it compiled the figures using data from the Israel Prison Service, which administers the country’s jails, and information from the families of detained people.

Early Wednesday, the Israeli government and Hamas announced they would uphold a four-day cease-fire in Gaza to allow for the release of 50 hostages captured during Hamas’s assault last month on Israel and 150 Palestinian prisoners held in Israel.

Many of the most recent arrests of Palestinians came during raids across the Israeli-occupied West Bank, where protests and violence have surged , including attacks on Palestinians by Israeli settlers. Israel has said that the arrests are part of a counterterror operation against Hamas in the West Bank.

There are also about 700 people missing from Gaza who are believed to be in Israeli prisons, but information on their whereabouts is murky, said Tala Nasir, a spokeswoman for Addameer. It was not clear how many of those people, if any, were women or minors. The Israeli military has said that it has apprehended 300 people in Gaza during the ground invasion that it claimed were connected to armed Palestinian groups, and that they “were brought into Israeli territory for further interrogations.”

Of the roughly 240 Israeli hostages taken to Gaza by Hamas and other armed groups, 33 are minors, the youngest of whom is 9 months old, according to the Israeli government. At least 62 are women, according to an organization formed by the hostages’ families. Four of the women being held hostage are Israeli soldiers, according to interviews with their family members and information gathered by a forum of the hostages’ families.

As of this week, the total number of what Addameer calls Palestinian political prisoners in Israel — including people from Gaza, the West Bank and Israel — was 7,000, up from about 5,000 before Oct. 7, according to Addameer. That includes more than 2,000 people held in “administrative detention,” meaning they are being held indefinitely without charges, it said.

Ms. Nasir said that her group defines that category as Palestinians arrested for offenses that are related to political activity and free speech rather than crimes like drugs or violence. She added that Addameer had received many reports in recent weeks of people arrested on charges of incitement for their social media posts in Israel and the West Bank. Earlier this month, the Knesset passed an amendment to a counterterrorism law that criminalized the “consumption of terrorist materials.”

Adalah, the Legal Center for Arab Minority Rights in Israel, said that it was monitoring 121 cases of arrests and detentions linked to social media posts, some which “merely contained expressions of solidarity with the Palestinian people in Gaza, or even verses shared from the Quran.”

Rights groups have long warned that Palestinian detainees are held without due process and face abuse and even torture. Military Court Watch, a nonprofit legal group, said last year that of the 100 Palestinian children detained by Israeli forces that it had interviewed, 74 percent reported physical abuse, and 42 percent said they were put in solitary confinement.

The women in Israeli detention include Ahed Tamimi, 22, a high-profile figure in the West Bank who was sentenced to prison in 2018 for slapping an Israeli soldier. Israeli officials accused her of her posting hate speech online; her family said the post was not hers.

Six Palestinian detainees who were held without charges have died in Israeli prisons in recent weeks, according to Wafa, the Palestinian Authority’s news agency. One of them, Omar Daraghmeh, was a senior member of Hamas, the militant group said when his death was announced.

Hiba Yazbek , Johnatan Reiss and Talya Minsberg contributed reporting.

Karen Zraick covers federal law enforcement, courts and criminal justice on the Metro desk. More about Karen Zraick

Our Coverage of the Israel-Hamas War

Hostage and Cease-Fire Deal: The Israeli government and Hamas agreed to a brief cease-fire in Gaza  that would allow for the release of 50 hostages Hamas captured during its Oct. 7 attacks. Hamas said Israel would release 150 Palestinians held in Israeli prisons.

Electronic Warfare: Radio frequency interference in the Middle East and Ukraine, a tactic used to disrupt the satellite signals used by rockets, drones and other weaponry, is affecting civilian air travel far from the battlefields .

Al-Shifa Hospital: Israel is trying to produce evidence  for its claim that Hamas has been using tunnels under Gaza’s largest hospital  as a command center. Palestinian officials and doctors at Al-Shifa have denied Israel’s accusations.

Looking Back: Thirty years ago, Palestinians and Israelis were on the cusp of a peace deal. Its failure reveals why the conflict remains so intractable .

The Conflict’s   Global  Reach

In New York City: Members of the city’s Jewish community, spurred by messages on social media, turned out in droves to support a coffee shop owner in Manhattan  who had said that his employees had walked out to protest his company’s support for Israel.

BRICS Summit: Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa held a summit on the war, articulating divergent positions on the war . A joint statement released by the group called for a humanitarian truce and the release of all civilians who were being illegally held captive.

Hollywood: Two actresses, the Academy Award-winning veteran Susan Sarandon and Melissa Barrera, a relative newcomer, were dropped by Hollywood companies  after comments they separately made about the Israel-Hamas war drew criticism.

Red Sea Hijacking: Yemen’s Houthi militia released a video  showing its forces hijacking a ship in the Red Sea. The group said it had seized the vessel   as a demonstration of support for “the oppressed Palestinian people.”

Social Media: As the war floods social media with violent content and false information, some people have accused platforms like TikTok and Facebook of promoting biased posts. But the sites’ role in spreading hate online is becoming hard to assess . Home

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Mayor Adams Releases November 2023 Financial Plan Update

November 16, 2023

As Asylum Seeker Crisis Continues to Grow, Federal COVID-19 Stimulus Funding Dries Up, and Tax Revenue Growth Slows, Adams Administration Takes Strategic, Essential Steps to Responsibly Manage City’s Finances

With Migrant Crisis Set to Cost Nearly $11 Billion Over Just Two Fiscal Years and FY25 Budget Gap Expected to Surpass Unprecedented $7 Billion, Administration Implemented PEG to Identify Efficiencies and Deliver Balanced Budget as Required by Law

NEW YORK  – New York City Mayor Eric Adams today released the City of New York’s November Financial Plan Update for Fiscal Year 2024 (FY24). With the city facing outyear gaps reaching levels unprecedented for this stage of the budget cycle, the Adams administration took targeted but significant and necessary steps to responsibly manage the city’s finances with minimal impact to services New Yorkers rely on and deliver a balanced budget, as required by law. The FY24 budget is $110.5 billion and remains balanced.

The November Financial Plan Update was crafted in the face of significant fiscal challenges, with the city having spent $1.45 billion on the asylum seeker humanitarian crisis in FY23 and set to spend nearly $11 billion on this crisis over just FY24 and FY25 without significant and timely state and federal support. Through strong fiscal management and with the limited fiscal tools available — including a successful Program to Eliminate the Gap (PEG) — the administration kept the FY24 budget balanced with minimum disruption to services and without raising taxes on working-class New Yorkers — despite having received limited state and federal aid.

“For months, we have warned New Yorkers about the challenging fiscal situation our city faces,” said Mayor Adams . “To balance the budget as the law requires, every city agency dug into their own budget to find savings, with minimal disruption to services. And while we pulled it off this time, make no mistake: Migrant costs are going up, tax revenue growth is slowing, and COVID stimulus funding is drying up. No city should be left to handle a national humanitarian crisis largely on its own, and without the significant and timely support we need from Washington, D.C., today’s budget will be only the beginning.”

“Our administration has a legal and fiscal responsibility to come to the table, balance the budget, and make the tough decisions today to ensure a better tomorrow for New York City,” said First Deputy Mayor Sheena Wright . “We cannot ask New Yorkers to balance their checkbooks without city leaders doing the same. These tough but necessary decisions were made to protect the city’s fiscal future while continuing to deliver vital government services. However, New York City should not carry this burden on its own. The federal and state government must play their part in delivering long-overdue support, funding, and resources.”

“By law, we’re required to balance our budget, and this November Financial Plan Update successfully does that with minimal disruptions to services,” said Chief of Staff Camille Joseph Varlack . “Our agencies have stretched dollars further than ever before to deliver as many services as possible to New Yorkers while securing our city’s financial future, and I’m grateful to the dedicated public servants who will have to do more with less as COVID stimulus dries up, tax revenue growth levels off, and the asylum seeker crisis continues to eat away at our city’s finances. But we’re not out of the woods yet, not by a long shot. If we don’t get the help we need from the federal government, we’ll have to take more drastic measures to balance our budget going forward.”

“We must balance our budget in wake of the $12 billion that we project to spend as a result of the migrant crisis. Our budget has been balanced with heavy hearts. Our administration is outraged to have to implement these cuts, which are a direct result of the lack of financial support from Washington, D.C., which is derelict in its responsibility to institute a national plan to mitigate a national crisis and has instead elected to dump its job to handle this migrant crisis upon the lap of a municipality and its mayor. A national crisis demands a national solution,” said Chief Advisor Ingrid P. Lewis-Martin . “The November Financial Plan Update we are releasing today reflects those realities and continues to demonstrate our responsible fiscal stewardship of this city. I am grateful to our agencies for their efforts to find efficiencies and minimize the impact that New Yorkers will feel, but unless we get the help we need and deserve from our federal partners, things will get worse for the most vulnerable New Yorkers. The federal government should be ashamed for putting those most in need in a more dire situation where services that they depend upon are being cut.”

In August 2023, Mayor Adams laid out new projections estimating the cost of the asylum seeker crisis to grow to at least $12 billion over three fiscal years — between FY23 and FY25 — if circumstances do not change. With sunsetting COVID-19 stimulus funding, slowing FY24 tax revenue growth, expenses from labor contracts this administration inherited after being unresolved for years, and a lack of significant state or federal government action on the asylum seeker crisis, the mayor took action the following month, announcing a 5 percent PEG on city-funded spending for all city agencies with plans for additional rounds of PEGs in the Preliminary and Executive Budgets. New city-funded spending was limited to those protecting life and safety, fulfilling legal mandates, maintaining necessary operations, or generating revenue.

The FY24 budget has grown $3.4 billion since budget adoption in June, in recognition of $2.6 billion in grant funds and $776 million of better-than-expected revenue growth, primarily driven by income and sales tax collections. Outyear gaps are $7.1 billion in FY25, $6.5 billion in FY26, and $6.4 billion in FY27.

To meet skyrocketing costs associated with care for asylum seekers, the city added $6.2 billion over FY24 and FY25 in this plan, bringing total funds budgeted for migrant needs over the two fiscal years to $10.8 billion. The administration added the following on top of previously budgeted funding: city funds of $1.4 billion in FY24 and $4.8 billion in FY25, state grants of $447 million in FY24 and $272 million in FY25, and federal aid of $10 million in FY24.

The PEG implemented by the administration in the November Financial Plan Update to keep FY24 balanced was successful, setting up the city to save $3.7 billion over two fiscal years. Every agency met their savings target.

Looking forward, asylum seeker costs in this plan contributed significantly to a historically large $7.1 billion FY25 budget gap — $2 billion greater than it was in June’s FY24 Adopted Budget — despite the successful PEG in this plan. By law, this gap must be closed in mid-January, two months from today.

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In Beijing, Arab and Muslim ministers urge end to Gaza war

Chinese Foreign Minister Wang Yi meets Arab and Islamic foreign ministers in Beijing

[1/6] Chinese Foreign Minister Wang Yi attends a family photo session with Saudi Foreign Minister Prince Faisal bin Farhan Al Saud, Jordanian Deputy Prime Minister and Foreign Minister Ayman Safadi, Egyptian Foreign Minister Sameh Shoukry, Indonesian Foreign Minister Retno Marsudi, Palestinian Foreign... Acquire Licensing Rights Read more

BEIJING, Nov 20 (Reuters) - Arab and Muslim ministers called on Monday for an immediate ceasefire in Gaza, as their delegation visited Beijing on the first leg of a tour to push for an end to hostilities and to allow humanitarian aid into the devastated Palestinian enclave.

The delegation, which is set to meet officials representing each of the five permanent members of the U.N. Security Council, is also piling pressure on the West to reject Israel's justification of its actions against Palestinians as self-defence.

The officials holding meetings with China's top diplomat Wang Yi on Monday are from Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Egypt, Indonesia, Palestinian authorities and the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, among others.

"We are here to send a clear signal: that is we must immediately stop the fighting and the killings, we must immediately deliver humanitarian supplies to Gaza," said Saudi Foreign Minister Prince Faisal bin Farhan Al Saud.

The extraordinary joint Islamic-Arab summit in Riyadh this month also urged the International Criminal Court to investigate "war crimes and crimes against humanity that Israel is committing" in the Palestinian territories.

Saudi Arabia has sought to press the United States and Israel for an end to hostilities in Gaza, and Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman, the kingdom's de facto ruler, gathered Arab and Muslim leaders to reinforce that message.

In comments posted by his ministry on X, formerly known as Twitter, Egyptian foreign minister Sameh Shoukry told his Chinese counterpart: "We look forward to a stronger role on the part of great powers such as China in order to stop the attacks against the Palestinians in the Gaza Strip. Unfortunately, there are major countries that give cover to the current Israeli attacks."

About 240 hostages were taken during Hamas's deadly cross-border rampage into Israel on Oct. 7, which prompted Israel to invade the Gaza Strip with the intention of eradicating the Islamist militant group.

Gaza's Hamas-run government said at least 13,000 Palestinians have been killed in Israeli bombardments since then, including at least 5,500 children.

Israeli ambassador to Beijing Irit Ben-Abba told foreign reporters at a briefing on Monday that she hoped there would not be "any statements from this visit about a ceasefire, now is not the time."

She said that Israel hoped that the delegation would talk about hostages captured by Hamas "and call for their immediate release without preconditions," adding that the parties involved should talk together about Egypt's "role in facilitating humanitarian assistance."


China's Wang said Beijing was a "good friend and brother of Arab and Muslim countries," adding it has "always firmly supported the just cause of the Palestinian people to restore their legitimate national rights and interests."

Since the start of hostilities, China's foreign ministry has repeatedly stopped short of condemning Hamas, instead calling for de-escalation and for Israel and Palestine to pursue a "two-state solution" for an independent Palestine.

Since the end of China's nearly three years of COVID lockdowns, Xi has launched a diplomatic push aimed at countering the United States and its allies, who he says seek to contain and suppress his country.

Beijing has deepened alliances with non-Western led multilateral groups such as the BRICS bloc of nations while strengthening ties with countries in the Middle East and the Global South.

On Monday, Wang added China will work to "quell the fighting in Gaza as soon as possible, alleviate the humanitarian crisis and promote an early, comprehensive, just and lasting settlement of the Palestinian issue."

China's special envoy on the Middle East, Zhai Jun, has engaged officials from Israel and the Palestinian Authority - which governs in the occupied West Bank - as well as the Arab League and EU in the last year to discuss a two-state solution and recognition for Palestine at the United Nations.

(This story has been corrected to refer to the Palestinian representation in paragraph 3)

Reporting by Yew Lun Tian, Laurie Chen and Beijing newsroom; Editing by Edmund Klamann & Simon Cameron-Moore

Our Standards: The Thomson Reuters Trust Principles.

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Thomson Reuters

Laurie Chen is a China Correspondent at Reuters' Beijing bureau, covering politics and general news. Before joining Reuters, she reported on China for six years at Agence France-Presse and the South China Morning Post in Hong Kong. She speaks fluent Mandarin.

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