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CBSE Class 12 Psychology Important Case Study Based Questions 2023: Read and Solve for Tomorrow's Exam

Psychology important case study questions for cbse class 12: practice important psychology case study-based questions for cbse class 12. these questions are important for the upcoming cbse class 12 psychology board exam 2023..

Atul Rawal

  CBSE Class 12 Psychology Exam 2023: Hello students! kudos to the efforts you put into tackling your 2023 board examinations. We understand that the last few weeks were tremendously tiring, both mentally and physically. Don’t worry, take a deep breath and relax as this is the final phase of your CBSE examination 2023. The class 12 Psychology exam is the last in the lane. Its paper code is 037. The exam is planned for 05th April 2023, that is, tomorrow. The exam will be for 3 hours scheduled between 10.30 AM to 01.30 PM. We believe you have already solved the sample question and previous year papers for Class 12 Psychology and must be aware of the exam pattern. If not, please refer to the links below.

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CBSE Class 12 Psychology, Important Case Study-Based Questions:

Case 1: .

Read the following case study and answer the questions that follow: 

Sundar, a college-going 20-year-old male, has moved from his home town to live in a big city. He has continuous fear of insecurity and feels that enemy soldiers are following him. He gets very tense when he spots anyone in a uniform and feels that they are coming to catch him. This intense anxiety is interfering with his work and relationship, and his friends are extremely concerned as it does not make any sense to them. Sundar occasionally laughs abruptly and inappropriately and sometimes stops speaking mid-sentence, scanning off in the distance as though he sees or hears something. He expresses concern about the television and radio in the room potentially being monitored by the enemies. His beliefs are fixed and if they are challenged, his tone becomes hostile. 

Q1. Based on the symptoms being exhibited, identify the disorder. Explain the other symptoms that can be seen in this disorder.

Q2. Define delusion and inappropriate affect. Support it with the symptoms given in the above case study.

Read the case and answer the questions that follow. 

Alfred  Binet, in 1905,  was requested by the French government to devise a method by which students who experienced difficulty in school could be identified.  Binet and his colleague,  Theodore  Simon,  began developing questions that focused on areas not explicitly taught in schools those days, such as memory, and attention skills related to problem-solving.  Using these questions, Binet determined which were the ones that served as the best predictors of school success. 

Binet quickly realised that some children were able to answer more advanced questions than older children were generally able to answer and vice versa.  Based on this observation, Binet suggested the concept of mental age or a measure of intelligence based on the average abilities of children of a  certain age group.  This first intelligence test is referred to as the Binet-Simon  Scale. He insisted that intelligence is influenced by many factors, it changes over time,  and it can only be compared in children with similar backgrounds. 

Q1 . Identify the approach on which the Binet-Simon Intelligence Scale is based. Discuss its features.

Q2 . ‘Binet quickly realised that some children were able to answer more advanced questions than older children were generally able to answer and vice versa’. Why do individuals differ in intelligence? Using examples, give reasons for your answer.

Read the following case study and answer the questions that follow :

All the Indian settlers were contemptuously and without distinction dubbed “coolies” and forbidden to walk on footpaths or be out at night without permits. 

Mahatma Gandhi quickly discovered colour discrimination in South Africa and confronted the realisation that being Indian subjected him to it as well. At a particular train station, railway employees ordered him out of the carriage despite his possessing a first-class ticket. Then on the stagecoach for the next leg of his journey, the coachman, who was white, boxed his ears. A Johannesburg hotel also barred him from lodging there. Indians were commonly forbidden to own land in Natal, while ownership was more permissible for native-born people. 

In 1894, the Natal Bar Association tried to reject Gandhi on the basis of race. He was nearly lynched in 1897 upon returning from India while disembarking from a ship moored at Durban after he, his family, and 600 other Indians had been forcibly quarantined, allegedly due to medical fears that they carried plague germs. 

Q1. What is the difference between prejudice and discrimination ? On the

basis of the incidents in the above case study, identify a situation for each

which are examples of prejudice and discrimination.

Q2. What do you think could have been a source of these prejudices ? Explain

any two sources. 

Read the given case carefully and answer the questions that follow: 

Harish belonged to a family of four children, him being the eldest. Unlike any first born, he was not given the attention he should have had. His father worked as an accountant, while his mother stayed at home to look after the kids. He dropped out of school and could barely manage to get work for a little salary.

His relationship with his family played an important role in building his disposition. He felt a certain feeling of insecurity with his siblings, especially his brother Tarun, who was able to finish college because of parental support.

Due to the hopelessness Harish felt, he started engaging in drinking alcohol with his high school friends. Parental negligence caused emotional turmoil. He also had insomnia which he used as a reason for drinking every night.

Over time, Harish had to drink more to feel the effects of the alcohol. He got grouchy or shaky and had other symptoms when he was not able to drink or when he tried to quit.

In such a case, the school would be the ideal setting for early identification and intervention. In addition, his connection to school would be one of the most significant protective factors for substance abuse. His school implemented a variety of early intervention strategies which did not help him as he was irregular and soon left school. Some protective factors in school would be the ability to genuinely experience positive emotions through good communication.

(i)It has been found that certain family systems are likely to produce abnormal functioning in individual members.

In the light of the above statement, the factors underlying Harish's condition can be related to model.

(A) Humanistic

(B) Behavioural

(C) Socio-cultural 

(D) Psychodynamic

(ii) Over time, Harish needed to drink more before he could feel the effects of the alcohol. This means that he built a alcohol. towards the

(A) Withdrawal

(B) Tolerance

(C) Stress inoculation

(D) All of the above

(iii)He got grouchy or shaky and had other symptoms when he was not able to drink or when he tried to quit. This refers to

(A) Low willpower symptoms.

(B) Addiction symptoms

(C) Withdrawal symptoms

(D) Tolerance symptoms

(iv) Which of the following is not true about substance related and addictive disorders?

(A) Alcoholism unites millions of families through social interactions and get-togethers.

(B) Intoxicated drivers are responsible for many road accidents. 

(C) It also has serious effects on the children of persons with this disorder.

(D) Excessive drinking can seriously damage physical health.

Read the given case carefully and answer the questions that follow:

Monty was only 16 years when he dealt with mixed emotions for every couple of months. He shares that sometimes he felt like he was on top of the world and that nobody could stop him. He would be extremely confident. Once these feelings subsided, he would become depressed and lock himself in the room. He would neither open the door for anyone nor come out.

He shares, "My grades were dropping as I started to breathe rapidly and worry about almost everything under the sun. I felt nervous, restless and tense, with an increased heart rate. My family tried to help but I wasn't ready to accept." His father took him to the doctor, who diagnosed him. Teenage is a tough phase as teenagers face various emotional and psychological issues. How can one differentiate that from a disorder? Watch out when one is hopeless and feels helpless. Or, when one is not able to control the powerful emotions. It has to be confirmed by a medical practitioner.

During his sessions, Monty tries to clear many myths. He gives his perspective of what he experienced and the treatment challenges. "When I was going through it, I wish I had met someone with similar experiences so that I could have talked to her/him and understood why I was behaving the way I was. By talking openly, I hope to help someone to cope with it and believe that it is going to be fine one day."

Now, for the last five years Monty has been off medication and he is leading a regular life. Society is opening up to address mental health issues in a positive way, but it always helps to listen to someone who has been through it.

(i)Monty's symptoms are likely to be those of

(A) ADHD and anxiety disorder

(B) Bipolar disorder and generalised anxiety disorder 

(C) Generalised anxiety disorder and oppositional defiant disorder

(D) Schizophrenia

(ii) During his sessions, Monty tried to clear many myths. Which one of the following is a myth?

(A) Normality is the same as conformity to social norms.

(B) Adaptive behaviour is not simply maintenance and survival but also includes growth and fulfilment.

(C) People are hesitant to consult a doctor or a psychologist because they are ashamed of their problems.

(D) Genetic and biochemical factors are involved in causing mental disorders.

(iii) With an understanding of Monty's condition, which of the following is a likely symptom he may also be experiencing?

(A) Frequent washing of hands

(B) Assuming alternate personalities

(C) Persistent body related symptoms, which may or may not be related to any serious medical condition

(D) Prolonged, vague, unexplained and intense fears that are not attached to any particular object

(iv) Teenage is a tough phase as teenagers face various emotional and psychological issues. The disorder manifested in the early stage of development is classified as,

(A) Feeding and eating disorder

(B) Trauma and stressor related disorder

(C) Neurodevelopmental disorder

(D) Somatic symptom disorder

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  • On what day CBSE Class 12 Psychology 2023 exam is? + As per the official schedule, the CBSE class 12 psychology exam will be conducted on 05th April 2023. It would a Wednesday.
  • Is it important to solve case study questions for CBSE Class 12 Psychology exam? + Yes, as per the updates made by the CBSE Board in the past few years, the psychology paper now carries case study questions. It is of 4 marks with multiple subparts. Thus, students are advised to practice case-based questions to score fully in this section.
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What Is a Case Study?

Weighing the pros and cons of this method of research

Kendra Cherry, MS, is a psychosocial rehabilitation specialist, psychology educator, and author of the "Everything Psychology Book."

what is case study in psychology class 12

Cara Lustik is a fact-checker and copywriter.

what is case study in psychology class 12

Verywell / Colleen Tighe

  • Pros and Cons

What Types of Case Studies Are Out There?

Where do you find data for a case study, how do i write a psychology case study.

A case study is an in-depth study of one person, group, or event. In a case study, nearly every aspect of the subject's life and history is analyzed to seek patterns and causes of behavior. Case studies can be used in many different fields, including psychology, medicine, education, anthropology, political science, and social work.

The point of a case study is to learn as much as possible about an individual or group so that the information can be generalized to many others. Unfortunately, case studies tend to be highly subjective, and it is sometimes difficult to generalize results to a larger population.

While case studies focus on a single individual or group, they follow a format similar to other types of psychology writing. If you are writing a case study, we got you—here are some rules of APA format to reference.  

At a Glance

A case study, or an in-depth study of a person, group, or event, can be a useful research tool when used wisely. In many cases, case studies are best used in situations where it would be difficult or impossible for you to conduct an experiment. They are helpful for looking at unique situations and allow researchers to gather a lot of˜ information about a specific individual or group of people. However, it's important to be cautious of any bias we draw from them as they are highly subjective.

What Are the Benefits and Limitations of Case Studies?

A case study can have its strengths and weaknesses. Researchers must consider these pros and cons before deciding if this type of study is appropriate for their needs.

One of the greatest advantages of a case study is that it allows researchers to investigate things that are often difficult or impossible to replicate in a lab. Some other benefits of a case study:

  • Allows researchers to capture information on the 'how,' 'what,' and 'why,' of something that's implemented
  • Gives researchers the chance to collect information on why one strategy might be chosen over another
  • Permits researchers to develop hypotheses that can be explored in experimental research

On the other hand, a case study can have some drawbacks:

  • It cannot necessarily be generalized to the larger population
  • Cannot demonstrate cause and effect
  • It may not be scientifically rigorous
  • It can lead to bias

Researchers may choose to perform a case study if they want to explore a unique or recently discovered phenomenon. Through their insights, researchers develop additional ideas and study questions that might be explored in future studies.

It's important to remember that the insights from case studies cannot be used to determine cause-and-effect relationships between variables. However, case studies may be used to develop hypotheses that can then be addressed in experimental research.

Case Study Examples

There have been a number of notable case studies in the history of psychology. Much of  Freud's work and theories were developed through individual case studies. Some great examples of case studies in psychology include:

  • Anna O : Anna O. was a pseudonym of a woman named Bertha Pappenheim, a patient of a physician named Josef Breuer. While she was never a patient of Freud's, Freud and Breuer discussed her case extensively. The woman was experiencing symptoms of a condition that was then known as hysteria and found that talking about her problems helped relieve her symptoms. Her case played an important part in the development of talk therapy as an approach to mental health treatment.
  • Phineas Gage : Phineas Gage was a railroad employee who experienced a terrible accident in which an explosion sent a metal rod through his skull, damaging important portions of his brain. Gage recovered from his accident but was left with serious changes in both personality and behavior.
  • Genie : Genie was a young girl subjected to horrific abuse and isolation. The case study of Genie allowed researchers to study whether language learning was possible, even after missing critical periods for language development. Her case also served as an example of how scientific research may interfere with treatment and lead to further abuse of vulnerable individuals.

Such cases demonstrate how case research can be used to study things that researchers could not replicate in experimental settings. In Genie's case, her horrific abuse denied her the opportunity to learn a language at critical points in her development.

This is clearly not something researchers could ethically replicate, but conducting a case study on Genie allowed researchers to study phenomena that are otherwise impossible to reproduce.

There are a few different types of case studies that psychologists and other researchers might use:

  • Collective case studies : These involve studying a group of individuals. Researchers might study a group of people in a certain setting or look at an entire community. For example, psychologists might explore how access to resources in a community has affected the collective mental well-being of those who live there.
  • Descriptive case studies : These involve starting with a descriptive theory. The subjects are then observed, and the information gathered is compared to the pre-existing theory.
  • Explanatory case studies : These   are often used to do causal investigations. In other words, researchers are interested in looking at factors that may have caused certain things to occur.
  • Exploratory case studies : These are sometimes used as a prelude to further, more in-depth research. This allows researchers to gather more information before developing their research questions and hypotheses .
  • Instrumental case studies : These occur when the individual or group allows researchers to understand more than what is initially obvious to observers.
  • Intrinsic case studies : This type of case study is when the researcher has a personal interest in the case. Jean Piaget's observations of his own children are good examples of how an intrinsic case study can contribute to the development of a psychological theory.

The three main case study types often used are intrinsic, instrumental, and collective. Intrinsic case studies are useful for learning about unique cases. Instrumental case studies help look at an individual to learn more about a broader issue. A collective case study can be useful for looking at several cases simultaneously.

The type of case study that psychology researchers use depends on the unique characteristics of the situation and the case itself.

There are a number of different sources and methods that researchers can use to gather information about an individual or group. Six major sources that have been identified by researchers are:

  • Archival records : Census records, survey records, and name lists are examples of archival records.
  • Direct observation : This strategy involves observing the subject, often in a natural setting . While an individual observer is sometimes used, it is more common to utilize a group of observers.
  • Documents : Letters, newspaper articles, administrative records, etc., are the types of documents often used as sources.
  • Interviews : Interviews are one of the most important methods for gathering information in case studies. An interview can involve structured survey questions or more open-ended questions.
  • Participant observation : When the researcher serves as a participant in events and observes the actions and outcomes, it is called participant observation.
  • Physical artifacts : Tools, objects, instruments, and other artifacts are often observed during a direct observation of the subject.

If you have been directed to write a case study for a psychology course, be sure to check with your instructor for any specific guidelines you need to follow. If you are writing your case study for a professional publication, check with the publisher for their specific guidelines for submitting a case study.

Here is a general outline of what should be included in a case study.

Section 1: A Case History

This section will have the following structure and content:

Background information : The first section of your paper will present your client's background. Include factors such as age, gender, work, health status, family mental health history, family and social relationships, drug and alcohol history, life difficulties, goals, and coping skills and weaknesses.

Description of the presenting problem : In the next section of your case study, you will describe the problem or symptoms that the client presented with.

Describe any physical, emotional, or sensory symptoms reported by the client. Thoughts, feelings, and perceptions related to the symptoms should also be noted. Any screening or diagnostic assessments that are used should also be described in detail and all scores reported.

Your diagnosis : Provide your diagnosis and give the appropriate Diagnostic and Statistical Manual code. Explain how you reached your diagnosis, how the client's symptoms fit the diagnostic criteria for the disorder(s), or any possible difficulties in reaching a diagnosis.

Section 2: Treatment Plan

This portion of the paper will address the chosen treatment for the condition. This might also include the theoretical basis for the chosen treatment or any other evidence that might exist to support why this approach was chosen.

  • Cognitive behavioral approach : Explain how a cognitive behavioral therapist would approach treatment. Offer background information on cognitive behavioral therapy and describe the treatment sessions, client response, and outcome of this type of treatment. Make note of any difficulties or successes encountered by your client during treatment.
  • Humanistic approach : Describe a humanistic approach that could be used to treat your client, such as client-centered therapy . Provide information on the type of treatment you chose, the client's reaction to the treatment, and the end result of this approach. Explain why the treatment was successful or unsuccessful.
  • Psychoanalytic approach : Describe how a psychoanalytic therapist would view the client's problem. Provide some background on the psychoanalytic approach and cite relevant references. Explain how psychoanalytic therapy would be used to treat the client, how the client would respond to therapy, and the effectiveness of this treatment approach.
  • Pharmacological approach : If treatment primarily involves the use of medications, explain which medications were used and why. Provide background on the effectiveness of these medications and how monotherapy may compare with an approach that combines medications with therapy or other treatments.

This section of a case study should also include information about the treatment goals, process, and outcomes.

When you are writing a case study, you should also include a section where you discuss the case study itself, including the strengths and limitiations of the study. You should note how the findings of your case study might support previous research. 

In your discussion section, you should also describe some of the implications of your case study. What ideas or findings might require further exploration? How might researchers go about exploring some of these questions in additional studies?

Need More Tips?

Here are a few additional pointers to keep in mind when formatting your case study:

  • Never refer to the subject of your case study as "the client." Instead, use their name or a pseudonym.
  • Read examples of case studies to gain an idea about the style and format.
  • Remember to use APA format when citing references .

Crowe S, Cresswell K, Robertson A, Huby G, Avery A, Sheikh A. The case study approach .  BMC Med Res Methodol . 2011;11:100.

Crowe S, Cresswell K, Robertson A, Huby G, Avery A, Sheikh A. The case study approach . BMC Med Res Methodol . 2011 Jun 27;11:100. doi:10.1186/1471-2288-11-100

Gagnon, Yves-Chantal.  The Case Study as Research Method: A Practical Handbook . Canada, Chicago Review Press Incorporated DBA Independent Pub Group, 2010.

Yin, Robert K. Case Study Research and Applications: Design and Methods . United States, SAGE Publications, 2017.

By Kendra Cherry, MSEd Kendra Cherry, MS, is a psychosocial rehabilitation specialist, psychology educator, and author of the "Everything Psychology Book."

Case Study Research Method in Psychology

Saul Mcleod, PhD

Editor-in-Chief for Simply Psychology

BSc (Hons) Psychology, MRes, PhD, University of Manchester

Saul Mcleod, PhD., is a qualified psychology teacher with over 18 years of experience in further and higher education. He has been published in peer-reviewed journals, including the Journal of Clinical Psychology.

Learn about our Editorial Process

Olivia Guy-Evans, MSc

Associate Editor for Simply Psychology

BSc (Hons) Psychology, MSc Psychology of Education

Olivia Guy-Evans is a writer and associate editor for Simply Psychology. She has previously worked in healthcare and educational sectors.

On This Page:

Case studies are in-depth investigations of a person, group, event, or community. Typically, data is gathered from various sources using several methods (e.g., observations & interviews).

The case study research method originated in clinical medicine (the case history, i.e., the patient’s personal history). In psychology, case studies are often confined to the study of a particular individual.

The information is mainly biographical and relates to events in the individual’s past (i.e., retrospective), as well as to significant events that are currently occurring in his or her everyday life.

The case study is not a research method, but researchers select methods of data collection and analysis that will generate material suitable for case studies.

Freud (1909a, 1909b) conducted very detailed investigations into the private lives of his patients in an attempt to both understand and help them overcome their illnesses.

This makes it clear that the case study is a method that should only be used by a psychologist, therapist, or psychiatrist, i.e., someone with a professional qualification.

There is an ethical issue of competence. Only someone qualified to diagnose and treat a person can conduct a formal case study relating to atypical (i.e., abnormal) behavior or atypical development.

case study

 Famous Case Studies

  • Anna O – One of the most famous case studies, documenting psychoanalyst Josef Breuer’s treatment of “Anna O” (real name Bertha Pappenheim) for hysteria in the late 1800s using early psychoanalytic theory.
  • Little Hans – A child psychoanalysis case study published by Sigmund Freud in 1909 analyzing his five-year-old patient Herbert Graf’s house phobia as related to the Oedipus complex.
  • Bruce/Brenda – Gender identity case of the boy (Bruce) whose botched circumcision led psychologist John Money to advise gender reassignment and raise him as a girl (Brenda) in the 1960s.
  • Genie Wiley – Linguistics/psychological development case of the victim of extreme isolation abuse who was studied in 1970s California for effects of early language deprivation on acquiring speech later in life.
  • Phineas Gage – One of the most famous neuropsychology case studies analyzes personality changes in railroad worker Phineas Gage after an 1848 brain injury involving a tamping iron piercing his skull.

Clinical Case Studies

  • Studying the effectiveness of psychotherapy approaches with an individual patient
  • Assessing and treating mental illnesses like depression, anxiety disorders, PTSD
  • Neuropsychological cases investigating brain injuries or disorders

Child Psychology Case Studies

  • Studying psychological development from birth through adolescence
  • Cases of learning disabilities, autism spectrum disorders, ADHD
  • Effects of trauma, abuse, deprivation on development

Types of Case Studies

  • Explanatory case studies : Used to explore causation in order to find underlying principles. Helpful for doing qualitative analysis to explain presumed causal links.
  • Exploratory case studies : Used to explore situations where an intervention being evaluated has no clear set of outcomes. It helps define questions and hypotheses for future research.
  • Descriptive case studies : Describe an intervention or phenomenon and the real-life context in which it occurred. It is helpful for illustrating certain topics within an evaluation.
  • Multiple-case studies : Used to explore differences between cases and replicate findings across cases. Helpful for comparing and contrasting specific cases.
  • Intrinsic : Used to gain a better understanding of a particular case. Helpful for capturing the complexity of a single case.
  • Collective : Used to explore a general phenomenon using multiple case studies. Helpful for jointly studying a group of cases in order to inquire into the phenomenon.

Where Do You Find Data for a Case Study?

There are several places to find data for a case study. The key is to gather data from multiple sources to get a complete picture of the case and corroborate facts or findings through triangulation of evidence. Most of this information is likely qualitative (i.e., verbal description rather than measurement), but the psychologist might also collect numerical data.

1. Primary sources

  • Interviews – Interviewing key people related to the case to get their perspectives and insights. The interview is an extremely effective procedure for obtaining information about an individual, and it may be used to collect comments from the person’s friends, parents, employer, workmates, and others who have a good knowledge of the person, as well as to obtain facts from the person him or herself.
  • Observations – Observing behaviors, interactions, processes, etc., related to the case as they unfold in real-time.
  • Documents & Records – Reviewing private documents, diaries, public records, correspondence, meeting minutes, etc., relevant to the case.

2. Secondary sources

  • News/Media – News coverage of events related to the case study.
  • Academic articles – Journal articles, dissertations etc. that discuss the case.
  • Government reports – Official data and records related to the case context.
  • Books/films – Books, documentaries or films discussing the case.

3. Archival records

Searching historical archives, museum collections and databases to find relevant documents, visual/audio records related to the case history and context.

Public archives like newspapers, organizational records, photographic collections could all include potentially relevant pieces of information to shed light on attitudes, cultural perspectives, common practices and historical contexts related to psychology.

4. Organizational records

Organizational records offer the advantage of often having large datasets collected over time that can reveal or confirm psychological insights.

Of course, privacy and ethical concerns regarding confidential data must be navigated carefully.

However, with proper protocols, organizational records can provide invaluable context and empirical depth to qualitative case studies exploring the intersection of psychology and organizations.

  • Organizational/industrial psychology research : Organizational records like employee surveys, turnover/retention data, policies, incident reports etc. may provide insight into topics like job satisfaction, workplace culture and dynamics, leadership issues, employee behaviors etc.
  • Clinical psychology : Therapists/hospitals may grant access to anonymized medical records to study aspects like assessments, diagnoses, treatment plans etc. This could shed light on clinical practices.
  • School psychology : Studies could utilize anonymized student records like test scores, grades, disciplinary issues, and counseling referrals to study child development, learning barriers, effectiveness of support programs, and more.

How do I Write a Case Study in Psychology?

Follow specified case study guidelines provided by a journal or your psychology tutor. General components of clinical case studies include: background, symptoms, assessments, diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes. Interpreting the information means the researcher decides what to include or leave out. A good case study should always clarify which information is the factual description and which is an inference or the researcher’s opinion.

1. Introduction

  • Provide background on the case context and why it is of interest, presenting background information like demographics, relevant history, and presenting problem.
  • Compare briefly to similar published cases if applicable. Clearly state the focus/importance of the case.

2. Case Presentation

  • Describe the presenting problem in detail, including symptoms, duration,and impact on daily life.
  • Include client demographics like age and gender, information about social relationships, and mental health history.
  • Describe all physical, emotional, and/or sensory symptoms reported by the client.
  • Use patient quotes to describe the initial complaint verbatim. Follow with full-sentence summaries of relevant history details gathered, including key components that led to a working diagnosis.
  • Summarize clinical exam results, namely orthopedic/neurological tests, imaging, lab tests, etc. Note actual results rather than subjective conclusions. Provide images if clearly reproducible/anonymized.
  • Clearly state the working diagnosis or clinical impression before transitioning to management.

3. Management and Outcome

  • Indicate the total duration of care and number of treatments given over what timeframe. Use specific names/descriptions for any therapies/interventions applied.
  • Present the results of the intervention,including any quantitative or qualitative data collected.
  • For outcomes, utilize visual analog scales for pain, medication usage logs, etc., if possible. Include patient self-reports of improvement/worsening of symptoms. Note the reason for discharge/end of care.

4. Discussion

  • Analyze the case, exploring contributing factors, limitations of the study, and connections to existing research.
  • Analyze the effectiveness of the intervention,considering factors like participant adherence, limitations of the study, and potential alternative explanations for the results.
  • Identify any questions raised in the case analysis and relate insights to established theories and current research if applicable. Avoid definitive claims about physiological explanations.
  • Offer clinical implications, and suggest future research directions.

5. Additional Items

  • Thank specific assistants for writing support only. No patient acknowledgments.
  • References should directly support any key claims or quotes included.
  • Use tables/figures/images only if substantially informative. Include permissions and legends/explanatory notes.
  • Provides detailed (rich qualitative) information.
  • Provides insight for further research.
  • Permitting investigation of otherwise impractical (or unethical) situations.

Case studies allow a researcher to investigate a topic in far more detail than might be possible if they were trying to deal with a large number of research participants (nomothetic approach) with the aim of ‘averaging’.

Because of their in-depth, multi-sided approach, case studies often shed light on aspects of human thinking and behavior that would be unethical or impractical to study in other ways.

Research that only looks into the measurable aspects of human behavior is not likely to give us insights into the subjective dimension of experience, which is important to psychoanalytic and humanistic psychologists.

Case studies are often used in exploratory research. They can help us generate new ideas (that might be tested by other methods). They are an important way of illustrating theories and can help show how different aspects of a person’s life are related to each other.

The method is, therefore, important for psychologists who adopt a holistic point of view (i.e., humanistic psychologists ).

Limitations

  • Lacking scientific rigor and providing little basis for generalization of results to the wider population.
  • Researchers’ own subjective feelings may influence the case study (researcher bias).
  • Difficult to replicate.
  • Time-consuming and expensive.
  • The volume of data, together with the time restrictions in place, impacted the depth of analysis that was possible within the available resources.

Because a case study deals with only one person/event/group, we can never be sure if the case study investigated is representative of the wider body of “similar” instances. This means the conclusions drawn from a particular case may not be transferable to other settings.

Because case studies are based on the analysis of qualitative (i.e., descriptive) data , a lot depends on the psychologist’s interpretation of the information she has acquired.

This means that there is a lot of scope for Anna O , and it could be that the subjective opinions of the psychologist intrude in the assessment of what the data means.

For example, Freud has been criticized for producing case studies in which the information was sometimes distorted to fit particular behavioral theories (e.g., Little Hans ).

This is also true of Money’s interpretation of the Bruce/Brenda case study (Diamond, 1997) when he ignored evidence that went against his theory.

Breuer, J., & Freud, S. (1895).  Studies on hysteria . Standard Edition 2: London.

Curtiss, S. (1981). Genie: The case of a modern wild child .

Diamond, M., & Sigmundson, K. (1997). Sex Reassignment at Birth: Long-term Review and Clinical Implications. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine , 151(3), 298-304

Freud, S. (1909a). Analysis of a phobia of a five year old boy. In The Pelican Freud Library (1977), Vol 8, Case Histories 1, pages 169-306

Freud, S. (1909b). Bemerkungen über einen Fall von Zwangsneurose (Der “Rattenmann”). Jb. psychoanal. psychopathol. Forsch ., I, p. 357-421; GW, VII, p. 379-463; Notes upon a case of obsessional neurosis, SE , 10: 151-318.

Harlow J. M. (1848). Passage of an iron rod through the head.  Boston Medical and Surgical Journal, 39 , 389–393.

Harlow, J. M. (1868).  Recovery from the Passage of an Iron Bar through the Head .  Publications of the Massachusetts Medical Society. 2  (3), 327-347.

Money, J., & Ehrhardt, A. A. (1972).  Man & Woman, Boy & Girl : The Differentiation and Dimorphism of Gender Identity from Conception to Maturity. Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Money, J., & Tucker, P. (1975). Sexual signatures: On being a man or a woman.

Further Information

  • Case Study Approach
  • Case Study Method
  • Enhancing the Quality of Case Studies in Health Services Research
  • “We do things together” A case study of “couplehood” in dementia
  • Using mixed methods for evaluating an integrative approach to cancer care: a case study

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Chapter Chosen

Book chosen, subject chosen, previous year papers, variations in psychological attributes.

Explain two-factor theory of intelligence.

(i) Charles Spearman (1972) proposed the 'Two Factor Theory' of intelligence.

(ii) According to him, intelligence consists of General ('G') and Specific ('S') factors.

(iii) This theory maintained that all intellectual activities share a single common factor, called 'G' factor characterised as mental energy.

(iv) 'G' is considered responsible for relationships between different human activities. Positive correlations between any two factors were attributed to 'G' factor.

(v) In addition to general factor, this theory also postulates a number of specific ('S') factors each being strictly specific to a single activity and helps to axcel in that particular area.

What is case study?

(i) Case study refers to a systematic reconstruction of the past. It is an in-depth study of the individual in terms of his/her psychological attributes, psychological history in the content of his/her psychological and physical environment.

(ii) Case studies are widely used in clinical settings to deal with problems related to maladjustment.

(iii) Case studies use interview, observation, questionnaire and psychological tests.

Differentiate between interpersonal and intra-personal intelligence.

Inter-personal Intelligence:

(i) Sensitive to understand others, behaviour.

(ii) It is understanding the motives, feelings and the behaviour of others.

(iii) Example: Psychologists, politicians, social workers.

Intra-personal Intelligence:

(i) Awareness of one's own feeling, motives and desires.

(ii) This refers to the knowledge of one's internal strengths and limitations.

(iii) Example: Philosophers, spiritual leaders.

Psychologists, counsellors and religious leaders have dominance of both inter-personal as well as intra-personal types of intelligence.

What is structure of intellect model?

(i) On the basis of more than two decades of factor analytical research, J.P. Guilford proposed a three-dimensions box-like model, which is known as Structure-of-Intellect Model.

(ii) This theory organizes intellectual traits along three dimensions: Operations — what the respondent does, Contents — the nature of the material or information on which operations are performed, and Products — the form in which information is processed by the respondents.

(iii) Guilford's classification include 6 × 5 × 6 categories, resulting into 180 cells in the model.

No two individuals are alike. Explain.

(i) Human beings distinctly differ in size, shape, appearance, reaction time and innumerable other aspects of our personality and behaviour.

(ii) Individual differences stand for the variations and distinctiveness among individuals.

(iii) Individual differences stand for those differences which, in their totality, distinguish one individual from another.

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A case study is a research method that extensively explores a particular subject, situation, or individual through in-depth analysis, often to gain insights into real-world phenomena or complex issues. It involves the comprehensive examination of multiple data sources, such as interviews, observations, documents, and artifacts, to provide a rich and holistic understanding of the subject under investigation.

Case studies are conducted to:

  • Investigate a specific problem, event, or phenomenon
  • Explore unique or atypical situations
  • Examine the complexities and intricacies of a subject in its natural context
  • Develop theories, propositions, or hypotheses for further research
  • Gain practical insights for decision-making or problem-solving

A typical case study consists of the following components:

  • Introduction: Provides a brief background and context for the study, including the purpose and research questions.
  • Case Description: Describes the subject of the case study, including its relevant characteristics, settings, and participants.
  • Data Collection: Details the methods used to gather data, such as interviews, observations, surveys, or document analysis.
  • Data Analysis: Explains the techniques employed to analyze the collected data and derive meaningful insights.
  • Findings: Presents the key discoveries and outcomes of the case study in a logical and organized manner.
  • Discussion: Interprets the findings, relates them to existing theories or frameworks, discusses their implications, and addresses any limitations.
  • Conclusion: Summarizes the main findings, highlights the significance of the research, and suggests potential avenues for future investigations.

Case studies offer several benefits, including:

  • Providing a deep understanding of complex and context-dependent phenomena
  • Generating detailed and rich qualitative data
  • Allowing researchers to explore multiple perspectives and factors influencing the subject
  • Offering practical insights for professionals and practitioners
  • Allowing for the examination of rare or unique occurrences that cannot be replicated in experimental settings

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Psychology as a discipline specializes in the study of human behaviors, experiences, and mental processes of human beings within a sociocultural historical context. As one of the elective subjects of humanities, Psychology is introduced at the senior secondary stage of school education. A student who is preparing to write their class 12 psychology paper can find quality material to prepare for their course here on myCBSEguide . Here you get CBSE class 12 Psychology revision notes, practice papers, NCERT textbook solutions, MCQ tests, learning videos, online mock tests, etc.

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Class 12 Psychology Case Study Questions

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Methodology

  • What Is a Case Study? | Definition, Examples & Methods

What Is a Case Study? | Definition, Examples & Methods

Published on May 8, 2019 by Shona McCombes . Revised on November 20, 2023.

A case study is a detailed study of a specific subject, such as a person, group, place, event, organization, or phenomenon. Case studies are commonly used in social, educational, clinical, and business research.

A case study research design usually involves qualitative methods , but quantitative methods are sometimes also used. Case studies are good for describing , comparing, evaluating and understanding different aspects of a research problem .

Table of contents

When to do a case study, step 1: select a case, step 2: build a theoretical framework, step 3: collect your data, step 4: describe and analyze the case, other interesting articles.

A case study is an appropriate research design when you want to gain concrete, contextual, in-depth knowledge about a specific real-world subject. It allows you to explore the key characteristics, meanings, and implications of the case.

Case studies are often a good choice in a thesis or dissertation . They keep your project focused and manageable when you don’t have the time or resources to do large-scale research.

You might use just one complex case study where you explore a single subject in depth, or conduct multiple case studies to compare and illuminate different aspects of your research problem.

Case study examples
Research question Case study
What are the ecological effects of wolf reintroduction? Case study of wolf reintroduction in Yellowstone National Park
How do populist politicians use narratives about history to gain support? Case studies of Hungarian prime minister Viktor Orbán and US president Donald Trump
How can teachers implement active learning strategies in mixed-level classrooms? Case study of a local school that promotes active learning
What are the main advantages and disadvantages of wind farms for rural communities? Case studies of three rural wind farm development projects in different parts of the country
How are viral marketing strategies changing the relationship between companies and consumers? Case study of the iPhone X marketing campaign
How do experiences of work in the gig economy differ by gender, race and age? Case studies of Deliveroo and Uber drivers in London

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Once you have developed your problem statement and research questions , you should be ready to choose the specific case that you want to focus on. A good case study should have the potential to:

  • Provide new or unexpected insights into the subject
  • Challenge or complicate existing assumptions and theories
  • Propose practical courses of action to resolve a problem
  • Open up new directions for future research

TipIf your research is more practical in nature and aims to simultaneously investigate an issue as you solve it, consider conducting action research instead.

Unlike quantitative or experimental research , a strong case study does not require a random or representative sample. In fact, case studies often deliberately focus on unusual, neglected, or outlying cases which may shed new light on the research problem.

Example of an outlying case studyIn the 1960s the town of Roseto, Pennsylvania was discovered to have extremely low rates of heart disease compared to the US average. It became an important case study for understanding previously neglected causes of heart disease.

However, you can also choose a more common or representative case to exemplify a particular category, experience or phenomenon.

Example of a representative case studyIn the 1920s, two sociologists used Muncie, Indiana as a case study of a typical American city that supposedly exemplified the changing culture of the US at the time.

While case studies focus more on concrete details than general theories, they should usually have some connection with theory in the field. This way the case study is not just an isolated description, but is integrated into existing knowledge about the topic. It might aim to:

  • Exemplify a theory by showing how it explains the case under investigation
  • Expand on a theory by uncovering new concepts and ideas that need to be incorporated
  • Challenge a theory by exploring an outlier case that doesn’t fit with established assumptions

To ensure that your analysis of the case has a solid academic grounding, you should conduct a literature review of sources related to the topic and develop a theoretical framework . This means identifying key concepts and theories to guide your analysis and interpretation.

There are many different research methods you can use to collect data on your subject. Case studies tend to focus on qualitative data using methods such as interviews , observations , and analysis of primary and secondary sources (e.g., newspaper articles, photographs, official records). Sometimes a case study will also collect quantitative data.

Example of a mixed methods case studyFor a case study of a wind farm development in a rural area, you could collect quantitative data on employment rates and business revenue, collect qualitative data on local people’s perceptions and experiences, and analyze local and national media coverage of the development.

The aim is to gain as thorough an understanding as possible of the case and its context.

In writing up the case study, you need to bring together all the relevant aspects to give as complete a picture as possible of the subject.

How you report your findings depends on the type of research you are doing. Some case studies are structured like a standard scientific paper or thesis , with separate sections or chapters for the methods , results and discussion .

Others are written in a more narrative style, aiming to explore the case from various angles and analyze its meanings and implications (for example, by using textual analysis or discourse analysis ).

In all cases, though, make sure to give contextual details about the case, connect it back to the literature and theory, and discuss how it fits into wider patterns or debates.

If you want to know more about statistics , methodology , or research bias , make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples.

  • Normal distribution
  • Degrees of freedom
  • Null hypothesis
  • Discourse analysis
  • Control groups
  • Mixed methods research
  • Non-probability sampling
  • Quantitative research
  • Ecological validity

Research bias

  • Rosenthal effect
  • Implicit bias
  • Cognitive bias
  • Selection bias
  • Negativity bias
  • Status quo bias

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Chapter 1: Variations in Psychological Attributes

  • CBSE Class 12
  • Chapter 1: Variations in Psychological Attributes Notes

PathSet Publications

Individual Differences in Human Functioning

  • Psychology Book Class-12
  • Publication
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  • Each one of us is unique as we exemplify a typical combination of various traits i.e. different traits exist in an individual in varying degrees or intensities.
  • Individual Differences refers to distinctiveness and variations among people's characteristics and behaviour patterns.
  • Situationism states that situations and circumstances in which one is placed influence one's behaviour.
  • Sometimes, the situational influences are so powerful that individuals with differing personality traits respond to them in almost the same ways. The situationist perspective views human behaviour relatively more as a result of influence of external factors

Assessment of Psychological Attributes

  • It is the first step in understanding a psychological attribute.
  • It refers to the measurement of psychological attributes of individuals and their evaluation, often using multiple methods in terms of certain standards of comparison.
  • Psychological assessment uses systematic testing procedures to evaluate abilities, behaviours, and personal qualities of individuals.
  • There are two types of Assessment:

what is case study in psychology class 12

Characteristics of Psychological Attributes

  • Complex in nature
  • Multi-dimensional (Cognitive, Emotional, Social, etc.)

Psychological Attributes

Intelligence

what is case study in psychology class 12

Personality

what is case study in psychology class 12

Assessment Methods

Psychological Test

  • It is an objective and standardised measure of an individual's mental and/or behavioural characteristics.
  • They are used for: 
  • Clinical diagnosis 
  • Personnel selection
  • It involves seeking information from a person on a one-to-one basis.
  • It is used when:
  • Counsellor interacts with a client -Salesperson makes a door-to-door survey
  • Employer selects employees
  • It is an in-depth study of the individual in terms of her/his psychological attributes, psychological history in the context of her/his psychosocial and physical environment.
  • It is used by clinical pcychologists.
  • Observation
  • It involves employing systematic, organised, and objective procedures to record behavioural phenomena occuring naturally in real time.

Self Report

  • It is a method in which a person provides factual information about herself / himself and/or opinions, beliefs, etc. that she/he holds.
  • Such information may be obtained by using an interview schedule or a questionnaire, a psychological test or a personal diary. 

Intelligence and Theories of Intelligence

Definitions of Intelligence  

what is case study in psychology class 12

Theories of Intelligence

There are two approaches to theories of intelligence:

what is case study in psychology class 12

Psychometric approach/ Structural approach

  • considers intelligence as an aggregate of abilities
  • expresses the individual's performance in terms of a single index of cognitive abilities

A.  Uni or one factor theory (by Alfred Binet)

According to him, intelligence consists of one similar set of abilities which can be used for solving any or every problem in an individual's environment.

B.  Two factor theory (by Charles Spearman)

According to him, intelligence consists of:

i. General factor (g-factor) which includes mental operations which are primary and common to all performances.

ii. Specific factors (s-factors)  which contains specific abilities which allow individuals to excel in their respective domains / fields. For eg, singing, dancing, cooking etc.

C. Theory of Primary Mental Abilities (by Louis Thurstone) 

It states that intelligence consists of 7 primary abilities, independent of each other:

i. Verbal Comprehension - grasping meaning of words, concepts and ideas

ii. Numerical Abilities - speed and accuracy in numerical and computational skills

iii. Spacial Relations - visualising patterns and forms

iv. Perceptual speed - speed in perceiving details

v. Word Fluency - using words fluently and flexibly

vi. Memory - accuracy in recalling information

vii. Inductive Reasoning - deriving general rules from presented facts

D. Hierarchical Model of Intelligence (by Arthur Jensen)

This model consists of abilities operating at two levels:

It is the associative learning in which output is more or less similar to the input (for eg rote learning and memory)

ii. Level II

It is also called cognitive competence which involves higher order skills as they transform the input to produce an effective output.

E. Structure of Intellect model (J.P. Guilford)

It classifies intellectual traits among 3 dimensions:

i. Operations

  • what the respondent does 
  • includes cognition, memory recording, memery retention, divergent production, convergent production, and evaluation

ii. Contents

  • the nature of materials or information on which intellectual operations are performed. 
  • includes visual, auditory, symbolic (letters and numbers), semantic (words), behavioural (information about people's behaviour, attitudes, needs).

iii. Products

  • the form in which information is processed by the respondent.
  • classified into units, classes, relations, systems, transformations, and implications.

Information-Processing Approach

  • describes the processes people use in intellectual reasoning and problem solving
  • focuses on how an intelligent person acts
  • emphasizes on studying cognitive functions underlying intelligent behaviour

A. Theory of Multiple Intelligences (by Howard Gardner) 

According to him, 

  • intelligence is not a single entity
  • distinct types of intelligence exist -independent of each other
  • different types of intelligences interact and work together to find a solution to a problem

He described 8 types of intelligences:

i. Linguitic Intelligence

  • skills involved in the production and use of language
  • use language fluently and flexibly
  • to express one's thinking and understand others
  • 'word-smart' people who are sensitive to different shades of word meanings, articulate, and can create linguistic images in their mind.
  • examples: poets and writers

ii. Logical-Mathematical Intelligence

  • skills in scientific thinking and problem solving
  • think logically and critically
  • engage in abstract reasoning 
  • can manipulate symbols to solve mathematical problems
  • examples: Scientists and Nobel Prize winners

iii. Spatial Intelligence

  • skills in forming visual images and patterns -abilities involved in forming, using, and transforming mental images.
  • can easily represent the spatial world in the mind 
  • examples: Pilots, Sailors, Sculptors, Painters, Architects, Interior decorators, Surgeons

iv. Musical Intelligence

  • sensitivity to musical rhythms and patterns
  • capacity to produce, create and manipulate musical patterns
  • sensitive to sounds and vibrations
  • sensitive to creating new patterns of sounds
  • examples: Musicians, Sound Engineers, Singers, Instrumentalists

v. Bodily-Kinaesthetic Intelligence

  • using whole or portions of the body flexibly and creatively for display or construction of products and problem solving 
  • examples: Athletes, dancers, actors, surgeons, gymnasts, sportspersons

vi. Intrapersonal Intelligence

  • awareness of one's own feelings, motives and desires 
  • knowledge of one's internal strengths and limitations 
  • using that knowledge to effectively relate to others
  • have finer sensibilities regarding their identity, human existence and meaning of life
  • examples: Philosophers, Spiritual leaders

vii. Interpersonal Intelligence

  • sensitivity to subtle aspects of others' behaviours 
  • skill of understanding the motives, feelings and behaviours of other people
  • bond into a confortable relationship with others 
  • examples: counsellors, psychologists, politicians, social workers, religious leaders

viii. Naturalistic Intelligence

  • sensitivity to the features of natural world -complete awareness of our relationship with the natural world
  • recognising the beauty of different species of flora and fauna
  • useful in making subtle discriminations in the natural world.
  • examples: Hunters, farmers, tourists, botanists, zoologists, bird watchers

B. Triarchic Theory of Intelligence (by Robert Sternberg) 

He views intelligence as the ability to adapt, to shape and select environment to accomplish one's goals and those of one's society and culture.

According to this theory, there are 3 types of intelligences:

i. Componential Intelligence / Analytical Intelligence

  • The analysis of information to solve problems 
  • Think analytically and critically
  • Succeed in schools
  • This intelligence has three components:

a. Knowledge Acquisition - responsible for learning and acquisition of the ways of doing things. 

b. Meta or Higher order - involves planning concerning what to do and how to do

c. Performance - involves actually doing things

ii. Experiential Intelligence / Creative Intelligence 

  • involved in using past experiences creatively to solve novel problems. 
  • reflected in creative performance.
  • integration of different experiences in an original way to make new discoveries and inventions.  
  • quickly find out which information is crucial in given a situation.

iii. Contextual Intelligence / Practical Intelligence

  • involves the ability to deal with environmental demands encountered on a daily basis.
  • called 'street smartness' or 'business sense'
  • easily adapt to their present environment or select a favourable environment than the existing one or modify the environment to fit their needs.
  • successful in life

what is case study in psychology class 12

C. PASS Model of Intelligence (by J.P. Das, Jack Naghieri and Kirby) 

According to this model, intellectual activity involves the interdependent functioning of three neurological systems, called the functional units of brain. These units are responsible for the following: 

i. Arousal / Attention

  • State of arousal is basic to any behaviour as it helps us in attending to stimuli. 
  • Arousal and attention enable a person to process information.
  • An optimum level of arousal focuses our attention to the relevant aspects of a problem.
  • Too much or too little arousal would interfere with attention.

ii. Simultaneous and Successive Processing

Information can be integrated into your knowledge system either:

a. Simultaneously

Simultaneous processing takes place when you perceive the relations among various concepts and integrate them into a meaningful pattern for comprehension.  Example - Raven's Progressive Matrices Test  - It helps us in grasping the meaning and relationship between the given abstract figures.

b. Successively

Successive processing takes place when we remember all the information serially so that the recall of one leads to the recall of another. 

Example - Learning of digits, alphabets, multiplication tables

iii. Planning (essential feature of intelligence) 

  • Planning is activated, after the information is attended to and processed. 
  • allows us to think of the possible courses of action, implement them to reach a target, and evaluate their effectiveness. 

These processes (Arousal/Attention, Simultaneous and Successive Processing and Planning) are interactive and dynamic.

Cognitive Assessment System (by Das and Naglieri)

  • battery of tests
  • consists of verbal as well as non-verbal tasks
  • measure cognitive functions
  • independent of schooling
  • between 5 to 18 yrs of age
  • results can be used to remedy cognitive deficits of children with learning problems.

Intelligence: Interplay of Nature and Nurture

Intelligence: Interplay of Nature and Nurture/ Product of complex interaction of Nature and Nurture

Correlation of intelligence :

  • Identical twins reared together - 0.90
  • Identical twins reared in different environments - 0.72 
  • Fraternal twins reared together - 0.60
  • Siblings reared together - 0.50
  • Siblings reared apart - 0.25
  • Children's intelligence is more similar to their biological rather than adoptive parents. However, as children grow in age, their intelligence level tends to move closer to that of their adoptive parents.
  • Environmental deprivation lowers intelligence while rich nutrition, good family background and quality of schooling increases intelligence. 
  • Heredity is something that sets a range within which an individual's development is actually shaped by the support and opportunities of the environment. 

Assessment of Intelligence

  • 1905 - Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon - first attempt to formally measure intelligence (Binet-Simon Scale)
  • Mental Age (MA) is a measure of a person's intellectual development relative to people of her/his age group.  
  • Chronological Age (CA) is the biological age from birth. 
  • Retardation was defined as being two mental age years below the chronological age.
  • IQ = MA/CA x 100 (by William Stern in 1912)

Intelligence Quotient (IQ) refers to mental age divided by chronological age multiplied by 100. The number 100 is used as a multiplier to avoid the decimal point.

MA = CA, IQ = 100

MA > CA, IQ > 100

MA < CA, IQ < 100

  • For example, a 10-year-old child with a mental age of 12 would have an IQ of 120 (12/10 x 100), whereas the same child with an MA of 7 would have an IQ of 70 (7/10 x 100).
  • The scores of most people tend to fall in the middle range of the distribution. Only a few people have either very high or very low scores.
  • The frequency distribution for the IQ scores tends to approximate a bell-shaped curve, called the normal curve. This type of distribution is symmetrical around the central value, called the mean.
  • Mean IQ score in a population is 100.
  • People with IQ scores in the range of 90–110 have normal intelligence.
  • Those with IQ below 70 are suspected to have ‘intellectual disability’, while persons with IQ above 130 are considered to have exceptional talents.

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Variations of Intelligence

Intellectual Deficiency

  • Children face enormous difficulty in learning even very simple skills 
  • These children who show intellectual deficiency are 'intellectually disabled'
  • The American Association on Mental Deficiency (AAMD) views intellectual disability as "significantly sub-average general intellectual functioning existing concurrently with deficits in adaptive behaviour and manifested during the developmental age." 

Three features of the above definition are:

  • 'significantly sub-average intellectual functioning' is a must to be regarded as intellectually disabled having IQ below 70.
  • 'deficits in adaptive behaviour' where, adaptive behaviour means a person's capacity to be independent and deal effectively with one's environment.
  • deficits must be observed during the 'developmental period' i.e. between 0 and 18yrs of age.
  • Taught to work and function with special attention
  • Some cannot be trained and require institutional care throughout their lives 
  • Different levels of intellectually disability:

what is case study in psychology class 12

Intellectual Giftedness

  • Higher performance because of their outstanding potentialities. 
  • Giftedness is exceptional general ability shown in superior performance in a wide variety of areas
  • Talent refers to remarkable ability in a specific field. The highly talented are sometimes called 'prodigies'.
  • Giftedness depends on a combination of high ability, high creativity, and high commitment, from teachers’ point of view.
  • Gifted children show early signs of intellectual superiority. Even during infancy and early childhood, they show:
  • larger attention span
  • good recognition memory
  • preference for novelty
  • sensitivity to environmental changes 
  • early appearance of language skills

Characteristics of gifted children are:

what is case study in psychology class 12

Types of Intelligence Tests

Individual or Group Tests

  • Individual Tests
  • Individual tests are administered to one person at a time.
  • These tests require the test administrator to establish a rapport with the subject and be sensitive to her/his feelings, moods expressions during the testing session. 
  • These allow people to answer orally in a written form or manipulate objects as per the tester's instructions.

Group Tests

  • A group intelligence test can be administered to several persons simultaneously. 
  • These do not allow an opportunity to be familiar with the subjects' feelings. 
  • They seek written answers usually in a MCQ format.

Verbal, Non-verbal or Performance Tests

Verbal Tests

  • These tests require subjects to give verbal responses either orally or in written form. 
  • These tests can be administered only to literate people.

Non-Verbal Tests

  • The non-verbal tests use pictures or illustrations as test items. These can be administered on illiterate people as well.
  • Example- Raven's Progressive Matrices (RPM) Test

what is case study in psychology class 12

Performance Tests

  • Performance tests require subjects to manipulate objects and other materials to perform a task.
  • Written language is not necessary for answering the items. 
  • They can be easily administered to people from different cultures.
  • Example- Kohs' Block Design Test

Culture-Fair or Culture-Biased Tests

Culture-Fair Tests

  • Culture-fair or culturally appropriate tests are those that do not discriminate against individuals belonging to different cultures.
  • These tests are developed in a manner that they assess experiences common to all cultures or have questions in which language usage is not required. 
  • Non-verbal and performance tests help reduce the cultural bias usually associated with verbal tests.

Culture-Biased Tests

  • Culture-biased tests are designed for a specific population and show biased  results for a specific group, culture, and population due to cultural influence. 

Misuses of Intelligence Tests

  • Poor performance on a test may make the child ashamed and thereby adversely affect their performance and self-respect.
  • The results of the test may invite discriminatory practices / treatment from parents, teachers and elders in the society. 
  • Intelligence tests do not capture creative potentialities and practical side of intelligence.
  • They do not relate much to success in life.
  • Administering a test biased in favour of high class and middle class populations may underestimate the IQ of children coming from disadvantaged sections of the society.

Intelligence Testing in India

  • S.M. Mohsin made a pioneering attempt in constructing an intelligence test in Hindi in the 1930s.
  • C.H. Rice attempted to standardise Binet’s test in Urdu and Punjabi.
  • At about the same time, Mahalanobis attempted to standardise Binet’s test in Bengali.
  • Attempts were also made by Indian researchers to develop Indian norms for some western tests including RPM, WAIS, Alexander’s Passalong, Cube Construction, and Kohs’ Block Design.
  • Long and Mehta prepared a Mental Measurement Handbook listing out 103 tests of intelligence in India that were available in various languages.
  • Since then, a number of tests have either been developed or adapted from western cultures.
  • The National Library of Educational and Psychological Tests (NLEPT) at the National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) has documented Indian tests. Critical reviews of Indian tests are published in the form of handbooks. NLEPT has brought out the handbooks in the area of intelligence, aptitude, personality, attitudes, and interests.

what is case study in psychology class 12

Culture and Intelligence

  • Culture is a collective system of customs, beliefs, attitudes and achievements in art and literature.
  • The cultural environment provides a context for intelligence to develop. 
  • Vygotsky, a Russian psychologist, has argued that culture provides a social context in which people live, grow and understand the world around them.

For example, in less technologically developed societies, social and emotional skills in relating to people are valued, while in technologically advanced societies, personal achievement founded on abilities of reasoning and judgment is considered to represent intelligence.

  • Vygotsky also believed that cultures, like individuals, have a life of their own; they grow and change, and in the process specify what will be the end-product of successful intellectual development.
  • According to him, while elementary mental functions (e.g., crying, attending to mother’s voice, sensitivity to smells, walking, and running) are universal, the manner in which higher mental functions such as problem solving and thinking operate are largely culture-produced.
  • Sternberg's notion of contextual or practical intelligence implies that intelligence is a product of culture.

Technological Intelligence

  • In technologically advanced societies, personal achievement founded on abilities of reasoning and judgement is considered to represent intelligence.
  • Focus on individualistic orientation. 
  • Technologically advanced societies adopt child rearing practices that foster skills of:
  • Generalisation and abstraction
  • Minimal moves
  • Mental manipulation, among children.
  • In these societies, people are well-versed in skills of: 
  • Attention 
  • Performance
  • Achievement orientation

Intelligence tests developed in western cultures look precisely for these skills in an individual.

Intelligence in the Indian Tradition

Integral Intelligence (Intelligence in the Indian tradition)

  • Gives emphasis on connectivity with the social and world environment.
  • From a holistic perspective, equal attention is paid to cognitive and non cognitive processes as well as their integration as a part of intelligence. 
  • Focus on collectivistic orientation
  • Value self-reflection
  • Less technologically developed societies value social and emotional skills in relating to people
  • Buddhi, according to J.P. Das includes such skills as:
  • Mental effort
  • Determined action
  • Opinions, 

along with cognitive competence such as: 

  • Discrimination
  • Understanding

Buddhi is the knowledge of one's own self based on conscience, will and desire.

Buddhi has affective and motivational components besides a strong cognitive component.

what is case study in psychology class 12

Emotional Intelligence

  • Considers that intelligence includes emotions.
  • Emotional intelligence is a set of skills that underlie accurate appraisal, expression, and regulation of emotions.
  • It is the feeling side of intelligence. 
  • Salovey and Mayer defined emotional intelligence as " the ability to monitor one's own and other's emotions, to discriminate among them, and to use the information to guide one's thinking and actions."
  • Emotional Quotient (EQ) is used to express emotional intelligence in the same way as IQ is used to express intelligence.
  • Emotional intelligence refers to the ability to process emotional information accurately and efficiently.
  • Applications of Emotional Intelligence:
  • Emotional intelligence is receiving increasing attention of educators for dealing with students who are affected by stresses and challenges of the outside world.
  • Programmes aimed at improving students’ emotional intelligence have beneficial effects on their academic achievement.
  • They encourage cooperative behaviour and reduce their antisocial activities.
  • These programmes are very useful in preparing students to face the challenges of life outside the classroom.

Characteristics of Emotionally Intelligent People are:

what is case study in psychology class 12

Aptitude : Nature and Measurement

Aptitude and Intelligence

  • People with similar intelligence differed widely in acquiring certain knowledge or skills.
  • Therefore, individuals with similar level of intelligence may have different aptitudes. For example, two students who have more or less the same level of intelligence, one may have a high verbal reasoning aptitude whereas the other student may have high numerical reasoning aptitude and low verbal reasoning aptitude.

Aptitude and Interest

  • A person may be interested in a particular job or activity, but may not have the aptitude for it. Similarly, a person may have the potentiality for performing a job, but may not be interested in doing that. In both cases, the outcome will not be satisfactory.
  • For example, a student with high mechanical aptitude and strong interest in engineering is more likely to be a successful mechanical engineer.
  • Therefore, in order to be successful in a particular field, a person must have both aptitude and interest.

Aptitude tests are available in two forms:

  • Independent (specialised) Aptitude Tests

Examples: Clerical Aptitude, Mechanical Aptitude, Numerical Aptitude, and Typing Aptitude

  • Multiple (generalised) Aptitude Tests

Multiple Aptitude Tests exist in the form of test batteries, which measure aptitude in several separate but homogeneous areas.

Examples: Differential Aptitude Tests (DAT), the General Aptitude Tests Battery (GATB), and the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB) are well-known aptitude test batteries.

Among these, DAT is most commonly used in educational settings. It consists of 8 independent subtests: (i) Verbal Reasoning, (ii) Numerical Reasoning, (iii) Abstract Reasoning, (iv) Clerical Speed and Accuracy, (v) Mechanical Reasoning, (vi) Space Relations, (vii) Spelling, and (viii) Language Usage.

J.M. Ojha has developed an Indian adaptation of DAT.

Several other aptitude tests have been developed in India for measuring scientific, scholastic, literary, clerical, and teaching aptitudes.

Creativity and Intelligence

  • Creativity is the ability to produce ideas, objects, or problem solutions that are novel, appropriate and useful.
  • Manifestations of creativity can be observed in:
  • a novel solution to a problem
  • an invention
  • composition of a poem or a painting
  • new chemical process
  • an innovation in law
  • a breakthrough in preventing a disease, etc
  • One common element among these is the production of something new and unique.
  • Creativity is not just limited to a selected few — the artist, the scientist, the poet or the inventor. An ordinary individual who is engaged in simple occupations like pottery, carpentry, cooking, etc. can also be creative.
  • Individuals vary in terms of the level and the areas in which they exhibit creativity and that all may not be operating at the same level.
  • Another level of creativity is working on what has already been established earlier by way of modifications, by putting things in new perspectives or to new use.
  • Children express creativity mostly through physical activities and in non-verbal ways.
  • Creativity is determined by both heredity and environment. Limits of the creative potential are set by heredity, and environmental factors (such as motivation, commitment, family support, peer influences, training opportunities, etc.) stimulate the development of creativity.
  • Terman, in the 1920s, found that:
  • persons with high IQ were not necessarily creative
  • creative ideas could come from persons who did not have a very high IQ
  • Both high and low level of creativity can be found in highly intelligent children and also children of average intelligence.
  • The same person, thus, can be creative as well as intelligent but it is not necessary that intelligent ones, in the conventional sense, must be creative.

Intelligence, therefore, by itself does not ensure creativity.

  • However, it has been found that the relationship between creativity and intelligence is positive.
  • All creative acts require some minimum ability to acquire knowledge and capacity to comprehend, retain, and retrieve.
  • Hence, a certain level of intelligence is required for creativity but beyond that intelligence does not correlate well with creativity.

Features of Creativity Tests

what is case study in psychology class 12

Some of the famous psychologists who have developed creativity tests are:

  • Wallach and Kogan

Features of Intelligence Tests

what is case study in psychology class 12

Related Chapter Name

Chapter 2 :self and personality.

  • Concept of Self
  • Cognitive and Behavioural Aspects of Self
  • Culture and Self
  • Concept of Personality
  • Major Approaches to the Study of Personality
  • Assessment of Personality

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HSC Projects

Case Study On Ocd For 12 CBSE (Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder)

Table of Contents

Acknowledgment

In acknowledging the myriad contributions that have sculpted this project into a comprehensive exploration of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD), I extend my heartfelt appreciation to those who have played pivotal roles in its development.

Firstly, I express gratitude to the individuals who generously shared their insights and experiences, enriching this study with personal narratives that breathe life into the clinical framework of OCD. Your openness and willingness to contribute have added depth and authenticity to this exploration.

A sincere thank you extends to mental health professionals whose expertise and guidance have been instrumental in shaping the clinical aspects of this project. Their dedication to advancing our understanding of OCD and commitment to supporting those affected by it are invaluable.

The wealth of knowledge drawn from reputable academic sources forms the bedrock of this study. I extend appreciation to the authors and researchers whose work has illuminated the intricate landscape of OCD, providing the framework for our exploration.

To those who have participated in interviews and consultations, your willingness to share expertise has been instrumental. Your perspectives have broadened the scope of this project, fostering a holistic understanding of the multifaceted nature of OCD.

In crafting this project, I am grateful for the support systems that have played integral roles. Family and friends, who form the cornerstone of personal networks, deserve acknowledgment for their understanding, encouragement, and unwavering support throughout the research process.

Finally, I extend appreciation to the broader community dedicated to mental health advocacy. Your efforts contribute to a collective movement fostering awareness, empathy, and destigmatization of mental health issues.

This project stands as a testament to the collaborative spirit that fuels progress in our understanding of mental health. Each contribution, whether personal, professional, or academic, has left an indelible mark on this exploration of OCD, reflecting a shared commitment to fostering a compassionate and informed approach to mental health challenges.

Introduction

Embarking on a profound exploration of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD), this project aims to unravel the intricacies of a condition that extends beyond the surface of its clinical definition. In the distinctive style we’ve come to know as the “Matthew style,” we delve into the realms of mental health, recognizing the importance of studying issues that impact individuals on a deeply personal level.

The purpose of this case study is twofold: firstly, to illuminate the myriad manifestations of OCD and, secondly, to provide a nuanced understanding of its profound impact on an individual’s daily life. In the grand tapestry of human experiences, mental health issues are threads that weave through the stories of countless individuals. By shedding light on OCD, we contribute to a broader conversation aimed at fostering empathy, awareness, and ultimately, a more compassionate approach to those navigating the complex terrain of mental health challenges.

Our journey begins with an exploration of general information about OCD, including prevalence, statistics, and common age of onset. We’ll delve into the causes and risk factors, recognizing the interplay of biological, genetic, and environmental elements that contribute to the development of this intricate condition.

Moving beyond the theoretical landscape, we’ll introduce Sarah, a pseudonymous individual whose journey becomes a focal point for our investigation. Through her case history, we’ll unravel the early signs, symptoms, and the familial context that shapes her narrative. The clinical manifestations of obsessions and compulsions, the very heart of OCD, will be explored in the context of Sarah’s daily life.

The diagnostic and assessment phase will pull back the curtain on the professional evaluation processes, involving mental health professionals and utilizing tools such as interviews, psychological tests, and observations. As we transition into treatment approaches, we’ll navigate the realms of medication and psychotherapy, unraveling the strategies employed to alleviate the burdens of OCD.

Beyond the clinical lens, we’ll delve into the impact of OCD on Sarah’s daily life, examining educational challenges and the dynamics of her personal relationships. Coping strategies, both within personal networks and through broader community resources, will be illuminated, offering insights into the resilience and strength exhibited by individuals contending with OCD.

what is case study in psychology class 12

Background Information

A. General information about OCD

  • Prevalence and statistics : Matthew Style: Let’s explore the prevalence and statistical aspects of OCD, gaining insights into how widespread this condition is in our society.
  • Common age of onset : Matthew Style: Understanding the age at which OCD typically surfaces is pivotal in recognizing and addressing it early on.

B. Causes and risk factors

  • Biological factors : Matthew Style: Biological underpinnings play a role in the development of OCD, and we’ll delve into these factors to unravel the roots of the disorder.
  • Genetic predisposition : Matthew Style: We’ll examine the genetic aspects that might contribute to the predisposition of individuals towards OCD.
  • Environmental triggers : Matthew Style: Environmental factors can act as catalysts, triggering the onset or exacerbation of OCD symptoms. Let’s explore these triggers.

Case Study Overview

A. Selection of the individual

  • Pseudonym and basic demographics : Matthew Style: Meet Sarah, a pseudonym for our focal individual, offering a glimpse into her world. We’ll also touch upon key demographics, providing context to her story.
  • Rationale for choosing this case : Matthew Style: The selection of Sarah’s case is intentional, aiming to highlight a representative narrative that encapsulates the multifaceted nature of OCD.

B. Case history

  • Early signs and symptoms : Matthew Style: We’ll unravel the early signs and symptoms exhibited by Sarah, offering a chronological exploration of her journey with OCD.
  • Family history of mental health issues : Matthew Style: Understanding the familial context is crucial, as we explore how mental health issues may have influenced Sarah’s experiences.

Clinical Manifestations

A. Obsessions

  • Definition and examples : Matthew Style: Obsessions, the intrusive thoughts at the heart of OCD, will be defined, and we’ll delve into real-life examples to illustrate their impact.
  • Impact on daily functioning : Matthew Style: We’ll explore how these obsessions ripple through Sarah’s daily life, influencing her choices and actions.

B. Compulsions

  • Definition and examples : Matthew Style: Compulsions, the repetitive behaviors individuals engage in to quell anxiety, will be defined with concrete examples for clarity.
  • Attempts to alleviate anxiety : Matthew Style: We’ll dissect how Sarah’s compulsions serve as coping mechanisms, providing temporary relief from the anxiety spurred by her obsessions.

Diagnosis and Assessment

A. Professional evaluation

  • Involvement of mental health professionals : Matthew Style: Delving into the professional realm, we’ll explore the pivotal role mental health professionals play in diagnosing and assessing OCD.
  • Diagnostic criteria for OCD : Matthew Style: Unpacking the diagnostic criteria, we’ll elucidate the benchmarks used to identify and categorize OCD.

B. Tools and methods used in the assessment

  • Interviews with the individual and family : Matthew Style: Personal narratives, gleaned from interviews with Sarah and her family, will enrich our understanding of her journey.
  • Psychological tests and observations : Matthew Style: Complementing personal accounts, we’ll explore the objective tools and observations employed in the clinical assessment of OCD.

Treatment Approaches

A. Medication

  • Overview of common medications for OCD : Matthew Style: Navigating the pharmacological landscape, we’ll provide an overview of common medications prescribed to alleviate OCD symptoms.

Matthew Style: Acknowledging the nuances, we’ll discuss potential side effects and considerations associated with medication-based approaches to managing OCD.

B. Psychotherapy

  • Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) : Matthew Style: Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy emerges as a cornerstone in treating OCD, offering insights into how it aids individuals like Sarah in reshaping thought patterns and behaviors.
  • Exposure and Response Prevention (ERP) : Matthew Style: We’ll explore the therapeutic strategy of Exposure and Response Prevention, shedding light on its efficacy in helping individuals confront and overcome the challenges posed by OCD.

Impact on Daily Life

A. Educational challenges

  • School performance : Matthew Style: OCD’s impact extends to academic realms, affecting individuals like Sarah in their school performance, creating hurdles that demand careful consideration.
  • Social interactions : Matthew Style: Navigating the intricate landscape of social interactions becomes a unique challenge for those contending with OCD, as we explore how it shapes Sarah’s relationships within the school setting.

B. Personal relationships

  • Impact on family dynamics : Matthew Style: Unraveling the ripple effects, we’ll delve into how Sarah’s struggle with OCD reverberates through her family dynamics, shedding light on the adjustments and support systems in place.
  • Friends and social life : Matthew Style: Friendships and social engagements are not exempt from the impact of OCD. We’ll explore how Sarah’s condition influences her social life and connections.

what is case study in psychology class 12

Coping Strategies

A. support systems.

  • Role of family and friends : Matthew Style: In Sarah’s journey, the support of family and friends emerges as a crucial pillar, underscoring the significant role these relationships play in coping with the challenges posed by OCD.
  • Support groups and community resources : Matthew Style: Beyond personal networks, we’ll explore the broader community resources and support groups that contribute to the coping mechanisms available to individuals grappling with OCD.

B. Personal coping mechanisms

  • Tec hniques to manage anxiety : Matthew Style: Delving into the toolbox of coping mechanisms, we’ll explore specific techniques that Sarah employs to manage the anxiety stemming from her OCD.
  • Long-term strategies for maintaining mental health : Matthew Style: Looking towards the future, we’ll discuss long-term strategies that individuals like Sarah adopt to sustain and promote their mental well-being.

In concluding this comprehensive exploration of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD), we find ourselves standing at the intersection of knowledge and empathy. Through the lens of the “Matthew style,” we’ve navigated the complexities of OCD, unraveling its manifestations and impact on the daily life of individuals like our pseudonymous focal point, Sarah.

Summarizing the key findings, it becomes evident that OCD is not a monolithic entity; rather, it manifests uniquely in each individual, leaving an indelible mark on their journey. From the early signs and symptoms to the coping strategies employed, every facet of this disorder contributes to a narrative that extends beyond clinical definitions.

Reflecting on the importance of understanding and addressing OCD, we recognize that knowledge is the cornerstone of empathy. By peeling back the layers of this mental health challenge, we open doors to compassion and dispel misconceptions that may perpetuate stigma. Sarah’s story, though pseudonymous, echoes the experiences of countless others, emphasizing the universality of the human struggle with mental health.

This case study underscores the vital role of mental health professionals, the significance of personal support networks, and the wealth of community resources available. It stands as a testament to the resilience of individuals contending with OCD, showcasing the power of coping mechanisms and the efficacy of treatment approaches like medication and psychotherapy.

A call to action reverberates through these pages—an urgent plea for increased mental health awareness and the destigmatization of conditions like OCD. In embracing this call, we collectively contribute to a society that prioritizes empathy, understanding, and support for those grappling with mental health challenges.

As we acknowledge the extensive references drawn from academic sources and the invaluable insights gained through interviews with mental health professionals, gratitude permeates this conclusion. The collaborative efforts of individuals who contributed to this project have elevated it beyond a mere study, transforming it into a narrative of shared understanding and a beacon guiding us toward a more compassionate discourse on mental health.

Bibliography

  • National Institute of Mental Health – OCD
  • PubMed – Age at onset of OCD
  • Psychiatric Times – Neurobiology of OCD
  • American Journal of Medical Genetics – Genetic factors in OCD
  • Frontiers in Human Neuroscience – Environmental factors in OCD

III. Case Study Overview

  • No specific external reference for this section.
  • Psychology Today – Early signs of OCD
  • Journal of Abnormal Psychology – Family factors in OCD

IV. Clinical Manifestations

  • Anxiety and Depression Association of America – OCD Symptoms
  • PubMed – Impact of OCD on daily life
  • Verywell Mind – Compulsions in OCD
  • Psych Central – Coping with OCD

V. Diagnosis and Assessment

  • American Psychiatric Association – OCD Diagnosis
  • Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5)
  • Psychological Assessment – Tools for OCD assessment

VI. Treatment Approaches

  • Mayo Clinic – Medications for OCD
  • PsychCentral – Side effects of OCD medications
  • National Alliance on Mental Illness – CBT for OCD
  • International OCD Foundation – ERP

VII. Impact on Daily Life

  • Child Mind Institute – OCD and School
  • Psych Central – OCD and Social Interaction

Certificate of Completion

This is to certify that I, [Student’s Name], a [Class/Grade Level] student, have successfully completed the project on “Case study on ocd for 12 CBSE (Obsessive–compulsive disorder).” The project explores the fundamental principles and key aspects of the chosen topic, providing a comprehensive understanding of its significance and implications.

In this project, I delved into in-depth research and analysis, investigating various facets and relevant theories related to the chosen topic. I demonstrated dedication, diligence, and a high level of sincerity throughout the project’s completion.

Key Achievements:

Thoroughly researched and analyzed Project on Case study on ocd for 12 CBSE (Obsessive–compulsive disorder) Examined the historical background and evolution of the subject matter. Explored the contributions of notable figures in the field. Investigated the key theories and principles associated with the topic. Discussed practical applications and real-world implications. Considered critical viewpoints and alternative theories, fostering a well-rounded understanding. This project has significantly enhanced my knowledge and critical thinking skills in the chosen field of study. It reflects my commitment to academic excellence and the pursuit of knowledge.

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CBSE Class 12 Psychology Important Case Study Based Questions 2023: Read and Solve for Tomorrow's Exam

Psychology important case study questions for cbse class 12: practice important psychology case study-based questions for cbse class 12. these questions are important for the upcoming cbse class 12 psychology board exam 2023..

Atul Rawal

  CBSE Class 12 Psychology Exam 2023: Hello students! kudos to the efforts you put into tackling your 2023 board examinations. We understand that the last few weeks were tremendously tiring, both mentally and physically. Don’t worry, take a deep breath and relax as this is the final phase of your CBSE examination 2023. The class 12 Psychology exam is the last in the lane. Its paper code is 037. The exam is planned for 05th April 2023, that is, tomorrow. The exam will be for 3 hours scheduled between 10.30 AM to 01.30 PM. We believe you have already solved the sample question and previous year papers for Class 12 Psychology and must be aware of the exam pattern. If not, please refer to the links below.

  • CBSE Class 12 Psychology Previous Year Question Papers: Download pdf
  • CBSE Board Class 12 Psychology Sample Paper 2022-23 in PDF

CBSE Class 12 Psychology, Important Case Study-Based Questions:

Case 1: .

Read the following case study and answer the questions that follow: 

Sundar, a college-going 20-year-old male, has moved from his home town to live in a big city. He has continuous fear of insecurity and feels that enemy soldiers are following him. He gets very tense when he spots anyone in a uniform and feels that they are coming to catch him. This intense anxiety is interfering with his work and relationship, and his friends are extremely concerned as it does not make any sense to them. Sundar occasionally laughs abruptly and inappropriately and sometimes stops speaking mid-sentence, scanning off in the distance as though he sees or hears something. He expresses concern about the television and radio in the room potentially being monitored by the enemies. His beliefs are fixed and if they are challenged, his tone becomes hostile. 

Q1. Based on the symptoms being exhibited, identify the disorder. Explain the other symptoms that can be seen in this disorder.

Q2. Define delusion and inappropriate affect. Support it with the symptoms given in the above case study.

Read the case and answer the questions that follow. 

Alfred  Binet, in 1905,  was requested by the French government to devise a method by which students who experienced difficulty in school could be identified.  Binet and his colleague,  Theodore  Simon,  began developing questions that focused on areas not explicitly taught in schools those days, such as memory, and attention skills related to problem-solving.  Using these questions, Binet determined which were the ones that served as the best predictors of school success. 

Binet quickly realised that some children were able to answer more advanced questions than older children were generally able to answer and vice versa.  Based on this observation, Binet suggested the concept of mental age or a measure of intelligence based on the average abilities of children of a  certain age group.  This first intelligence test is referred to as the Binet-Simon  Scale. He insisted that intelligence is influenced by many factors, it changes over time,  and it can only be compared in children with similar backgrounds. 

Q1 . Identify the approach on which the Binet-Simon Intelligence Scale is based. Discuss its features.

Q2 . ‘Binet quickly realised that some children were able to answer more advanced questions than older children were generally able to answer and vice versa’. Why do individuals differ in intelligence? Using examples, give reasons for your answer.

Read the following case study and answer the questions that follow :

All the Indian settlers were contemptuously and without distinction dubbed “coolies” and forbidden to walk on footpaths or be out at night without permits. 

Mahatma Gandhi quickly discovered colour discrimination in South Africa and confronted the realisation that being Indian subjected him to it as well. At a particular train station, railway employees ordered him out of the carriage despite his possessing a first-class ticket. Then on the stagecoach for the next leg of his journey, the coachman, who was white, boxed his ears. A Johannesburg hotel also barred him from lodging there. Indians were commonly forbidden to own land in Natal, while ownership was more permissible for native-born people. 

In 1894, the Natal Bar Association tried to reject Gandhi on the basis of race. He was nearly lynched in 1897 upon returning from India while disembarking from a ship moored at Durban after he, his family, and 600 other Indians had been forcibly quarantined, allegedly due to medical fears that they carried plague germs. 

Q1. What is the difference between prejudice and discrimination ? On the

basis of the incidents in the above case study, identify a situation for each

which are examples of prejudice and discrimination.

Q2. What do you think could have been a source of these prejudices ? Explain

any two sources. 

Read the given case carefully and answer the questions that follow: 

Harish belonged to a family of four children, him being the eldest. Unlike any first born, he was not given the attention he should have had. His father worked as an accountant, while his mother stayed at home to look after the kids. He dropped out of school and could barely manage to get work for a little salary.

His relationship with his family played an important role in building his disposition. He felt a certain feeling of insecurity with his siblings, especially his brother Tarun, who was able to finish college because of parental support.

Due to the hopelessness Harish felt, he started engaging in drinking alcohol with his high school friends. Parental negligence caused emotional turmoil. He also had insomnia which he used as a reason for drinking every night.

Over time, Harish had to drink more to feel the effects of the alcohol. He got grouchy or shaky and had other symptoms when he was not able to drink or when he tried to quit.

In such a case, the school would be the ideal setting for early identification and intervention. In addition, his connection to school would be one of the most significant protective factors for substance abuse. His school implemented a variety of early intervention strategies which did not help him as he was irregular and soon left school. Some protective factors in school would be the ability to genuinely experience positive emotions through good communication.

(i)It has been found that certain family systems are likely to produce abnormal functioning in individual members.

In the light of the above statement, the factors underlying Harish's condition can be related to model.

(A) Humanistic

(B) Behavioural

(C) Socio-cultural 

(D) Psychodynamic

(ii) Over time, Harish needed to drink more before he could feel the effects of the alcohol. This means that he built a alcohol. towards the

(A) Withdrawal

(B) Tolerance

(C) Stress inoculation

(D) All of the above

(iii)He got grouchy or shaky and had other symptoms when he was not able to drink or when he tried to quit. This refers to

(A) Low willpower symptoms.

(B) Addiction symptoms

(C) Withdrawal symptoms

(D) Tolerance symptoms

(iv) Which of the following is not true about substance related and addictive disorders?

(A) Alcoholism unites millions of families through social interactions and get-togethers.

(B) Intoxicated drivers are responsible for many road accidents. 

(C) It also has serious effects on the children of persons with this disorder.

(D) Excessive drinking can seriously damage physical health.

Read the given case carefully and answer the questions that follow:

Monty was only 16 years when he dealt with mixed emotions for every couple of months. He shares that sometimes he felt like he was on top of the world and that nobody could stop him. He would be extremely confident. Once these feelings subsided, he would become depressed and lock himself in the room. He would neither open the door for anyone nor come out.

He shares, "My grades were dropping as I started to breathe rapidly and worry about almost everything under the sun. I felt nervous, restless and tense, with an increased heart rate. My family tried to help but I wasn't ready to accept." His father took him to the doctor, who diagnosed him. Teenage is a tough phase as teenagers face various emotional and psychological issues. How can one differentiate that from a disorder? Watch out when one is hopeless and feels helpless. Or, when one is not able to control the powerful emotions. It has to be confirmed by a medical practitioner.

During his sessions, Monty tries to clear many myths. He gives his perspective of what he experienced and the treatment challenges. "When I was going through it, I wish I had met someone with similar experiences so that I could have talked to her/him and understood why I was behaving the way I was. By talking openly, I hope to help someone to cope with it and believe that it is going to be fine one day."

Now, for the last five years Monty has been off medication and he is leading a regular life. Society is opening up to address mental health issues in a positive way, but it always helps to listen to someone who has been through it.

(i)Monty's symptoms are likely to be those of

(A) ADHD and anxiety disorder

(B) Bipolar disorder and generalised anxiety disorder 

(C) Generalised anxiety disorder and oppositional defiant disorder

(D) Schizophrenia

(ii) During his sessions, Monty tried to clear many myths. Which one of the following is a myth?

(A) Normality is the same as conformity to social norms.

(B) Adaptive behaviour is not simply maintenance and survival but also includes growth and fulfilment.

(C) People are hesitant to consult a doctor or a psychologist because they are ashamed of their problems.

(D) Genetic and biochemical factors are involved in causing mental disorders.

(iii) With an understanding of Monty's condition, which of the following is a likely symptom he may also be experiencing?

(A) Frequent washing of hands

(B) Assuming alternate personalities

(C) Persistent body related symptoms, which may or may not be related to any serious medical condition

(D) Prolonged, vague, unexplained and intense fears that are not attached to any particular object

(iv) Teenage is a tough phase as teenagers face various emotional and psychological issues. The disorder manifested in the early stage of development is classified as,

(A) Feeding and eating disorder

(B) Trauma and stressor related disorder

(C) Neurodevelopmental disorder

(D) Somatic symptom disorder

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  • On what day CBSE Class 12 Psychology 2023 exam is? + As per the official schedule, the CBSE class 12 psychology exam will be conducted on 05th April 2023. It would a Wednesday.
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Class 12 Psychology Case Study Questions

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Are you having trouble preparing for the CBSE Class 12 Psychology Case Study Questions? Are you looking for a wide range of Class 12 Psychology Case Study Questions? Then you’ve landed in the right place. Students can explore Class 12 Psychology Case Study Questions to assist them in answering a range of questions concerning the case study.

Other ed-tech sites may provide limited study material for Class 12 Psychology students, but myCBSEguide has a variety of questions that cover all aspects of Class 12 Psychology including case study questions. Class 12 Psychology questions are designed to help students understand and retain the material covered. In addition, myCBSEguide also offers practice tests and sample papers to help students prepare for Class 12 Psychology exams.

All About Class 12 Psychology Case Study

What is a case study.

A case study is a scenario in a specific professional environment that students must analyze and answer based on specific questions provided about the circumstance. In many cases, the scenario or case study includes a variety of concerns or problems that must be addressed in a professional setting.

Case Study Questions in Class 12 Psychology

Class 12 Psychology Case-Based Questions are a new feature to the exam. Class 12 Psychology Case Study Questions are easy to comprehend and will help you get good grades. You may also get free access to the most recent NCERT textbooks for Class 12 Psychology and all other subjects on myCBSEguide, which had been designed in accordance with the most recent Class 12 CBSE/NCERT Psychology curriculum and examination pattern.

Sample Case Study Questions in Class 12 Psychology

Below are some examples of Class 12 Psychology Case Study Questions. These Class 12 Psychology Case Study Questions will be extremely beneficial in preparing for the upcoming Class 12 Psychology exams. Class 12 Psychology Case Study Questions are created by qualified teachers using the most recent CBSE/NCERT syllabus and books for the current academic year. If you revise your Class 12 Psychology exams and class tests on a regular basis, you will be able to achieve higher marks.

Class 12 Psychology Case Study Question 1

Read the case given below and answer the questions by choosing the most appropriate option: This is a story of three students Ruby, Radhika and Shankar who were enrolled in an Undergraduate Psychology Program in a University. Ruby was the admission officer’s dream. She was selected for the program as she had perfect entrance test scores, outstanding grades and excellent letters of recommendation. But when it was time for Ruby to start coming up with ideas of her own, she disappointed her professors. On the other hand, Radhika did not meet the admission officer’s expectations. She had good grades but low entrance exam scores. However, her letters of recommendation described her as a creative young woman. She could design and implement research work with minimal guidance at college. Shankar ranked somewhere in between the two students. He was satisfactory on almost every traditional measure of success. But rather than falling somewhere in the middle of his class at college, Shankar proved to be an outstanding student. His strength lay in the ability to not only adapt well to the demands of his new environment but also to modify the environment to suit his needs.

Identify the theory of intelligence which best explains the intelligence of all the three students in the story:

  • One Factor Theory
  • Theory of Primary Mental Abilities
  • Hierarchical Model of Intelligence
  • Triarchic Theory of Intelligence

Identify the type of intelligence Ruby possesses.

  • Componential
  • Experiential

Which of the following statement is NOT TRUE about Radhika’s intelligence?

  • People high on this quickly find out which information is crucial in a given situation.
  • It is also called experiential intelligence.
  • It involves modifying the environment to suit the needs.
  • It reflects in creative performances.

Two statements are given in the question below as Assertion (A) and Reasoning (R). Read the statements and choose the appropriate option. Assertion (A):  Shankar is not high in contextual intelligence. Reason (R):  Shankar was good at adapting well to the demands of his new environment and modifying the environment to suit his needs. Options:

  • Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.
  • Both A and R are true, but R is not the correct explanation of A.
  • A is true, but R is false.
  • A is false, but R is true.

Out of the three students mentioned in the story, who are/is more likely to be a successful entrepreneur?

  • Radhika and Shankar
  • Ruby and Radhika

Identify the three components of intelligence that Ruby is high on

  • Knowledge acquisition, Meta, creativity
  • Knowledge acquisition, Meta, performance
  • Knowledge acquisition, Meta, planning
  • Planning, performance, adaptability

Class 12 Psychology Case Study Question 2

Refer to the picture given below and answer the questions by choosing the most appropriate option:

Which type of personality assessment is being depicted in the above picture?

  • Projective Technique
  • Psychometric Tests
  • Behavioural Analysis
  • Self-report Measures

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of this test?

  • It reveals the unconscious mind.
  • It can be conducted only on an individual basis.
  • Its interpretation is objective.
  • The stimuli are unstructured.

Identify the name of the test from the options given below.

  • Thematic Appreciation Test
  • Thematic Apperception Test
  • Theatre Apperception Test
  • Theatre Appreciation Test

Which of the following statements are NOT true of this test? i. In the first phase, called performance proper, the subjects are shown the cards and are asked to tell what they see in each of them. ii. The second phase is called inquiry. iii. Each picture card depicts one or more people in a variety of situations. iv. The subject is asked to tell a story describing the situation presented in the picture. ​​​​​​​ Choose the correct option:

Which of the following is NOT a drawback of this test?

  • It requires sophisticated skills and specialised training
  • It has problems associated with reliability of scoring
  • It has problems associated with validity of interpretations
  • It is an indirect measure of assessment.

Identify the stimuli that are used in such kinds of tests as given in the above picture.

  • Picture cards

NOTE- The following questions are for the Visually Impaired Candidates in lieu of questions 55 to 60. Answer the questions by choosing the most appropriate option.

Nafisa feels that she is liked by her peers in class. This reflects that she ________.

  • is high on self-efficacy
  • is high on social self-esteem
  • possesses a high IQ
  • is an introvert

Discrepancy between the real self and ideal self often results in ________.

  • self-actualisation
  • self-regulation
  • unhappiness and dissatisfaction
  • intrapsychic conflicts

If an individual is fat, soft and round along with a temperament that is relaxed and sociable, then he/she is said to have the characteristics of an:

Gurmeet was given a personality test to assess how he expresses aggression in the face of a frustrating situation. Identify the test most suitable for this.

  • Rosenzweig Picture Frustration test
  • Eysenck Personality questionnaire
  • 16 Personality Factors Test

According to Karen Horney the origin of maladjustment can be traced to ________.

  •  the inferiority feelings of childhood.
  • basic anxiety resulting from disturbed interpersonal relations.
  • overindulgence of the child at early stages of development.
  • failure to deal with intrapsychic conflicts.

An individual’s sole concern with the satisfaction of ________ needs would reduce him/her to the level of animals.

  • belongingness

Class 12 Psychology Case Study Question 3

Read the case given below and answer the questions

Mental health professionals have attempted to understand psychological disorders using different approaches through the ages. Today, we have sophisticated facilities and hospitals dedicated to the treatment of the mentally ill. While studying the history of psychological disorders it is interesting to note that some practices from ancient times are still in use. Take the case of Lakshmi and her daughter, Maya. Maya exhibits abnormal behaviours and Lakshmi believes that this is because of evil spirits that have possessed her. She has been taking her daughter to a self-proclaimed healer, who uses counter-magic and prayer to cure her. Stigma and lack of awareness prevents Lakshmi from using the modern facilities and hospitals that provide quality mental health care. On the other hand, when young Rita reported seeing people and hearing voices, mental health professionals at a modern facility were able to understand her hallucinations using a convergence of three approaches. Psychologists use official manuals like the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders – 5th Edition (DSM-5) and International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) to indicate presence or absence of disorders. Today there is increased compassion for people who suffer from disorders and a lot of emphasis is placed on providing community care.

  • Identify the method used by the healer to cure Maya’s illness. How does this theory from ancient times explain Maya’s treatment?
  • Which approach do you think would best explain Rita’s treatment? How do you think DSM – 5 and ICD -10 help mental health professionals in indicating the presence or absence of disorders?

Class 12 Psychology syllabus at a glance

Class 12 Psychology students must have a better comprehension of Class 12 Psychology New curriculum in order to have a positive impression of the exam pattern and marking scheme. By studying the CBSE Class 12 Syllabus, students will learn the unit names, chapters within each unit, and sub-topics. Let’s have a look at the Class 12 Psychology Syllabus, which contains the topics that will be covered in the CBSE test framework.

CBSE Class – 12 Psychology (Code No. 037) Syllabus

Course Structure

IVariations in Psychological Attributes3013
IISelf and Personality3213
IIIMeeting Life Challenges239
IVPsychological Disorders3012
VTherapeutic Approaches259
VIAttitude and Social Cognition168
VIISocial Influence and Group Processes146

Benefits of Solving Class 12 Psychology Case Study Question

  • You will be able to locate significant case study problems in your class quizzes and examinations because we offer the best collection of Class 12 Psychology case study questions 2. You’ll be able to go over all of the crucial and challenging themes from your CBSE Class 12 Psychology textbooks again.
  • Answers to all Class 12 Psychology case study questions have been supplied.
  • Class 12 Psychology Students in Class will be able to download all Psychology chapter-by-chapter assignments and worksheets in PDF format.
  • Class 12 Psychology Case Study Questions will aid in the enhancement and improvement of topic understanding, resulting in higher exam scores.

myCBSEguide: The best platform for Class 12 Psychology

myCBSEguide is the best platform for Class 12 Psychology students. It offers a wide range of resources that are not only helpful for academic purposes but also for personal development. The platform provides access to a variety of online courses, mock tests, and practice materials that can help Class 12 Psychology students ace their exams. Additionally, the forum on the website is a great place to interact with other students and get insights into different aspects of the subject. Overall, myCBSEguide is an invaluable resource for anyone pursuing Class 12 Psychology.

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4 thoughts on “Class 12 Psychology Case Study Questions”

where are the answers? atleast give answers with the questions so we can know our mistakes

No answers ?.

teri behen ko naman

Dude what about the answers?

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Important Questions and Answers

  • 1 mark Questions
  • 2 Marks Questions
  • 3 Marks Questions
  • 4 Marks Questions
  • 6 Marks Questions
  • Multiple Choice Questions

Chapter wise Questions and Answers

  • Chapter 1: Variations in Psychological Attributes
  • Chapter 2: Self and Personality
  • Chapter 3: Meeting Life Challenges
  • Chapter 4: Psychological Disorders
  • Chapter 5: Therapeutic Approaches
  • Chapter 6: Attitude and Social Cognition
  • Chapter 7: Social Influence and Group Processes
  • Chapter 8: Psychology and Life
  • Chapter 9: Developing Psychological Skills

Chapter Wise Mutilple Choice Questions and Answers

  • Chapter 1: Variations in Psychological Attributes - MCQ
  • Chapter 2: Self and Personality - MCQ
  • Chapter 3: Meeting Life Challenges - MCQ
  • Chapter 4: Psychological Disorders - MCQ
  • Chapter 5: Therapeutic Approaches - MCQ
  • Chapter 6: Attitude and Social Cognition - MCQ
  • Chapter 7: Social Influence and Group Processes - MCQ
  • Chapter 8: Psychology and Life - MCQ
  • Chapter 9: Developing Psychological Skills - MCQ

Sample Question Papers

  • Sample Question Paper 1
  • CBSE Solved Question Paper - 2017

List of Questions and Answers

Q 1. As per psychology what is individual differences?

Ans: It refers to the distinctiveness and variations in people’s characteristics and behaviour patterns.

Q 2. When the behaviour is influenced more by situational factors it is called as __________.

Ans: Situationism

Q 3. What is Assessment as per Psychology?

Ans: It refers to the measurement of psychological attributes of individuals and their evaluation, wherein multiple ways are involved in comparing the attributes.

Q 4. What are the important assessment attributes for Psychologist?

Ans: Intelligence : It is the global capacity to understand the world, think in a sensible and logical manner, and use the resources available with you effectively to face challenges. Aptitude : refers to an individual's underlying potential to acquire any new skills. Interest : refers to an individual’s choice for engaging in one or more specific activities in comparison to others. Personality : refers to an individual’s strong characteristics that make this person different from others. Personality assessment helps us to explain an individual’s behaviour and predict how she/he will behave in future.Whether the individual will be dominant or submissive, moody or emotionally stable, introvert or extrovert etc. Values : refers to an individual’s strong and lasting beliefs about an ideal mode of behaviour. Assessment of values helps in understanding the dominant values of a person (example : political, religious, social or economic).

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Q 5. What are the Assessment Methods used by Psychologist?

Ans: Psychological Test : is used to measure an individual's mental and/or behavioural characteristics.The tests are done on psychological attributes like intelligence, aptitude, values, personality.These tests are used for the purpose of clinical diagnosis, guidance, personnel selection, placement and training. Interview : is a process of getting information from a person on a one-to-one basis.It is used mainly by employer to select employees for his organisation, used by salesperson by making door-to-door visit to sell the product, counsellor interacts with a client,journalist interviewing important people. Case Study : in-depth study of an individual's psychological attributes , its history regarding his/her psychosocial and physical environment.Case studies are widely used by clinical psychologists.Case studies on the lives of great people can also be highly inspiring for those willing to learn from their life experiences. Case study involves gathering of data based on different methods like interview, observation, questionnaires,psychological tests etc. Observation : is a systematic organised and objective procedure to record behavioural phenomena that occurs naturally in real time.For example mother-child interactions. Self-Report : Self-Report is a method in which a person provides factual information about herself/himself and/or opinions, beliefs, etc. that s/he holds. Such information may be obtained by using an interview schedule or a questionnaire, a psychological test, or a personal diary.

Q 6. How do psychologists characterise and define intelligence.

Ans: For Psychologists intelligence is the key parameter that shows how individuals differ from one another. The attributes noticed in an intelligent person are mental alertness, ready wit, quickness in learning, and ability to understand relationships. As per oxford dictionary, intelligence is defined as the power of perceiving, learning, understanding, and knowing. As per Alfred Binet the first psychologists who worked on intelligence , defines intelligence as the ability to judge well, understand well, and reason well. Wechsler psychologists defined intelligence as the global and aggregate capacity of an individual to think rationally, act purposefully, and deal effectively with her/his environment. Gardner and Sternberg psychologists says that an intelligent individual not only adapts to the environment, but also actively modifies or shapes it.

Q 7. Explain briefly the multiple intelligences identified by Gardner?

Ans: As per Gardner , intelligence is not a single entity; rather distinct types of intelligences exist Here are some important points as what Gardner feels on multiple intelligence. a) intelligences are independent of each other. b) Different types of intelligence interact and work together to find a solution to a problem. Mr Gardner Identified 8 types of intelligence and here are the details: Linguistic skill involved in using the language, how well he/she reads, speaks, writes and understand others.Poet and Writers are very strong in linguistic intelligence. Logical-Mathematical skill mainly possess problem solving ability, very high on thinking logically,good at abstract reasoning and can solve mathematical problems with ease.Scientists and Nobel prize winners are good example with Logical-Mathematical Intelligence. Spatial skill is more of understanding visual images and patterns. It refers to the abilities involved in forming, using, and transforming mental images.Pilots, sailors, sculptors, painters, architects, interior decorators, and surgeons are likely to have highly developed spatial intelligence. Musical skill has more detail understanding of producing, creating and manipulating musical patterns. Persons high on this intelligence are very sensitive to sounds and vibrations, and in creating new patterns of sounds. Bodily-Kinaesthetic is to make use of your whole body for problem solving or construction of products.Athletes, dancers, actors, sportspersons, gymnasts, and surgeons are likely to have such kind of intelligence Interpersonal skill involves understanding behaviours , their motives , feelings and form a comfortable relationship with others.Psychologists, counsellors, politicians, social workers, and religious leaders are likely to possess high interpersonal intelligence Intrapersonal skill deals with knowing one's internal strengths and limitations and using that knowledge to effectively relate to others.Philosophers and spiritual leaders present examples of this type of intelligence. Naturalistics skill involves awareness of our relationship with natural world, i.e. analysing the beauty of species present, flora and fauna etc. Hunters, farmers, tourists, botanists, zoologists, and bird watchers possess more of naturalistic intelligence.

Q 8. Triarchic theory of intelligence was proposed by _________.

Ans: Robert Sternberg

Q 9. How does the triarchic theory help us to understand intelligence?

Ans: Triarchic theory of intelligence was proposed by Robert Sternberg in the year 1985. As per Sternberg intelligence is defined as "the ability to adapt,to shape and select environment to accomplish one’s goals and those of one’s society and culture". According to the theory, there are three basic types of intelligence and they are : Componential, Experiential, and Contextual. Componential also called as analytical intelligence mainly deals with the analysis of information to solve a particular problem. There are three components involved with Componential intelligence: Knowledge acquisition component : this component is responsible to learn and acquire knowledge to carry out the task. meta or a higher order component : this component deal with plans about how to do the task. performance component : this component involves of actually getting the task done. Experiential also called as creative intelligence deals in past experiences to solve problems.Persons high on this aspect integrate different experiences in an original way to make new discoveries and inventions. Contextual also called as practical intelligence deals with environmental demands encountered on a daily basis.Persons high on this aspect easily adapt to their present environment or select a more favourable environment than the existing one, or modify the environment to fit their needs. Therefore, they turn out to be successful in life.

Q 10. "Any intellectual activity involves the independent functioning of three neurological systems". Explain with reference to PASS model.

  • Arousal / Attention
  • Simultaneous and Successive Processing
  • It helps person to process any information
  • Arousal makes you focus your attention on your task which needs to be completed.
  • Simultaneous and Successive Processing deals with how the brain processes the information, builds the relation between the data available and integrate them into a meaningful pattern which is understandable.
  • Simultaneous processing helps you in grasping the meaning and relationship between the given abstract figures.
  • Successive processing takes place when you have all the required information serially and how one step will lead to the next step and so on.
  • Planning is an important feature of intelligence.
  • It comes into picture once the information is collected and processed.
  • It allows us to think of the possible courses of action, implement them to reach a target, and evaluate their effectiveness.
  • If a plan fails, it is modified to suit the requirements of the task being done.

Q 11. What is Intelligence Quotient (IQ)?How do psychologists classify people on the basis of their IQ scores?

  • William Stern, a German psychologist, devised the concept of Intelligence Quotient.
  • When MA = CA , IA = 100
  • If MA > CA, IQ > 100
  • If MA < CA, IQ < 10
  • People with an IQ scores in the range of 90–110 have normal intelligence.
  • People with an IQ below 70 are suspected to have "mental retardation".
  • People with an IQ above 130 are considered to have exceptional talents.
IQ Range Descriptive Label Percent in the Population
Above 130 Very superior 2.2
120-130 Superior 6.7
110-119 High Average 16.1
90-109 Average 50.0
80-89 Low Average 16.1
70-79 Borderline 6.7
Below 70 Mentally challenged/retarded 2.2

Q 12. Find out the IQ of a 14-year-old child with a mental age of 16.

Q 13.___________was defined by Binet and Simon as being two mental age years below the chronological age.

Q 14.State few characteristics of emotionally intelligent persons.

  • Perceive and be sensitive to your own’s feelings and emotions.
  • Perceive and be sensitive to others people’s emotions by paying attention to their tone, body language and facial expressions.
  • Relate your emotions to your thoughts so that you take them into account while solving problems or making decisions.
  • Understand the powerful influence of the nature and intensity of your emotions.
  • Control your emotions and their expression while dealing with self and others to promote harmony and peace.

Q 15.Analyse the features of creativity tests.

  • One of the important feature is creativity test are they are open ended,which means that it makes a person think different answers to the questions or problems based on their experiences which comes their way.
  • Creativity test involves off-the-beaten track divergent thinking and has the ability to produce different ideas.
  • The tests require people to think creatively for example ability to think of a variety of ideas on a given topic/situation, alternative ways of looking at things, problems or situations etc.
  • Creativity test makes a person to see new relationships between seemingly unrelated things, ability to guess causes and consequences, ability to put things in a new context, etc.

Q 16.Bring out three points of difference between Individual and Group tests

Individual Test Group Test
An individual test is the one that can be given to one person at a time. A group test can be given to several persons simultaneously.
Individual tests require the test administrator to establish a rapport with the subject and be sensitive to her/his feelings, moods and expressions during the testing session. Group tests, however, do not allow an opportunity to be familiar with the subjects’ feelings
Individual tests allow people to answer orally or in a written form or manipulate objects as per the tester’s instructions. Group tests generally seek written answers usually in a multiple-choice format.

Q 17.Draw the normal curve and show the percentagewise distribution of IQ scores in general population.

Q 18.Explain the following psychological attributes : (i) Intelligence (ii) Aptitude

Q 19.Defined Mental Retardation.Analyse the levels of Mental Retardation.

  • mild retardation (IQs 55–69),
  • moderate retardation (IQs 40–54),
  • severe retardation (IQs 25–39), and
  • profound retardation (IQs below 25)

Q 20.What is Cognitive Assessment System(CAS)?

Q 21.Analyse the role of hereditary influences on intelligence.

  • The intelligence of identical twins brought up together mostly shows 90% similarity.
  • Twins separated in their childhood also shows similarity in terms of behaviour, personality and intellectual characteristics.
  • The intelligence of identical twins brought up in different environments is almost 72%.
  • Fraternal twins brought up together shows intelligence similarity of about 60%.
  • Brothers and sisters brought up together shows intelligence similarity of about 50%.
  • Siblings which are brought up separately shows intelligence similarity of about 25%.
  • In case of adopted children intelligence is more close towards their biological parents rather than adoptive parents.As they grow , they slowly start picking up and get closer with intelligence of their adoptive parents.
  • Children which are comes from deprived homes and later adopted in families having ,good food , good family background and quality schooling makes their intelligence improved.
  • So mostly all Psychologists come to a conclusion that intelligence is a product of complex interaction of heredity (nature) and environment (nurture).

Q 22.What is contextual intelligence?

Ans: Contextual also called as practical intelligence is the ability to deal with environmental demands that we come across on a daily basis.

Q 23.Define Aptitude.

Ans: It is a combination of characteristics that indicates an individual’s capacity to acquire some specific knowledge or skill after training.

Q 24.Distinguish between simultaneous processing and successive processing with examples.

Simultaneous Processing Successive Processing
When you know how to relate among the various concepts and get them all together to form something meaningful it is called as simultaneous processing. Successive processing is when you know all the steps and required information serially so that one leads to the recall of another.
For example, consider Raven’s Progressive Matrices (RPM) Test, in which the model is given and from that a part has been removed that needs to be fixed. You are suppose to choose one of the six options that best completes the design. For example learning of digits, alphabets, multiplication tables, etc. successive processing

Q 25.Are there cultural differences in the conceptualisation of intelligence?

  • Mostly observed in technologically advanced societies.
  • These societies has a person well versed in skills like attention,observation,analysis, speed, performance, and achievement.
  • Technological intelligence is not popular in Asian and African societies.
  • Mostly adopted by Indian culture which deals with connection with social and world environment.
  • The sanskrit word “buddhi” which means intelligence is the knowledge of one’s own self based on conscience, will and desire.
  • As per Indian Tradition following aspects plays a very important role:
  • Cognitive capacity deals with sensitivity to context, understanding, discrimination, problem solving, and effective communication.
  • Social competence deals with respect for social order, commitment to elders, the young and the needy, concern about others, recognising others perspectives.
  • Emotional competence deals with self-regulation and self-monitoring of emotions, honesty, politeness, good conduct, and self-evaluation.
  • Entrepreneurial competence deals with commitment, persistence, patience,hard work, vigilance, and goal-directed behaviours.

Q 26.How can you differentiate between verbal and performance tests of intelligence?

Verbal Test Performance Test
Verbal test includes response either orally or in written form. Performance test includes a task wherein the individual requires to manipulate or change the material to get this task done.
This test is conducted on literate people as it needs the individual to write or talk. Can be conducted on individuals from different cultures and does not include any writing process

Q 27.All persons do not have the same intellectual capacity. How do individuals vary in their intellectual ability? Explain.

  • The IQ has to be below 70 and they are judged as having sub-average intelligence.
  • The second relates to deficits in adaptive behaviour i.e the inability to be independent and deal with everyday’s task.
  • The individuals in this category has to be observed right from childhood till the age of 18.
  • mild retardation (IQs 55–69) : Mild retardation people are little slower in comparison to other their peers, but they can do their jobs and handle families independently.
  • moderate retardation (IQs 40–54) :The people with moderate retardation lag behind their peers in language and motor skills. They can be trained for social, communication skills and self care skills.
  • severe retardation (IQs 25–39) : are incapable of managing life and need constant care for their entire lives.
  • profound retardation (IQs below 25) : are incapable of managing life and need constant care for their entire lives.

Q 28.What are the characteristics of gifted children?

  • Advanced logical thinking, questioning and problem solving behaviour.
  • High speed in processing information.
  • Superior generalisation and discrimination ability.
  • Advanced level of original and creative thinking.
  • High level of intrinsic motivation and self-esteem.
  • Independent and non-conformist thinking. • Preference for solitary academic activities for long periods.

Q 29.________ behaviour refers to a person’s capacity to be independent and deal effectively with one’s environment.

Ans:Adaptive

Q 30. ___________ is exceptional general ability shown in superior performance in a wide variety of areas.

Ans: Giftedness

Q 31.Which of the two, IQ or EQ, do you think would be more related to success in life and why?

  • To deal with students who are affected by stresses and challenges of the outside world.
  • Success in academic achievement.
  • Encourage cooperative behaviour and reduce their antisocial activities.
  • Prepares students to face the challenges of life outside the classroom.

Q 32.How is "aptitude" different from "interest" and "intelligence"? How is aptitude measured?

  • Aptitude refers to special abilities in a particular field of activity. It is a combination of characteristics that indicates an individual’s capacity to acquire some specific knowledge or skill after training.
  • The knowledge of aptitude can help us to predict an individual’s future performance.
  • Interest is a preference for a particular activity whereas aptitude is the potentiality to perform that activity.
  • A person may be interested in a particular job or activity, but may not have the aptitude i.e the skills required to take the interest further. Similarly, a person may have the potentiality for performing a job, but may not be interested in doing that. In both cases, the outcome will not be satisfactory.
  • Intelligence : It is the global capacity to understand the world, think in a sensible and logical manner, and use the resources available with you effectively to face challenges.
  • An intelligent person are mental alertness, ready wit, quickness in learning, and ability to understand relationships.
  • Intelligence is also defined as the power of perceiving, learning, understanding, and knowing.
  • Clerical Aptitude, Mechanical Aptitude, Numerical Aptitude, and Typing Aptitude are independent aptitude tests.
  • Multiple Aptitude Tests exist in the form of test batteries, which measures aptitude in several separate but homogeneous areas.
  • Differential Aptitude Tests (DAT), the General Aptitude Tests Battery (GATB), and the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB) are well-known aptitude test batteries.
  • DAT is most commonly used in educational settings. It consists of 8 independent subtests: (i) Verbal Reasoning, (ii) Numerical Reasoning, (iii) Abstract Reasoning, (iv) Clerical Speed and Accuracy, (v) Mechanical Reasoning,vi) Space Relations, (vii) Spelling, and (viii) Language Usage.

Q 33.What is Assessment ?

Ans: Assessment refers to the measurement of psychological attributes of individuals and their evaluation, often using multiple methods in terms of certain standards of comparison.

Q 34.Explain theory of Primary Mental Abilities by Louis Thurstone ?

  • (i) Verbal Comprehension (grasping meaning of words, concepts, and ideas),
  • (ii) Numerical Abilities (speed and accuracy in numerical and computational skills),
  • (iii) Spatial Relations (visualising patterns and forms),
  • (iv) Perceptual Speed (speed in perceiving details),
  • (v) Word Fluency (using words fluently and flexibly),
  • (vi) Memory (accuracy in recalling information), and
  • (vii) Inductive Reasoning (deriving general rules from presented facts).

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Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 1 Psychology: A Scientific Discipline

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Maharashtra State Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 1 Psychology: A Scientific Discipline

1. Choose the correct option and complete the following statements.

Question 1. Till 1879, psychology was a branch of ………. (a) physics (b) philosophy (c) physiology Answer: (b) philosophy

Question 2. Psychology is a science. (a) natural (b) social (c) biological Answer: (b) social

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 1 Psychology: A Scientific Discipline

Question 3. …………………. is considered as founder of Psychoanalysis. (a) Wilhelm Wundt (b) Carl Rogers (c) Sigmund Freud Answer: (c) Sigmund Freud

2. Match the pair

Group A Group B
(1) Structuralism (a) John Watson
(2) Functionalism (b) Carl Rogers
(3) Behaviourism (c) Ulric Neisser
(4) Cognitivism (d) William James
(e) Wilhelm Wundt
Group A Group B
(1) Structuralism (e) Wilhelm Wundt
(2) Functionalism (d) William James
(3) Behaviourism (a) John Watson
(4) Cognitivism (c) Ulric Neisser

3. State whether the following statements are true or false.

Question 1. Psychology is a study of mental processes. Answer: True

Question 2. Case study method is quite often used by clinical psychologists. Answer: True

Question 3. An experimenter is a person on whom the experiment is conducted. Answer: False

4. Answer the following in one sentence each.

Question 1. In which year was the first psychology laboratory established? Answer: The first psychology laboratory was established in 1879 by Wilhelm Wundt, at the University of Leipzig in Germany.

Question 2. Who is considered as the ‘Father of American Psychology’? Answer: William James, founder of Functionalism school of thought of psychology is considered ‘Father of American Psychology’.

Question 3. What is meant by an experimenter? Answer: The person who conducts the experiment is called the experimenter.

5. Define / Explain the concepts in 25 – 30 words each.

Question 1. Replicability Answer: Replicability is one of the key features of science. Scientific knowledge can be replicated under the same circumstances as the original experiment. This ensures reliability of results towards establishing a scientific theory.

Question 2. Correlation coefficient. Answer: Correlation coefficient is the measurement of the correlation between two or more variables. Its value extends between -1.00 to +1.00. The concept was first introduced by Sir Francis Galton. The Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient is the most commonly used type of correlation coefficient.

6. Write short notes on the following in 50 – 60 words each.

Question 1. Observation method Answer: Observation method is a research method that is employed in conditions where experiments may not be possible or even necessary. Observation is used by child psychologists and social psychologists. It may be carried out in a natural setting, for e.g., observing candidates waiting their turn for an interview. It may also be carried out in controlled conditions. The following factors should be kept in mind while carrying out the observation

  • it should be done systematically.
  • a comprehensive list of behaviours to be observed must be prepared.
  • the persons should not be aware of being observed.

The disadvantages of observation are:

  • it is a time consuming method.
  • objectivity is difficult to maintain during observation.
  • it is difficult to establish cause-effect relationships.

Question 2. Survey method Answer: A survey is a research method used to collect data from a pre-determined group of respondents, i.e., a sample. It is used to obtain information about the preferences, opinions, etc., of the ‘sample’ population. It makes use of tools like questionnaire, checklist, interviews, etc. Survey method is employed by social psychologists, industrial psychologists, etc. The researcher must ensure that-

  • sample of respondents is representative of the population.
  • questions should not be ambiguous.

The disadvantages of survey method are:

  • it is a very subjective method,
  • it lacks reliability.

Question 3. Case study method Answer: Case study method is a qualitative research method employed by clinical psychologists. It provides intensive, descriptive information about an individual from multiple sources such as family, peers, school, academic and health records, etc. This helps to assess the person’s level of psychological and social functioning. Researchers may employ techniques like observation, interview, psychological tests, etc. Psychologist such as Sigmund Freud and Jean Piaget made extensive use of case study method. However, this method is very time consuming and subjective.

Question 4. Importance of rationality Answer: Rationality implies being agreeable to reason. According to Stanovich, “Rationality involves adaptive reasoning, good judgement and good decision making.” According to Dr. Albert Ellis, rationality helps a person to successfully attain goals and be happy. He proposed Rational Emotive Behavioural Therapy (REBT), which is a popular intervention method in counselling psychology. Rationality is important because:

  • It allows us to make decisions in new or unfamiliar situations by helping us to gather and process relevant information.
  • It enables the person to exhibit tolerance and flexibility.
  • A rational person accepts oneself unconditionally and assumes responsibility for their own behaviour.
  • Rationality helps to understand and respect the views and interests of others.

7. Define / Explain the concepts in 25 – 30 words each.

Question 1. Science Answer: The word science is derived from the Latin word ‘Scientia’ which means ‘knowledge’. Science is the pursuit and application of knowledge and understanding of the natural and social world, following a systematic methodology based on evidence. The key features of science are empirical evidence, objectivity, scientific causality, systematic exploration and replication.

Question 2. Objectivity Answer: Objectivity is one of the key features of science. It refers to the ability to observe and accept facts as they exist setting aside all sources of expectations, values, prejudices, etc. Science objectively studies some particular phenomenon.

8. Answer the following questions in detail.

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Psychology Solutions Chapter 1 Psychology A Scientific Discipline 1

(iii) Zero correlation – A change in one variable leads to no significant change in the other variable, for e.g., height and intelligence.

Question 2. Explain some of the challenges in establishing psychology as a science. Answer: Many criticisms of psychology as a science have been made on practical, philosophical and ethical grounds. The challenges in establishing psychology as a science are: (i) It is in preparadigmatic state – According to American philosopher, Thomas Kuhn, psychology is still in a preparadigmatic state as it has not succeeded in producing a cumulative body of knowledge that has a clear conceptual cove.

(ii) Issues related to objectivity and validity – Methods used in psychology such as introspection, surveys and questionnaires are subjective. Due to this, psychology lacks two criteria of science, i.e., objectivity and validity.

(iii) Issues related to predictability and replicability – In psychology it is difficult to make exact predictions as people respond differently in different situations. Test result are more varied and hence difficult to replicate.

(iv) Objectifying humans – According to some psychologists, subjecting human behaviour to experimentation amounts to objectifying individuals.

Question 3. Explain the key features of science. Answer: The word science is derived from the Latin word ‘Scientia’ which means ‘knowledge’. Science is the pursuit and application of knowledge and understanding of the natural and social world, following a systematic methodology based on evidence. They key features of science are:

  • Empirical evidence – It refers to acquiring information through direct observation or experiments. Scientific knowledge is based on verifiable evidence.
  • Objectivity – This refers to the ability to observe and accept facts as they exist, setting aside all sources of expectations, values, prejudices, etc.
  • Scientific causality – Science aims to establish a cause-effect relationship between the variables under consideration, i.e., the effect of the Independent Variable on the Dependent Variable.
  • Systematic exploration – Science adopts a sequential procedure for studying various phenomena. It includes scientific steps like formulating a hypothesis, collection of facts, scientific generalisation etc.
  • Replication – Scientific knowledge can be replicated under the same circumstances as the original experiment. This ensures reliability of results towards establishing a scientific theory.
  • Predictability – Science involves describing and explaining phenomena as well as to make predictions accordingly.

Question 4. Write detailed information of the experimental method in psychology. Answer: The systematic observation about a certain problem under controlled laboratory conditions is called an experiment. For example, Albert Bandura conducted experiment to investigate if social behaviours i.e., aggression can be acquired by observation and imitation. The steps involved in an experiment are:

  • identifying the problem
  • formulation a hypothesis
  • selecting an experimental design
  • conducting the experiment and data collection
  • data analysis
  • drawing conclusions

The key terms of experimental method with examples are:

  • Problem: To study the effect of music on the level of blood Pressure.
  • Hypothesis: The music will help in regulating the level of blood pressure.
  • Independent variable: Music.
  • Dependent variable: Level of blood pressure.
  • Intervening variables: Age, gender, all other sounds other than music, etc.
  • Experimenter : A person who will be conducting this experiment. (May be you or your psychology teacher.)
  • Participant : A person on whom this experiment will be conducted. (May be your family member/ friend.)

The two variables in an experiment are:

  • Independent Variable (I.V.) – It is the variable that the experimenter manipulates or changes systematically to study it’s effect on the D.V. (Cause).
  • Dependent Variable (D.V.) – the variable that may change due to manipulation of the I.V. (effect).

The features of the method are:

  • it is the most objective and scientific method of studying behaviour
  • it helps to establish cause-effect relationship between two or more variables
  • the findings of an experiment are verifiable

The limitations of the method are:

  • it may not be possible to control all intervening variables
  • it has a limited scope, i.e., there may be ethical constraints or risk factors
  • experimenter’s expectations or participant attitude may influence the conclusions

Question 5. Explain the characteristics of a rational individual. Answer: One of the significant aims of individuals is attainment of happiness. However, in the pursuit of happiness, one should not be driven by irrational influences or compromise on social norms and ethics. Psychology helps to improving life quality by applying the concept of rationality in daily life. According to Stanovich, “Rationality involves adaptive reasoning, good judgement and good decision making.” According to Dr. Albert Ellis, rationality helps a person to successfully attain goals and be happy. He proposed Rational Emotive Behavioural Therapy (REBT), which is a popular intervention method in counselling Psychology.

According to Ellis, rational people possess characteristics such as:

  • Understanding both self-interest and social interest – Rational people understand what choices help them to grow and take responsibility for their actions. They are also careful not to violate other’s rights.
  • Self-direction – The person does not demand excessive attention or support from others as he/she assumes the responsibility for his/her own life.
  • Tolerance – It is the willingness to accept beliefs and behaviour patterns of others that may differ from our own way of thinking.
  • Flexibility – Rational people tend to be flexible and unbiased in their thoughts and actions.
  • Self-acceptance and self-responsibility – A rational person accepts him/herself unconditionally as well as responsibility for his/her thoughts, emotions and behaviour.

The concept of rationality can be explained as:

B (Balance) Balance between self-interest and interest of others
E (Estimate) Estimate the time, efforts, gains and losses
R (Respect) Respect oneself and others
A (Affiliate) Affiliate with others
T (Tolerate) Tolerate oneself and others
I (Intergrate) Integrate personal wellbeing with social wellbeing
0 (Optimize) Optimize potential fully
N (Navigate) Navigate path of success
A (Accept) Accept the limitations and overcome them
L (Live) Live life fully

How Rational Am I?

Question 1. Identify the strongest and the weakest characteristics in you from those explained by Dr. Albert Ellis. Answer: Rational people are psychologically healthy and show adaptive reasoning and good decision making. According to Dr. Albert Ellis, some characteristics of rational persons are:

  • Understanding self-interest and social interest
  • Self-direction
  • Flexibility
  • Self-acceptance and self-responsibility.

The strongest characteristic in me is self-direction. The weakest characteristic in me is flexibility.

Question 2. How will you work on your weakest characteristic? Write two strategies. Answer: Two strategies that I can use to improve the flexibility in my life is:

  • Adopt an unbiased perspective and non-judgmental thinking
  • Practicing meditation and mindfulness.

(A) Identify the Independent Variable and Dependent Variable.

  • To study the effect of colour on moods.
  • To study the effect of positive feedback on self-confidence.
  • To study the effect of loud noise on concentration levels.
  • To study the effect of exposure to classical music on reading skills.
  • To study the effect of a type of diet on weight loss.
  • To study the effect of a fertilizer on crop growth.
  • To study the effect of solving previous years exam papers on scores in the exam.
  • To study the effect of worker’s participation in decision making on job satisfaction.
Independent Variable Dependent Variable
1. Colour Moods
2. Positive feedback Self confidence
3. Loud noise Concentration levels
4. Classical music Reading skills
5. Type of diet Weight loss
6. Fertilizer Crop Growth
7. Previous year question papers Scores in the exam
8. Workers participation in decision making Job satisfaction

(B) Identify the type of correlation.

  • Gender and Intelligence.
  • Cold weather and sales of air conditioners.
  • Low income and standard of living.
  • Consuming foods with antioxidants and immune system.
  • Speed and time taken to cover a distance.
  • Heads/tails,on flipping a coin and result when you flip another time.
  • Colour of the hair and learning a dance form.
  • Average temperature in a city and ice cream sales in it.
  • Chain smoking and lifespan.
  • Intelligence and language development.
  • Increasing age after 60 years and physical agility.
  • Level of water in a fish tank and area of fish habitat.
  • Large number of trees felled and probability of soil erosion.
  •  More hours spent at work and available leisure time.
Positive Correlation 3, 4, 8, 10, 12, 13.
Negative Correlation 2, 5, 9, 11, 14.
Zero Correlation 1, 6, 7.

Class 12 Psychology Chapter 1 Psychology: A Scientific Discipline Intext Questions and Answers

ACTIVITIES (Textbook Page. No. 1)

Read the following statements. Think and discuss whether the given statements are facts or myths and misconceptions about psychology: (i) Psychology is just common sense and not a real science. (ii) Psychology is simply a pseudoscience. (iii) Psychologists are simply mind readers or the face readers. (iv) Psychology is related only to the study of crazy people who are in need of therapy. (v) Psychologists, psychiatrists and counsellors have the same professional qualifications and their jobs are almost of the same nature. (vi) Anyone with a degree in psychology can provide counselling to a need person. Answer: Answer: All the statements are misconceptions. Statement 1, 2 are misconceptions because Psychology is a social science that fulfils the criteria of a science, e.g., it employs the scientific method.

Statement 3 is a misconception. Psychologists are trained professionals in some field of psychology, e.g., counselling psychology. They employ tools like observation, case study, experiments, etc.

Statement 4 is a misconception. There are numerous branches of psychology such as Social Psychology, Developmental Psychology, Abnormal Psychology, Environmental Psychology, etc.

Statement 5 is a misconception. Psychiatrists are trained medical doctors and focus on medication management. Psychologists employ psychotherapy such as CBT, REBT, etc.

Statement 6 is a misconception. A counsellor is a person who has academic qualifications as well as professional training in counselling techniques.

Activity 2 (Textbook Page. No. 3)

Read the following statements and discuss about the same in the classroom: (i) Psychology is a science because it fulfils many conditions of science. (ii) Psychology is not an exact science like physics or chemistry. (iii) Psychology is a social science that studies human (and animal) behaviour and mental processes. (iv) Psychology uses some objective research methods, it examines cause-and-effect relationships to produce laws governing human behaviour and its findings can be verified. (v) Psychology can be distinguished from pseudoscience and folk wisdom as psychology has evidence against its theories. (vi) The subject matter of psychology is complex as human behaviour is dynamic and the mental processes are abstract. Therefore, the theories of psychology are not as universal, exact and precise as those in physics and chemistry. Answer:

  • Psychology fulfils conditions of science such as acquiring empirical evidence, objectivity, predictability, scientific causality, etc.
  • Psychology is a social science which deals with human beings. It is not a physical science.
  • Psychology is defined as the scientific study of human behaviour and mental processes.
  • Psychology uses objective methods like controlled laboratory experiments and aims to establish scientific causality and verifiable theories.
  • Psychology is not based on folk wisdom, pseudo knowledge or myths. It is based on systematic exploration and acquisition of empirical evidence.
  • Psychology is a social science so its theories cannot be universal or exact as in the physical science. Human behaviour is constantly evolving and unpredictable.

Activity 3 (Textbook Page. No. 4)

Visit the website given below and collect information about various schools of thought of psychology: https://www. verywellmind.com/psychology-schools-of-thought-2795247 Answer:

  • Structuralism – Focused on breaking down mental processes into the basic elements using techniques like introspection.
  • Functionalism – Focused on the mind’s functions and adaptations.
  • Gestalt school – Focused on looking at the ‘whole’ rather than individual elements.
  • Behavioural school – Focused on study of observable behaviour.
  • Psychoanalytic school – Emphasized the influence of the ‘unconscious’ on behaviour.
  • Humanistic school – It developed as a response to psychoanalysis and behaviourism. It focused on individual free will, personal growth and concept of self-actualization (achieving one’s full potential).
  • Cognitive school (Cognitivism) – Focused on the study of mental processes like learning, perception, memory etc.

In recent times, Behavioural school, Cognitive school and Humanistic school remain influential. Most psychologists adopt an eclectic approach drawing upon different perspectives.

Activity 5 (Textbook Page. No. 5)

Find out the Independent Variable and Dependent Variable from the experiment ideas given below: (i) To study the effect of practice on memory. (ii) To study the effect of mental set on problem solving. (iii) To study the effect of noise pollution on the speed of writing. (iv) To study the effect of colour on perception. (v) To study the effect of feedback on decision making. Answer:

Independent Variable Dependent Variable
(1) Practice Efficient memory
(2) Mental set Problem solving
(3) Noise pollution Speed of writing
(4) Colour Perception
(5) Feedback Efficient decision making

Activity 6 (Textbook Page. No. 8)

Discuss about the following topics that can be studied using correlation study method: (i) Bunking lectures and score in exams (ii) Weight and intelligence (iii) Amount of salary and level of job satisfaction (iv) Rehearsal and forgetting (v) Height and aptitude in music (vi) Urbanization and pollution (vii) Speed of vehicles and road accidents Answer: (a) Positive correlation

  • Urbanization and pollution
  • Speed of vehicles and road accidents

(b) Negative correlation

  • Bunking lectures and score in exams
  • Rehearsal and forgetting

(c) Zero correlation

  • Weight and intelligence
  • Height and aptitude in music

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class 12 psychology chapter 1 case study questions with answers

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Psychology Class 12 Exam Questions

Please refer to Psychology Class 12 Exam Questions with solutions below. These important exams solved questions have been prepared based on the latest books and syllabus issued by CBSE, NCERT, and KVS. Our team of expert teachers of Class 12 Psychology has designed these based on the latest examination guidelines and the type of questions expected to come in the examinations.

Exam Questions Class 12 Psychology

We have provided exam questions with solutions for all chapters in Standard 12 Psychology. You should learn these before the examinations as the answers have been designed to help you get better marks. You can click on the chapter-wise links below to access all problems and solutions for free. These will also help you to clear all concepts and improve your understanding of Psychology in Class 12.

Chapterwise Important Questions Class 12 Psychology

Psychology Class 12 Exam Questions

It is important for students to prepare for Class 12 Psychology exams properly and practice questions and answers which have been designed based on the latest guidelines on the type of questions to be asked in the upcoming class 12 Psychology examination. We have also provided MCQ Questions for Class 12 Psychology which will be very useful for students. This year more MCQ-based questions and Case study-based questions are expected in examinations. We have provided all the latest questions which are expected to come in exams on our website. Students in Class 12 should download these questions in Pdf and share with teachers and friends.

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Class 12 Psychology Chapter 1 MCQ

class 12 psychology chapter 1 case study questions with answers

Class 12 Psychology Chapter 1 MCQ Variations in Psychological Attributes with explanation in English Medium for CBSE Exams 2024-25. Grade 12th Psychology chapter 1 MCQ and Class 12 Psychology Chapter 1 Solutions are taken from the latest NCERT textbook and answers also confined to NCERT books.

Diya is a hard working girl who shows dedication, perseverance and perseverance. All your actions are intentional. Such qualities focus on the ____ aspect of integrative intelligence. a) social skills b) cognitive ability c) Entrepreneurship d) Emotional abilities

Answer: c) Entrepreneurship Entrepreneurial skills combine creativity, initiative, problem-solving, ability to use resources, and knowledge of finance and technology. These competencies enable entrepreneurs and entrepreneurial employees to induce and adapt to change.

Name the psychologist who proposed the concept of IQ.

William Stern: Stern proposed a change to the previously calculated intelligence formula using the difference between a person’s mental age and chronological age. Instead, Stern proposed dividing a person’s mental age by their chronological age to arrive at a single ratio.

  • View Answer

How is intelligence quotient measured?

IQ = MA x CA x 100: Intelligence Quotient (IQ) is the score you get on an intelligence test. Originally the quotient (ratio): IQ = MA/CA x 100 [MA is mental age, CA is chronological age]. Values are now calibrated against a baseline of actual population values.

The structure of the intelligence model is

J.P. Guilford: Joy Paul Guilford proposed a theory for the structure of intelligence, which in previous versions assumed 120 capacities. In The Nature of Human Intelligence (1967), Guilford argued that competencies can be classified into his five types of operations, his four types of content, and his six types of products.

Riya has very good verbal reasoning skills and is very interested in reading. She is more likely to succeed than

Journalists: A student with a high aptitude for verbal reasoning and a keen interest in reading is a journalist. Journalists research, write, edit, proofread and archive news, features and articles. Her work has been used on television and radio, in print magazines, magazines and newspapers.

Given the PASS model of intelligence: a) Binet, Terman and Kirby b) Jacques Naglieri c) J.P. Das, Jack Naglieri, and Kirby d) None of the above.

Answer: c) J.P. Das, Jack Naglieri, and Kirby Explanation:- J.P Das, Jack Naglieri, and Kirby created the PASS (Planning, Attention-arousal, and Simultaneous-successive)THEORY of intelligence (1994). They argued that an individual’s intellectual activity is determined by three functional units of the brain.

________ Binet scale revised by Stanford University for US schoolchildren.

Terman: Louis Terman, a psychologist at Stanford University, is the expert who conducted Binet’s original test and standardized it on a sample of American participants. Initially, this was known as the Revised Stanford-Binet His Scale, but is now more commonly known as the Stanford-Binet IQ.

Spearman says there are generative possibilities that humans use in adapting to different kinds of intellectual tasks. This factor is

General Factor: General Intelligence, also known as the g-factor, refers to the presence of a wide range of intellectual abilities that influence performance on measures of cognitive performance. General Factor is a hypothetical cause of individual variability in general ability, which represents an individual’s ability to perceive associations and draw conclusions therefrom.

________ refers to an individual’s potential skill acquisition potential.

Suitability: Aptitude refers to an individual’s potential to acquire a skill. Aptitude is an innate or acquired ability to do something. Skills can range from developed knowledge, acquired or mastered skills (aka skills), talents, or required attitudes.

_____ refers to the abilities involved in forming, using, and transforming mental images. a) Spatial b) Musical c) Naturalistic d) Intrapersonal

Answer: a) Spatial Spatial refers to the abilities involved in forming, using, and transforming mental images.Meaning of spatial is relating to the position, area, and size of things: This task is designed to test children’s spatial awareness

Test to measure performance, i.e. predict what can be achieved in training

Aptitude Test: Aptitude tests are designed to assess a person’s abilities or predict what they could learn or do if they received the proper education and guidance. Represents a level of ability to perform a particular type of task.

Two intelligence factors have been shown to be

Spearmen: Spearman’s Rank Correlation measures the strength and direction of the association between two ranked variables. It basically tells you how monotonic the relationship between two variables is, or how well the relationship between the two variables can be represented using a monotonic function.

Test results ______ If reliable, reproducible and consistent.

Trusted: Reliable results are accurate, reproducible and consistent from one test event to another. In other words, if the testing process were repeated on a group of test takers, they would yield essentially the same results.

Empirical Intelligence

Use Past Experience Creatively: The ability to come up with new ideas and solutions in dealing with new situations is considered creative intelligence. Also called experiential intelligence. This form of intelligence involves using existing knowledge and skills to deal with new problems and situations.

An IQ below _______ is generally considered mentally retarded a) 100 b) 70 c) 120 d) 110

Answer: b) 70 Scores on the IQ test fall along a normal (bell-shaped) curve with an average IQ of 100, and an individual with intellectual disability is typically 2 standard deviations below the average (with an IQ of less than 70).

______ is an exceptional general ability demonstrated by excellent performance in a wide range of fields.

Giftedness: Student with gift and talents perform or have the capability to perform at higher levels compared to others of the same age, experience, and environment in one or more domains. They want modification to their educational experience to learn and realize their potential.

What is the IQ range for people with severe intellectual disability?

25 to 39: The average score for the IQ test is 100. These labels are often attached to IQ scores: 1 to 24: Severe intellectual disability. 25-39 years: Severe intellectual disability. 40-54 years: Moderate intellectual disability.

What is an individual’s preference for participating in one or more specific activities compared to others?

Interest: Interest is the price paid to borrow money or the cost charged to lend money. Interest is usually given as an annual percentage of the loan amount. This percentage is called the interest rate on the loan. For example, if you deposit money in a savings account, the bank will pay you interest.

Nia is a determined young lady, who shows responsibility, diligence and tolerance. All her way of behaving is objective coordinated. Such characteristics focus on _______ facet of integral intelligence. a) Cognitive capacity b) Emotional competence c) Social competence d) Entrepreneurial competence.

Answer: d) Entrepreneurial competence Entrepreneurship competencies combine creativity, a sense of initiative, problem-solving, the ability to marshal resources, and financial and technological knowledge. These competencies enable entrepreneurs and entrepreneurial employees to provoke and adapt to change.

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CBSE Important Questions for Class 12 Psychology are available in Printable format for Free Download.Here you may find NCERT Important Questions and Extra Questions for Class 12 Psychology chapter wise with answers also. These questions will act as chapter wise test papers for Class 12 Psychology. These Important Questions for Class 12 Psychology are as per latest NCERT and CBSE Pattern syllabus and assure great success in achieving high score in Board Examinations

Total Papers :

Class 12 Psychology Marks Distribution
Units Marks
Variations in Psychological Attributes 9
Self and Personality 10
Meeting Life Challenges 7
Psychological Disorders 10
Therapeutic Approaches 7
Attitude and Social Cognition 8
Social Influence and Group Processes 7
Psychology and Life 6
Developing Psychological Skills 6
Total 70

Psychology Topics to be covered for Class 12

  • Individual Differences in Human Functioning, Assessment of Psychological Attributes, Intelligence, Theories of Intelligence: Psychometric Theories of Intelligence, Information Processing Theories, Theory of Multiple Intelligences, TriarchicTheory of Intelligence, Planning, Attention-Arousal and Simultaneous Successive Model of Intelligence, Individual Differences in Intelligence, Culture and Intelligence, Emotional Intelligence, Special Abilities: Aptitude: Nature and Measurement10.Creativity
  • Self and Personality, Concept of Self, Cognitive and Behavioural Aspects of Self, Culture and Self, Concept of Personality, Major Approaches to the Study of Personality, Assessment of Personality
  • Nature, Types and Sources of Stress, Effects of Stress on Psychological Functioning and Health, Coping with Stress, Promoting Positive Health and Well-being
  • Meaning of Development, Factors Influencing Development, Context of Development, Overview of Developmental Stages
  • Concepts of Abnormality and Psychological Disorders, Classification of Psychological Disorders, Factors Underlying Abnormal Behaviour, Major Psychological Disorders
  • Nature and Process of Psychotherapy, Types of Therapies, Rehabilitation of the Mentally Ill
  • Explaining Social Behaviour, Nature and Components of Attitudes, Attitude Formation and Change, Prejudice and Discrimination, Strategies for Handling Prejudice, Social Cognition, Schemas and Stereotypes, Impression Formation and Explaining, Behaviour in the Presence of Others, Pro-social Behaviour
  • Nature and Formation of Groups, Type of Groups, Influence of Group on Individual Behaviour, Conformity, Compliance and Obedience, Cooperation and Competition, Social Identity, Intergroup Conflict: Nature and Causes, Conflict Resolution Strategies
  • Human-Environment Relationship, Environmental Effects on Human Behaviour, Promoting Pro-environmental Behaviour, Psychology and Social Concerns
  • Developing as an effective Psychologist, General Skills, Observational Skills, Specific Skills, Interviewing Skills7.Counselling Skills

For Preparation of exams students can also check out other resource material

CBSE Class 12 Psychology Sample Papers

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Importance of Question Bank for Exam Preparation?

There are many ways to ascertain whether a student has understood the important points and topics of a particular chapter and is he or she well prepared for exams and tests of that particular chapter. Apart from reference books and notes, Question Banks are very effective study materials for exam preparation. When a student tries to attempt and solve all the important questions of any particular subject , it becomes very easy to gauge how much well the topics have been understood and what kind of questions are asked in exams related to that chapter.. Some of the other advantaging factors of Question Banks are as follows

  • Since Important questions included in question bank are collections of questions that were asked in previous exams and tests thus when a student tries to attempt them they get a complete idea about what type of questions are usually asked and whether they have learned the topics well enough. This gives them an edge to prepare well for the exam.Students get the clear idea whether the questions framed from any particular chapter are mostly either short or long answer type questions or multiple choice based and also marks weightage of any particular chapter in final exams.
  • CBSE Question Banks are great tools to help in analysis for Exams. As it has a collection of important questions that were asked previously in exams thereby it covers every question from most of the important topics. Thus solving questions from the question bank helps students in analysing their preparation levels for the exam. However the practice should be done in a way that first the set of questions on any particular chapter are solved and then solutions should be consulted to get an analysis of their strong and weak points. This ensures that they are more clear about what to answer and what can be avoided on the day of the exam.
  • Solving a lot of different types of important questions gives students a clear idea of what are the main important topics of any particular chapter that needs to focussed on from examination perspective and should be emphasised on for revision before attempting the final paper. So attempting most frequently asked questions and important questions helps students to prepare well for almost everything in that subject.
  • Although students cover up all the chapters included in the course syllabus by the end of the session, sometimes revision becomes a time consuming and difficult process. Thus, practicing important questions from Question Bank allows students to check the preparation status of each and every small topic in a chapter. Doing that ensures quick and easy insight into all the important questions and topics in each and every individual. Solving the important questions also acts as the revision process.

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Psychology Class 12 Chapter 1 Important Questions

NCERT Solutions for Class 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Psychology

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Psychology are solved by experts of LearnCBSE.in in order to help students to obtain excellent marks in their annual examination. All the questions and answers that are present in the CBSE NCERT Books has been included in this page. We have provided all the Class 12 Psychology NCERT Solutions with a detailed explanation i.e., we have solved all the question with step by step solutions in understandable language. So students having great knowledge over NCERT Solutions Class 12 Psychology can easily make a grade in their board exams.

Detailed, Step-by-Step NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Psychology solved by Expert Teachers as per NCERT (CBSE) Book guidelines. Download Now.

NCERT  Solutions for Class 12 Psychology

Here is the list of chapters for Class 12 Psychology NCERT Textbook.

  • Chapter 1 Intelligence And Aptitude
  • Chapter 2 Self And Personality
  • Chapter 3 Human Strengths And Meeting Life Challenges
  • Chapter 4 Psychological Disorders
  • Chapter 5 Therapeutic Approaches And Counselling
  • Chapter 6 Attitude And Social Cognition
  • Chapter 7 Social Influence And Group Processes
  • Chapter 8 Psychology And Life
  • Chapter 9 Developing Psychological Skills

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Psychology

Class 12 Psychology VIVA-VOCE QUESTIONS

In this page, each and every question originate with a step-wise solution. Working on NCERT Solutions for Class 12 will help students to get an idea about how to solve the problems. With the help of these NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Psychology you can easily grasp basic concepts better and faster. Moreover, it is a perfect guide to help you to score good marks in CBSE board examination. Just click on the chapter wise links given below to practice the NCERT Solutions for the respective chapter.

Advantages of Solving NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Psychology From LearnCbse.in

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CBSE Class 12 Psychology Previous Year Question Paper with Solutions PDF (2024-2014)

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CBSE Class 12 Psychology Previous Year Question Paper

To understand the types of questions asked from class 12 Psychology each year, students can refer to the CBSE Class 12 Psychology Previous Year Question Paper. The Previous Year Question papers contain real questions of Psychology which were asked in the past years during the Class 12 Board examination. 

Referring to the CBSE Class 12 Psychology Previous Year Question Paper during the board exam preparation can help students to solve a variety of questions from easy to difficult. Therefore, here we have provided the direct link to download the previous year question papers of CBSE class 12 Psychology PDF. In addition to that, on this page, we have given a few more details about the class 12 Psychology question papers such as what is the significance of Psychology PYP, how to prepare for this subject using Psychology PYP (Previous year Paper) and a few frequently asked questions.

CBSE Class 12 Psychology Previous Year Question Papers Overview

Even though the questions are asked differently each year, the CBSE Class 12 Psychology question paper has almost similar structures or features. For example, Time allowance, Types of questions, Maximum marks, etc. The CBSE Class 12 Psychology Previous Year Question Papers Overview table is given below for more in-depth knowledge.

Subject

Psychology

Class

12

Number of Questions

Up to 15

Time Allowed

3 Hours

Maximum Marks

80 

Sections

3 (A, B & C) each section is compulsory

Types of Questions

Short Answer Type, Long Answer Types, Case Based Problem and MCQs

CBSE Class 12 Psychology Previous Year Question Papers PDF

The CBSE Class 12 Psychology Board exam is conducted in offline mode where students are required to write the answers with pen on paper. Also, the students are provided printable Psychology question papers that are sealed till the exam begins. But, for the convenience of board candidates here we have given the CBSE Class 12 Psychology Previous Year Question Papers PDF. 

The PDF file given here on this site is only for the student’s convenience so that they can use them while doing their upcoming board exam preparation for Psychology. They can download the CBSE Class 12 Psychology Previous Year Question Papers in PDF for free of cost.

  • CBSE Class 12 Psychology Question Paper 2024 (63) Set-4

Year wise CBSE Class 12 Psychology Previous Year Question Papers

We have more than 5 years of Psychology question papers of Class 12 Psychology. Those students who are looking for Year wise CBSE Class 12 Psychology Previous Year Question Papers can use this website to download the year wise Psychology question papers.

By going through the year wise CBSE Class 12 Psychology Question Papers, candidates can self-evaluate themselves as well as they can predict what types of questions can be asked in the upcoming Class 12 Psychology exam. The Year wise Psychology question papers are not only helpful for this, but it gives students an opportunity to think how the board teachers set questions for the board examination.

CBSE Class 12 Psychology Previous Year Question Papers Solved & Unsolved

The board candidates often try to find out the CBSE 12 Psychology previous year question paper solved and unsolved. They try to find out because unsolved past year questions of Psychology give them the ability to check how much they are prepared for the upcoming board examination. At the same time, after solving the Psychology previous year question papers, they need to cross check their written answers so, they need to solve CBSE Class 12 Psychology Previous Year Question Papers.

Keeping in mind this requirement of students, we have given here both types of Psychology question papers. 

Students don’t need to worry about the accuracy of answers because the subject matter experts have solved the CBSE Class 12 Psychology Previous year question papers. Links to download solved and unsolved Class 12 Psychology Previous year question papers are given here on this page.

How to Download CBSE Class 12 Psychology Previous Year Question Paper PDF?

Since, our team has collected and bundled the CBSE Class 12 Psychology Previous Year Question Paper PDF, students can easily access them here. Follow the given steps:

CBSE Class 12 Psychology Previous Year Question Paper, CBSE Class 12 Previous Year Question Paper Psychology

  • Once Selfstudys website is open click on Menu button to navigate to the CBSE.
  • After clicking on CBSE, Click on Previous Year Question Papers 

CBSE Class 12 Psychology Previous Year Question Paper, CBSE Class 12 Previous Year Question Paper Psychology

  • A new page will open, where you have to click on “ 12th PYP Year Wise ”

CBSE Class 12 Psychology Previous Year Question Paper, CBSE Class 12 Previous Year Question Paper Psychology

  • In this last step, click on Psychology - PYP to access the year wise CBSE Class 12 Psychology Previous Year Question Papers

Significance of CBSE Class 12 Psychology Previous Year Question Paper

For the Board exam of Psychology, students become very nervous and anxious, that is why they make silly mistakes. However, those who solve the Class 12 Psychology questions before sitting for the exam can feel confidence. Because the significance of CBSE Class 12 Psychology previous year question papers is that it guides the students to familiarise themselves with an examination pattern, exam structure, types of questions, and difficulty levels of papers, etc.

Apart from all the above mentioned points, the CBSE Class 12 Previous Year Question Paper Psychology is ideal for finding out the most repeated questions from each chapter whether it is Matrices, Determinants, Integrals or any other chapters from the total of 13 Psychology Lessons.

Psychology Exam Preparation Tips for CBSE Class 12 Using Previous Year Question Papers

The CBSE class 12 Psychology previous year question paper can be used in the following manner to do the Psychology Exam preparation.

  • To boost the confidence:- Confidence is key, a research was conducted in which the scientist found that a confident student always performs better than those who are not confident. Research also said that confident students handle their anxiety better and they are very comfortable in the classroom and exam like environment. Therefore, to boost the confidence in Class 12 Psychology Questions, students can use the CBSE Class 12 Psychology Previous Year Question Paper.
  • To figure out and practice the most repeated questions:- Since, there is only one Class 12 Psychology Syllabus which has been used for several years, the students can refer to the Previous year question paper of class 12 Psychology to figure out the most repeated questions so that they can practice.
  • To do the self-evaluation of the performance:- To understand the level of exam preparation students can refer to the CBSE Class 12 Psychology Previous year question paper unsolved. Referring to this, students can easily check their performance in the Psychology subject.
  • To find out the weakest and strongest topics of class 12 Psychology:- There are so many challenging topics in Class 12 Psychology a student may have a strong grip on some topic while some topics will have a weak grip. Therefore, to find out the weakest and strongest Psychology topics of a student they can use the class 12 Psychology previous year questions.
  • To learn the time management:- CBSE Class 12 Psychology Exams are held for 3 hours, so to learn how to manage the time to answer all the asked questions, students can practice managing time through the CBSE Class 12 Psychology Previous year question papers.

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Psychology - Class 12th NCERT Solutions

Cbse, karnataka board puc class 12 psychology solutions guide.

Shaalaa.com provides the CBSE, Karnataka Board PUC Class 12 Psychology Solutions Digest. Shaalaa is undoubtedly a site that most of your classmates are using to perform well in exams.

You can solve the Class 12 Psychology Book Solutions CBSE, Karnataka Board PUC textbook questions by using Shaalaa.com to verify your answers, which will help you practise better and become more confident.

CBSE, Karnataka Board PUC Class 12 Psychology Textbook Solutions

Questions and answers for the Class 12 Psychology Textbook are on this page. NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Psychology Digest CBSE, Karnataka Board PUC will help students understand the concepts better.

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Psychology Chapterwise List | Class 12 Psychology Digest

The answers to the NCERT books are the best study material for students. Listed below are the chapter-wise NCERT Psychology Class 12 Solutions CBSE, Karnataka Board PUC.

  •  • Chapter 1: Variations in Psychological Attributes
  •  • Chapter 2: Self and Personality
  •  • Chapter 3: Meeting Life Challenges
  •  • Chapter 4: Psychological Disorders
  •  • Chapter 5: Therapeutic Approaches
  •  • Chapter 6: Attitude and Social Cognition
  •  • Chapter 7: Social Influence and Group Processes
  •  • Chapter 8: Psychology and Life
  •  • Chapter 9: Developing Psychological Skills
  • Commerce (English Medium) Class 12 CBSE
  • PUC Karnataka Arts 2nd PUC Class 12 Karnataka Board PUC
  • Science (English Medium) Class 12 CBSE
  • Arts (English Medium) Class 12 CBSE
  • PUC Science 2nd PUC Class 12 Karnataka Board PUC

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Chapters covered in NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Psychology

Ncert solutions for class 12 psychology (12th) chapter 1: variations in psychological attributes, ncert class 12 psychology (12th) chapter 1: variations in psychological attributes exercises.

ExerciseNo. of questionsPages
1221

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Psychology (12th) Chapter 2: Self and Personality

Ncert class 12 psychology (12th) chapter 2: self and personality exercises.

ExerciseNo. of questionsPages
1248 to 49

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Psychology (12th) Chapter 3: Meeting Life Challenges

Ncert class 12 psychology (12th) chapter 3: meeting life challenges exercises.

ExerciseNo. of questionsPages
1267 to 68

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Psychology (12th) Chapter 4: Psychological Disorders

Ncert class 12 psychology (12th) chapter 4: psychological disorders exercises.

ExerciseNo. of questionsPages
1187

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Psychology (12th) Chapter 5: Therapeutic Approaches

Ncert class 12 psychology (12th) chapter 5: therapeutic approaches exercises.

ExerciseNo. of questionsPages
11104 to 105

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Psychology (12th) Chapter 6: Attitude and Social Cognition

Ncert class 12 psychology (12th) chapter 6: attitude and social cognition exercises.

ExerciseNo. of questionsPages
12126

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Psychology (12th) Chapter 7: Social Influence and Group Processes

Ncert class 12 psychology (12th) chapter 7: social influence and group processes exercises.

ExerciseNo. of questionsPages
10150

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Psychology (12th) Chapter 8: Psychology and Life

Ncert class 12 psychology (12th) chapter 8: psychology and life exercises.

ExerciseNo. of questionsPages
10175

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Psychology (12th) Chapter 9: Developing Psychological Skills

Ncert class 12 psychology (12th) chapter 9: developing psychological skills exercises.

ExerciseNo. of questionsPages
9194

Exams cause students to feel a lot of nervousness, and as the days for the exams get closer, so does the stress and anxiety, especially when it’s the student's board exam and for a challenging subject such as Psychology. Over the years, students have found Psychology to be a highly difficult subject for many, and thus, finding the best and most reliable study material becomes essential, as simplified philosophical theories can help a student get a better understanding of what the thinker was trying to convey while understanding his reasoning and the conditions that caused him to come up with something on those lines. It is, therefore, vital to look for reliable sources of study material, such as the Class 12 Psychology NCERT Textbook, as it offers the best and most simplified explanation to every philosopher, ensuring that you prepare for your exams in the best possible way.

Class 12 NCERT solutions answers all the questions given in the NCERT textbooks in a step-by-step process. Our Psychology tutors have helped us put together this for our Class 12 Students. The solutions on Shaalaa will help you solve all the NCERT Class 12 Psychology questions without any problems. Every chapter has been broken down systematically for the students, which gives fast learning and easy retention.

Shaalaa provides free NCERT solutions for Class 12 Psychology. Shaalaa has carefully crafted NCERT solutions for Class 12 Psychology that can help you understand the concepts and learn how to answer properly in your board exams. You can also share our link for free Class 12 Psychology NCERT solutions with your classmates.

If you have any doubts while going through our Class 12 Psychology NCERT solutions, then you can go through our Video Tutorials for Psychology. The tutorials should help you better understand the concepts.

Frequently asked questions about NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Psychology

How can a student benefit from psychology class 12 ncert.

There is a reason why students from all across the country pick NCERT Psychology Class 12 , as it offers some of the most in-depth analyses of every philosopher's theory and simplifies their message so that students are not turned away from the complications and confusion that come with philosophy. NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Psychology have been offering students some of the most simplified study tips and answers to questions, which help the student get the best understanding of every chapter.

How can students effectively use NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Psychology?

Previous year’s question papers to practice and to help you prepare in the most effective manner possible. As the age-old saying goes, practice makes a person perfect, and one of the best and tried and tested ways to prepare for an exam is to solve as many CBSE previous question papers as possible. Psychology Class 12 NCERT solutions provide access to all of last year’s question papers to practice and help you prepare most effectively. It will help you understand which chapters are important and give you an idea of which chapters would require you to brush up on your skills. Previous year’s question papers to practice and to help you prepare in the most effective manner possible.

Can students trust websites for CBSE Psychology Class 12?

While some websites offer good quality study material to refer to and to help you with your skills, not all the websites are trustworthy, as some websites cut corners and share notes that can be incorrect and downright misleading, thus negatively impacting the student's abilities to score well in an examination. At Shaalaa.com , we have put together some of the most asked questions and equations over the years and with the help and assistance of our knowledgeable, dedicated team of teachers and professors, who, through years of experience and unparalleled knowledge of the subjects and with the use of Class 12 NCERT Psychology can help students find answers to some of the most difficult answers.    When students have access to the best study material, such as Class 12 Psychology solutions , they are known to excel at their academics, thus leaving their teachers and family members feeling a sense of pride and the student a sense of accomplishment.

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Psychology Class 12 NCERT Solutions aims to develop an understanding of the subject's basic concepts. These solutions are intended to help the student prepare for the exams. The foundation must be strong, leading to a complete understanding of the subject. Our professors explain the subject in simple language. This leads to experience, meaning the student learns, understand, and remembers.

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The professor aims to prepare the student exam well on time and do away with stress and anxiety, which most students go through. A set of questions and answers, as well as mock tests, are provided to help the student to prepare well. The student is given tips on how to study, what topics are important, and how much weightage is to be given to each topic. The student is encouraged to attempt earlier year's question papers to find the trend of the paper. The questions given in the NCERT Solutions are often asked in the exam. Video tutorials are also available for the student.

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Psychology CBSE, Karnataka Board PUC

Class 12 NCERT Solutions answer all the questions in the NCERT textbooks in a step-by-step process. Our Psychology tutors helped us assemble this for our Class 12 students. The solutions on Shaalaa will help you solve all the NCERT Class 12 Psychology questions without any problems. Every chapter has been broken down systematically for the students, which gives them fast learning and easy retention.

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The following CBSE, Karnataka Board PUC NCERT Class 12 Psychology Book Answers Solutions Guide PDF Free Download in English Medium will be helpful to you. Answer material is developed per the latest exam pattern and is part of NCERT Class 12 Books Solutions. You will be aware of all topics or concepts discussed in the book and gain more conceptual knowledge from the study material. If you have any questions about the CBSE, Karnataka Board PUC New Syllabus Class 12 Psychology Guide PDF of Text Book Back Questions and Answers, Notes, Chapter Wise Important Questions, Model Questions, etc., please get in touch with us.

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CBSE Class 12 Psychology, Important Case Study-Based Questions: Case 1: Read the following case study and answer the questions that follow: Sundar, a college-going 20-year-old male, has moved from ...

Class 12 Psychology Case Study Question 1. Read the case given below and answer the questions by choosing the most appropriate option: This is a story of three students Ruby, Radhika and Shankar who were enrolled in an Undergraduate Psychology Program in a University. Ruby was the admission officer's dream. She was selected for the program as ...

on September 3, 2022, 5:59 AM. Class 12 Psychology Chapter 1 Important Questions of Variations in Psychological Attributes with suitable answers and explanation for session 2024-25. Class 12 Psychology Chapter 1 Extra Questions are helpful for the preparation of topic during the exams.

Psychology Class 12 textbook questions and board question pappers solved, Chapter wise Questions and Answers. Chapter 1: Variations in Psychological Attributes.Important questions and answers asked in board for chapter 1,cbse, ncert textbook questions solved.Questions on Intelligence and Aptitude,Chapter 2: Self and Personality,Chapter 3: Meeting Life Challenges,Chapter 4: Psychological ...

Chapter Wise Important Questions for Class 12 Psychology with Answers. Chapter 1 Variations in Psychological Attributes. Chapter 2 Self and Personality. Chapter 3 Meeting Life Challenges. Chapter 4 Psychological Disorders. Chapter 5 Therapeutic Approaches. Chapter 6 Attitude and Social Cognition.

Class 12 Psychology Chapter 1 Psychology: A Scientific Discipline Intext Questions and Answers. ACTIVITIES (Textbook Page. No. 1) Activity 1. Read the following statements. Think and discuss whether the given statements are facts or myths and misconceptions about psychology: (i) Psychology is just common sense and not a real science.

Ans. 1. Robert J. Sternberg proposes a theory of intelligence based on information. processing approach in 1985 known as the Triarchic theory of intelligence. 2. According to Sternberg, intelligence is an ability to adapt, to shape and select environment to accomplish ones goals and those of ones society and culture. 3.

Answer. Intelligence is a product of complex interaction of heredity (nature) and environment (nurture). There are various which shows that intelligence is the result of heredity (nature) and environment (nurture). A study on twins and adopted children support this. • The intelligence of identical twins reared together correlate almost 0.90.

NCERT solutions for Mathematics Class 12 Psychology CBSE, Karnataka Board PUC 1 (Variations in Psychological Attributes) include all questions with answers and detailed explanations. This will clear students' doubts about questions and improve their application skills while preparing for board exams.

Study Material and Notes of Chapter 1 Variations in Psychological Attributes NCERT Class 12th. • Variation is a fact of nature. • Individuals vary in their physical and psychological characteristics. • People differ from each other in their ability to understand complex ideas, adapt to environment, learn from experience, engage in various ...

Pdf Description. Page 1 : Sunita and asked if there is anything, wrong. Since, the Branch Manager had lost, her mother last year due to ill-health, he, could relate with emotions of Sunita., Finally, becoming aware of the whole, incident, the Branch Manager allowed, Sunita to go on leave., , (i) Identify the person who can be, considered as ...

Chapterwise Important Questions Class 12 Psychology. Chapter 1 Variations in Psychological Attributes. Chapter 2 Self and Personality. Chapter 3 Meeting Life Challenges. Chapter 4 Psychological Disorders. Chapter 5 Therapeutic Approaches. Chapter 6 Attitude and Social Cognition.

The NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Psychology Chapter 1 Intelligence And Aptitude PDF includes all the important topics and concepts which can be a complete game changer for all the students who want to ace their examinations. The PDF consists of detailed explanations and solutions to the questions which are found in Chapter 1 Intelligence And ...

Q1. Based on the symptoms being exhibited, identify the disorder. Explain the other symptoms that can be seen in this disorder. Q2. Define delusion and inappropriate affect. Support it with the symptoms given in the above case study. Case 2: Read the case and answer the questions that follow. Alfred Binet, in 1905, was requested by the French ...

Class 12 Psychology Chapter 1 MCQ. Diya is a hard working girl who shows dedication, perseverance and perseverance. All your actions are intentional. Such qualities focus on the ____ aspect of integrative intelligence. Entrepreneurial skills combine creativity, initiative, problem-solving, ability to use resources, and knowledge of finance and ...

These questions will act as chapter wise test papers for Class 12 Psychology. These Important Questions for Class 12 Psychology are as per latest NCERT and CBSE Pattern syllabus and assure great success in achieving high score in Board Examinations. Social Influence and Group Processes Extra Questions Chapter 7 Class 12 Psychology Attitude and ...

Here is the list of chapters for Class 12 Psychology NCERT Textbook. Chapter 1 Intelligence And Aptitude. Chapter 2 Self And Personality. Chapter 3 Human Strengths And Meeting Life Challenges. Chapter 4 Psychological Disorders. Chapter 5 Therapeutic Approaches And Counselling. Chapter 6 Attitude And Social Cognition.

assessed. You will recall how one of the main concerns of modern psychology has been the study of individual differences from the time of Galton. This chapter will introduce you to some of the fundamentals of individual differences. One of the most popular psychological attributes which has been of interest to psychologists is Intelligence.

[20859]Intelligence_Question_and_Answers (psychology class 12 chapter 1) cbse - Free download as Word Doc (.doc / .docx), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or read online for free. This document discusses various theories and concepts related to intelligence and psychological assessment. It begins by defining key terms like individual differences, psychological assessment, intelligence, and ...

Since, our team has collected and bundled the CBSE Class 12 Psychology Previous Year Question Paper PDF, students can easily access them here. Follow the given steps: Browse Selfstudys website on your Internet Browser/Chrome, etc. Once Selfstudys website is open click on Menu button to navigate to the CBSE.

The answers to the NCERT books are the best study material for students. Listed below are the chapter-wise NCERT Psychology Class 12 Solutions CBSE, Karnataka Board PUC. • Chapter 1: Variations in Psychological Attributes. • Chapter 2: Self and Personality. • Chapter 3: Meeting Life Challenges.

Case study questions to test your knowledge on Psychological Disorders NCERT class 12 cbse chapter 4, useful to assess your understanding of chapter 4 of cert. Skip to document. University; High School. ... In that case, indicate that the person does not have a mood disorder, and indicate why this would be the case. ... ANSWERS. Bipolar; Major ...

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Here at Unacademy we have provided updated and enhanced study material for Psychology. Refer to them and ace the CBSE Class 12 exams.

Psychology topics for CBSE Class 12 2021-2022

Read more topics on Psychology for CBSE Class 12

Alternative Therapies

Anxiety disorders, aptitude nature and measurement, assessment of personality, assessment of psychological attributes, attitude change, attitude formation, behaviour therapy, behavioural approach, bipolar and related disorders, classification of psychological disorders, cognitive therapy, competition psychology, concept of personality, concept of self, conflict resolution strategies, cooperation in psychology, coping with stress, counselling skill.

what is case study in psychology class 12

Case Study In Psychology For Class 12

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For intervention information relevant to specific symptoms of diagnoses. please select symptoms and diagnoses that are most descriptive of your case. A commulative list of related case studies will display below the search options. Click on the title within the results to review the case study details.

For class 12th you can take depression. anxiety or some child disorders like autism. Because screening criteria for these can come handly for you. And most child disorders have already been diagnosed so this will help you to plan a concrete resear. . .

Psychology Case Study Format Class 12 Case Solution This case study is usually a fictional account of the intimate interlude during which a mystery in regards to the gender history of one of the characters is uncovered. The case is meant to provide learners a bigger knowledge of gendered society and to discuss diver. . . Emily and Dr. Haskins

Case Study On Financial Management Free. בתי ספר לנהיגה; שיעור נהיגה ראשון; מחיר שיעור נהיגה; תאוריה. לימוד תאוריה; מבחן תאוריה; שאלות לתיאוריה. Custom Masters College Essay Assistance; Resume Of An Office Administrator; שאלות לתיאוריה — תמרורים

Implementation of the Practical Component for class XI in June 2017 and subsequently for Class XII in June 2018. PSYCHOLOGY TO REMAIN A “NON -PRACTICAL SUBJECT” WITH PRACTICALS Essentially Psychology will retain its present status. Hence it can be introduced as an option in Class XII only. Marking scheme remains as a NON PRACTICAL SUBJECT. SIMPLE WORKING STRATEGY FOR CLASS XII …

Case A . Kyla is a postgraduate psychology student with acute anxiety disorder. She developed this at the end of her second year of undergraduate studies. As a consequence her impairment didn’t have an impact on her choice to study psychology. and she chose not to disclose it to her university. Her experiences impacted on her studies in several ways. She felt consistently in a state of . . .

Case study in psychology 1. Case Studies in Psychology Designing. Conducting and Reporting Cases Chinchu C Psychologist. Trainer & Research Consultant Association for Social Change. Evolution and Transformation (ASCENT) Courtesy: Zucker. Donna M. . “How to Do Case Study Research” (2009). College of Nursing Faculty Publication Series. 2. http . . .

Case study in psychology class 12. 21 / 22 marca. Jedyne takie wydarzenie w Polsce poświęcone tym tajemniczym Ptakom. Noc Sów. 21 / 22 marca Jedyne takie wydarzenie w Polsce poświęcone tym tajemniczym Ptakom. DOŁĄCZ DOŁĄCZ ZOSTAŃ PRZEWODNIKIEM ZOSTAŃ PRZEWODNIKIEM. Jedyna taka noc w Polsce . To już dziewiąta edycja! 15 tysięcy uczestników do 2019 roku! Kilkaset …

Rhetorical analysis commercial essay example Class study case 12 examples psychology. A short essay on importance of trees in marathi language. Case study with down syndrome. My favorite place to visit essay research paper prospectus sample essay about indira gandhi in english. essay in independence day celebration. write your case study reports using the short and long cycle process …

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  1. Important CBSE Class 12 Psychology Case Study Based Questions 2023

    CBSE Class 12 Psychology, Important Case Study-Based Questions: Case 1: Read the following case study and answer the questions that follow: Sundar, a college-going 20-year-old male, has moved from ...

  2. Case Study: Definition, Examples, Types, and How to Write

    A case study is an in-depth study of one person, group, or event. In a case study, nearly every aspect of the subject's life and history is analyzed to seek patterns and causes of behavior. Case studies can be used in many different fields, including psychology, medicine, education, anthropology, political science, and social work.

  3. Case Study Research Method in Psychology

    Case studies are in-depth investigations of a person, group, event, or community. Typically, data is gathered from various sources using several methods (e.g., observations & interviews). The case study research method originated in clinical medicine (the case history, i.e., the patient's personal history). In psychology, case studies are ...

  4. Class 12 Psychology Case Study Questions

    Class 12 Psychology Case Study Question 1. Read the case given below and answer the questions by choosing the most appropriate option: This is a story of three students Ruby, Radhika and Shankar who were enrolled in an Undergraduate Psychology Program in a University. Ruby was the admission officer's dream. She was selected for the program as ...

  5. Psychology Board Case Study File (Class XII)

    A case study file with description of a psychological disorder and a case accordingly prepared as per instructions for boards practical exam(CBSE). Acknowled...

  6. Class 12 CASE PROFILE

    The document provides guidelines for students to prepare a case profile for their Class 12 psychology board practical examination. It outlines a standardized format for the case profile, which should include a cover page, title page, certificate, acknowledgements, rationale, background information on the topic, research methods used, a detailed case study analyzing a subject using various ...

  7. CBSE Psychology Practical XII 2021

    The document provides instructions and guidelines for completing a Psychology practical file for Class XII exams. It outlines the format for the file, including sections like the title page, certificate, acknowledgements, introduction to psychological testing, index of tests included, and a suggested format for writing psychological testing reports. It also lists five psychological tests ...

  8. Case study (psychology)

    Case study in psychology refers to the use of a descriptive research approach to obtain an in-depth analysis of a person, group, or phenomenon. A variety of techniques may be employed including personal interviews, direct-observation, psychometric tests, and archival records.In psychology case studies are most often used in clinical research to describe rare events and conditions, which ...

  9. What is case study? from Psychology Variations in Psychological

    What is case study? (i) Case study refers to a systematic reconstruction of the past. It is an in-depth study of the individual in terms of his/her psychological attributes, psychological history in the content of his/her psychological and physical environment. (ii) Case studies are widely used in clinical settings to deal with problems related ...

  10. Case Study

    Case studies are conducted to: Investigate a specific problem, event, or phenomenon. Explore unique or atypical situations. Examine the complexities and intricacies of a subject in its natural context. Develop theories, propositions, or hypotheses for further research. Gain practical insights for decision-making or problem-solving.

  11. Class 12 Psychology Notes and Sample Papers

    CBSE Class 12 Psychology Case Study Questions. The teaching of Psychology should be based on the use of case studies, narratives, experiential exercises, analysis of common everyday experiences, etc. Having said that we should also keep in mind the guidelines of the latest NEP, which calls for competency-based learning. ...

  12. 12 Psychology

    The document provides instructions for students to complete a practical file and case profile for their Class XII Psychology course. It outlines the requirements for each assignment, including formatting guidelines and sample report formats. Students are expected to complete five practical reports following a standard format, as well as one case profile with a need-based format. The document ...

  13. What Is a Case Study?

    A case study is a detailed study of a specific subject, such as a person, group, place, event, organization, or phenomenon. Case studies are commonly used in social, educational, clinical, and business research. A case study research design usually involves qualitative methods, but quantitative methods are sometimes also used.

  14. How To Write a Psychology Case Study in 8 Steps (Plus Tips)

    Here are four tips to consider while writing a psychology case study: Remember to use the rules of APA formatting. Use fictitious names instead of referring to the patient as a client. Refer to previous case studies to understand how to format and stylize your study. Proofread and revise your report before submitting it.

  15. Chapter 1: Variations in Psychological Attributes

    Case Study It is an in-depth study of the individual in terms of her/his psychological attributes, psychological history in the context of her/his psychosocial and physical environment. It is used by clinical pcychologists.

  16. Case Study On Ocd For 12 CBSE (Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder)

    This is to certify that I, [Student's Name], a [Class/Grade Level] student, have successfully completed the project on "Case study on ocd for 12 CBSE (Obsessive-compulsive disorder).". The project explores the fundamental principles and key aspects of the chosen topic, providing a comprehensive understanding of its significance and ...

  17. Format of case study

    Psychology-practical-file-class-XII manual cbse board Ncrt based; Related Studylists Psychology Psychology. Preview text. ... Introduction of case study - Define Psychology, mental processes, experiences and behaviour [class XI book] Define Psychological test : Standardisation, objectivity, reliability and its types, validity and norms [Class ...

  18. Assessment of Psychological Attributes

    A case study is an in-depth examination of an individual's psychological characteristics, psychological history, and psychosocial and physical surroundings. Clinical psychologists frequently employ case studies. Case studies of exceptional people's lives may also be quite instructive for individuals eager to learn from their own life ...

  19. Senior Class XII Psychology File Cbse

    Senior class XII psychology file Cbse - Free download as PDF File (.pdf) or read online for free. Investigatory project case study

  20. class 12 psychology chapter 1 case study questions with answers

    Class 12 Psychology Case Study Question 1. Read the case given below and answer the questions by choosing the most appropriate option: This is a story of three students Ruby, Radhika and Shankar who were enrolled in an Undergraduate Psychology Program in a University. Ruby was the admission officer's dream.

  21. CBSE Class 12 Study Material 2022 for Psychology

    Here at Unacademy we have provided updated and enhanced study material for Psychology. Refer to them and ace the CBSE Class 12 exams. Access free live classes and tests on the app

  22. Case Study In Psychology For Class 12

    Psychology Case Study Format Class 12 Case Solution This case study is usually a fictional account of the intimate interlude during which a mystery in regards to the gender history of one of the characters is uncovered. The case is meant to provide learners a bigger knowledge of gendered society and to discuss diver. . .

  23. Psychology Case Study Grade 12

    Psychology case study grade 12 - Free download as Word Doc (.doc / .docx), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or read online for free. Bipolar disorder is a brain disorder characterized by extreme shifts in mood and energy levels. It involves periods of mania (elevated mood) and depression. During mania, one may feel euphoric or irritable with increased energy, activity, and impulsivity.