Electricity Is the Most Important Invention Essay

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Electricity Is the Most Important Invention: Essay Introduction

Electricity is the most important invention: essay main body, electricity is the most important invention: essay conclusion, reference list.

The contemporary world and its society are known for the highly developed technologies that make people’s lives easier and simpler. The number of useful and sophisticated inventions grows nearly every day. The scientists work on new ways of studying the world we live in, exploring its resources and using them to improve our quality of life.

This process began centuries ago, yet its most active stage was launched in the middle of the nineteenth century, and one of the major moving forces of the rapid technological development was the reception and application of electricity.

The period of time when the scientists of Europe first started using electricity to create powerful engines and high functioning mechanisms gave a push to such processes as industrialization, urbanization, and globalization; it made a massive impact on the world’s society, its way of living, and habits, it produced massive cultural, political and economic changes.

There is a common misconception that electricity actually may be an invention, but it is one of the natural forms of energy, it has always existed on our planet so it could not possibly be “invented”. The most influential and powerful invention was the discovery of electricity and of ways of using it for various technologies.

Historically, some of the first encounters humans made with electricity date back to Ancient Greece, when people first discovered the rubbing fur and amber together created the attraction between the two surfaces and also lighter objects, which occurred due to static electricity (Atkinson, 2014). This cannot be called a discovery because the reasons or practical use of this phenomenon were not understood.

The more recent interest towards electricity started to form in the 1600s when William Gilbert, inspired by the writings of ancient Greeks created his own work about magnetism, he also was the one who introduced the term “electrical” (Bellis, 2014). After that, such scientists as Descartes, Fermat, Grimaldi, Hooke, Von Guericke and Gray developed the knowledge about electricity.

In 1747 came Franklin’s theory of positive and negative electric charges (History of Electricity from its Beginning, 2012). This theory was followed by Faraday’s discovery of electric induction and the work of electric currents. Finally, the geniuses of Edison and Tesla brought light to all the average households and made the first hydroelectric engines and plants possible (The History of Electricity, 2014).

Ever since electricity and its qualities and possibilities were discovered the speed of technological progress in our world has been growing. The discovery of electricity became the necessary basis for the occurrence of multiple other sciences and inventions that are constantly used and are of crucial meaning in the contemporary world.

The modern society, its life and well being depends on electricity wholly. We cannot imagine our lives without cell phones, computers, the internet, coffee makers, toasters, washing machines, and microwave ovens, and all of these devices work due to electricity, but we often forget that more crucial needs of ours are fulfilled with the help of this discovery (Electricity, women and the home, n. d.).

For example, light in our cities, streets, and homes is electricity, water in our taps is running because of electrical pumps. The impact of electricity on the society of the world and its lifestyle is hard to overestimate. Today it is responsible for our survival.

At the beginning of the nineteenth century at least eighty percent of the population of our planet lived in rural areas and worked in agriculture, the appearance of electric engines created many workplaces in the cities and enforced the process of urbanization. In the modern world, the majority of people live in or close to urban areas.

This is how electricity changed our social geography. Besides, electricity has made an impact on the taste of our food, our education, our medicine and communication (Valdes, 2012). Electricity in hospitals helps to save millions of lives every day. The internet and cell phones have speeded up the world’s communication massively, changed the way people interact with each other. Electricity gave us new modes of transportation too – trams, trains, and trolleybuses function due to electric power.

Basically, the major electric generators are responsible for human life support. Besides, such huge inventions as nuclear power and space exploration are possible because of the discovery of electric power. Electricity and the knowledge of its current, its qualities and effects, its structure and capacities are the discoveries that influenced our world, changed it, shaped it into what we know today. Every human-made object we can touch or see today was made with the help of electricity one way or another.

Our culture and art also depend on electricity a lot, for example, some of the most ancient paintings and manuscripts are preserved with the help of refrigerators working from electricity. The modern mass media such as radio and television exist because of electricity. The music is written, played and delivered to the audiences today with the help of electricity.

Finally, neurosurgery works through the understanding of electric impulses human brain sends to the body making it function. Electricity constantly penetrates humans, this world, and every aspect of life; this is why its discovery can be considered the most influential and important invention.

Atkinson, N. (2014). Who Discovered Electricity? Web.

Bellis, M. (2014). History of Electricity . Web.

Electricity, women and the home. (n. d.). Science Museum . Web.

History of Electricity from its Beginning . (2012). Scholz Electrical. Web.

The History of Electricity , (2014). Code-Electrical . Web.

Valdes, C. (2012). Electricity: How it Changed the World Forever . Web.

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  • Factors Explaining Cyber Attacks in the USA
  • Dispute Resolution Mechanisms
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Electricity - List of Free Essay Examples And Topic Ideas

Electricity, the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and motion of matter that has a property of electric charge, is a fundamental part of modern life. Essays on electricity could explore its discovery, the principles governing its behavior, its various applications, and its critical role in powering modern civilization. Discussions might also delve into the development of electrical technologies, the challenges and solutions associated with electrical power generation and distribution, and the ongoing research aimed at improving the efficiency and sustainability of electrical systems. Moreover, analyzing the impact of electricity on industrialization, technological innovation, and daily life can provide a comprehensive understanding of its significance in the modern era. We have collected a large number of free essay examples about Electricity you can find at Papersowl. You can use our samples for inspiration to write your own essay, research paper, or just to explore a new topic for yourself.

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Harnessing the Power of Tides: how Tidal Turbines Generate Electricity

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Essay on Electricity: Writing Ideas & Prompts

An electromagnetic wave travels at the speed of light, about 300,000 kilometers per second.

Did you know that an electromagnetic wave travels at the speed of light, about 300,000 kilometers per second? Electricity is a truly fascinating phenomenon. In this guide, you will find all you need to write a successful essay on electricity, including:

  • Interesting facts,
  • 20 electricity essay topics,
  • Writing prompts and a sample essay.

⚡ Electricity: Main Facts

  • 💡 Essay Topics
  • ✍️ Writing Prompts
  • 📑 Essay Sample

Electricity is a fundamental part of nature. We can define it as the flow of electric charge that can be positive and negative . Electricity can occur naturally, such as in lightning, or it can be produced via a generator. Now, let’s look at the history of electricity to see how people harnessed it.

History of Electricity

The discovery of electricity played a massive part in pushing human civilization forward. From the following sections, you will learn who discovered electricity and how they did it.

The picture contains three main stages in  the history of electricity.

Ancient Times

The earliest records of electricity come from Egypt. Ancient Egyptian texts depict a smooth-skinned fish with a long head, tiny eyes, and a round snout with three pairs of whiskers. Egyptians referred to this fish as “Thunderer of the Nile” or an electric catfish . Several ancient writers attested to the effect of electric shocks delivered by electric catfish. For example, it was used for treating gout and headaches.

The earliest known discovery of electricity dates back to 585 BC. Thales of Miletus recognized the attractive powers of amber rubbed with animal fur. He attributed it to the objects having a soul, but what he really observed was static electricity.

Early Modern Era

In the 16 th century, English scientist William Gilbert discovered that our planet has two magnetic poles and that longitude is correlated with a magnetic variation. He created the world’s first electroscope to detect electric charge. He also coined the New Latin word “electricus,” which soon became the English word “electricity.”

In 1650, Otto von Guericke invented the first air pump that produced static electricity. Later in the 18th century, Benjamin Franklin proved that electricity and lightning are the same phenomena. He did it by attaching a metal key to a kite string and observing it being charged during a thunderstorm.

In 1791, Luigi Galvani saw a spark of electricity make a dead frog’s leg move. It occurred when two different metals came in contact with the frog. Alessandro Volta used Galvani’s discovery to invent the first electric battery, known as the voltaic pile.

Industrial Revolutions

The late 19th century saw the most significant progress in electrical engineering. Some examples include:

  • Joseph Henry’s discovery of electromagnetism;
  • Alexander Graham Bell’s invention of the telephone;
  • Thomas Ahearn’s streetcars;
  • Wilhelm Roentgen’s discovery of X-rays ;
  • Thomas Edison’s invention the phonograph andthe light bulb;
  • Nikola Tesla’s invention of wireless communication;
  • Joseph John Thomson’s discovery of electrons, and many more.

These scientists turned electricity into an essential tool for modern life.

In 1905, Albert Einstein demonstrated that the energy of light could be used to produce electricity. This discovery led to the quantum revolution. Einstein was awarded the Nobel Prize for his work on the law of the photoelectric effect. His findings made it possible to produce electricity with solar panels.

Greenleaf Whittier Pickard invented the crystal detector. It was one of the first devices for receiving radio broadcasts in the early 20th century.

💡 20 Electricity Essay Topics

Now that you know about the history of electricity, it is time to choose the right topic for your essay. Get started by looking at the topics below.

  • The importance of solar energy.
  • Can electricity cure diseases?
  • The link between electricity use and climate change.
  • Advantages and disadvantages of electric cars.
  • Differences between the use of electricity in the 20th century and today.
  • What can be done to reduce power supply interruptions?
  • Amish life without electricity.
  • The future of electrical engineering.
  • Hydroelectric vs. geothermal electricity production.
  • How the length of a wire affects its resistance.
  • Alternative sources of energy.
  • Challenges faced by the countries with an increased electricity demand.
  • Could the timeline for the discovery of electricity look different?
  • Pollution related to electricity production.
  • Hydroelectricity in Nepal.
  • The industrial revolution and its role in the discovery of electricity.
  • Using nuclear power to generate electricity.
  • Applications of electromagnetism in the future.
  • Impact of the energy crisis on the Third World countries.
  • Historical development of electronics.

Haven’t found a suitable topic? Try using our topic generator !

✍️ Essay on Electricity: Writing Prompts

Every student knows the struggle of staring at a blank page. That’s why we offer you a collection of writing prompts that will inspire you to start writing.

Essay on a Day without Electricity

For this essay, try to imagine living without electricity for the whole day. No heating. No phones. How would it feel?

  • What are the benefits and disadvantages of the power cut on a Sunday morning? Think about how people’s daily routines would change. Would there be more in-person communication?
  • You may also think more globally. Try predicting how the lack of electrical energy would influence humanity at large.

Save Electricity – Save Earth Essay

For this essay, research the ways of preserving electrical use. You may want to write about the conservation strategies and analyze the negative consequences of overusing electricity. Remember that many people are not aware of the adverse effects of using electrical power. Your goal is to help the reader understand the importance of conserving electricity. You can also show how we all can contribute to the cause.

The Invention of Electricity Essay

Feel free to get creative with this writing prompt:

  • Did the invention of electricity mostly have positive or negative consequences? Try using the historical timeline of electricity to find examples and evaluate the main events.
  • There is a common misconception that electricity is an invention. In fact, it’s a natural form of energy. Think about how people harnessed the power of electricity. How did it change the way we live?

Static Electricity Essay

This topic can be an excellent opportunity to explore the characteristics of static electricity. As you look for information, make sure you fully understand how static electricity is generated. Think about its discovery and how it occurs in nature. You may also be interested in researching antistatic agents and how they work.

📑 Life without Electricity: Essay Sample (250 Words)

Below you’ll find a short sample of an essay on electricity. It consists of typical parts: introduction, thesis statement, body, and conclusion. By the way, if you need to quickly make an essay conclusion, a good option is to summarize the paper automatically. You might want to use our tool for this purpose.

Life Without Electricity

Introduction:  Have you ever wondered if it is possible to survive without electricity? Most of us can handle a day or two, but can we survive for several months or even years? Electrical power cuts are becoming more frequent, which affects more and more people. Thesis statement : Despite surviving thousands of years without electricity before, people are wholly reliant on its power and would have trouble surviving without it today. Body paragraphs: The more technologically advanced the world gets, the more dependent on electricity it becomes. Each year, the world experiences a power shortage caused by natural disasters, bad weather, or power line faults. People get disrupted in their daily routines. They cannot get their laptop charged, use their freezer, and turn on the lights. Two critical things that we need in our life the most are heating and water. Without electricity, they both are compromised. It is hard to imagine surviving without these necessities, as we rely on readily available power. Conclusion: A life without electrical power will not be easy for most people. We are so dependent on electricity today that we feel extremely vulnerable when a power outage happens. While taking electricity for granted, we use it without thinking twice. With natural disasters looming around the corner, the world needs a better backup plan such as renewable technologies, off-grid solutions, and alternative energy sources. Now you are ready to write your own essay on electricity! And when you’re done, the last thing to do is to make a cover page . Tell us in the comments what topic you’ve chosen. We wish you good luck with your studies!

❓ Essay on Electricity: FAQ

How do we save electricity.

We can practice energy conservation by using less energy. It will help reduce environmental impact and lower the cost of electricity. Saving energy starts with adjusting our day-to-day behavior and using energy-efficient appliances. Even small changes in habits add up over time, reducing our impact on the environment.

What is Electricity?

Electricity is a flow of electric power or charge. It is a phenomenon that occurs naturally in the form of lightning. Electricity is also a secondary source which means that it can be converted from other sources of energy like coal, oil, natural gas, or nuclear power.

Why is Electricity Important?

Electricity is an essential part of our civilization. We use it for lighting, heating, cooling, and charging numerous devices and appliances. Since the Industrial Revolution, most inventions have been designed to be powered by electricity. Electrical power enhances our quality of life and stimulates the world’s economic productivity.

What Would Happen If We Had No Electricity?

If electricity disappears, the immediate problem would be water shortages since the pumps would stop working without electricity. Consequently, there will be no access to basic necessities. We rely on electricity so much that the transition to life without it would be slow and challenging.

🔗 References

  • Electricity: A Secondary Energy Source: Lehigh University
  • What Is Electricity?: University of Wisconsin-Madison
  • History of Electricity: Iberdrola
  • Origin of Electrical Power: Smithsonian Institution
  • Electricity Explained: U.S. Energy Information Administration
  • Life without Electricity: United Nations University

The Ultimate Guide to Writing a Thesis Statement

Matt Ellis

A thesis statement is a sentence in a paper or essay (in the opening paragraph) that introduces the main topic to the reader. As one of the first things your reader sees, your thesis statement is one of the most important sentences in your entire paper—but also one of the hardest to write! 

In this article, we explain how to write a thesis statement in the best way possible. We look at what to include and the steps to take for writing your own, along with plenty of thesis statement examples to guide you. 

Here’s a tip: Want to make sure your writing shines? Grammarly can check your spelling and save you from grammar and punctuation mistakes. It even proofreads your text, so your work is polished wherever you write.

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Table of contents

What is a thesis statement, how to write a thesis statement: basics, what to include in a thesis statement (with examples), how to write a thesis statement in 3 steps.

The goal of a thesis statement is to let your reader know what your paper or essay is about. It helps your reader understand the greater context and scope of your topic, plus it lets your readers know what to expect from the rest of the work. 

A secondary benefit of a thesis statement is that it makes it easier to search for papers on a particular topic, especially in the realm of academic writing like research papers and thesis papers (which are sometimes known as dissertations when written for doctoral degrees). For example, if you’re writing a paper of your own, you’ll want to look up other papers to use as evidence and sources . You can simply scan the thesis statements of several papers to see which match your topic and could be worthwhile sources to cite. 

Before we get into details, here are the basic steps for how to write a thesis statement: 

  • Develop the best topic to cover in your paper
  • Phrase your topic as a question-and-answer
  • Add some polish

We ’ ll describe each of those steps in more detail below, but we wanted to share a quick guide. Also, we ’ ll provide some thesis statement examples and talk about how to write a thesis statement for different kinds of essays: persuasive, compare-and-contrast, expository, and argumentative essays.

The thesis statement is located at the beginning of a paper, in the opening paragraph, making it an essential way to start an essay . A thesis statement isn’t necessarily the first sentence in an essay; typically you’ll want to hook the reader in an engaging way in the opening sentence before inserting your central idea or argument later in the first paragraph. A thesis statement is often confused with a topic sentence , the first sentence in a paragraph, because they both introduce the central idea of what follows. You can think of thesis statements as the topic sentence of your entire paper.  

Thesis statements are a necessary part of paper and essay writing , but different formats have different rules and best practices. Below, we break down how to write a thesis statement for the most common types of papers. 

How to write a thesis statement for expository and argumentative essays

Expository and argumentative essays are some of the most common types of academic papers. Because they don’t have a formal abstract like research papers, they rely on their thesis statements to provide an overview of what’s discussed. 

Thesis statements for argumentative and expository essays should use strong and decisive language; don’t be wishy-washy or uncertain. You want to take a stand right in the opening so that your readers understand what your paper is trying to show. 

Moreover, thesis statements for these essays should be specific, with some minor details to hint at the rest of the paper. It’s not enough to merely make your point; you also want to provide some basic evidence or background context to paint a full picture. 

If your paper dives into different subtopics or categories, try to fit them into the thesis statement if you can. You don’t have to get into details here, but it’s nice to mention the different sections at the top so that the reader knows what to expect. 

Thesis statement examples

Despite the taboo, insects make an excellent food source and could stem humanity’s looming food shortage, based on both their protein output and the sustainability of farming them. 

The backlash to rock ’n’ roll music in the ’50s by religious groups and traditionalists actually boosted the genre’s popularity instead of diminishing it as intended.

How to write a thesis statement for persuasive essays

Similar to argumentative essays, persuasive essays follow many of the same guidelines for their thesis statements: decisive language, specific details, and mentions of subtopics. 

However, the main difference is that, while the thesis statements for argumentative and expository essays state facts, the thesis statements for persuasive essays state clear opinions . Still, the format is the same, and the opinions are often treated like facts, including conclusive language and citing evidence to support your claims. 

Furthermore, unlike with other essays, it’s appropriate to make emotional connections in a thesis statement in persuasive essays. This can actually be a clever strategy to start your essay off on a more personal, impactful note. 

Advertising should not be allowed in public schools because it’s a distraction from studies and may lead to misguided priorities among the school board, to say nothing of the materialist culture it promotes. 

Exotic pets provide the same love and companionship as conventional pets, so the laws regulating which animals can and cannot be kept as pets should be more relaxed.

How to write a thesis statement for compare-and-contrast essays

Thesis statements for compare-and-contrast essays are tricky because you have at least two topics to touch on instead of just one. The same general guidelines apply (decisive language, details, etc.), but you need to give equal attention to both your topics—otherwise, your essay will seem biased from the start. 

As always, your thesis statement should reflect what’s written in the rest of your essay. If your essay spends more time comparing than contrasting, your thesis statement should focus more on similarities than differences. 

It sometimes helps to give specific examples as well, but keep them simple and brief. Save the finer details for the body of your essay. 

Sean Connery and Daniel Craig are the two most popular actors to portray James Bond, but both have their own distinct and at times contradictory interpretations of the character. 

Now that you know what you’re aiming for, it’s time to sit down and write your own thesis statement. To keep you on track, here are three easy steps to guide you. 

1 Brainstorm the best topic for your essay

You can’t write a thesis statement until you know what your paper is about, so your first step is choosing a topic. 

If the topic is already assigned, great ! That’s all for this step. If not, consider the tips below for choosing the topic that’s best for you:

  • Pick a topic that you’re passionate about. Even if you don’t know much about it, it’ll be easier to learn about it while writing if you’re genuinely interested. 
  • Narrow down your topic to something specific; otherwise, your paper will be too broad and perhaps too long. Just make sure it’s not too specific, or you won’t have enough to write about. Try to find a happy medium. 
  • Check beforehand that there are enough strong, credible sources to use for research. You don’t want to run out of referential material halfway through. 

Once you’ve chosen a topic—and the angle or stance you want to take—then it’s time to put the idea for your thesis sentence into words. 

2 Phrase your topic as a question and then answer it

It’s not always easy to fit your entire thesis into just one sentence, let alone one that’s written clearly and eloquently. Here’s a quick technique to help you get started. 

First, phrase your topic as a question. For example, if you want to write about Mahatma Gandhi’s legacy, ask yourself, “What influences did Gandhi have on society after his death?” 

If you already know the answer, write it down—that’s a good start for your thesis statement. If you don’t know the answer, do some preliminary research to find out; you can certainly use what you discover as evidence and sources in your essay’s body paragraphs . 

3 Add some polish

Chances are, your first attempt at a thesis statement won’t be perfect. To get it to its best, try revising , editing , and adding what’s missing. 

Remember the core traits for thesis statements we mentioned above: decisive language, a happy medium of specific but not too specific details, and mention of subtopics. If you’re struggling to contain everything in a single sentence, feel free to move the secondary information to the following sentence. The thesis statement itself should only have what’s most necessary. 

If you’re in doubt, read your thesis statement to a friend and ask them what they think your paper is about. If they answer correctly, your thesis statement does its job. 

Next comes the hard part—writing the rest! While the bulk of the writing lies ahead, at least you’ve nailed down your central idea. To plot out your supporting argument, follow our advice on essay structure and let your ideas flow. 

thesis statement about electricity

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How to Write a Thesis Statement | 4 Steps & Examples

Published on January 11, 2019 by Shona McCombes . Revised on August 15, 2023 by Eoghan Ryan.

A thesis statement is a sentence that sums up the central point of your paper or essay . It usually comes near the end of your introduction .

Your thesis will look a bit different depending on the type of essay you’re writing. But the thesis statement should always clearly state the main idea you want to get across. Everything else in your essay should relate back to this idea.

You can write your thesis statement by following four simple steps:

  • Start with a question
  • Write your initial answer
  • Develop your answer
  • Refine your thesis statement

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Table of contents

What is a thesis statement, placement of the thesis statement, step 1: start with a question, step 2: write your initial answer, step 3: develop your answer, step 4: refine your thesis statement, types of thesis statements, other interesting articles, frequently asked questions about thesis statements.

A thesis statement summarizes the central points of your essay. It is a signpost telling the reader what the essay will argue and why.

The best thesis statements are:

  • Concise: A good thesis statement is short and sweet—don’t use more words than necessary. State your point clearly and directly in one or two sentences.
  • Contentious: Your thesis shouldn’t be a simple statement of fact that everyone already knows. A good thesis statement is a claim that requires further evidence or analysis to back it up.
  • Coherent: Everything mentioned in your thesis statement must be supported and explained in the rest of your paper.

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The thesis statement generally appears at the end of your essay introduction or research paper introduction .

The spread of the internet has had a world-changing effect, not least on the world of education. The use of the internet in academic contexts and among young people more generally is hotly debated. For many who did not grow up with this technology, its effects seem alarming and potentially harmful. This concern, while understandable, is misguided. The negatives of internet use are outweighed by its many benefits for education: the internet facilitates easier access to information, exposure to different perspectives, and a flexible learning environment for both students and teachers.

You should come up with an initial thesis, sometimes called a working thesis , early in the writing process . As soon as you’ve decided on your essay topic , you need to work out what you want to say about it—a clear thesis will give your essay direction and structure.

You might already have a question in your assignment, but if not, try to come up with your own. What would you like to find out or decide about your topic?

For example, you might ask:

After some initial research, you can formulate a tentative answer to this question. At this stage it can be simple, and it should guide the research process and writing process .

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Now you need to consider why this is your answer and how you will convince your reader to agree with you. As you read more about your topic and begin writing, your answer should get more detailed.

In your essay about the internet and education, the thesis states your position and sketches out the key arguments you’ll use to support it.

The negatives of internet use are outweighed by its many benefits for education because it facilitates easier access to information.

In your essay about braille, the thesis statement summarizes the key historical development that you’ll explain.

The invention of braille in the 19th century transformed the lives of blind people, allowing them to participate more actively in public life.

A strong thesis statement should tell the reader:

  • Why you hold this position
  • What they’ll learn from your essay
  • The key points of your argument or narrative

The final thesis statement doesn’t just state your position, but summarizes your overall argument or the entire topic you’re going to explain. To strengthen a weak thesis statement, it can help to consider the broader context of your topic.

These examples are more specific and show that you’ll explore your topic in depth.

Your thesis statement should match the goals of your essay, which vary depending on the type of essay you’re writing:

  • In an argumentative essay , your thesis statement should take a strong position. Your aim in the essay is to convince your reader of this thesis based on evidence and logical reasoning.
  • In an expository essay , you’ll aim to explain the facts of a topic or process. Your thesis statement doesn’t have to include a strong opinion in this case, but it should clearly state the central point you want to make, and mention the key elements you’ll explain.

If you want to know more about AI tools , college essays , or fallacies make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples or go directly to our tools!

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A thesis statement is a sentence that sums up the central point of your paper or essay . Everything else you write should relate to this key idea.

The thesis statement is essential in any academic essay or research paper for two main reasons:

  • It gives your writing direction and focus.
  • It gives the reader a concise summary of your main point.

Without a clear thesis statement, an essay can end up rambling and unfocused, leaving your reader unsure of exactly what you want to say.

Follow these four steps to come up with a thesis statement :

  • Ask a question about your topic .
  • Write your initial answer.
  • Develop your answer by including reasons.
  • Refine your answer, adding more detail and nuance.

The thesis statement should be placed at the end of your essay introduction .

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