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What is the Difference Between Research and Project

The main difference between research and project is that research is the systematic investigation and study of materials and sources to establish facts and reach new conclusions, while a project is a specific and finite activity that gives a measurable and observable result under preset requirements.

Both research and projects use a systematic approach. We also sometimes use the term research project to refer to research studies.

Key Areas Covered

1.  What is Research       – Definition, Features 2. What is a Project      – Definition, Features 3.  Difference Between Research and Project      – Comparison of Key Differences

Research, Project

Difference Between Research and Project - Comparison Summary

What is Research

Research is a careful study a researcher conducts using a systematic approach and scientific methods. A research study typically involves several components: abstract, introduction ,  literature review ,  research design, and method , results and analysis, conclusion, bibliography. Researchers usually begin a formal research study with a hypothesis; then, they test this hypothesis rigorously. They also explore and analyze the literature already available on their research subject. This allows them to study the research subject from multiple perspectives, acknowledging different problems that need to be solved.

 Research vs Project

There are different types of research, the main two categories being quantitative research and qualitative research. Depending on their research method and design, we can also categorize research as descriptive research, exploratory research, longitudinal research, cross-sectional research, etc.

Furthermore, research should always be objective or unbiased. Moreover, if the research involves participants, for example, in surveys or interviews, the researcher should always make sure to obtain their written consent first.

What is a Project

A project is a collaborative or individual enterprise that is carefully planned to achieve a particular aim. We can also describe it as a specific and finite activity that gives a measurable and observable result under preset requirements. This result can be tangible or intangible; for example, product, service, competitive advantage, etc. A project generally involves a series of connected tasks planned for execution over a fixed period of time and within certain limitations like quality and cost. The Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK) defines a project as a “temporary endeavor with a beginning and an end, and it must be used to create a unique product, service or result.”

 Compare Research and Project - What's the difference?

Difference Between Research and Project

Research is a careful study conducted using a systematic approach and scientific methods, whereas a project is a collaborative or individual enterprise that is carefully planned to achieve a particular aim.

Research studies are mainly carried out in academia, while projects can be seen in a variety of contexts, including businesses.

The main aim of the research is to seek or revise facts, theories, or principles, while the main aim of a project is to achieve a tangible or intangible result; for example, product, service, competitive advantage, etc.

The main difference between research and project is that research is the systematic investigation and study of materials and sources to establish facts and reach new conclusions, while the project is a specific and finite activity that gives a measurable and observable result under preset requirements.

1. “ What Is a Project? – Definition, Lifecycle and Key Characteristics .” Your Guide to Project Management Best Practices .

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  • Research Process

Writing a Scientific Research Project Proposal

  • 5 minute read

Table of Contents

The importance of a well-written research proposal cannot be underestimated. Your research really is only as good as your proposal. A poorly written, or poorly conceived research proposal will doom even an otherwise worthy project. On the other hand, a well-written, high-quality proposal will increase your chances for success.

In this article, we’ll outline the basics of writing an effective scientific research proposal, including the differences between research proposals, grants and cover letters. We’ll also touch on common mistakes made when submitting research proposals, as well as a simple example or template that you can follow.

What is a scientific research proposal?

The main purpose of a scientific research proposal is to convince your audience that your project is worthwhile, and that you have the expertise and wherewithal to complete it. The elements of an effective research proposal mirror those of the research process itself, which we’ll outline below. Essentially, the research proposal should include enough information for the reader to determine if your proposed study is worth pursuing.

It is not an uncommon misunderstanding to think that a research proposal and a cover letter are the same things. However, they are different. The main difference between a research proposal vs cover letter content is distinct. Whereas the research proposal summarizes the proposal for future research, the cover letter connects you to the research, and how you are the right person to complete the proposed research.

There is also sometimes confusion around a research proposal vs grant application. Whereas a research proposal is a statement of intent, related to answering a research question, a grant application is a specific request for funding to complete the research proposed. Of course, there are elements of overlap between the two documents; it’s the purpose of the document that defines one or the other.

Scientific Research Proposal Format

Although there is no one way to write a scientific research proposal, there are specific guidelines. A lot depends on which journal you’re submitting your research proposal to, so you may need to follow their scientific research proposal template.

In general, however, there are fairly universal sections to every scientific research proposal. These include:

  • Title: Make sure the title of your proposal is descriptive and concise. Make it catch and informative at the same time, avoiding dry phrases like, “An investigation…” Your title should pique the interest of the reader.
  • Abstract: This is a brief (300-500 words) summary that includes the research question, your rationale for the study, and any applicable hypothesis. You should also include a brief description of your methodology, including procedures, samples, instruments, etc.
  • Introduction: The opening paragraph of your research proposal is, perhaps, the most important. Here you want to introduce the research problem in a creative way, and demonstrate your understanding of the need for the research. You want the reader to think that your proposed research is current, important and relevant.
  • Background: Include a brief history of the topic and link it to a contemporary context to show its relevance for today. Identify key researchers and institutions also looking at the problem
  • Literature Review: This is the section that may take the longest amount of time to assemble. Here you want to synthesize prior research, and place your proposed research into the larger picture of what’s been studied in the past. You want to show your reader that your work is original, and adds to the current knowledge.
  • Research Design and Methodology: This section should be very clearly and logically written and organized. You are letting your reader know that you know what you are going to do, and how. The reader should feel confident that you have the skills and knowledge needed to get the project done.
  • Preliminary Implications: Here you’ll be outlining how you anticipate your research will extend current knowledge in your field. You might also want to discuss how your findings will impact future research needs.
  • Conclusion: This section reinforces the significance and importance of your proposed research, and summarizes the entire proposal.
  • References/Citations: Of course, you need to include a full and accurate list of any and all sources you used to write your research proposal.

Common Mistakes in Writing a Scientific Research Project Proposal

Remember, the best research proposal can be rejected if it’s not well written or is ill-conceived. The most common mistakes made include:

  • Not providing the proper context for your research question or the problem
  • Failing to reference landmark/key studies
  • Losing focus of the research question or problem
  • Not accurately presenting contributions by other researchers and institutions
  • Incompletely developing a persuasive argument for the research that is being proposed
  • Misplaced attention on minor points and/or not enough detail on major issues
  • Sloppy, low-quality writing without effective logic and flow
  • Incorrect or lapses in references and citations, and/or references not in proper format
  • The proposal is too long – or too short

Scientific Research Proposal Example

There are countless examples that you can find for successful research proposals. In addition, you can also find examples of unsuccessful research proposals. Search for successful research proposals in your field, and even for your target journal, to get a good idea on what specifically your audience may be looking for.

While there’s no one example that will show you everything you need to know, looking at a few will give you a good idea of what you need to include in your own research proposal. Talk, also, to colleagues in your field, especially if you are a student or a new researcher. We can often learn from the mistakes of others. The more prepared and knowledgeable you are prior to writing your research proposal, the more likely you are to succeed.

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One of the top reasons scientific research proposals are rejected is due to poor logic and flow. Check out our Language Editing Services to ensure a great proposal , that’s clear and concise, and properly referenced. Check our video for more information, and get started today.

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The goal of a research proposal is twofold: to present and justify the need to study a research problem and to present the practical ways in which the proposed study should be conducted. The design elements and procedures for conducting research are governed by standards of the predominant discipline in which the problem resides, therefore, the guidelines for research proposals are more exacting and less formal than a general project proposal. Research proposals contain extensive literature reviews. They must provide persuasive evidence that a need exists for the proposed study. In addition to providing a rationale, a proposal describes detailed methodology for conducting the research consistent with requirements of the professional or academic field and a statement on anticipated outcomes and benefits derived from the study's completion.

Krathwohl, David R. How to Prepare a Dissertation Proposal: Suggestions for Students in Education and the Social and Behavioral Sciences . Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 2005.

How to Approach Writing a Research Proposal

Your professor may assign the task of writing a research proposal for the following reasons:

  • Develop your skills in thinking about and designing a comprehensive research study;
  • Learn how to conduct a comprehensive review of the literature to determine that the research problem has not been adequately addressed or has been answered ineffectively and, in so doing, become better at locating pertinent scholarship related to your topic;
  • Improve your general research and writing skills;
  • Practice identifying the logical steps that must be taken to accomplish one's research goals;
  • Critically review, examine, and consider the use of different methods for gathering and analyzing data related to the research problem; and,
  • Nurture a sense of inquisitiveness within yourself and to help see yourself as an active participant in the process of conducting scholarly research.

A proposal should contain all the key elements involved in designing a completed research study, with sufficient information that allows readers to assess the validity and usefulness of your proposed study. The only elements missing from a research proposal are the findings of the study and your analysis of those findings. Finally, an effective proposal is judged on the quality of your writing and, therefore, it is important that your proposal is coherent, clear, and compelling.

Regardless of the research problem you are investigating and the methodology you choose, all research proposals must address the following questions:

  • What do you plan to accomplish? Be clear and succinct in defining the research problem and what it is you are proposing to investigate.
  • Why do you want to do the research? In addition to detailing your research design, you also must conduct a thorough review of the literature and provide convincing evidence that it is a topic worthy of in-depth study. A successful research proposal must answer the "So What?" question.
  • How are you going to conduct the research? Be sure that what you propose is doable. If you're having difficulty formulating a research problem to propose investigating, go here for strategies in developing a problem to study.

Common Mistakes to Avoid

  • Failure to be concise . A research proposal must be focused and not be "all over the map" or diverge into unrelated tangents without a clear sense of purpose.
  • Failure to cite landmark works in your literature review . Proposals should be grounded in foundational research that lays a foundation for understanding the development and scope of the the topic and its relevance.
  • Failure to delimit the contextual scope of your research [e.g., time, place, people, etc.]. As with any research paper, your proposed study must inform the reader how and in what ways the study will frame the problem.
  • Failure to develop a coherent and persuasive argument for the proposed research . This is critical. In many workplace settings, the research proposal is a formal document intended to argue for why a study should be funded.
  • Sloppy or imprecise writing, or poor grammar . Although a research proposal does not represent a completed research study, there is still an expectation that it is well-written and follows the style and rules of good academic writing.
  • Too much detail on minor issues, but not enough detail on major issues . Your proposal should focus on only a few key research questions in order to support the argument that the research needs to be conducted. Minor issues, even if valid, can be mentioned but they should not dominate the overall narrative.

Procter, Margaret. The Academic Proposal.  The Lab Report. University College Writing Centre. University of Toronto; Sanford, Keith. Information for Students: Writing a Research Proposal. Baylor University; Wong, Paul T. P. How to Write a Research Proposal. International Network on Personal Meaning. Trinity Western University; Writing Academic Proposals: Conferences, Articles, and Books. The Writing Lab and The OWL. Purdue University; Writing a Research Proposal. University Library. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

Structure and Writing Style

Beginning the Proposal Process

As with writing most college-level academic papers, research proposals are generally organized the same way throughout most social science disciplines. The text of proposals generally vary in length between ten and thirty-five pages, followed by the list of references. However, before you begin, read the assignment carefully and, if anything seems unclear, ask your professor whether there are any specific requirements for organizing and writing the proposal.

A good place to begin is to ask yourself a series of questions:

  • What do I want to study?
  • Why is the topic important?
  • How is it significant within the subject areas covered in my class?
  • What problems will it help solve?
  • How does it build upon [and hopefully go beyond] research already conducted on the topic?
  • What exactly should I plan to do, and can I get it done in the time available?

In general, a compelling research proposal should document your knowledge of the topic and demonstrate your enthusiasm for conducting the study. Approach it with the intention of leaving your readers feeling like, "Wow, that's an exciting idea and I can’t wait to see how it turns out!"

Most proposals should include the following sections:

I.  Introduction

In the real world of higher education, a research proposal is most often written by scholars seeking grant funding for a research project or it's the first step in getting approval to write a doctoral dissertation. Even if this is just a course assignment, treat your introduction as the initial pitch of an idea based on a thorough examination of the significance of a research problem. After reading the introduction, your readers should not only have an understanding of what you want to do, but they should also be able to gain a sense of your passion for the topic and to be excited about the study's possible outcomes. Note that most proposals do not include an abstract [summary] before the introduction.

Think about your introduction as a narrative written in two to four paragraphs that succinctly answers the following four questions :

  • What is the central research problem?
  • What is the topic of study related to that research problem?
  • What methods should be used to analyze the research problem?
  • Answer the "So What?" question by explaining why this is important research, what is its significance, and why should someone reading the proposal care about the outcomes of the proposed study?

II.  Background and Significance

This is where you explain the scope and context of your proposal and describe in detail why it's important. It can be melded into your introduction or you can create a separate section to help with the organization and narrative flow of your proposal. Approach writing this section with the thought that you can’t assume your readers will know as much about the research problem as you do. Note that this section is not an essay going over everything you have learned about the topic; instead, you must choose what is most relevant in explaining the aims of your research.

To that end, while there are no prescribed rules for establishing the significance of your proposed study, you should attempt to address some or all of the following:

  • State the research problem and give a more detailed explanation about the purpose of the study than what you stated in the introduction. This is particularly important if the problem is complex or multifaceted .
  • Present the rationale of your proposed study and clearly indicate why it is worth doing; be sure to answer the "So What? question [i.e., why should anyone care?].
  • Describe the major issues or problems examined by your research. This can be in the form of questions to be addressed. Be sure to note how your proposed study builds on previous assumptions about the research problem.
  • Explain the methods you plan to use for conducting your research. Clearly identify the key sources you intend to use and explain how they will contribute to your analysis of the topic.
  • Describe the boundaries of your proposed research in order to provide a clear focus. Where appropriate, state not only what you plan to study, but what aspects of the research problem will be excluded from the study.
  • If necessary, provide definitions of key concepts, theories, or terms.

III.  Literature Review

Connected to the background and significance of your study is a section of your proposal devoted to a more deliberate review and synthesis of prior studies related to the research problem under investigation . The purpose here is to place your project within the larger whole of what is currently being explored, while at the same time, demonstrating to your readers that your work is original and innovative. Think about what questions other researchers have asked, what methodological approaches they have used, and what is your understanding of their findings and, when stated, their recommendations. Also pay attention to any suggestions for further research.

Since a literature review is information dense, it is crucial that this section is intelligently structured to enable a reader to grasp the key arguments underpinning your proposed study in relation to the arguments put forth by other researchers. A good strategy is to break the literature into "conceptual categories" [themes] rather than systematically or chronologically describing groups of materials one at a time. Note that conceptual categories generally reveal themselves after you have read most of the pertinent literature on your topic so adding new categories is an on-going process of discovery as you review more studies. How do you know you've covered the key conceptual categories underlying the research literature? Generally, you can have confidence that all of the significant conceptual categories have been identified if you start to see repetition in the conclusions or recommendations that are being made.

NOTE: Do not shy away from challenging the conclusions made in prior research as a basis for supporting the need for your proposal. Assess what you believe is missing and state how previous research has failed to adequately examine the issue that your study addresses. Highlighting the problematic conclusions strengthens your proposal. For more information on writing literature reviews, GO HERE .

To help frame your proposal's review of prior research, consider the "five C’s" of writing a literature review:

  • Cite , so as to keep the primary focus on the literature pertinent to your research problem.
  • Compare the various arguments, theories, methodologies, and findings expressed in the literature: what do the authors agree on? Who applies similar approaches to analyzing the research problem?
  • Contrast the various arguments, themes, methodologies, approaches, and controversies expressed in the literature: describe what are the major areas of disagreement, controversy, or debate among scholars?
  • Critique the literature: Which arguments are more persuasive, and why? Which approaches, findings, and methodologies seem most reliable, valid, or appropriate, and why? Pay attention to the verbs you use to describe what an author says/does [e.g., asserts, demonstrates, argues, etc.].
  • Connect the literature to your own area of research and investigation: how does your own work draw upon, depart from, synthesize, or add a new perspective to what has been said in the literature?

IV.  Research Design and Methods

This section must be well-written and logically organized because you are not actually doing the research, yet, your reader must have confidence that you have a plan worth pursuing . The reader will never have a study outcome from which to evaluate whether your methodological choices were the correct ones. Thus, the objective here is to convince the reader that your overall research design and proposed methods of analysis will correctly address the problem and that the methods will provide the means to effectively interpret the potential results. Your design and methods should be unmistakably tied to the specific aims of your study.

Describe the overall research design by building upon and drawing examples from your review of the literature. Consider not only methods that other researchers have used, but methods of data gathering that have not been used but perhaps could be. Be specific about the methodological approaches you plan to undertake to obtain information, the techniques you would use to analyze the data, and the tests of external validity to which you commit yourself [i.e., the trustworthiness by which you can generalize from your study to other people, places, events, and/or periods of time].

When describing the methods you will use, be sure to cover the following:

  • Specify the research process you will undertake and the way you will interpret the results obtained in relation to the research problem. Don't just describe what you intend to achieve from applying the methods you choose, but state how you will spend your time while applying these methods [e.g., coding text from interviews to find statements about the need to change school curriculum; running a regression to determine if there is a relationship between campaign advertising on social media sites and election outcomes in Europe ].
  • Keep in mind that the methodology is not just a list of tasks; it is a deliberate argument as to why techniques for gathering information add up to the best way to investigate the research problem. This is an important point because the mere listing of tasks to be performed does not demonstrate that, collectively, they effectively address the research problem. Be sure you clearly explain this.
  • Anticipate and acknowledge any potential barriers and pitfalls in carrying out your research design and explain how you plan to address them. No method applied to research in the social and behavioral sciences is perfect, so you need to describe where you believe challenges may exist in obtaining data or accessing information. It's always better to acknowledge this than to have it brought up by your professor!

V.  Preliminary Suppositions and Implications

Just because you don't have to actually conduct the study and analyze the results, doesn't mean you can skip talking about the analytical process and potential implications . The purpose of this section is to argue how and in what ways you believe your research will refine, revise, or extend existing knowledge in the subject area under investigation. Depending on the aims and objectives of your study, describe how the anticipated results will impact future scholarly research, theory, practice, forms of interventions, or policy making. Note that such discussions may have either substantive [a potential new policy], theoretical [a potential new understanding], or methodological [a potential new way of analyzing] significance.   When thinking about the potential implications of your study, ask the following questions:

  • What might the results mean in regards to challenging the theoretical framework and underlying assumptions that support the study?
  • What suggestions for subsequent research could arise from the potential outcomes of the study?
  • What will the results mean to practitioners in the natural settings of their workplace, organization, or community?
  • Will the results influence programs, methods, and/or forms of intervention?
  • How might the results contribute to the solution of social, economic, or other types of problems?
  • Will the results influence policy decisions?
  • In what way do individuals or groups benefit should your study be pursued?
  • What will be improved or changed as a result of the proposed research?
  • How will the results of the study be implemented and what innovations or transformative insights could emerge from the process of implementation?

NOTE:   This section should not delve into idle speculation, opinion, or be formulated on the basis of unclear evidence . The purpose is to reflect upon gaps or understudied areas of the current literature and describe how your proposed research contributes to a new understanding of the research problem should the study be implemented as designed.

ANOTHER NOTE : This section is also where you describe any potential limitations to your proposed study. While it is impossible to highlight all potential limitations because the study has yet to be conducted, you still must tell the reader where and in what form impediments may arise and how you plan to address them.

VI.  Conclusion

The conclusion reiterates the importance or significance of your proposal and provides a brief summary of the entire study . This section should be only one or two paragraphs long, emphasizing why the research problem is worth investigating, why your research study is unique, and how it should advance existing knowledge.

Someone reading this section should come away with an understanding of:

  • Why the study should be done;
  • The specific purpose of the study and the research questions it attempts to answer;
  • The decision for why the research design and methods used where chosen over other options;
  • The potential implications emerging from your proposed study of the research problem; and
  • A sense of how your study fits within the broader scholarship about the research problem.

VII.  Citations

As with any scholarly research paper, you must cite the sources you used . In a standard research proposal, this section can take two forms, so consult with your professor about which one is preferred.

  • References -- a list of only the sources you actually used in creating your proposal.
  • Bibliography -- a list of everything you used in creating your proposal, along with additional citations to any key sources relevant to understanding the research problem.

In either case, this section should testify to the fact that you did enough preparatory work to ensure the project will complement and not just duplicate the efforts of other researchers. It demonstrates to the reader that you have a thorough understanding of prior research on the topic.

Most proposal formats have you start a new page and use the heading "References" or "Bibliography" centered at the top of the page. Cited works should always use a standard format that follows the writing style advised by the discipline of your course [e.g., education=APA; history=Chicago] or that is preferred by your professor. This section normally does not count towards the total page length of your research proposal.

Develop a Research Proposal: Writing the Proposal. Office of Library Information Services. Baltimore County Public Schools; Heath, M. Teresa Pereira and Caroline Tynan. “Crafting a Research Proposal.” The Marketing Review 10 (Summer 2010): 147-168; Jones, Mark. “Writing a Research Proposal.” In MasterClass in Geography Education: Transforming Teaching and Learning . Graham Butt, editor. (New York: Bloomsbury Academic, 2015), pp. 113-127; Juni, Muhamad Hanafiah. “Writing a Research Proposal.” International Journal of Public Health and Clinical Sciences 1 (September/October 2014): 229-240; Krathwohl, David R. How to Prepare a Dissertation Proposal: Suggestions for Students in Education and the Social and Behavioral Sciences . Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 2005; Procter, Margaret. The Academic Proposal. The Lab Report. University College Writing Centre. University of Toronto; Punch, Keith and Wayne McGowan. "Developing and Writing a Research Proposal." In From Postgraduate to Social Scientist: A Guide to Key Skills . Nigel Gilbert, ed. (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2006), 59-81; Wong, Paul T. P. How to Write a Research Proposal. International Network on Personal Meaning. Trinity Western University; Writing Academic Proposals: Conferences , Articles, and Books. The Writing Lab and The OWL. Purdue University; Writing a Research Proposal. University Library. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

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Grad Coach

How To Write A Research Proposal

A Straightforward How-To Guide (With Examples)

By: Derek Jansen (MBA) | Reviewed By: Dr. Eunice Rautenbach | August 2019 (Updated April 2023)

Writing up a strong research proposal for a dissertation or thesis is much like a marriage proposal. It’s a task that calls on you to win somebody over and persuade them that what you’re planning is a great idea. An idea they’re happy to say ‘yes’ to. This means that your dissertation proposal needs to be   persuasive ,   attractive   and well-planned. In this post, I’ll show you how to write a winning dissertation proposal, from scratch.

Before you start:

– Understand exactly what a research proposal is – Ask yourself these 4 questions

The 5 essential ingredients:

  • The title/topic
  • The introduction chapter
  • The scope/delimitations
  • Preliminary literature review
  • Design/ methodology
  • Practical considerations and risks 

What Is A Research Proposal?

The research proposal is literally that: a written document that communicates what you propose to research, in a concise format. It’s where you put all that stuff that’s spinning around in your head down on to paper, in a logical, convincing fashion.

Convincing   is the keyword here, as your research proposal needs to convince the assessor that your research is   clearly articulated   (i.e., a clear research question) ,   worth doing   (i.e., is unique and valuable enough to justify the effort), and   doable   within the restrictions you’ll face (time limits, budget, skill limits, etc.). If your proposal does not address these three criteria, your research won’t be approved, no matter how “exciting” the research idea might be.

PS – if you’re completely new to proposal writing, we’ve got a detailed walkthrough video covering two successful research proposals here . 

Free Webinar: How To Write A Research Proposal

How do I know I’m ready?

Before starting the writing process, you need to   ask yourself 4 important questions .  If you can’t answer them succinctly and confidently, you’re not ready – you need to go back and think more deeply about your dissertation topic .

You should be able to answer the following 4 questions before starting your dissertation or thesis research proposal:

  • WHAT is my main research question? (the topic)
  • WHO cares and why is this important? (the justification)
  • WHAT data would I need to answer this question, and how will I analyse it? (the research design)
  • HOW will I manage the completion of this research, within the given timelines? (project and risk management)

If you can’t answer these questions clearly and concisely,   you’re not yet ready   to write your research proposal – revisit our   post on choosing a topic .

If you can, that’s great – it’s time to start writing up your dissertation proposal. Next, I’ll discuss what needs to go into your research proposal, and how to structure it all into an intuitive, convincing document with a linear narrative.

The 5 Essential Ingredients

Research proposals can vary in style between institutions and disciplines, but here I’ll share with you a   handy 5-section structure   you can use. These 5 sections directly address the core questions we spoke about earlier, ensuring that you present a convincing proposal. If your institution already provides a proposal template, there will likely be substantial overlap with this, so you’ll still get value from reading on.

For each section discussed below, make sure you use headers and sub-headers (ideally, numbered headers) to help the reader navigate through your document, and to support them when they need to revisit a previous section. Don’t just present an endless wall of text, paragraph after paragraph after paragraph…

Top Tip:   Use MS Word Styles to format headings. This will allow you to be clear about whether a sub-heading is level 2, 3, or 4. Additionally, you can view your document in ‘outline view’ which will show you only your headings. This makes it much easier to check your structure, shift things around and make decisions about where a section needs to sit. You can also generate a 100% accurate table of contents using Word’s automatic functionality.

research project proposal difference

Ingredient #1 – Topic/Title Header

Your research proposal’s title should be your main research question in its simplest form, possibly with a sub-heading providing basic details on the specifics of the study. For example:

“Compliance with equality legislation in the charity sector: a study of the ‘reasonable adjustments’ made in three London care homes”

As you can see, this title provides a clear indication of what the research is about, in broad terms. It paints a high-level picture for the first-time reader, which gives them a taste of what to expect.   Always aim for a clear, concise title . Don’t feel the need to capture every detail of your research in your title – your proposal will fill in the gaps.

Need a helping hand?

research project proposal difference

Ingredient #2 – Introduction

In this section of your research proposal, you’ll expand on what you’ve communicated in the title, by providing a few paragraphs which offer more detail about your research topic. Importantly, the focus here is the   topic   – what will you research and why is that worth researching? This is not the place to discuss methodology, practicalities, etc. – you’ll do that later.

You should cover the following:

  • An overview of the   broad area   you’ll be researching – introduce the reader to key concepts and language
  • An explanation of the   specific (narrower) area   you’ll be focusing, and why you’ll be focusing there
  • Your research   aims   and   objectives
  • Your   research question (s) and sub-questions (if applicable)

Importantly, you should aim to use short sentences and plain language – don’t babble on with extensive jargon, acronyms and complex language. Assume that the reader is an intelligent layman – not a subject area specialist (even if they are). Remember that the   best writing is writing that can be easily understood   and digested. Keep it simple.

The introduction section serves to expand on the  research topic – what will you study and why is that worth dedicating time and effort to?

Note that some universities may want some extra bits and pieces in your introduction section. For example, personal development objectives, a structural outline, etc. Check your brief to see if there are any other details they expect in your proposal, and make sure you find a place for these.

Ingredient #3 – Scope

Next, you’ll need to specify what the scope of your research will be – this is also known as the delimitations . In other words, you need to make it clear what you will be covering and, more importantly, what you won’t be covering in your research. Simply put, this is about ring fencing your research topic so that you have a laser-sharp focus.

All too often, students feel the need to go broad and try to address as many issues as possible, in the interest of producing comprehensive research. Whilst this is admirable, it’s a mistake. By tightly refining your scope, you’ll enable yourself to   go deep   with your research, which is what you need to earn good marks. If your scope is too broad, you’re likely going to land up with superficial research (which won’t earn marks), so don’t be afraid to narrow things down.

Ingredient #4 – Literature Review

In this section of your research proposal, you need to provide a (relatively) brief discussion of the existing literature. Naturally, this will not be as comprehensive as the literature review in your actual dissertation, but it will lay the foundation for that. In fact, if you put in the effort at this stage, you’ll make your life a lot easier when it’s time to write your actual literature review chapter.

There are a few things you need to achieve in this section:

  • Demonstrate that you’ve done your reading and are   familiar with the current state of the research   in your topic area.
  • Show that   there’s a clear gap   for your specific research – i.e., show that your topic is sufficiently unique and will add value to the existing research.
  • Show how the existing research has shaped your thinking regarding   research design . For example, you might use scales or questionnaires from previous studies.

When you write up your literature review, keep these three objectives front of mind, especially number two (revealing the gap in the literature), so that your literature review has a   clear purpose and direction . Everything you write should be contributing towards one (or more) of these objectives in some way. If it doesn’t, you need to ask yourself whether it’s truly needed.

Top Tip:  Don’t fall into the trap of just describing the main pieces of literature, for example, “A says this, B says that, C also says that…” and so on. Merely describing the literature provides no value. Instead, you need to   synthesise   it, and use it to address the three objectives above.

 If you put in the effort at the proposal stage, you’ll make your life a lot easier when its time to write your actual literature review chapter.

Ingredient #5 – Research Methodology

Now that you’ve clearly explained both your intended research topic (in the introduction) and the existing research it will draw on (in the literature review section), it’s time to get practical and explain exactly how you’ll be carrying out your own research. In other words, your research methodology.

In this section, you’ll need to   answer two critical questions :

  • How   will you design your research? I.e., what research methodology will you adopt, what will your sample be, how will you collect data, etc.
  • Why   have you chosen this design? I.e., why does this approach suit your specific research aims, objectives and questions?

In other words, this is not just about explaining WHAT you’ll be doing, it’s also about explaining WHY. In fact, the   justification is the most important part , because that justification is how you demonstrate a good understanding of research design (which is what assessors want to see).

Some essential design choices you need to cover in your research proposal include:

  • Your intended research philosophy (e.g., positivism, interpretivism or pragmatism )
  • What methodological approach you’ll be taking (e.g., qualitative , quantitative or mixed )
  • The details of your sample (e.g., sample size, who they are, who they represent, etc.)
  • What data you plan to collect (i.e. data about what, in what form?)
  • How you plan to collect it (e.g., surveys , interviews , focus groups, etc.)
  • How you plan to analyse it (e.g., regression analysis, thematic analysis , etc.)
  • Ethical adherence (i.e., does this research satisfy all ethical requirements of your institution, or does it need further approval?)

This list is not exhaustive – these are just some core attributes of research design. Check with your institution what level of detail they expect. The “ research onion ” by Saunders et al (2009) provides a good summary of the various design choices you ultimately need to make – you can   read more about that here .

Don’t forget the practicalities…

In addition to the technical aspects, you will need to address the   practical   side of the project. In other words, you need to explain   what resources you’ll need   (e.g., time, money, access to equipment or software, etc.) and how you intend to secure these resources. You need to show that your project is feasible, so any “make or break” type resources need to already be secured. The success or failure of your project cannot depend on some resource which you’re not yet sure you have access to.

Another part of the practicalities discussion is   project and risk management . In other words, you need to show that you have a clear project plan to tackle your research with. Some key questions to address:

  • What are the timelines for each phase of your project?
  • Are the time allocations reasonable?
  • What happens if something takes longer than anticipated (risk management)?
  • What happens if you don’t get the response rate you expect?

A good way to demonstrate that you’ve thought this through is to include a Gantt chart and a risk register (in the appendix if word count is a problem). With these two tools, you can show that you’ve got a clear, feasible plan, and you’ve thought about and accounted for the potential risks.

Gantt chart

Tip – Be honest about the potential difficulties – but show that you are anticipating solutions and workarounds. This is much more impressive to an assessor than an unrealistically optimistic proposal which does not anticipate any challenges whatsoever.

Final Touches: Read And Simplify

The final step is to edit and proofread your proposal – very carefully. It sounds obvious, but all too often poor editing and proofreading ruin a good proposal. Nothing is more off-putting for an assessor than a poorly edited, typo-strewn document. It sends the message that you either do not pay attention to detail, or just don’t care. Neither of these are good messages. Put the effort into editing and proofreading your proposal (or pay someone to do it for you) – it will pay dividends.

When you’re editing, watch out for ‘academese’. Many students can speak simply, passionately and clearly about their dissertation topic – but become incomprehensible the moment they turn the laptop on. You are not required to write in any kind of special, formal, complex language when you write academic work. Sure, there may be technical terms, jargon specific to your discipline, shorthand terms and so on. But, apart from those,   keep your written language very close to natural spoken language   – just as you would speak in the classroom. Imagine that you are explaining your project plans to your classmates or a family member. Remember, write for the intelligent layman, not the subject matter experts. Plain-language, concise writing is what wins hearts and minds – and marks!

Let’s Recap: Research Proposal 101

And there you have it – how to write your dissertation or thesis research proposal, from the title page to the final proof. Here’s a quick recap of the key takeaways:

  • The purpose of the research proposal is to   convince   – therefore, you need to make a clear, concise argument of why your research is both worth doing and doable.
  • Make sure you can ask the critical what, who, and how questions of your research   before   you put pen to paper.
  • Title – provides the first taste of your research, in broad terms
  • Introduction – explains what you’ll be researching in more detail
  • Scope – explains the boundaries of your research
  • Literature review – explains how your research fits into the existing research and why it’s unique and valuable
  • Research methodology – explains and justifies how you will carry out your own research

Hopefully, this post has helped you better understand how to write up a winning research proposal. If you enjoyed it, be sure to check out the rest of the Grad Coach Blog . If your university doesn’t provide any template for your proposal, you might want to try out our free research proposal template .

Literature Review Course

Psst… there’s more!

This post is an extract from our bestselling short course, Research Proposal Bootcamp . If you want to work smart, you don't want to miss this .

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How to write the discussion chapter


Mazwakhe Mkhulisi

Thank you so much for the valuable insight that you have given, especially on the research proposal. That is what I have managed to cover. I still need to go back to the other parts as I got disturbed while still listening to Derek’s audio on you-tube. I am inspired. I will definitely continue with Grad-coach guidance on You-tube.

Derek Jansen

Thanks for the kind words :). All the best with your proposal.


First of all, thanks a lot for making such a wonderful presentation. The video was really useful and gave me a very clear insight of how a research proposal has to be written. I shall try implementing these ideas in my RP.

Once again, I thank you for this content.

Bonginkosi Mshengu

I found reading your outline on writing research proposal very beneficial. I wish there was a way of submitting my draft proposal to you guys for critiquing before I submit to the institution.

Hi Bonginkosi

Thank you for the kind words. Yes, we do provide a review service. The best starting point is to have a chat with one of our coaches here: .

Erick Omondi

Hello team GRADCOACH, may God bless you so much. I was totally green in research. Am so happy for your free superb tutorials and resources. Once again thank you so much Derek and his team.

You’re welcome, Erick. Good luck with your research proposal 🙂


thank you for the information. its precise and on point.

Nighat Nighat Ahsan

Really a remarkable piece of writing and great source of guidance for the researchers. GOD BLESS YOU for your guidance. Regards

Delfina Celeste Danca Rangel

Thanks so much for your guidance. It is easy and comprehensive the way you explain the steps for a winning research proposal.

Desiré Forku

Thank you guys so much for the rich post. I enjoyed and learn from every word in it. My problem now is how to get into your platform wherein I can always seek help on things related to my research work ? Secondly, I wish to find out if there is a way I can send my tentative proposal to you guys for examination before I take to my supervisor Once again thanks very much for the insights

Thanks for your kind words, Desire.

If you are based in a country where Grad Coach’s paid services are available, you can book a consultation by clicking the “Book” button in the top right.

Best of luck with your studies.


May God bless you team for the wonderful work you are doing,

If I have a topic, Can I submit it to you so that you can draft a proposal for me?? As I am expecting to go for masters degree in the near future.

Thanks for your comment. We definitely cannot draft a proposal for you, as that would constitute academic misconduct. The proposal needs to be your own work. We can coach you through the process, but it needs to be your own work and your own writing.

Best of luck with your research!

kenate Akuma

I found a lot of many essential concepts from your material. it is real a road map to write a research proposal. so thanks a lot. If there is any update material on your hand on MBA please forward to me.

Ahmed Khalil

GradCoach is a professional website that presents support and helps for MBA student like me through the useful online information on the page and with my 1-on-1 online coaching with the amazing and professional PhD Kerryen.

Thank you Kerryen so much for the support and help 🙂

I really recommend dealing with such a reliable services provider like Gradcoah and a coach like Kerryen.


Hi, Am happy for your service and effort to help students and researchers, Please, i have been given an assignment on research for strategic development, the task one is to formulate a research proposal to support the strategic development of a business area, my issue here is how to go about it, especially the topic or title and introduction. Please, i would like to know if you could help me and how much is the charge.

Marcos A. López Figueroa

This content is practical, valuable, and just great!

Thank you very much!

Eric Rwigamba

Hi Derek, Thank you for the valuable presentation. It is very helpful especially for beginners like me. I am just starting my PhD.


This is quite instructive and research proposal made simple. Can I have a research proposal template?

Mathew Yokie Musa

Great! Thanks for rescuing me, because I had no former knowledge in this topic. But with this piece of information, I am now secured. Thank you once more.

Chulekazi Bula

I enjoyed listening to your video on how to write a proposal. I think I will be able to write a winning proposal with your advice. I wish you were to be my supervisor.

Mohammad Ajmal Shirzad

Dear Derek Jansen,

Thank you for your great content. I couldn’t learn these topics in MBA, but now I learned from GradCoach. Really appreciate your efforts….

From Afghanistan!

Mulugeta Yilma

I have got very essential inputs for startup of my dissertation proposal. Well organized properly communicated with video presentation. Thank you for the presentation.

Siphesihle Macu

Wow, this is absolutely amazing guys. Thank you so much for the fruitful presentation, you’ve made my research much easier.


this helps me a lot. thank you all so much for impacting in us. may god richly bless you all

June Pretzer

How I wish I’d learn about Grad Coach earlier. I’ve been stumbling around writing and rewriting! Now I have concise clear directions on how to put this thing together. Thank you!


Fantastic!! Thank You for this very concise yet comprehensive guidance.

Fikiru Bekele

Even if I am poor in English I would like to thank you very much.

Rachel Offeibea Nyarko

Thank you very much, this is very insightful.

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  • What Is a Research Design | Types, Guide & Examples

What Is a Research Design | Types, Guide & Examples

Published on June 7, 2021 by Shona McCombes . Revised on November 20, 2023 by Pritha Bhandari.

A research design is a strategy for answering your   research question  using empirical data. Creating a research design means making decisions about:

  • Your overall research objectives and approach
  • Whether you’ll rely on primary research or secondary research
  • Your sampling methods or criteria for selecting subjects
  • Your data collection methods
  • The procedures you’ll follow to collect data
  • Your data analysis methods

A well-planned research design helps ensure that your methods match your research objectives and that you use the right kind of analysis for your data.

Table of contents

Step 1: consider your aims and approach, step 2: choose a type of research design, step 3: identify your population and sampling method, step 4: choose your data collection methods, step 5: plan your data collection procedures, step 6: decide on your data analysis strategies, other interesting articles, frequently asked questions about research design.

  • Introduction

Before you can start designing your research, you should already have a clear idea of the research question you want to investigate.

There are many different ways you could go about answering this question. Your research design choices should be driven by your aims and priorities—start by thinking carefully about what you want to achieve.

The first choice you need to make is whether you’ll take a qualitative or quantitative approach.

Qualitative approach Quantitative approach
and describe frequencies, averages, and correlations about relationships between variables

Qualitative research designs tend to be more flexible and inductive , allowing you to adjust your approach based on what you find throughout the research process.

Quantitative research designs tend to be more fixed and deductive , with variables and hypotheses clearly defined in advance of data collection.

It’s also possible to use a mixed-methods design that integrates aspects of both approaches. By combining qualitative and quantitative insights, you can gain a more complete picture of the problem you’re studying and strengthen the credibility of your conclusions.

Practical and ethical considerations when designing research

As well as scientific considerations, you need to think practically when designing your research. If your research involves people or animals, you also need to consider research ethics .

  • How much time do you have to collect data and write up the research?
  • Will you be able to gain access to the data you need (e.g., by travelling to a specific location or contacting specific people)?
  • Do you have the necessary research skills (e.g., statistical analysis or interview techniques)?
  • Will you need ethical approval ?

At each stage of the research design process, make sure that your choices are practically feasible.

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Within both qualitative and quantitative approaches, there are several types of research design to choose from. Each type provides a framework for the overall shape of your research.

Types of quantitative research designs

Quantitative designs can be split into four main types.

  • Experimental and   quasi-experimental designs allow you to test cause-and-effect relationships
  • Descriptive and correlational designs allow you to measure variables and describe relationships between them.
Type of design Purpose and characteristics
Experimental relationships effect on a
Quasi-experimental )

With descriptive and correlational designs, you can get a clear picture of characteristics, trends and relationships as they exist in the real world. However, you can’t draw conclusions about cause and effect (because correlation doesn’t imply causation ).

Experiments are the strongest way to test cause-and-effect relationships without the risk of other variables influencing the results. However, their controlled conditions may not always reflect how things work in the real world. They’re often also more difficult and expensive to implement.

Types of qualitative research designs

Qualitative designs are less strictly defined. This approach is about gaining a rich, detailed understanding of a specific context or phenomenon, and you can often be more creative and flexible in designing your research.

The table below shows some common types of qualitative design. They often have similar approaches in terms of data collection, but focus on different aspects when analyzing the data.

Type of design Purpose and characteristics
Grounded theory

Your research design should clearly define who or what your research will focus on, and how you’ll go about choosing your participants or subjects.

In research, a population is the entire group that you want to draw conclusions about, while a sample is the smaller group of individuals you’ll actually collect data from.

Defining the population

A population can be made up of anything you want to study—plants, animals, organizations, texts, countries, etc. In the social sciences, it most often refers to a group of people.

For example, will you focus on people from a specific demographic, region or background? Are you interested in people with a certain job or medical condition, or users of a particular product?

The more precisely you define your population, the easier it will be to gather a representative sample.

  • Sampling methods

Even with a narrowly defined population, it’s rarely possible to collect data from every individual. Instead, you’ll collect data from a sample.

To select a sample, there are two main approaches: probability sampling and non-probability sampling . The sampling method you use affects how confidently you can generalize your results to the population as a whole.

Probability sampling Non-probability sampling

Probability sampling is the most statistically valid option, but it’s often difficult to achieve unless you’re dealing with a very small and accessible population.

For practical reasons, many studies use non-probability sampling, but it’s important to be aware of the limitations and carefully consider potential biases. You should always make an effort to gather a sample that’s as representative as possible of the population.

Case selection in qualitative research

In some types of qualitative designs, sampling may not be relevant.

For example, in an ethnography or a case study , your aim is to deeply understand a specific context, not to generalize to a population. Instead of sampling, you may simply aim to collect as much data as possible about the context you are studying.

In these types of design, you still have to carefully consider your choice of case or community. You should have a clear rationale for why this particular case is suitable for answering your research question .

For example, you might choose a case study that reveals an unusual or neglected aspect of your research problem, or you might choose several very similar or very different cases in order to compare them.

Data collection methods are ways of directly measuring variables and gathering information. They allow you to gain first-hand knowledge and original insights into your research problem.

You can choose just one data collection method, or use several methods in the same study.

Survey methods

Surveys allow you to collect data about opinions, behaviors, experiences, and characteristics by asking people directly. There are two main survey methods to choose from: questionnaires and interviews .

Questionnaires Interviews

Observation methods

Observational studies allow you to collect data unobtrusively, observing characteristics, behaviors or social interactions without relying on self-reporting.

Observations may be conducted in real time, taking notes as you observe, or you might make audiovisual recordings for later analysis. They can be qualitative or quantitative.

Quantitative observation

Other methods of data collection

There are many other ways you might collect data depending on your field and topic.

Field Examples of data collection methods
Media & communication Collecting a sample of texts (e.g., speeches, articles, or social media posts) for data on cultural norms and narratives
Psychology Using technologies like neuroimaging, eye-tracking, or computer-based tasks to collect data on things like attention, emotional response, or reaction time
Education Using tests or assignments to collect data on knowledge and skills
Physical sciences Using scientific instruments to collect data on things like weight, blood pressure, or chemical composition

If you’re not sure which methods will work best for your research design, try reading some papers in your field to see what kinds of data collection methods they used.

Secondary data

If you don’t have the time or resources to collect data from the population you’re interested in, you can also choose to use secondary data that other researchers already collected—for example, datasets from government surveys or previous studies on your topic.

With this raw data, you can do your own analysis to answer new research questions that weren’t addressed by the original study.

Using secondary data can expand the scope of your research, as you may be able to access much larger and more varied samples than you could collect yourself.

However, it also means you don’t have any control over which variables to measure or how to measure them, so the conclusions you can draw may be limited.

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As well as deciding on your methods, you need to plan exactly how you’ll use these methods to collect data that’s consistent, accurate, and unbiased.

Planning systematic procedures is especially important in quantitative research, where you need to precisely define your variables and ensure your measurements are high in reliability and validity.


Some variables, like height or age, are easily measured. But often you’ll be dealing with more abstract concepts, like satisfaction, anxiety, or competence. Operationalization means turning these fuzzy ideas into measurable indicators.

If you’re using observations , which events or actions will you count?

If you’re using surveys , which questions will you ask and what range of responses will be offered?

You may also choose to use or adapt existing materials designed to measure the concept you’re interested in—for example, questionnaires or inventories whose reliability and validity has already been established.

Reliability and validity

Reliability means your results can be consistently reproduced, while validity means that you’re actually measuring the concept you’re interested in.

Reliability Validity
) )

For valid and reliable results, your measurement materials should be thoroughly researched and carefully designed. Plan your procedures to make sure you carry out the same steps in the same way for each participant.

If you’re developing a new questionnaire or other instrument to measure a specific concept, running a pilot study allows you to check its validity and reliability in advance.

Sampling procedures

As well as choosing an appropriate sampling method , you need a concrete plan for how you’ll actually contact and recruit your selected sample.

That means making decisions about things like:

  • How many participants do you need for an adequate sample size?
  • What inclusion and exclusion criteria will you use to identify eligible participants?
  • How will you contact your sample—by mail, online, by phone, or in person?

If you’re using a probability sampling method , it’s important that everyone who is randomly selected actually participates in the study. How will you ensure a high response rate?

If you’re using a non-probability method , how will you avoid research bias and ensure a representative sample?

Data management

It’s also important to create a data management plan for organizing and storing your data.

Will you need to transcribe interviews or perform data entry for observations? You should anonymize and safeguard any sensitive data, and make sure it’s backed up regularly.

Keeping your data well-organized will save time when it comes to analyzing it. It can also help other researchers validate and add to your findings (high replicability ).

On its own, raw data can’t answer your research question. The last step of designing your research is planning how you’ll analyze the data.

Quantitative data analysis

In quantitative research, you’ll most likely use some form of statistical analysis . With statistics, you can summarize your sample data, make estimates, and test hypotheses.

Using descriptive statistics , you can summarize your sample data in terms of:

  • The distribution of the data (e.g., the frequency of each score on a test)
  • The central tendency of the data (e.g., the mean to describe the average score)
  • The variability of the data (e.g., the standard deviation to describe how spread out the scores are)

The specific calculations you can do depend on the level of measurement of your variables.

Using inferential statistics , you can:

  • Make estimates about the population based on your sample data.
  • Test hypotheses about a relationship between variables.

Regression and correlation tests look for associations between two or more variables, while comparison tests (such as t tests and ANOVAs ) look for differences in the outcomes of different groups.

Your choice of statistical test depends on various aspects of your research design, including the types of variables you’re dealing with and the distribution of your data.

Qualitative data analysis

In qualitative research, your data will usually be very dense with information and ideas. Instead of summing it up in numbers, you’ll need to comb through the data in detail, interpret its meanings, identify patterns, and extract the parts that are most relevant to your research question.

Two of the most common approaches to doing this are thematic analysis and discourse analysis .

Approach Characteristics
Thematic analysis
Discourse analysis

There are many other ways of analyzing qualitative data depending on the aims of your research. To get a sense of potential approaches, try reading some qualitative research papers in your field.

If you want to know more about the research process , methodology , research bias , or statistics , make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples.

  • Simple random sampling
  • Stratified sampling
  • Cluster sampling
  • Likert scales
  • Reproducibility


  • Null hypothesis
  • Statistical power
  • Probability distribution
  • Effect size
  • Poisson distribution

Research bias

  • Optimism bias
  • Cognitive bias
  • Implicit bias
  • Hawthorne effect
  • Anchoring bias
  • Explicit bias

A research design is a strategy for answering your   research question . It defines your overall approach and determines how you will collect and analyze data.

A well-planned research design helps ensure that your methods match your research aims, that you collect high-quality data, and that you use the right kind of analysis to answer your questions, utilizing credible sources . This allows you to draw valid , trustworthy conclusions.

Quantitative research designs can be divided into two main categories:

  • Correlational and descriptive designs are used to investigate characteristics, averages, trends, and associations between variables.
  • Experimental and quasi-experimental designs are used to test causal relationships .

Qualitative research designs tend to be more flexible. Common types of qualitative design include case study , ethnography , and grounded theory designs.

The priorities of a research design can vary depending on the field, but you usually have to specify:

  • Your research questions and/or hypotheses
  • Your overall approach (e.g., qualitative or quantitative )
  • The type of design you’re using (e.g., a survey , experiment , or case study )
  • Your data collection methods (e.g., questionnaires , observations)
  • Your data collection procedures (e.g., operationalization , timing and data management)
  • Your data analysis methods (e.g., statistical tests  or thematic analysis )

A sample is a subset of individuals from a larger population . Sampling means selecting the group that you will actually collect data from in your research. For example, if you are researching the opinions of students in your university, you could survey a sample of 100 students.

In statistics, sampling allows you to test a hypothesis about the characteristics of a population.

Operationalization means turning abstract conceptual ideas into measurable observations.

For example, the concept of social anxiety isn’t directly observable, but it can be operationally defined in terms of self-rating scores, behavioral avoidance of crowded places, or physical anxiety symptoms in social situations.

Before collecting data , it’s important to consider how you will operationalize the variables that you want to measure.

A research project is an academic, scientific, or professional undertaking to answer a research question . Research projects can take many forms, such as qualitative or quantitative , descriptive , longitudinal , experimental , or correlational . What kind of research approach you choose will depend on your topic.

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  • Key Differences

Know the Differences & Comparisons

Difference Between Research Proposal and Research Report


On the other hand, a research report is the culmination of the research endeavour. It is a great way to explain the research work and its outcome to a group of people. It is the outcome of the study conducted at the time of the research process.

This article will help you understand the difference between research proposal and research report.

Content: Research Proposal Vs Research Report

Comparison chart.

Basis for ComparisonResearch ProposalResearch Report
MeaningResearch proposal refers to a brief and cogent synopsis of the proposed research in a written form.Research Report refers to a document that systematically, coherently and methodically presents the research work in a written form.
Written inFuture TensePast Tense
PreparationAt the beginning of the projectAfter the completion of the project
LengthShortComparatively long
Deals withProblem or topic to be investigated.Results of the completed research work.
DeterminesWhat will be researched, why the research is important and how the researched will be conducted?What is researched, what sources are used to collect data, how the data is collected, what are the findings, what are the recommendations for future research?
ChaptersIntroduction, Literature Review, Research MethodologyIntroduction, Literature Review, Research Methodology, Results, Interpretation and Analysis, Conclusion and Recommendation

Definition of Research Proposal

Research Proposal can be defined as the document prepared by the researcher so as to give a description of the research program in detail. It is typically a request for research funding, for the subject under study. In other words, a research proposal is a summary of the research process, with which the reader can get quick information regarding the research project.

The research proposal seeks final approval, for which it is submitted to the relevant authority. After the research proposal is submitted, it is being evaluated, considering a number of factors like the cost involved, potential impact, soundness of the plan to undertake the project.

It aims at presenting and justifying the need and importance to carry out the study, as well as to present the practical ways, of conducting the research. And for this, persuasive evidence should be provided in the research proposal, to highlight the necessity of the research.

Further, it must discuss the main issues and questions, which the researcher will address in the study. Along with that, it must highlight the fundamental area of the research study.

A research proposal can be prepared in a number of formats, which differs on the basis of their length. It contains an introduction, problem hypothesis, objectives, assumptions, methodology, justification and implication of the research project.

Definition of Research Report

Research Report can be defined as the document in which the researched and analysed data is organized and presented by the researcher in a systematic manner. It is a publication, comprising of the purpose, scope, hypothesis, methodology, findings, limitations, recommendations and conclusion of the research project.

Simply put, a research report is the record of the research process. It is one of the most important segments of the research, as the research work is said to be incomplete if the report is not prepared.

A research report is a document containing collected and considered facts, taken to provide succinct and comprehensible information to people.

Once the research process is over, the entire work is produced in a written material, which is called a research report . It covers the description of the research activities, in an elaborated manner. It contains Introduction, Literature Review, Methodology, Data Collection, Data Analysis, Discussion of Results and Findings, Bibliography and Appendices.

A research report acts as a method to record the research work and its outcome, for future reference.

Key Differences Between Research Proposal and Research Report

The difference between research proposal and research report is discussed as under:

  • A research proposal signifies a theoretical framework within which the research is carried out. In finer terms, a research proposal is a sketch for the collection, measurement and analysis of data. A research report implies a scientific write-up on the research findings, which is prepared in a specific format.
  • While the preparation of a research proposal is considered as the first step to research work, preparation of a research report is the final step to the research work.
  • A research proposal is prepared at the beginning of the project. In contrast, the research report is prepared after the completion of the project
  • A research proposal is written in the future tense, whereas the tense used in the research report is past tense, as well as it is written in the third person
  • The length of a research proposal is about 4-10 pages. On the contrary, the length of the research report is about 100 to 300 pages.
  • The research proposal is concerned with the problem or topic to be investigated. Conversely, the research report focuses on the results of the completed research work.
  • The research proposal determines what will be researched, the relevance of the research and the ways to conduct the researched. As against, the research report determines what is researched, sources of data collection, ways of data collection (i.e. survey, interview, or questionnaire), result and findings, recommendations for future research, etc.
  • Research Proposal includes three chapters i.e. Introduction, Literature Review, Research Methodology. Contrastingly, Research Report covers the following chapters – Introduction, Literature Review, Research Methodology, Results, Interpretation and Analysis, Conclusion and Recommendation.

Basically, a research proposal defines the planning stage of the research work, which is prepared in written format, to know its worth. On the other hand, the research report signifies the concluding stage of the research work.

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What'S The Difference Between A Project And A Research Project?

What'S The Difference Between A Project And A Research Project?

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However, the main difference is that while an academic research proposal is for a specific line of research, a project proposal is for approval of a relatively smaller enterprise or scientific scheme; most often, project proposals are written with the intent of obtaining support in the form of budget penalties and permission to devote time and effort to the chosen project. Here it must be remembered that the forms, procedures and principles of academic research proposals are much more rigorous than for project proposals; it goes without saying that even the standard is much more demanding than in the project proposals. 

While format, length, and content may vary, the overall goal of academic research proposals and project proposals remains the same: approval by supervisors, academic committees, or reviews . This article will discuss the complexities of academic research proposals and project proposals, thereby helping readers understand the differences between the two. The following steps describe a simple and effective research paper writing strategy.  You will most likely start your research with a working, preliminary, or preliminary thesis, which you will refine until you are sure where the evidence leads. The thesis says what you believe and what you are going to prove. Good thesis statement distinguishes a thoughtful research project from a mere review of the facts. A good experimental thesis will help you focus your search for information. 

Before embarking on serious research, do some preliminary research to determine if there is enough information for your needs and to set the context for your research. Now that the direction of your research is clear to you, you can start searching for material on your topic. Choose a topic on which you can find an acceptable amount of information.  People wishing to publish the results of a quality assurance project should read this guide. Worksheets for assessing whether a quality assurance activity is also exploratory The following are two worksheets to help researchers determine whether to consult with the IRB before starting a quality assurance project. 

The main similarity between a thesis and a research project is that both can be inserted as academic papers. To understand the difference between a thesis and a research project, it is necessary to understand the similarities between the two terms. A dissertation is much more thorough than a research project; is a collection of various studies carried out in the field of study, which includes a critical analysis of their results. It aims to present and justify the necessity and importance of conducting research, as well as to present practical ways of conducting research. In addition, he should discuss the main issues and questions that the researcher will raise during the course of the study. Take on a topic that can be adequately covered in the given project format. A strong thesis is provocative; takes a stand and justifies the discussion you present. 

It contains the introduction, problematic hypothesis, objectives, hypothesis, methodology, rationale, and implications of the research project. The information collected during the study culminates in an application document such as policy recommendations, curriculum development, or program evaluation. The purpose of a design study is to collect information that will help solve an identifiable problem in a specific context. The purpose of design research is not to add to our understanding of research on a topic. The key difference between design research and a dissertation is that design research does not start from a research problem. The main difference between a terminating project and a thesis is that a terminating project addresses a specific problem, problem, or problem in your field of study, while a dissertation attempts to create new knowledge. The final project focuses on a narrow and specific topic, while the dissertation addresses a broader and more general issue. 

The main difference between projects and programs is usually that projects are designed to produce results while programs are designed to achieve business results. Obviously, there are some similarities between projects and programs, namely that they are both interested in change, i.e., in creating something new, and both require the use of a team to achieve a goal. To make the difference between project and programme more concrete, let's look at a practical example of the difference between project and programme. But to understand the difference, you need to start by understanding the definitions of projects and programmes. In a project portfolio, each project is responsible for managing multiple projects. The figure also highlights the differences between the project management level and the program and portfolio. 

Program Managers Project Managers Program Managers create the overall plans that are used to manage projects. Project management has a defined timeline with a defined deliverable that determines the end date. The program manager defines the vision, which is especially important when he oversees several projects at the same time. Program managers need to think strategically, especially as they often have to negotiate between different organizations and sometimes between multiple projects interacting over a program. Indeed, some of these projects can be so large and complex that they are programs in their own right. Thus, our software projects will only be one of the projects controlled by the program. Project Report Research Report Mainly focuses on achieving the desired outcome of the project. The focus is on providing information derived from data and problem analysis. A project report, as the name suggests, is simply a report that provides useful and important information to make better business decisions and also helps in project management. 

Conversely, a research report defines what is being sought, sources of data collection, how data is collected (for example, a research report focuses on the results of a completed research work. The research proposal has been submitted, evaluated, taking into account a number of factors, such as the associated costs , potential impact, soundness of the project implementation plan This is usually a request for research funding on the subject of study.  Instead, the research report is prepared after the project is completed. The research proposal is written in the future, the time used in the research report is past because it is written in the third person. Research proposals are approximately 4-10 pages in length. On the other hand, research consists of proving the main thesis backed up by evidence and data. Originality and personal research are important components of a dissertation. This dissertation engages the student in stimulating or provocative research and shows a level of thinking that opens up new horizons. Researching and writing an article will be more enjoyable if you are writing about something interesting. 


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Difference between a Research Proposal and a Synopsis

  • September 5, 2022
  • Research Paper Writing , Thesis Writing , YouTube Journal
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research proposal

In the beginning, we can say that a summary is a brief, compact overview of the main points in a longer document. The purpose is to give readers an idea of what’s in the full-length document without reading it all & how to write synopsis. A synopsis for thesis can be a shorter version of your document that’s designed to give readers an overview of your ideas and conclusions. A research proposal is a formal document that outlines the scope and direction of an academic study or research project. It includes a plan for how you will collect data and analyze it, as well as how you will present your results with un understanding the difference between research proposal and synopsis

An Overview of both Documents:  

Synopsis vs Research Proposal 

A synopsis is a short form of your full research proposal and is just the introduction to the report. It convinces readers that you understand their problem and can provide a solution. 

A research proposal is a detailed plan of how you will conduct your study. The research proposal includes a study design, which includes the specific questions that need to be answered, sampling strategy, data collection methods, analysis plan and reporting format. 

How to write a Synopsis?  

A synopsis for thesis is a brief, concise description of your paper. With learning how to write synopsis, communicate the main ideas and arguments in your paper and to tell someone else what you’re going to say. A good synopsis is a way for you to organize your ideas before you write the whole thing, and it helps others determine if they want to read further. 

A synopsis for thesis is a summary of your article. It should be written in the following format: 

  • Title of your book or article (in bold) 
  • Author’s name and contact details (in italics) 
  • The main idea of your article or book (in bold) 
  • Introduction (optional) 
  • Body (in bold) 
  • Conclusion (optional) 

How to write a Research Proposal?  

Research Proposal – It is a document in which you state your thesis and goals, along with the method and rationale for your research. A thesis statement is the single most important part of a research proposal. It should be clear, concise, and specific. 

The main purpose of this proposal is to get funding for your research. The proposal should also demonstrate how well-equipped you are to do the research. 

This proposal aims to develop a new way of understanding the world through a systematic and comprehensive analysis of how society learns about the world. 

This paper will focus on how people make sense of the w around them by using tools such as languages, maps, technology and science, thereby contributing to our ability to understand our surroundings. 

Difference between a Research Proposal and a Synopsis for thesis:  

The basic difference between a research proposal and a synopsis is that the former is more in-depth, whereas the latter is more condensed. However, this does not mean that researchers should not write synopses for their publications. To do so is to miss out on useful information that can be added later. 

The advantage of writing a synopsis is that it provides a reader with an overview of your research project without having to read through large amounts of text. It also helps to explain your research topic and why it is relevant. A synopsis will help you decide whether or not your topic is worth pursuing further by ensuring that there are enough sources available for you to continue your research. 

What is the purpose of our research proposal?  

The purpose of the research proposal is to convince your advisor or committee that there is enough merit in your proposal to justify their funding of the project and their time reviewing it. A good proposal will include: 

  • An overview of the problem or question you are addressing 
  • A detailed description of how you plan to address this question or solve this problem 
  • A clear statement of what evidence supports your claim and how you will use this evidence to support your claim 
  • A discussion about how well-known and accepted methods can be used as part of this work (this is called quantitative analysis). 

research paper writing

Why do people confuse the two?  

In the first place, a research proposal is not a synopsis. A summary should be brief and to the point, while a research proposal would have all of your data and evidence lined up on one page. 

A synopsis for thesis is written in the first-person voice and focuses on the story’s main points without delving too far into details. A synopsis can help readers get an idea of what you’re writing about or help them find information on a particular topic. It’s often used in book sales to determine if they have enough information on their hands to sell your book or not. 

An academic or professional author writes a research proposal as part of their job. It is meant to provide evidence that supports their argument through data and statistical analysis. 

Tips for writing a Research Proposal flawlessly:  

  • Writing a research proposal is not as easy as it seems. You must choose the right topic and then write the proposal in a way that will convince your reader of your ability to carry out the research. 
  • The first step in writing a research proposal is to select an area of study or research in which you are interested. If you have any previous experience with this topic, consider using it as part of your proposal. If not, find someone with previous experience in the field and ask them for their advice. 
  • Once you have decided on a topic, begin by writing down what you know about this area of interest. This can include anything from books or articles to news stories or television shows that have aired about the topic. Ensure all relevant information about this topic, including key terms or definitions. 
  • Once you have written down everything you know about your topic, it’s time to develop an outline for your dissertation proposal. An outline is an organised list of topics that will make up each chapter of your dissertation proposal and should include subtopics within each topic area (for example, introduction, background information; objectives; methods; data collection). 

The more important your paper, the more likely you’ll need to write a research proposal and a synopsis. A research proposal is usually the first step in the writing process, an overview of the topic you plan to tackle later. A synopsis, on the other hand, is a concise summary of the content of your paper. We hope this blog has given you a proper explanation for understanding the differences.   

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Watch CBS News

Trump is proposing a 10% tariff. Economists say that amounts to a $1,700 tax on Americans.

By Aimee Picchi

Edited By Alain Sherter

Updated on: June 20, 2024 / 1:13 PM EDT / CBS News

Former President Donald Trump is pledging to supercharge one of his signature trade policies — tariffs — if he's re-elected this November, by imposing 10% across-the-board levies on all products imported into the U.S. from overseas. The idea, he has said , is to protect American jobs as well as raise more revenue to offset an extension of his 2017 tax cuts.

But that proposal would likely backfire, effectively acting as a tax on U.S. consumers, economists spanning the political spectrum say. If the tariffs are enacted — with Trump also proposing a levy of 60% or more on Chinese imports — a typical middle-class household in the U.S. would face an estimated $1,700 a year in additional costs,  according  to the non-partisan Peterson Institute for International Economics. 

Meanwhile, the left-leaning Center on American Progress has also crunched the numbers  and projects roughly $1,500 per year in extra costs for the typical household. The reason, according to experts: Companies in the U.S. that import goods from abroad typically pass the cost of tariffs onto American consumers; relatedly, domestic manufacturers then often raise their own prices. 

Who would pay the price?

The biggest impact of higher import tariffs would likely fall on low- and middle-income consumers because they spend a larger share of their income on goods and services than wealthier Americans, according to Kimberly Clausing and Mary Lovely of the Peterson Institute. 

"If you are an economist, you know right away that tariffs are taxes. If you put a tariff on imported goods, it means they become more expensive" and competitors can raise their prices, Clausing told CBS MoneyWatch. 

Trump is selling "snake oil," added Lovely. "It's really on steroids, and you have to speak a little louder and say, 'This is really going to affect you'." 

The bottom line, both Clausing and Lovely said, is that Trump's tariff proposals would likely boost consumer prices, a concern after two years of surging inflation. The typical American household would feel the biggest pinch through materials and goods bought by U.S. companies, such as lumber for construction, and which would be passed onto them through $610 in additional annual costs, the Center on American Progress analysis estimated. 

Middle-class households would also pay $220 more a year for cars and other vehicles, $120 more for gas and other oil products, and $90 a year in additional food costs, according to the policy analysis firm. 

Trump campaign spokesman Steven Cheung didn't respond to requests for comment.

Tariffs have long been used to advance U.S. trade policies by both the right and left, as well as to curry favor with labor unions. And Americans generally support tariffs because they believe they protect U.S. jobs from overseas manufacturers.

In practice, policymakers tend to apply targeted tariffs that serve to protect a specific industry or product. For instance, President Joe Biden last month instituted a  new tariff on Chinese electric vehicles, semiconductors, batteries, solar cells, steel and aluminum. The goal is to prevent China from  undercutting U.S. companies  and threatening domestic manufacturing jobs, according to the Biden administration. 

"The basic thing is that people view tariffs as job saving, and say, 'It'll cost me a little more and I want to do that because I want to help steelworkers'," Lovely said. But, she added, "We see a lot of misunderstanding about how trade works and what tariffs mean for people."

Do tariffs protect jobs?

Lovely and Clausing point to existing evidence about the impact of tariffs enacted by Trump during his presidency, when he put  levies on Chinese goods as well as Mexican products.  But rather than protect employment, offshoring of U.S. jobs continued during the Trump presidency, according to Reuters, citing Labor Department data. 

"People are being sold a bill of goods, but the data shows it's not helping them in their daily lives," Clausing said. "That's the hard thing about being an economist — everything lines up and people say, 'No, tariffs seem good'."

Noted MIT economist David Autor and his co-authors  said  in a January research paper that Trump's 2018-2019 trade war "has not to date provided economic help to the U.S. heartland," failing to raise employment in protected sectors. In fact, retaliatory tariffs from countries targeted by the Trump administration had the effect of "clear negative employment impacts, primarily in agriculture," Autor found. 

The one success of Trump's trade war, Autor concluded, was political. "Residents of regions more exposed to import tariffs became less likely to identify as Democrats, more likely to vote to reelect Donald Trump in 2020 and more likely to elect Republicans to Congress," the researchers wrote. 

It's likely that many Americans didn't notice the price increases during the Trump 2018-19 trade war because they were more targeted than a 10% across-the-board tariff would be, Lovely and Clausing said. 

"If you look at set of imports targeted by Trump in his presidency, it was maybe one-tenth of trade, and companies like Walmart might have spread out some of that pricing increase across goods, so it's really non-transparent," Clausing said. "My prediction is that if the worst happens and he puts a 10% tariff on everything, people will notice that."

  • Donald Trump

Aimee Picchi is the associate managing editor for CBS MoneyWatch, where she covers business and personal finance. She previously worked at Bloomberg News and has written for national news outlets including USA Today and Consumer Reports.

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blue and orange image of the Capitol building with text "Project 2025"

Research/Study Research/Study

Inside Project 2025's attack on reproductive rights: IVF

Special Programs Abortion Rights & Reproductive Health

Written by Sophie Lawton , Jacina Hollins-Borges & John Knefel

Published 06/24/24 1:30 PM EDT

At least 22 partner organizations of Project 2025, a coalition of over 100 conservative groups looking to staff the next potential administration of former President Donald Trump, have publicly criticized in vitro fertilization, according to a Media Matters review.

Project 2025 is organized by conservative think tank The Heritage Foundation, and has laid out a radical plan for governance during a second Trump term. The initiative's wide-ranging policy proposals are laid out in its “ Mandate for Leadership ,” a staunchly anti-choice document. Although the Mandate itself doesn’t mention IVF, Heritage has published several pieces opposing the procedure and celebrated a ruling by the Alabama Supreme Court that extended de facto personhood rights to frozen embryos, severely curtailing access to IVF. After abrupt political backlash , Alabama’s governor passed a law protecting IVF providers from legal liability, which some Project 2025 partner organizations have criticized for rendering the original “fetal personhood” ruling moot.

The organizations and individuals associated with Project 2025 who oppose IVF have raised various objections, none of which are scientifically or medically sound. Some opponents, for example, have elided the difference between the legal definition of “viable” — like that used by Louisiana, which has the most restrictive anti-IVF laws in the country — and the medical definition. Louisiana allows IVF but prohibits the destruction of embryos, forcing fertility clinics to ship them to other states for storage. These organizations will often point out that despite this law, Louisiana has more babies born through IVF than Alabama, though they fail to mention that both states have some of the lowest rates of IVF births in the country.

Similarly, some partner organizations have suggested following European countries' leads in regulating IVF, several of them naming Italy as a suitable example. Italy once had laws classifying embryos as living people and severely regulating IVF procedures; all of them were repealed after IVF became more difficult to access and less likely to succeed.

Other Project 2025 associates have argued that IVF is a form of eugenics or that it will lead to cloning or extreme forms of genetic modification and experimentation. Still others have baselessly claimed that IVF is underregulated, ignoring the multiple federal and state guidelines and licensing requirements that providers must meet. 

For the full report on Project 2025's attack on reproductive rights, click  here .

Select a Partner Organization

The heritage foundation, alabama policy institute, alliance defending freedom, the american conservative, american family association, american principles project, americans united for life, amac action, california family council, concerned women for america, discovery institute, eagle forum, ethics and public policy center, family policy alliance, family research council, independent women’s forum, dr. james dobson family institute, liberty university, media research center, mississippi center for public policy, students for life of america, susan b. anthony pro-life america, turning point usa.

  • In a post to X, The Heritage Foundation appeared to express support for the Alabama IVF ruling, writing, “FACT: The Alabama Supreme Court decision does not threaten access to IVF,” and claiming that the decision “reassures parents” that frozen embryos will be safer.  [Twitter/X, 3/7/24 ]
  • Senior legal fellow Thomas Jipping wrote that the Alabama Supreme Court ruling on embryos that imperiled IVF “got it right” and further suggested that abortion should not be legal.  Jipping also denied the ruling is “an attack on IVF technology itself ... or could have revolutionary ripple effects,” belittling “the media, politicians, and activists” who discussed the ruling’s consequences. He concluded that while this case was about destroyed embryos, “causing the death of an unborn child by abortion is legal [in] more than half of the United States.” [The Heritage Foundation, 4/2/24 ]

The Heritage Foundation's Emma Waters has written extensively against assisted reproductive technologies, particularly IVF and surrogacy. Her opposition draws on unsubstantiated concerns about possible harms to children who lack access to both biological parents and on biblical teaching about proper procreation. [Media Matters, 3/1/24 , 4/2/24 ] 

In a March article titled “Why the IVF Industry Must Be Regulated,” Waters laid out policy recommendations that would impose heavy medical restrictions on IVF and make the procedure more difficult for couples to access and harder for facilities to perform. [Media Matters, 3/19/24 ]

In an article describing her biblical reasoning for not supporting IVF, Waters argued that it is important for Protestants specifically to “take a firm and authoritative stance on reproductive technology” because “Protestants necessarily hold a central place in America’s political and institutional life.” [The Heritage Foundation, 1/24/24 ]

Waters celebrated the Alabama Supreme Court ruling on IVF, calling it “an unqualified victory” and claiming “parents should be grateful that their embryos will receive greater protection.” In another piece on the ruling, Waters suggested states adopt stricter laws around IVF procedures, like those that exist in some European countries. [The Heritage Foundation, 2/27/24 , 2/28/24 ]

In a 2023 article, Waters complained about a California bill that would allow single parents or same-sex couples to access IVF through their health care service plans, stating, “No amount of technology or health insurance coverage can alter God’s created order.” She also claimed that allowing more widespread use of IVF procedures would create a “human trafficking market.” [The Heritage Foundation, 6/20/23 ]

Waters repeated her complaints about LGBTQ couples using IVF and other assisted reproductive technologies in another article titled “Radical ‘Right to Build Families Act’ Would Unleash IVF and Commercial Surrogacy.” In the article, Waters claimed that “the pro-abortion and the LGBTQ coalitions” are pushing assisted reproductive technologies, writing that both coalitions “have been quite hostile to the rights of children and the unborn.” [The Heritage Foundation, 1/13/23 ]

In an interview with the Family Policy Alliance, Alabama Policy Institute president and CEO Stephanie Smith claimed, “The Alabama Supreme Court ruled — correctly, in our opinion — that those embryos were children and should be treated as children under our wrongful death statutes.” Referencing Louisiana’s strict IVF laws, she went on to suggest new parameters that would make the treatment more difficult to receive. [YouTube, 2/29/24, 2/29/24 ]

API released a joint statement with Susan B. Anthony Pro-Life America criticizing Alabama’s stop-gap measure to protect providers of IVF from criminal charges. The statement said, “It is unacceptable the Alabama Legislature has advanced a bill that falls short of pro-life expectations and fails to respect the dignity of human life.” [The New York Times, 2/28/24 ]

In an article titled, “In IVF case, Alabama Supreme Court protects life from conception,” Alliance Defending Freedom senior counsel Denise Burke claimed the Alabama ruling was “a victory for life and the rights of parents.” Burke argued, “Cases like this one demonstrate that being pro-life entails more than just protecting unborn children from abortion.” [Alliance Defending Freedom, 3/18/24 ]

In a statement, Burke called the Alabama ruling “a tremendous victory” for “unborn children created through assisted reproductive technology.” [The New York Times, 2/22/24 ]

An article in the American Conservative by contributor Carmel Richardson claimed IVF is helping the “LGBT movement” distort the meaning of family. Richardson wrote, “To limit the baby-making industry is to give hard answers to those who would like a chicken in every pot and a baby in every lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender arm.” Richardson later disparaged IVF for allowing even a “transgender pedophile” to have a child. [The American Conservative, 3/1/24 ]

Contributor Christopher Brunet argued in a piece titled, “A personal IVF story” that he “should be allowed to condemn IVF” because “while one may born as the result of a rape, for example, it does not mean that they can’t condemn rape.” Brunet called IVF “the hope and despair of professional women in middle management” and “propaganda against nature, persuading a generation of collegiate women that they're not losing fertility every day after they turn 20.” Brunet also admonished Republicans for caving to pressure to support IVF, writing, “Just as there is now no going back on IVF, there is also no going back on gay marriage, civil rights, demographic replacement.” [The American Conservative, 2/28/24 ]

Them Before Us President Katy Faust published a story in The American Conservative titled “Alabama sets the stage for a Supreme Court fight over IVF,” in which she praised the Alabama ruling and claimed Louisiana has similar guidelines about embryos. Faust claimed these laws “protect children from their rampant destruction at the hands of #BigFertility” and called on conservatives to “not only challenge the baby-taking industry, but the baby-making industry.” [The American Conservative, 2/24/24 ]

In a call to action against Mississippi’s “anti-life” bill HB 1688, American Family Association claimed the bill would grant an “unrestricted right to destroy unborn children” through procedures such as IVF. The organization called it a “very bad amendment” and asked readers to contact their local lawmakers about the bill. HB 1688 would protect the right to assisted reproductive procedures in Mississippi. [American Family Association, 3/8/24 ; Mississippi Today, 3/7/24 ]

In a second call to action against Mississippi’s HB 1688, AFA Vice President Walker Wildmon stated that the bill “creates an unrestricted right to destroy unborn children as part of very broadly defined ‘treatments or procedures.’” [American Family Association, 3/11/24 ]

On his podcast At The Core , Wildmon claimed, “The ruling in Alabama had to do with wasting embryos, or dumping embryos or discarding” and went on to state “eyes are being opened to how much of a disregard as a culture we’ve had for babies with this IVF discussion.” [American Family Radio, At The Core , 2/28/24 ]

In a Facebook live panel hosted by AFA about the Alabama IVF ruling, Wildmon claimed, “An embryo is a baby,” and stated, “IVF is not being threatened here.” [Facebook, American Family Association Action, 3/1/24 ]

American Principles Project President Terry Schilling tweeted about IVF: “If America isn’t careful, we could actually create a government backed institution of buying and selling human beings. Which, I thought, we decided long ago was wrong.” American Principles Project previously tweeted a statement by Schilling where he told Republicans to “come up with reasonable policy” and that “they should come up with what they actually believe and support and stand for.” [Twitter/X, 3/7/24 , 2/27/24 ]

In a February statement posted to its website, Americans United for Life praised Sen. Cindy Hyde-Smith (R-MS) for blocking legislation that would protect the right to reproductive treatments. The statement claimed that “embryonic children are typically treated as property rather than persons” and that there is a “near-total lack of patient health and safety regulations and meaningful regulatory oversight” in the IVF industry. [Americans United for Life, 2/28/24 ]

Chief legal counsel for AUL Steve Aden spoke with The Washington Post, criticizing Trump’s statement about IVF treatments and stating that “the ethical approach to IVF is to ensure that human lives are not wantonly created and destroyed in the process.” The Post also highlights the “model legislation to limit the number of embryos created per IVF cycle” that AUL previously drafted. [The Washington Post, 2/24/24 ]

In 2022, Aden compared IVF treatments to “eugenics,” telling The Guardian he considers “most” kinds of IVF “untenable in a culture that respects all human life.” [The Guardian, 5/12/22 ]

In a piece on the Association of Mature American Citizens Action website, author John Moor suggested giving the Alabama Supreme Court credit for “having the courage” to make the ruling limiting IVF. He went on to compare a “preborn child” to people who “fall under a government protected characteristic,” claiming the government protects individuals from discrimination “based on age, mental capacity and appearance like skin color” and therefore should protect embryos as well. [AMAC Action, 3/18/24 ]

On Instagram, the California Family Council claimed, “By the numbers the IVF Industry is responsible for the loss of more embryonic life every year than the abortion industry.” [Instagram, 3/6/24 ]

In a statement on its website, the CFC claimed there are “grave moral concerns inherent to IVF,” and, “We cannot ignore the plight of our embryonic brothers and sisters.” The statement heavily doubled down on the idea that embryos are humans and advocated for the adoption of laws like those regulating IVF in Louisiana and countries like Germany, Italy, France, Poland, New Zealand, and Australia. [California Family Council, 3/8/24 ]

In 2023, CFC attacked a California bill it claimed “would require employers to provide insurance plans that cover all nonexperimental fertility treatments, including … for a surrogate hired by any couple or single person.” The CFC statement criticized the bill for expanding fertility treatments to include LGBTQ families, stating, “Children have the natural right to their biological father and mother, and they suffer tremendously in every area of life when this right is infringed upon.” [California Family Council, 6/19/23 ]

Valerie Bynog, a legislative strategist for Concerned Women for America Legislative Action Committee, wrote in a blog on the organization’s website, “An embryo … is a living being.” Bynog criticized the American IVF industry for not having laws like “many European countries” that have “common sense regulations” around IVF. [Concerned Women for America, 2/29/24 ]

Discovery Institute Chair and Senior Fellow Wesley J. Smith wrote in 2017 that IVF is lacking the “moralistic restriction” of only being used by infertile married couples, and referred to the treatment as “positive eugenics.” [Discovery Institute, 10/27/17 ]

Smith previously wrote in 2013 that IVF opens the door for “polyamorous threesomes or lesbian couples” to have children and claimed it must be stopped. He also claimed, “We already know that children born via IVF have poorer health outcomes than children conceived naturally,” and compared IVF treatments to cloning animals. [Discovery Institute, 9/26/13 ]

In a statement on its website, Eagle Forum claimed, “Other states and countries are performing IVF in ethical ways,” referencing Louisiana and European countries, and claimed Louisiana’s IVF regulations “clearly haven’t deterred fertility clinics.” The statement attacked Sen. Tammy Duckworth’s (D-IL) Access to Family Building Act, saying it expands reproductive protections too widely to include “not only IVF, but cloning, gene editing, experimentation on embryos, commercial surrogacy, ‘designer babies’, and more,” and that it removes “religious conscience protections” around IVF. [Eagle Forum, 2/29/24 ]

Appearing as a guest on a Facebook live panel hosted by the American Family Association, Eagle Forum executive director Becky Gerritson claimed the Alabama ruling “did not stop IVF, it did not regulate IVF” and told the panel that Eagle Forum is “promoting and pushing” more regulation of the IVF industry. [Facebook, American Family Association Action, 3/1/24 ] 

The Ethics and Public Policy Center published a piece on its website by fellow Patrick Brown in which he claimed that Republicans are making “a mistake” by criticizing the Alabama ruling and called for Republicans to refuse “broad progressive legislation that would make access to IVF an ‘individual right.’” Brown pushed back on calls for IVF to be an individual right, claiming that it has “weakened” the “family as an institution,” and suggested policy that would cover IVF for only “legally married couples using their own sperm and egg.” He also called the Alabama ruling a “modest” case against IVF. [Ethics and Public Policy Center, 3/2/24 ]

EPPC President Ryan Anderson published a piece titled, “The truth about Alabama’s ruling on IVF” wherein he claimed that “the media … falsely claimed IVF was about to be banned— and Republicans fell for the claim.” Anderson’s whole piece referred to IVF embryos as “frozen embryonic children” and called IVF “morally and emotionally fraught.” [Ethics and Public Policy Center, 2/28/24 ]

EPPC fellow Andrew Walker criticized Christians and pro-life Americans for not having a stronger stance against IVF. He called IVF “morally problematic” for taking sexual intercourse out of conception, breaking a “holy and inviolable seal,” and for creating embryos that won’t be used, claiming, “In Christian language, these embryos are our neighbors.” [Ethics and Public Policy Center, 2/28/24 ]

EPPC fellow Aaron Kheriaty wrote a piece for Newsweek titled “After Alabama ruling, it's time for a serious look at the ethics of the IVF industry,” in which he claimed that “there is no morally just solution” for modern IVF treatments. [Newsweek, 2/29/24 ]

In a Family Policy Alliance podcast, Director of Public Policy Joseph Kohm stated, “Each of those fertilized embryos that are frozen is a unique human life,” before praising the Alabama Supreme Court for addressing the issue of IVF. [YouTube, 2/29/24 ]

Family Research Council President Tony Perkins told The Associated Press that the Alabama Supreme Court’s decision was “a beautiful defense of life.” [The Associated Press, 2/23/24 ]

On X, Perkins asserted that Sen. Tammy Duckworth’s (D-IL) bill protecting reproductive services was “an overreach designed to advance the Democrats’ radical, Frankensteinian agenda.” He also claimed the bill would legalize “creation of animal-human hybrids (‘chimeras’)” and “trafficking and destruction of human embryos.” In a later post, Perkins pushed for more “IVF safeguards.” [Twitter/X, 2/28/24 , 2/28/24 ] 

On his podcast, Washington Watch, Perkins claimed Duckworth’s bill “raises numerous moral and bioethical issues that go far beyond ensuring the IVF issue” and again claimed it would allow the creation of human-animal hybrids. [YouTube, Washington Watch, 2/28/24 ]

On the Independent Women’s Forum’s She Thinks Podcast, Natural Womanhood editor Grace Emily Stark argued that “all across the board people, even medical professionals, have this really inflated idea of how successful IVF is that does not match reality.” [Independent Women’s Forum, She Thinks Podcast , 2/17/23 ]

On the High Noon podcast, IWF senior fellow Emily Jashinsky argued, “The pro-life movement should lead with the reality that there is a way for IVF to be done ethically where you’re not discarding embryos.” Later, host Inez Stepman asked: “Do we really want to live in a world where we’re eugenically selecting babies, where we are commodifying the act of pregnancy?” [Independent Women’s Forum, High Noon , 2/28/24 ] 

IWF cross-posted an article originally written for Fox News by IWF visiting fellow Emma Waters, warning that “AI will fuel disturbing ‘build-a-child’ industry.” Waters claimed: “Seventy-five percent of IVF clinics in the U.S. offer genetic testing. This allows parents to create multiple embryos and select the one that matches their preferred sex and eye, hair, and skin color.” She added: “They can also gauge if a child will develop certain health problems. In one controversial case, deaf parents tried to create a child who would inherit their deafness. Of course, clinics destroy the unwanted embryos.” [Independent Women’s Forum, 8/4/23 ]

In a Q&A post on the Dobson Digital Library, James Dobson declared that he is “strongly opposed to the practice of creating fertilized eggs from ‘donors’ outside the immediate family (this would include the donation of sperm or eggs from a brother or sister of the husband and wife wishing to conceive),” because such activity would be to “play God.”  Dobson added that IVF is “less problematic” if “all the fertilized eggs are inserted into the uterus (i.e., no ova are wasted or disposed of after fertilization.” He also argued that implanting an already existing frozen embryo is akin to “adoption.” [Dobson Digital Library, accessed 4/2/24 ]

Liberty University posted a summary of a law school panel discussion on reproductive rights after the Dobbs decision, highlighting comments from The Justice Foundation’s Allan Parker on “how to advance that victory [Dobbs] by abolishing in vitro fertilization to protect frozen eggs that have already been fertilized, which he explained is an expansion of the idea that life begins at conception.” Parker said: “I think we need more scholarly research and more public education (on this topic) before the Supreme Court is willing to accept the argument that the right to life under the constitution protects life from the moment of conception.” He added, “It takes time to change culture. But we need to do the historical research, get the education about it to where the judges, based on the appropriate case with the appropriate evidence, will be comfortable making that judicial determination.” [Liberty University, 2/14/24 ]

Media Research Center’s Tierin-Rose Mandelburg responded to the Alabama Supreme Court decision in a blog post, writing, “This is a good thing. Regardless of whether a child is conceived naturally or by artificial implantation, that child has value and has sanctity and deserves to be treated as such. Throwing embryos away should be considered murder, as, now in Alabama, it is.” Mandelburg’s blog began with the line, “Sweet Home Alabama just got even sweeter for babies.” [NewsBusters, 2/19/24 ]

Media Research Center’s Jorge Bonilla argued that the mainstream media’s response to Alabama’s ruling was disingenuous and simply a cover to advocate for abortion rights, writing, “The panic point for the media is the Court’s grant of personhood to human embryos.” “Such a finding, were it to be upheld by the United States Supreme Court, drives a dagger into efforts to codify Roe,” he continued. He later added: “Personhood, even if not uttered out loud, is the whole ball game and the media know it. It’s hard to imagine the liberal media caring too much about IVF except that these stories enable advocacy for a Roe restoration. Personhood gets in the way of that.” [NewsBusters, 2/23/24 ]

Similar to the Heritage Foundation, the Mississippi Center for Public Policy argued more than a decade ago in support of a proposed “personhood amendment” to the state’s constitution, claiming it was “unlikely” to “be used to justify a ban on in vitro fertilization (IVF).” MCPP added: “IVF procedures can be performed without destroying human embryos, and therefore would still be permissible under Initiative 26. As is currently being done in many cases, any excess embryos not implanted in the womb could be frozen and implanted later or adopted out to other parents.” [Mississippi Center for Public Policy, 11/3/11 ]

Students for Life of America argued that a “consistent, intellectually-honest stance holds that human life begins at conception/fertilization,” and views discarding embryos as “a human rights violation,” claiming that the current process of IVF encourages “targeted killing” based on “undesirable traits” and “leads to eugenics.” [Students for Life of America, 1/27/22 , 4/21/22 , 2/23/24 ]

In a blog post, Students for Life of America prepared supporters to discuss IVF by raising the argument that “more die from IVF than abortion.” [Students for Life America, 2/23/24 ]

Susan B. Anthony Pro-Life America has advocated against federal bills drafted to protect IVF after the Alabama ruling. SBA Pro-Life America argued against Rep. Nancy Mace’s (R-SC) non-binding resolution that states “strong support” for IVF, arguing that it “leaves no room for reasonable laws like the one in Louisiana that for decades has protected human embryos while also allowing IVF.” The organization also heavily criticized Sen. Tammy Duckworth’s (D-IL) bill, saying it “would even codify a right to human cloning and genetic engineering of human embryos.” [Susan B. Anthony Pro-Life America, 2/28/24 , POLITICO, 2/27/24 ]

Turning Point USA’s Alex Clark, who frequently criticizes fertility care and birth control, has written about her changing stance on IVF, concluding in 2022 that IVF is not “really any different than an early abortion.” [Turning Point USA, 8/11/22 , 8/29/22 ; Media Matters, 6/11/23 , 2/14/23 ]

research project proposal difference

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The Differences Between a Research Paper and Proposal

The purpose of this article is to examine the distinctions between a research paper and a proposal. The fundamental differences are varied in nature, but they both require thoughtful consideration before beginning the process. To begin with, it is important to note that while research papers may seek out knowledge or offer solutions within an academic setting, proposals generally attempt to suggest practical applications for current problems. As such, these two writing styles often rely on different forms of evidence and argumentation when making their respective claims. Additionally, the approaches taken by each document vary drastically as well – whereas research papers typically involve collecting existing information from multiple sources prior to formulating any specific conclusions; proposals are more likely to emphasize primary data gathered through new experiments or surveys conducted specifically for that project’s purposes. Furthermore, while there may be some degree of overlap between thematic content covered in either piece of work; distinct focus points should be kept in mind when crafting these documents independently due to potential disparities which exist based upon overall objectives and desired outcomes at hand.

I. Introduction to Research Paper and Proposal

Ii. definition of a research paper.

  • III. Definition of a Proposal

IV. Similarities Between the Two Documents

V. differences in structure & content, vi. common features of both documents, vii. conclusion: examining the distinctive characteristics.

Beginning Research Diving into the realm of research can be an intimidating task. Before taking on a project, it is important to understand how to go about approaching the work that lies ahead. In this section, we will discuss both the research paper and research proposal and their role in establishing foundational knowledge for your investigation.

The research paper , at its core, serves as an exploration of information regarding a given topic or question. It should involve thoughtful analysis and evaluation of sources based on your own opinions or perspectives while also citing from reliable sources in order to support arguments you make throughout the document. This document serves as an extensive overview of topics related to one’s investigation.

In contrast, the research proposal provides more direction when compared with its counterpart by offering up detailed plans such as hypotheses being tested within experimentation or conclusions concerning any potential trends observed over time due data collection efforts made during previous studies – all these aspects must still adhere to scholarly standards set forth by peers involved in similar lines of study. The purpose here is not only identify interesting angles but also provide evidence demonstrating why those specific details are worth further examination so resources can be allocated accordingly for maximal gains down the road..

The process of conducting research for the purpose of scholarly writing has its own distinct characteristics. In academic circles, two documents come to mind in this regard: a research paper and a research proposal .

A research paper is an extended essay that uses evidence from primary and/or secondary sources to prove one’s argument. The structure typically consists of an introduction, body paragraphs which provide support for the thesis statement, and a conclusion. Research papers often focus on originality—a topic or hypothesis formulated by the writer themselves.

  • Research Paper Characteristics
  • Analysis rather than summary
  • Explores various angles & interpretations

A proposal is an outline of a project or research that includes the goals and methods of achieving them. Proposals can be written for many different purposes, such as to acquire funding, gain approval from authorities, or even introduce new ideas to an organization. In this section we will explore two distinct kinds of proposals: research papers and research proposals.

  • Research Papers : A research paper is typically composed by scholars in academia in order to present their findings on a particular topic. It contains detailed information about the background knowledge related to the subject matter being studied, its aims and objectives, hypotheses being tested as well as methodology used for data collection and analysis.
  • Research Proposals : On the other hand, a research proposal outlines potential projects that aim at answering specific questions pertaining to existing problems or areas where further exploration could be conducted. Research proposals must clearly identify expected outcomes from investigations so they can be evaluated accordingly upon completion.

Comparison of the Two Documents

When considering a research paper and a research proposal, it is clear that there are similarities between them. Both documents serve as crucial components in the academic process and can often go hand-in-hand throughout this journey. To begin with, both require thorough planning prior to being written. Research papers need to be planned before conducting any type of data collection or analysis; similarly, research proposals must also include an introduction to the project’s objectives as well as detail on how they will be achieved.

Furthermore, both should have a purposeful structure which allows for logical progression from one point to another. The sections included in each document may differ slightly but they should all remain relevant and link back to their main aims at some level. A research paper will typically consist of: background information on the topic area; literature review outlining what has already been studied; methodology/analysis detailing methods used; results section showing findings; discussion exploring implications; conclusion summarizing everything discussed within its pages. Similarly, for a successful proposal there needs to be sufficient clarity regarding why it is important e., while results don’t necessarily come under ‘results’ (as expected by many), discussing trends found after analyzing gathered data still counts! In short – same idea presented differently here.

. This includes objectives (what questions you’re trying answer) plus realistic timeline(e., when do you anticipate completion?), sources employed (research materials consulted during your work). Additionally adding budget constraints would provide even more insight into whole project plan.

  • Research Paper: Background Information – Literature Review – Methodology/Analysis – Results Section– Discussion – Conclusion
  • Research Proposal: Introduction – Objectives & Timeline– Sources Employed– Budget Constraints

Structure Research papers and research proposals share some similarities in structure, but there are also several notable differences. Both documents usually include a title page, introduction section, main body of the paper/proposal (which can be broken down into multiple sections), results or findings section and conclusion. However, research papers typically contain an abstract that offers a brief summary of the content within; this is generally absent from a proposal. Additionally, while both documents may have reference lists to cite other works relevant to their subject matter—research papers often make use of footnotes as well for further elaboration on specific topics.

The similarities between a research paper and a research proposal are stark, yet clear. Both documents serve the purpose of providing an in-depth explanation of the research that has been conducted on their respective subjects.

First off, both require a comprehensive overview of what is being studied and why it is important. This includes outlining key facts about the topic at hand, along with any potential implications it may have for future study or action. Additionally, they must provide background information regarding relevant previous research studies in order to contextualize their findings within existing literature on the subject matter.

Secondarily, each document needs to detail how data was collected from field tests or surveys as well as explain any methodology used during these processes such as sampling techniques utilized by researchers when conducting interviews or collecting survey responses from participants. Further still, it’s essential for them to also contain robust analysis sections where results are critically evaluated and discussed in relation to already established theories or hypotheses around said topics; this helps make sure readers can get full understanding from these documents regardless if they’re familiar with prior related works before reading them throughly . Finally , all authors should strive towards giving concise conclusion paragraphs which effectively summarize all major points previously made throughout entire text while adding up new valuable insights into study itself so readers can gain more broader picture outoff these documents too .

Distinguishing Characteristics:

Research papers and research proposals are both used for academic purposes. While they have similarities, there are some distinct differences between them that should be considered when deciding which document to use in a particular situation. Research papers typically provide an in-depth analysis of a topic and include primary sources such as interviews or surveys. They also usually contain data tables and diagrams, making it easier to convey complex information. On the other hand, research proposals present a proposed plan of action rather than a comprehensive overview of the subject matter at hand; they often lack extensive supporting evidence from primary sources due to their brevity but may still include charts or graphs if necessary. In contrast to research papers, research proposals often require more creative thinking since they require authors to suggest potential solutions for various issues. This can involve developing new theories or proposing alternative methods of data collection that will allow researchers better access to the information needed for their studies. Furthermore, unlike with research papers where authors must strictly adhere to established rules regarding formatting and citations; with most research proposals there is much greater flexibility on how content is presented since its goal is not necessarily accuracy but providing convincing arguments for further exploration into the topic being studied.

English: This article has provided a comprehensive overview of the differences between research papers and proposals, offering key insights into each type’s purpose, components, and structure. It is hoped that this analysis will help readers better understand the nuances between these two forms of writing while providing clarity on when to use each one effectively. Thank you for your time in considering this information.


  1. Difference between Research Proposal and Synopsis

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    research project proposal difference

  3. 17 Research Proposal Examples (2024)

    research project proposal difference

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    research project proposal difference

  5. What should the research proposal process look like?

    research project proposal difference

  6. Difference between Research & Proposal Research

    research project proposal difference


  1. Creating a research proposal

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  4. Research Design, Research Method: What's the Difference?

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  6. Research/Project Proposal


  1. The Difference Between Research Papers and Proposals

    Research papers and proposals are two distinct yet closely related writing projects that can be confusing to differentiate between. This article seeks to explore the similarities and differences between research papers and proposals in order to better inform readers of their respective purpose, style, scope, structure, audience, and more.

  2. Similarities Between Research Papers & Project Proposals

    V. Differences between Research Papers & Project Proposals The two documents, research papers and project proposals, have some differences as well as similarities. Research papers are typically longer in length than a project proposal since they provide an extensive discussion of the subject matter.

  3. What is the Difference Between Research and Project

    The main difference between research and project is that research is the systematic investigation and study of materials and sources to establish facts and reach new conclusions, while a project is a specific and finite activity that gives a measurable and observable result under preset requirements. Both research and projects use a systematic ...

  4. Similarities Between Research Papers and Project Proposals

    The primary similarities between a research paper and project proposal is that both of them require extensive amounts of planning, research, organization, and critical thinking. Moreover, they are both aimed at creating an effective solution or response to a particular problem statement.

  5. How to Write a Research Proposal

    Research proposal examples. Writing a research proposal can be quite challenging, but a good starting point could be to look at some examples. We've included a few for you below. Example research proposal #1: "A Conceptual Framework for Scheduling Constraint Management".

  6. What Is A Research Proposal? Examples + Template

    The purpose of the research proposal (its job, so to speak) is to convince your research supervisor, committee or university that your research is suitable (for the requirements of the degree program) and manageable (given the time and resource constraints you will face). The most important word here is "convince" - in other words, your ...

  7. Writing a Scientific Research Project Proposal

    Abstract: This is a brief (300-500 words) summary that includes the research question, your rationale for the study, and any applicable hypothesis. You should also include a brief description of your methodology, including procedures, samples, instruments, etc. Introduction: The opening paragraph of your research proposal is, perhaps, the most ...

  8. PDF Papers vs. proposals

    Research is exciting—important and innovative. Science is sound/ feasible; results are/ will be reliable. Difference between future and past research require different ways of making these arguments. Papers: make outcome seem uncertain research seems more exciting. Proposals: make outcome seem certain experiments seem more feasible.

  9. What's the difference between a research plan and a research proposal?

    The best way to remember the difference between a research plan and a research proposal is that they have fundamentally different audiences. A research plan helps you, the researcher, organize your thoughts. On the other hand, a dissertation proposal or research proposal aims to convince others (e.g., a supervisor, a funding body, or a ...

  10. Writing a Research Proposal

    The design elements and procedures for conducting research are governed by standards of the predominant discipline in which the problem resides, therefore, the guidelines for research proposals are more exacting and less formal than a general project proposal. Research proposals contain extensive literature reviews.

  11. How To Write A Research Proposal (With Examples)

    Make sure you can ask the critical what, who, and how questions of your research before you put pen to paper. Your research proposal should include (at least) 5 essential components : Title - provides the first taste of your research, in broad terms. Introduction - explains what you'll be researching in more detail.

  12. What Is a Research Design

    A research design is a strategy for answering your research question using empirical data. Creating a research design means making decisions about: Your overall research objectives and approach. Whether you'll rely on primary research or secondary research. Your sampling methods or criteria for selecting subjects. Your data collection methods.

  13. Difference Between Research Proposal and Research Report

    A research proposal is prepared at the beginning of the project. In contrast, the research report is prepared after the completion of the project. The length of a research proposal is about 4-10 pages. On the contrary, the length of the research report is about 100 to 300 pages.

  14. What'S The Difference Between A Project And A Research Project?

    best essay writing service reviews 2022. However, the main difference is that while an academic research proposal is for a specific line of research, a project proposal is for approval of a relatively smaller enterprise or scientific scheme; most often, project proposals are written with the intent of obtaining support in the form of budget ...

  15. Comparing Research Papers and Project Proposals

    This article provides a comparison of research papers and project proposals, outlining the differences between the two types of scholarly writing. The purpose is to enable researchers, academics, and students alike to understand how each piece fits into an academic context. We will examine what constitutes a research paper or proposal as well ...

  16. What's the difference between a research proposal and a ...

    A research proposal, which should be as brief as possible, describes an idea for a project, emphasizes the research question the project would help to answer, and the how and why of the project ...

  17. Guidelines for Writing a Research Proposal and a Research Report

    The literature review: Its structure and function. British Journal of Occupational Therapy, 1980, 43 (6), 206-208. Leedy P. D. Practical Research (2nd ed.). New York: Macmillan Publishing Company, 1980. Malcolm M. L. Training in Research at Salford School of Occupational Therapy. British Journal of Occupational Therapy, 1980, 43 (11), 361-362.

  18. Difference between a Research Proposal and a Synopsis

    A research proposal is a formal document that outlines the scope and direction of an academic study or research project. It includes a plan for how you will collect data and analyze it, as well as how you will present your results with un understanding the difference between research proposal and synopsis. An Overview of both Documents:

  19. (PDF) What's the difference between a research proposal and research

    A research proposal, which should be as brief as possible, describes an idea for a project, emphasizes the research question the project would help to answer, and the how and why of the project.

  20. Request for Proposals

    Official submission of proposals must be made by the respective academic institution's research office, and must be accompanied by a signed letter from same, and are due 11:59 p.m. May 23, 2022. Posting of an RFP or submission of a research proposal does not guarantee project award. Final approval is subject to availability of funds.

  21. Trump is proposing a 10% tariff. Economists say that amounts to a

    Noted MIT economist David Autor and his co-authors said in a January research paper that Trump's 2018-2019 trade war "has not to date provided economic help to the U.S. heartland," failing to ...

  22. Project 2025

    Project 2025, also known as the Presidential Transition Project, is a collection of conservative policy proposals from The Heritage Foundation to reshape the United States federal government in the event of a Republican Party victory in the 2024 presidential election. Established in 2022, the project aims to reclassify tens of thousands of merit-based federal civil servant jobs as political ...

  23. Finding Similarities in Research Papers and Project Proposals

    Research papers and project proposals have a number of disparate elements that set them apart. Though they both share the common purpose of conveying research or ideas, their structure and content vary significantly. Content: The primary difference between a research paper and a project proposal lies in its content.

  24. Inside Project 2025's attack on reproductive rights: Mifepristone and

    The initiative's wide-ranging policy proposals, including extreme anti-abortion policies, ... The National Center for Public Policy Research and Project 21 Black Leadership Network;

  25. PDF Ohio University Research Committee (OURC) Discretionary Fund

    BUDGET. CRSCA Discretionary funding is limited to $500 and requires a 1:1 match from the department/school and/or College and/or Center/Institute and/or faculty mentor. Funds may be requested for equipment, supplies, travel, and other bona-fide project expenses. Funds may also be requested, in rare circumstances, for dissemination of research ...

  26. Inside Project 2025's attack on reproductive rights: Contraception

    The guidelines set in its " Mandate for Leadership " include numerous attacks on reproductive rights policy, including a proposal to rewrite Title X, which helps fund low-cost contraception ...

  27. Exploring the Distinction Between Research Papers and Proposals

    The key difference between research papers and proposals lies in their respective purposes. Research papers are written to share the results of a specific study, whereas proposals outline an idea for possible future exploration. Additionally, while research papers tend to be descriptive in nature and include evidence from experiments or surveys ...

  28. Inside Project 2025's attack on reproductive rights: IVF

    Published 06/24/24 1:30 PM EDT. At least 22 partner organizations of Project 2025, a coalition of over 100 conservative groups looking to staff the next potential administration of former ...

  29. The Differences Between a Research Paper and Proposal

    V. Differences in Structure & Content. Structure. Research papers and research proposals share some similarities in structure, but there are also several notable differences. Both documents usually include a title page, introduction section, main body of the paper/proposal (which can be broken down into multiple sections), results or findings ...

  30. New Large-Scale Renewable Energy Solicitation Announced To ...

    Governor Kathy Hochul today announced a new large-scale renewable energy solicitation to deliver clean electricity to New Yorkers. Building on New York's 10-Point Action Plan, this solicitation seeks proposals for the development of new large-scale land-based renewable energy projects which are expected to spur billions of dollars in clean energy investments and create thousands of family ...