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Land Pollution: Causes, Effects, And Solutions For The Future

Land Pollution

Land pollution is a serious problem that impacts humans, animals, and the earth. Without taking measures now to reduce pollution levels, permanent changes to the land can occur. The adverse changes to the environment due to land pollution are subtle, but the problem is much bigger than it appears.

Even though most people have a general understanding of pollution , they may not realize the significance of land pollution. Here is a look at land pollution, its causes, its impact, and solutions to the problem.

What Is Land Pollution?

The basic definition of land pollution is the destruction and contamination of the land through the direct and indirect actions of humans. The pollution results in changes to the land, such as soil erosion. Some of the changes are irreversible, while others are not.

The effects of land pollution do not necessarily appear overnight. It is the result of long-term destruction from human activities. For instance, the damage from chemicals from an oil spill can take months or even years to be fully realized.

Causes of Land Pollution

There are several known causes of land pollution. Of those, there are six factors that contribute more than others.

1. Deforestation and soil erosion

When forests are cleared for development and to meet the demand for wood supply, the soil is loosened in the process. Without the protection of the trees, the land becomes barren over time and starts to erode.

2. Agricultural chemicals

Part of the farming process often involves the use of harmful pesticides and insecticides to protect crops. However, the chemicals can cause the land to become barren. The once-fertile soil is then more susceptible to environmental elements, such as the wind.

3. Industrialization

The Industrial Revolution may have resulted in significant positive changes to the economy and society, but it also led to significant pollution of the land. Through unsafe disposal practices for chemicals used in manufacturing, poor regulation, and the overwhelming number of industries and factories that are polluting the land daily, industrialization has become one of the main contributors to the pollution problem.

The mining process can lead to the creation of large open spaces beneath the surface of the earth. This can result in the land caving in, which compromises the integrity of the land. Mining also results in harmful chemicals, such as uranium, being disturbed and released into the environment.

5. Landfills

The garbage found at landfills is filled with toxins that eventually seep into the earth. During rains, the toxins are washed into other areas and the pollution is spread. As the population grows, the amount of garbage filling landfills also grows.

6. Human sewage

Untreated human waste can produce toxic gases that can seep into the ground. As with air pollution, the soil quality is negatively impacted, and land nearby can be contaminated. In addition to this, the probability of human illnesses occurring increases.

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What is Land Pollution?

The degradation of the earth’s land surfaces, both above and below ground level, is referred to as land pollution.

Land pollution occurs when trash, compost, and other toxins are dumped on the land, contaminating or polluting it. Land pollution is caused by human activities such as littering and waste washed ashore from boats, oil rigs, and sewage treatment plants.

The degradation of the earth’s land surfaces, both above and below ground level, is referred to as land pollution. The accumulation of solid and liquid waste products, which contaminate groundwater and soil, is the cause. The greater the permeability of the soil, the greater the risk of land contamination.

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Air and Water Pollution

presentation about land pollution

Soil pollution is a form of land pollution in which the soil’s upper layer is harmed. Overuse of chemical fertilizers, soil degradation caused by running water, and other pest control measures contribute to the loss of agricultural land, forest cover, and grazing pastures, among other things.

Various Causes of Land Pollution are listed below.

  • Agricultural Activities – As animal production grows, it becomes decoupled from crop production, causing normal nutrient cycles between plants, soil, and animals to be severely disrupted, resulting in the widespread use of synthetic herbicides, insecticides, bactericides, and fertilizers, all of which contribute to pollution.
  • Mining Activities – Mining has the potential to pollute the air and water supply, damage biodiversity and ecosystems, and permanently alter natural landscapes. Mining harms the ecosystem by destroying habitats, causing soil erosion, and polluting surface water, groundwater, and soil.
  • Urbanization – Intensive urbanization will exacerbate poverty by preventing local municipalities from providing services to all residents. Increased air pollution from concentrated energy usage has a direct effect on human health. Lead levels in urban air are elevated as a result of automobile emissions.
  • Nuclear Waste – The soil is also contaminated by radioactive waste from nuclear research stations and nuclear power plants, as well as radioactive fallout from nuclear explosions. Since radioactive materials have a long half-life, they can survive in the soil for long periods of time.

Land Pollution Effects

Land pollution can harm the human body in a variety of ways. Toxic waste and contaminants can be ingested by people. Disposal of hazardous radioactive wastes also contributes to land contamination. Chronic respiratory disease, lung cancer, heart disease, and even brain damage are all long-term health consequences.

Various Effects of Land Pollution are listed below.

  • Climate Change – Land contamination, such as that caused by mining, farming, and factories, may allow harmful chemicals to enter the soil and water. These chemicals have the potential to kill animals and plants, destroying the food chain. Landfills emit methane, a greenhouse gas that contributes to global warming.
  • Acid Rain – Forests, especially those at higher elevations, are also harmed by acid rain and fog. Acid deposits deplete vital nutrients like calcium and allow aluminum to be released into the soil, making it difficult for trees to absorb water. Acids also damage the leaves and needles of trees.
  • Deterioration of fields – A chain reaction occurs as a result of soil contamination. It alters soil biodiversity, decreases soil organic matter, and reduces soil’s filtering ability. It also contaminates water contained in the soil and groundwater, resulting in nutrient imbalances in the soil.
  • Respiratory health problems – Air pollution can irritate your airways, causing shortness of breath, coughing, wheezing, asthma attacks, and chest pain. Lung cancer, heart attacks, strokes, and, in the worst-case scenario, premature death are all risks associated with air pollution exposure.

To reduce land emissions, reduce, reuse, and recycle. It is essential to practice reforestation and afforestation. Organic fertilizers, an integrated pest control method, and crop rotation can all be used by farmers. One of the most important ways to help minimize landfill waste, protect natural resources , preserve wildlife, reduce noise, reduce energy use, and slow global warming is to incorporate recycling habits into your everyday life.

Reforestation avoids river and lake silting by reducing surface erosion and preserving the fertile topsoil. It prevents the soil surface from sealing and cuts down on the amount of rainwater that runs off. When compared to petroleum-based plastics, biodegradable plastics produce significantly less waste. As biodegradable plastics degrade, they decompose into nontoxic, harmless components. Just 32% of the greenhouse gases released by petroleum-based plastics are produced by them.

What is the prevention of land pollution?

One can reuse products like fabric, plastic bags, and glass in your home rather than throwing them away to minimize solid waste emissions on soil. Recycling helps to minimize the amount of solid waste that ends up in landfills while also helping to save natural resources.

What are sources of land pollution?

Land contamination is caused by human activities such as littering and waste washed ashore from vessels, oil platforms, and sewage treatment plants. Land contamination occurs when trash, waste, and other pollutants are dumped on the land, contaminating or polluting it.

What are the effects of land pollution on animals?

Chemicals such as arsenic, mercury, chromium, lead, and ammonia, among others, can contaminate water and land-based flora. Animals and humans are poisoned by it. One of the major causes of lungs and respiratory disorders is air pollution caused by land pollution.

What are the effects of pollution?

Pollution can cause mudslides, poison soils and rivers, and even destroy plants and animals. Pollution causes damage to humans on a daily basis. Long-term air pollution exposure, for example, can cause chronic respiratory disease, lung cancer, and other illnesses.

What is land pollution and its causes?

Soil pollution is a form of land pollution in which the soil’s upper layer is harmed. Overuse of chemical fertilizers, soil degradation caused by running water, and other pest control measures contribute to the loss of agricultural land, forest cover, and grazing pastures, among other things.

Related Topics

  • Atmospheric pollution
  • Soil Pollution
  • Causes of soil pollution
  • Effects of Land Pollution
  • Environmental Pollution

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Photo of mining machines in an opencast coal pit by Carol M. Highsmith.

Photo: The world's biggest copper mine, Escondida Mine in Chile, produces roughly 5.5 percent of global copper each year; you can see the scar it's left on the landscape in this satellite photo. But we all use copper (it's in the computer you're using right now) so is this actual "land pollution" or just very necessary land use? Photo by NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team courtesy of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA-GSFC) .

Chart: Urbanization goes hand-in-hand with other changes in land use, such as deforestation. In 2020, the world had about 96 percent as much forested area as it had in 1990—a huge loss of forest in total. This chart shows 16 example countries that have either gained forest (green) or lost it (orange), with the world total shown in the middle (yellow). For each country, the bar shows the percentage of forest area in 2020 compared to 1990, so 100 percent would be no change. Drawn by explainthatstuff.com in 2023 using the latest available data from UN Food and Agriculture Organization/World Bank , published under a Creative Commons BY-4.0 license .

Photo: Greenfield to brownfield: This once-green field will soon be a large housing estate. People need homes to live in, but they also need green spaces—and agricultural land to feed them.

Photo: Soil erosion turns fields into deserts. Photo by Jack Dykinga courtesy of US Department of Agriculture/Agricultural Research Service (USDA/ARS) .

“ When you choose what to eat, what to wear or what to drive, think about how your choice impacts the land—for better or for worse. ” Monique Barbut, Executive Secretary, UNCCD, 2018.

Photo: Will we ever properly clean up old nuclear sites? Here, low-level nuclear waste is being placed in "interim storage" (in other words, buried "temporarily" in the ground) until a better, long-term solution can be found. Photo courtesy of US Department of Energy .

Photo: Bioremediation. Thankfully, microorganisms don't mind tackling the kind of waste we'd prefer to dump and ignore. Here, scientists at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Tennessee are testing whether soils contaminated with toxic chemicals such as PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) can be cleaned up by bacteria. Photo courtesy of US Department of Energy .

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Pollution is the introduction of harmful materials into the environment. These harmful materials are called pollutants.

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Pollution is the introduction of harmful materials into the environment . These harmful materials are called pollutants . Pollutants can be natural, such as volcanic ash . They can also be created by human activity, such as trash or runoff produced by factories. Pollutants damage the quality of air, water, and land. Many things that are useful to people produce pollution. Cars spew pollutants from their exhaust pipes. Burning coal to create electricity pollutes the air. Industries and homes generate garbage and sewage that can pollute the land and water. Pesticides —chemical poisons used to kill weeds and insects— seep into waterways and harm wildlife . All living things—from one-celled microbes to blue whales—depend on Earth ’s supply of air and water. When these resources are polluted, all forms of life are threatened. Pollution is a global problem. Although urban areas are usually more polluted than the countryside, pollution can spread to remote places where no people live. For example, pesticides and other chemicals have been found in the Antarctic ice sheet . In the middle of the northern Pacific Ocean, a huge collection of microscopic plastic particles forms what is known as the Great Pacific Garbage Patch . Air and water currents carry pollution. Ocean currents and migrating fish carry marine pollutants far and wide. Winds can pick up radioactive material accidentally released from a nuclear reactor and scatter it around the world. Smoke from a factory in one country drifts into another country. In the past, visitors to Big Bend National Park in the U.S. state of Texas could see 290 kilometers (180 miles) across the vast landscape . Now, coal-burning power plants in Texas and the neighboring state of Chihuahua, Mexico have spewed so much pollution into the air that visitors to Big Bend can sometimes see only 50 kilometers (30 miles). The three major types of pollution are air pollution , water pollution , and land pollution . Air Pollution Sometimes, air pollution is visible . A person can see dark smoke pour from the exhaust pipes of large trucks or factories, for example. More often, however, air pollution is invisible . Polluted air can be dangerous, even if the pollutants are invisible. It can make people’s eyes burn and make them have difficulty breathing. It can also increase the risk of lung cancer . Sometimes, air pollution kills quickly. In 1984, an accident at a pesticide plant in Bhopal, India, released a deadly gas into the air. At least 8,000 people died within days. Hundreds of thou sands more were permanently injured. Natural disasters can also cause air pollution to increase quickly. When volcanoes erupt , they eject volcanic ash and gases into the atmosphere . Volcanic ash can discolor the sky for months. After the eruption of the Indonesian volcano of Krakatoa in 1883, ash darkened the sky around the world. The dimmer sky caused fewer crops to be harvested as far away as Europe and North America. For years, meteorologists tracked what was known as the “equatorial smoke stream .” In fact, this smoke stream was a jet stream , a wind high in Earth’s atmosphere that Krakatoa’s air pollution made visible. Volcanic gases , such as sulfur dioxide , can kill nearby residents and make the soil infertile for years. Mount Vesuvius, a volcano in Italy, famously erupted in 79, killing hundreds of residents of the nearby towns of Pompeii and Herculaneum. Most victims of Vesuvius were not killed by lava or landslides caused by the eruption. They were choked, or asphyxiated , by deadly volcanic gases. In 1986, a toxic cloud developed over Lake Nyos, Cameroon. Lake Nyos sits in the crater of a volcano. Though the volcano did not erupt, it did eject volcanic gases into the lake. The heated gases passed through the water of the lake and collected as a cloud that descended the slopes of the volcano and into nearby valleys . As the toxic cloud moved across the landscape, it killed birds and other organisms in their natural habitat . This air pollution also killed thousands of cattle and as many as 1,700 people. Most air pollution is not natural, however. It comes from burning fossil fuels —coal, oil , and natural gas . When gasoline is burned to power cars and trucks, it produces carbon monoxide , a colorless, odorless gas. The gas is harmful in high concentrations , or amounts. City traffic produces highly concentrated carbon monoxide. Cars and factories produce other common pollutants, including nitrogen oxide , sulfur dioxide, and hydrocarbons . These chemicals react with sunlight to produce smog , a thick fog or haze of air pollution. The smog is so thick in Linfen, China, that people can seldom see the sun. Smog can be brown or grayish blue, depending on which pollutants are in it. Smog makes breathing difficult, especially for children and older adults. Some cities that suffer from extreme smog issue air pollution warnings. The government of Hong Kong, for example, will warn people not to go outside or engage in strenuous physical activity (such as running or swimming) when smog is very thick.

When air pollutants such as nitrogen oxide and sulfur dioxide mix with moisture, they change into acids . They then fall back to earth as acid rain . Wind often carries acid rain far from the pollution source. Pollutants produced by factories and power plants in Spain can fall as acid rain in Norway. Acid rain can kill all the trees in a forest . It can also devastate lakes, streams, and other waterways. When lakes become acidic, fish can’t survive . In Sweden, acid rain created thousands of “ dead lakes ,” where fish no longer live. Acid rain also wears away marble and other kinds of stone . It has erased the words on gravestones and damaged many historic buildings and monuments . The Taj Mahal , in Agra, India, was once gleaming white. Years of exposure to acid rain has left it pale. Governments have tried to prevent acid rain by limiting the amount of pollutants released into the air. In Europe and North America, they have had some success, but acid rain remains a major problem in the developing world , especially Asia. Greenhouse gases are another source of air pollution. Greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide and methane occur naturally in the atmosphere. In fact, they are necessary for life on Earth. They absorb sunlight reflected from Earth, preventing it from escaping into space. By trapping heat in the atmosphere, they keep Earth warm enough for people to live. This is called the greenhouse effect . But human activities such as burning fossil fuels and destroying forests have increased the amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. This has increased the greenhouse effect, and average temperatures across the globe are rising. The decade that began in the year 2000 was the warmest on record. This increase in worldwide average temperatures, caused in part by human activity, is called global warming . Global warming is causing ice sheets and glaciers to melt. The melting ice is causing sea levels to rise at a rate of two millimeters (0.09 inches) per year. The rising seas will eventually flood low-lying coastal regions . Entire nations, such as the islands of Maldives, are threatened by this climate change . Global warming also contributes to the phenomenon of ocean acidification . Ocean acidification is the process of ocean waters absorbing more carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Fewer organisms can survive in warmer, less salty waters. The ocean food web is threatened as plants and animals such as coral fail to adapt to more acidic oceans. Scientists have predicted that global warming will cause an increase in severe storms . It will also cause more droughts in some regions and more flooding in others. The change in average temperatures is already shrinking some habitats, the regions where plants and animals naturally live. Polar bears hunt seals from sea ice in the Arctic. The melting ice is forcing polar bears to travel farther to find food , and their numbers are shrinking. People and governments can respond quickly and effectively to reduce air pollution. Chemicals called chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are a dangerous form of air pollution that governments worked to reduce in the 1980s and 1990s. CFCs are found in gases that cool refrigerators, in foam products, and in aerosol cans . CFCs damage the ozone layer , a region in Earth’s upper atmosphere. The ozone layer protects Earth by absorbing much of the sun’s harmful ultraviolet radiation . When people are exposed to more ultraviolet radiation, they are more likely to develop skin cancer, eye diseases, and other illnesses. In the 1980s, scientists noticed that the ozone layer over Antarctica was thinning. This is often called the “ ozone hole .” No one lives permanently in Antarctica. But Australia, the home of more than 22 million people, lies at the edge of the hole. In the 1990s, the Australian government began an effort to warn people of the dangers of too much sun. Many countries, including the United States, now severely limit the production of CFCs. Water Pollution Some polluted water looks muddy, smells bad, and has garbage floating in it. Some polluted water looks clean, but is filled with harmful chemicals you can’t see or smell. Polluted water is unsafe for drinking and swimming. Some people who drink polluted water are exposed to hazardous chemicals that may make them sick years later. Others consume bacteria and other tiny aquatic organisms that cause disease. The United Nations estimates that 4,000 children die every day from drinking dirty water. Sometimes, polluted water harms people indirectly. They get sick because the fish that live in polluted water are unsafe to eat. They have too many pollutants in their flesh. There are some natural sources of water pollution. Oil and natural gas, for example, can leak into oceans and lakes from natural underground sources. These sites are called petroleum seeps . The world’s largest petroleum seep is the Coal Oil Point Seep, off the coast of the U.S. state of California. The Coal Oil Point Seep releases so much oil that tar balls wash up on nearby beaches . Tar balls are small, sticky pieces of pollution that eventually decompose in the ocean.

Human activity also contributes to water pollution. Chemicals and oils from factories are sometimes dumped or seep into waterways. These chemicals are called runoff. Chemicals in runoff can create a toxic environment for aquatic life. Runoff can also help create a fertile environment for cyanobacteria , also called blue-green algae . Cyanobacteria reproduce rapidly, creating a harmful algal bloom (HAB) . Harmful algal blooms prevent organisms such as plants and fish from living in the ocean. They are associated with “ dead zones ” in the world’s lakes and rivers, places where little life exists below surface water. Mining and drilling can also contribute to water pollution. Acid mine drainage (AMD) is a major contributor to pollution of rivers and streams near coal mines . Acid helps miners remove coal from the surrounding rocks . The acid is washed into streams and rivers, where it reacts with rocks and sand. It releases chemical sulfur from the rocks and sand, creating a river rich in sulfuric acid . Sulfuric acid is toxic to plants, fish, and other aquatic organisms. Sulfuric acid is also toxic to people, making rivers polluted by AMD dangerous sources of water for drinking and hygiene . Oil spills are another source of water pollution. In April 2010, the Deepwater Horizon oil rig exploded in the Gulf of Mexico, causing oil to gush from the ocean floor. In the following months, hundreds of millions of gallons of oil spewed into the gulf waters. The spill produced large plumes of oil under the sea and an oil slick on the surface as large as 24,000 square kilometers (9,100 square miles). The oil slick coated wetlands in the U.S. states of Louisiana and Mississippi, killing marsh plants and aquatic organisms such as crabs and fish. Birds, such as pelicans , became coated in oil and were unable to fly or access food. More than two million animals died as a result of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Buried chemical waste can also pollute water supplies. For many years, people disposed of chemical wastes carelessly, not realizing its dangers. In the 1970s, people living in the Love Canal area in Niagara Falls, New York, suffered from extremely high rates of cancer and birth defects . It was discovered that a chemical waste dump had poisoned the area’s water. In 1978, 800 families living in Love Canal had to a bandon their homes. If not disposed of properly, radioactive waste from nuclear power plants can escape into the environment. Radioactive waste can harm living things and pollute the water. Sewage that has not been properly treated is a common source of water pollution. Many cities around the world have poor sewage systems and sewage treatment plants. Delhi, the capital of India, is home to more than 21 million people. More than half the sewage and other waste produced in the city are dumped into the Yamuna River. This pollution makes the river dangerous to use as a source of water for drinking or hygiene. It also reduces the river’s fishery , resulting in less food for the local community. A major source of water pollution is fertilizer used in agriculture . Fertilizer is material added to soil to make plants grow larger and faster. Fertilizers usually contain large amounts of the elements nitrogen and phosphorus , which help plants grow. Rainwater washes fertilizer into streams and lakes. There, the nitrogen and phosphorus cause cyanobacteria to form harmful algal blooms. Rain washes other pollutants into streams and lakes. It picks up animal waste from cattle ranches. Cars drip oil onto the street, and rain carries it into storm drains , which lead to waterways such as rivers and seas. Rain sometimes washes chemical pesticides off of plants and into streams. Pesticides can also seep into groundwater , the water beneath the surface of the Earth. Heat can pollute water. Power plants, for example, produce a huge amount of heat. Power plants are often located on rivers so they can use the water as a coolant . Cool water circulates through the plant, absorbing heat. The heated water is then returned to the river. Aquatic creatures are sensitive to changes in temperature. Some fish, for example, can only live in cold water. Warmer river temperatures prevent fish eggs from hatching. Warmer river water also contributes to harmful algal blooms. Another type of water pollution is simple garbage. The Citarum River in Indonesia, for example, has so much garbage floating in it that you cannot see the water. Floating trash makes the river difficult to fish in. Aquatic animals such as fish and turtles mistake trash, such as plastic bags, for food. Plastic bags and twine can kill many ocean creatures. Chemical pollutants in trash can also pollute the water, making it toxic for fish and people who use the river as a source of drinking water. The fish that are caught in a polluted river often have high levels of chemical toxins in their flesh. People absorb these toxins as they eat the fish. Garbage also fouls the ocean. Many plastic bottles and other pieces of trash are thrown overboard from boats. The wind blows trash out to sea. Ocean currents carry plastics and other floating trash to certain places on the globe, where it cannot escape. The largest of these areas, called the Great Pacific Garbage Patch, is in a remote part of the Pacific Ocean. According to some estimates, this garbage patch is the size of Texas. The trash is a threat to fish and seabirds, which mistake the plastic for food. Many of the plastics are covered with chemical pollutants. Land Pollution Many of the same pollutants that foul the water also harm the land. Mining sometimes leaves the soil contaminated with dangerous chemicals. Pesticides and fertilizers from agricultural fields are blown by the wind. They can harm plants, animals, and sometimes people. Some fruits and vegetables absorb the pesticides that help them grow. When people consume the fruits and vegetables, the pesticides enter their bodies. Some pesticides can cause cancer and other diseases. A pesticide called DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) was once commonly used to kill insects, especially mosquitoes. In many parts of the world, mosquitoes carry a disease called malaria , which kills a million people every year. Swiss chemist Paul Hermann Muller was awarded the Nobel Prize for his understanding of how DDT can control insects and other pests. DDT is responsible for reducing malaria in places such as Taiwan and Sri Lanka. In 1962, American biologist Rachel Carson wrote a book called Silent Spring , which discussed the dangers of DDT. She argued that it could contribute to cancer in humans. She also explained how it was destroying bird eggs, which caused the number of bald eagles, brown pelicans, and ospreys to drop. In 1972, the United States banned the use of DDT. Many other countries also banned it. But DDT didn’t disappear entirely. Today, many governments support the use of DDT because it remains the most effective way to combat malaria. Trash is another form of land pollution. Around the world, paper, cans, glass jars, plastic products, and junked cars and appliances mar the landscape. Litter makes it difficult for plants and other producers in the food web to create nutrients . Animals can die if they mistakenly eat plastic. Garbage often contains dangerous pollutants such as oils, chemicals, and ink. These pollutants can leech into the soil and harm plants, animals, and people. Inefficient garbage collection systems contribute to land pollution. Often, the garbage is picked up and brought to a dump, or landfill . Garbage is buried in landfills. Sometimes, communities produce so much garbage that their landfills are filling up. They are running out of places to dump their trash. A massive landfill near Quezon City, Philippines, was the site of a land pollution tragedy in 2000. Hundreds of people lived on the slopes of the Quezon City landfill. These people made their living from recycling and selling items found in the landfill. However, the landfill was not secure. Heavy rains caused a trash landslide, killing 218 people. Sometimes, landfills are not completely sealed off from the land around them. Pollutants from the landfill leak into the earth in which they are buried. Plants that grow in the earth may be contaminated, and the herbivores that eat the plants also become contaminated. So do the predators that consume the herbivores. This process, where a chemical builds up in each level of the food web, is called bioaccumulation . Pollutants leaked from landfills also leak into local groundwater supplies. There, the aquatic food web (from microscopic algae to fish to predators such as sharks or eagles) can suffer from bioaccumulation of toxic chemicals. Some communities do not have adequate garbage collection systems, and trash lines the side of roads. In other places, garbage washes up on beaches. Kamilo Beach, in the U.S. state of Hawai'i, is littered with plastic bags and bottles carried in by the tide . The trash is dangerous to ocean life and reduces economic activity in the area. Tourism is Hawai'i’s largest industry . Polluted beaches discourage tourists from investing in the area’s hotels, restaurants, and recreational activities. Some cities incinerate , or burn, their garbage. Incinerating trash gets rid of it, but it can release dangerous heavy metals and chemicals into the air. So while trash incinerators can help with the problem of land pollution, they sometimes add to the problem of air pollution. Reducing Pollution Around the world, people and governments are making efforts to combat pollution. Recycling, for instance, is becoming more common. In recycling, trash is processed so its useful materials can be used again. Glass, aluminum cans, and many types of plastic can be melted and reused . Paper can be broken down and turned into new paper. Recycling reduces the amount of garbage that ends up in landfills, incinerators, and waterways. Austria and Switzerland have the highest recycling rates. These nations recycle between 50 and 60 percent of their garbage. The United States recycles about 30 percent of its garbage. Governments can combat pollution by passing laws that limit the amount and types of chemicals factories and agribusinesses are allowed to use. The smoke from coal-burning power plants can be filtered. People and businesses that illegally dump pollutants into the land, water, and air can be fined for millions of dollars. Some government programs, such as the Superfund program in the United States, can force polluters to clean up the sites they polluted. International agreements can also reduce pollution. The Kyoto Protocol , a United Nations agreement to limit the emission of greenhouse gases, has been signed by 191 countries. The United States, the world’s second-largest producer of greenhouse gases, did not sign the agreement. Other countries, such as China, the world’s largest producer of greenhouse gases, have not met their goals. Still, many gains have been made. In 1969, the Cuyahoga River, in the U.S. state of Ohio, was so clogged with oil and trash that it caught on fire. The fire helped spur the Clean Water Act of 1972. This law limited what pollutants could be released into water and set standards for how clean water should be. Today, the Cuyahoga River is much cleaner. Fish have returned to regions of the river where they once could not survive. But even as some rivers are becoming cleaner, others are becoming more polluted. As countries around the world become wealthier, some forms of pollution increase. Countries with growing economies usually need more power plants, which produce more pollutants. Reducing pollution requires environmental, political, and economic leadership. Developed nations must work to reduce and recycle their materials, while developing nations must work to strengthen their economies without destroying the environment. Developed and developing countries must work together toward the common goal of protecting the environment for future use.

How Long Does It Last? Different materials decompose at different rates. How long does it take for these common types of trash to break down?

  • Paper: 2-4 weeks
  • Orange peel: 6 months
  • Milk carton: 5 years
  • Plastic bag: 15 years
  • Tin can: 100 years
  • Plastic bottle: 450 years
  • Glass bottle: 500 years
  • Styrofoam: Never

Indoor Air Pollution The air inside your house can be polluted. Air and carpet cleaners, insect sprays, and cigarettes are all sources of indoor air pollution.

Light Pollution Light pollution is the excess amount of light in the night sky. Light pollution, also called photopollution, is almost always found in urban areas. Light pollution can disrupt ecosystems by confusing the distinction between night and day. Nocturnal animals, those that are active at night, may venture out during the day, while diurnal animals, which are active during daylight hours, may remain active well into the night. Feeding and sleep patterns may be confused. Light pollution also indicates an excess use of energy. The dark-sky movement is a campaign by people to reduce light pollution. This would reduce energy use, allow ecosystems to function more normally, and allow scientists and stargazers to observe the atmosphere.

Noise Pollution Noise pollution is the constant presence of loud, disruptive noises in an area. Usually, noise pollution is caused by construction or nearby transportation facilities, such as airports. Noise pollution is unpleasant, and can be dangerous. Some songbirds, such as robins, are unable to communicate or find food in the presence of heavy noise pollution. The sound waves produced by some noise pollutants can disrupt the sonar used by marine animals to communicate or locate food.

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LAND POLLUTION www.ustudy.in.

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LAND POLLUTION

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Land Pollution PPT and PDF for Free Download

Land Pollution PPT Presentation

Also See: Water Pollution PPT

Pollution, whenever we talk about pollution then the major things we get in our mind is water pollution and air pollution. Our reactions on these parameters are also very strong because we see the damages and changes occurred by them in our daily lives with very clear and it is a common nature of human beings in believing the things which they see and observe. But it does mean that we are not having many damages due to land pollution, in fact, this land pollution and its damages are not less than a night mare to all of us.

Also See: Marine Pollution PPT and PDF

If we talk about a present situation then land pollution has become a very serious problem that it won’t be solved until we don’t fight against it. Land pollution, in other words, is nothing but degradation, damage to the surface of the earth and its soil because of human activities. This difficulty became a serious issue due to all of us because we neglected it and realized after many decades. There is an enhancement of barren land lot and decrement in forest cover area.

The increase in a number of cities and towns due to enhancement in a population are also the reasons for land pollution. Reclamations are being planned and executed; along with it landfills are also being planned and executed to meet the demand of land. A land gets polluted even due to lack of green cover on land which results in soil erosion.

Also See: Pollution PPT

Causes of Land Pollution:   

Below explained are few causes of land pollution:

  • Deforestation and soil erosion
  • Mining activities
  • Agricultural activities
  • Overcrowded landfills
  • Construction activities
  • Industrialization
  • Nuclear waste
  • Sewage treatment
  • Deforestation and soil erosion: Deforestation which makes dry land is one of the major reasons of land pollution. In this, we need to observe that once a land becomes dry or barren then it cannot be regained i.e. it will be very difficult to regain its fertility.
  • Mining activities: At the time of mining activities and extraction activities, many land spaces are made under the surface.
  • Agricultural activities: With the increase in human population there is an increase in demand for food also. Farmers use toxic pesticides and chemicals to get rid of distinct types of insects and these types of practices result in poisoning of soil.
  • Overcrowded landfills: Every household produces garbage and the garbage which cannot be recycled come under landfills and this damage beauty of a city and town and at the same time results inland pollution.
  • Construction activities: Because of urbanization these days, construction activities are at a high rate and these activities generates waste particles at a high amount.
  • Industrialization: There is an increase in population which results in an increase in food, shelter, and other required things. This requirement gave rise to industries and these industries require raw materials which lead to deforestation and also they produce a large amount of waste which has to be disposed of.
  • Nuclear waste: Nuclear waste from a nuclear plant is dumped beneath surface of the earth for avoiding causality.
  • Sewage treatment: After the treatment of sewage, huge amount of solid waste goes into landfills which lead to pollution of the environment.

Below diagrams explain about some more parameters that cause land pollution:

Untitled-2

Fig1: Causes of Land Pollution

Also See: Noise Pollution PPT

Effects of Land Pollution:

Some effects of land pollution are explained below:

  • Change in climate patterns
  • Pollution of soil
  • Impact of environment
  • Effect on human health
  • Cause air pollution
  • Effect on wild life
  • Distraction of tourist

Also See: Thermal Pollution PDF and PPT

Solutions for Land Pollution:

We can decrease pollution of land by practicing the following:

  • We have to reduce or decrease the use of fertilizers and pesticides in activities of agriculture.
  • We should make people aware about things like reduce, recycle, and reuse.
  • We have to decrease buying package items because they result in waste products and end up in sites of landfills.
  • We have to increase buying biodegradable products.
  • We have to properly dispose of garbage.
  • We have to encourage organic gardening.
  • We have to make dumping away from areas of residence.

Hierarchy of Pollution Prevention:

Below diagram is about preventing pollution in a hierarchy order:

Untitled-4

Fig2: Pollution Prevention Hierarchy

Also See: Air Pollution PPT

Content of the Seminar and PDF for Land Pollution PPT

  • What is Land Pollution?

Here we are giving you Land Pollution PPT with PDF. All you need to do is just click on the download link and get it.

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2 comments already.

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wow fantastic information !!!!!!this is what i wanted……. thank you so much

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Still we have time to leave safe environment to our forthcoming generation.Only thing we need to do is no factories instead of that like Cuba we should do organic agriculture without spoiling forest.Whether we will have leader like The honorable Fedel Castro to India. When the redemption will come to our country.We should think and implement immediately to save our motherland from natural disaster and depletion of resources.

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by angela fang

Land Pollution

Mar 26, 2012

971 likes | 4.58k Views

By Angela Fang. Land Pollution. Every year one American produces over 3285 pounds of hazardous waste Every day Americans throw away 1 million bushels of litter out their car window In an average day in the United States, people throw out 200,000 tons of edible food

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Presentation Transcript

By Angela Fang Land Pollution

Every year one American produces over 3285 pounds of hazardous waste Every day Americans throw away 1 million bushels of litter out their car window In an average day in the United States, people throw out 200,000 tons of edible food We throw away enough trash every day to fill 63,000 garbage trucks Did you know…

Land pollution causes us to lose 24 billion tons of top soil every year Approximately half of our trash is disposed in landfills Over 80% of items in landfills can be recycled, but they’re not Only 2% of our waste is actually recycled. Other facts

As a result of the Industrial Revolution, natural habitats were destroyed and the environment was polluted, causing diseases in both humans, animals, and plants. After World War II, industries began manufacturing and using synthetic materials such as plastics and inorganic pesticides These materials are toxic and accumulate in the environment—they are not biodegradable There has been increased rates of cancers, physical birth defects, and mental retardation, among other health problems as a result Loss of biodiversity exists in the environment—animal and plant species become extinct at an alarming rate The cleanup costs of hazardous waste dumps, and the difficulty in disposing of these chemicals safely, assure that pollution will continue to be a problem for future generations Background

Common problem worldwide Direct result of the activities that humans engage in Pollution of the Earth’s natural land surface by industrial, commercial, domestic, and agricultural activities Includes visible litter and waste along with the soil itself being polluted The deposition of solid or liquid waste materials on land or underground can contaminate the soil and groundwater and threaten public health Land Pollution: What is it?

Land pollution is often visible • Deforestation • Effects of mining – surrounding trees die off • Effects on shorelines and cities • But many aspects of land pollution are unseen • Suffering of creatures due to human actions • Extinction of plants • Future impacts Land Pollution

Land pollution is comprised of: • Solid waste • Soil pollution Components of land pollution

Semisolid or solid matter that are created by human or animal activities, and which are disposed because they are hazardous or useless • Sources of solid waste • Wastes from agriculture • Wastes from mining • Wastes from industries • Solids from sewage treatment • Ashes • Garbage Solid Waste

http://particleclothing.com/PARTICLE-08/culture_vintage.htm

Caused by chemicals in pesticides • Results from • Unhealthy methods of soil management. • Harmful practices of irrigation methods. Soil Pollution

Causes of soil pollution http://visual.merriam-webster.com/earth/environment/land-pollution.php

Littering Herbicides, insecticides, and pesticides Construction debris and waste Mining waste Overcrowded landfills Deforestation Chemical and nuclear plants Industrial factories Oil refineries Human sewage Oil and antifreeze leaking from cars Sources of land pollution

Increase in urbanization Increase in agricultural land Domestic waste Agricultural activities Industrial activities Causes of pollution

Exterminates wild life • Vegetation that provides food and shelter is destroyed • It can seriously disrupt the balance of nature, and, in extreme cases, can cause human fatalities • Most pesticides kill or damage life forms other than those intended. • Pesticides can damage crops; kill vegetation; and poison birds, animals, and fish Effects of land pollution

Skin problems are often diagnosed due to land pollution. One of the leading causes for birth defects. Land pollution indirectly affects the respiratory system of human beings Can incur breathing problems and a number of diseases, which may affect the health of babies as well. Effects (continued)

The biggest problem that land pollution creates is the impact it has on the surrounding environments Every form of land pollution kills off the habitats of land animals as well as aquatic life The more we deplete these habitats the more the ecosystem is thrown out of balance. Effects (Continued)

People should be educated and made aware about the harmful effects of littering Items used for domestic purposes ought to be reused or recycled Personal litter should be disposed properly Organic waste matter should be disposed in areas that are far away from residential places Don’t use pesticides Prevention

Action Plan http://www.sustainability.umd.edu/content/campus/recycling_what.php

What can we do at UMD? • Recycle • Reuse any items that you can • Buy biodegradable products • Eat organic foods that are grown without pesticides • Buy products that have little packaging Action Plan

"Campus Sustainability · University of Maryland." Campus Sustainability · University of Maryland. N.p., n.d. Accessed 12 Mar. 2010. <http://www.sustainability.umd.edu/content/campus/recycling_what.php>. "Causes And Effects Of Land Pollution ." iloveindia.com. N.p., n.d. Accessed 19 Mar. 2010. < http://lifestyle.iloveindia.com/lounge/causes-and-effects-of-land-pollution-4470.html >. "EARTH :: ENVIRONMENT :: LAND POLLUTION image - Visual Dictionary Online." Visual Dictionary Online. N.p., n.d. Accessed 19 Mar. 2010. <http://visual.merriam-webster.com/earth/environment/land-pollution.php>. "Earthplatform.com - Land pollution." Earthplatform.com - Earth Platform - Environment Search Engine. N.p., n.d. Accessed19 Mar. 2010. <http://www.earthplatform.com/c/pollution/land>. "History - water, effects, environmental, disasters, pollutants, United States, chemicals, industrial, wells, toxic, world, human, power, sources, disposal, use, life, health." Pollution Issues. N.p., n.d. Accessed 12 Mar. 2010. <http://www.pollutionissues.com/Fo-Hi/History.html>. "land pollution." EncyclopædiaBritannica. 2010. EncyclopædiaBritannica Online. Accessed 22 Mar. 2010 <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/329175/land-pollution>. "Land Pollution." News & Articles On Air, Land And Water Pollution Causes, Effects And Solutions. N.p., n.d. Accessed 12 Mar. 2010. < http://scipeeps.com/land-pollution/ >. "Particle Clothing Vintage Reconstruction | Home." Particle Clothing Vintage Reconstruction | Home. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Mar. 2010. <http://particleclothing.com/PARTICLE-08/culture_vintage.htm>. Pillai, Prabhakar. "Causes and Effects of Land Pollution." Buzzle Web Portal: Intelligent Life on the Web. N.p., n.d. Accessed 12 Mar. 2010. <http://www.buzzle.com/articles/causes-and-effects-of-land-pollution.html>. "Pollution facts - pollution endangers humans + animals + plants." Keep Nature beautiful non profit Nature Conservation and Nature Education. N.p., n.d. Accessed 19 Mar. 2010. < http://www.keepbanderabeautiful.org/keepearthpollution.html?gclid=CKeEkI_kzKACFRBM5QodagkT0g>. "Pollution, Water Pollution, Air Pollution." GreenStudentU: Green Students, Environmental Education, & Eco-Lifestyles. N.p., n.d. Accessed 12 Mar. 2010. <http://www.greenstudentu.com/encyclopedia/pollution>. Putatunda, Rita. "Land Pollution." Buzzle Web Portal: Intelligent Life on the Web. N.p., n.d. Accessed 12 Mar. 2010. < http://www.buzzle.com/articles/land-pollution.html >. "Solutions | Land Pollution | Environmental Health." Oracle ThinkQuest Library . N.p., n.d. Accessed 19 Mar. 2010. <http://library.thinkquest.org/07aug/01735/files/solutions_landpollution.html>. Literature Cited

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Land pollution research: progress, challenges, and prospects

Ling Gao 1 , Tianzhen Hu 2 , Li Li 5,2 , Maoyuan Zhou 1 and Baoqing Zhu 4,3

Published 4 November 2022 • © 2022 The Author(s). Published by IOP Publishing Ltd Environmental Research Communications , Volume 4 , Number 11 Citation Ling Gao et al 2022 Environ. Res. Commun. 4 112001 DOI 10.1088/2515-7620/ac9e49

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Author affiliations

1 School of Economics, Xiamen University, People's Republic of China

2 School of Marxism, Fudan University, People's Republic of China

3 School of Public Affairs, Zhejiang University, People's Republic of China

Author notes

4 The contributions of all authors in this paper are equal, so alphabetically by authors' last name.

5 Author to whom any correspondence should be addressed.

Li Li https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6011-2843

Baoqing Zhu https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7163-3740

  • Received 26 April 2022
  • Revised 12 October 2022
  • Accepted 27 October 2022
  • Published 4 November 2022

Peer review information

Method : Single-anonymous Revisions: 2 Screened for originality? No

Buy this article in print

This paper comprehensively searched all the literature on the subject of 'land pollution' through the core collection of the Web of Science database, and systematically processed the research literature from 1944 to 2021 using CiteSpace software, and carried out bibliometric analysis and visual presentation, which uncovers the LP research dynamics in detail, and draw the following conclusions: First, through the indicator of betweenness centrality, the basic authors and journals of the subject are obtained; from the perspective of publishing institutions and affiliated countries, the United States is an important research center for LP. Second, keywords such as 'land use', 'air pollution', 'impact', 'soil pollution' and 'management' are all high-frequency words. The results of keyword clustering and co-citation information in the literature indicate the natural-social dimensions of LP research, such as the use and quality of air, land, and water, as well as urbanization and environmental policies. However, challenges remain and current LP studies are still characterized by a certain degree of fragmentation, which should be enriched by combining land use changes and should require combining experimental results with socioeconomic analysis to propose joint LP remediation approaches. Finally, local and regional forces may strongly influence the LP process, and the drivers of globalization should be emphasized.

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Original content from this work may be used under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 licence . Any further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the title of the work, journal citation and DOI.

1. Introduction

Land is the space carrier of human activities, the most basic production factor for human social and economic development, and the most basic survival resource for urban and rural residents. Since the 1960s, the problem of land pollution (LP) has gradually attracted widespread attention. On the one hand, scholars have paid attention to the causes of LP from the aspects of waste treatment, mining, urbanization, agrochemicals, and soil erosion (Heidi et al 2008 , Guo et al 2020 , Lee et al 2021 ). On the other hand, scholars have also explored the impact of LP from the aspects of socio-economic development, ecological environment, and human health, and explored ways to control LP from the aspects of pollution reduction and land restoration (Mone et al 2004 , Jin et al 2018 ). Therefore, the challenge of LP is how to solve the relationship between meeting human needs and maintaining the long-term ability of the biosphere to provide goods and services (Foley et al 2005 , Swette and Lambin 2021 ).

There are two approaches to defining LP in academia: soil pollution in a narrow sense and LP in a broad sense. In a narrow sense, soil pollution and LP are not a term (soil pollution focuses on factory chemicals or sewage and other wastewater). In this article, we will define it more broadly, including garbage and industrial waste, agricultural pesticides and fertilizers, the impact of mining and other industrial firms, the undesirable consequences of urbanization, and the systemic destruction of soil by over-intensive agriculture. As an important factor affecting human health, LP control poses a great challenge to the function of the ecosystem, which has a significant impact on human development (Ma et al 2020 ). How to take effective measures to deal with the deteriorating LP, guarantee and improve the quality of land resources, and further understand the dynamic relationship between the natural environment and human life has become one of the urgent problems in contemporary academia.

Based on the above background, this research conducted a comprehensive search of all the documents on the subject of 'land pollution' through the core collection of the Web of Science database, and used CiteSpace software to systematically process the research documents from 1944 to 2021 and conduct a bibliometric analysis. LP research dynamics revealed in detail based on visual statistics, This article attempts to address the following issues:

  • (1)   What are the general trends of LP research?
  • (2)   Which common issues in the natural-social dimension of LP research have received attention?
  • (3)   What are the research challenges and future directions?

2. Data and methods

2.1. data source and data selection.

The sample data selected in this paper comes from the core collection of the Web of Science database ( https://clarivate.com/webofsciencegroup/solutions/web-of-science-core-collection/ , accessed on September 10, 2021). 5 By setting the search subject in the core collection of the Web of Science database as 'land pollution', the document type as 'Article', the language as 'English', and the complete time interval from 1944 to 2021, we found the total volume of published papers issued is 3022, and the final sample is subject to the effective processing of the software. The browsing/processing time is September 11, 2021. The overall trend is shown in figure 1 . It should be noted that the first article appeared in 1944. After 1970, the volume of published papers gradually maintained a continuity in time, but the volume of published papers every year was small. Therefore, in order to facilitate the presentation, we aggregate the data from 1944 to 1999 (202 articles in total), and retain the original data for the volume of published papers published from 2000 to 2021. It can be found that the general trend of the volume of research papers on LP from 1944 to 2020 is on the rise.

Figure 1.

Figure 1.  Overall publishing trend of LP.

Download figure:

2.2. Bibliometric methods

We mainly use CiteSpace software to conduct bibliometric research. 6 CiteSpace is a data mining and visualization analysis software jointly developed by Professor Chen Chaomei from the School of Information Science and Technology of Drexel University and WISE Laboratory of Dalian University of Technology. The version we use is CiteSpace 5.7. R2. Compared with the previous version of CiteSpace software, a major advantage of this software version is that there is no need to format the documents in the core collection of the Web of Science database.

The specific operation steps of our paper are as follows: select all the 3022 documents filtered in the core collection of the Web of Science database and export them as TXT format files, save them in the Data file and create a new Project file. After running the CiteSpace software, you can get visual maps such as research author, research institution, keyword clustering, keyword emergence, keyword time zone map, document co-citation, journal co-citation, author co-citation, etc., and finally, the research trends of LP perform quantitative analysis and visualization, from which the research context, research hotspots and frontier topics of the subject can be derived.

3. Results and visualization of literatures concerning LP research

Running the CiteSpace software to process the keyword 'land pollution', the time slice is set to 1 year, and the effective processing results are 2987. We get the following results.

3.1. Analysis of general information

3.1.1. analysis of authors.

Using the Author analysis function of CiteSpace, the author's co-occurrence network map is obtained, as shown in figure 2 . Among them, the size of the font indicates the volume of articles published by the author or the importance of the author (the same below), and the line between the authors indicates the cooperative relationship between each other. The results show that the top three authors by the volume of published papers are: Mark Nieuwenhuijsen, with 16 articles in total, and the first article was published in 2014 (such as Nieuwenhuijsen et al 2014a , 2014b ); Jordi Sunyer (tied for the first with Nieuwenhuijsen), both of which were 16 articles, and the first article was published in 2016 (such as Iñiguez et al 2016a , Porta et al 2016b ); Bert Brunekreef, 15 articles in total, first published in 2014 (such as Wang et al 2014 ); Michael Jerrett, 12 articles in total, first published in 2009 (such as Jerrett et al 2009 , Su et al 2009 ); Marianne Hatzopoulou (tied for third with Brunekreef), both of 12 articles, first published in 2016 (such as Shekarrizfard et al 2016 , Weichenthal et al 2016 ).

Figure 2.

Figure 2.  Author's Co-occurrence Map.

By analyzing the co-citation and betweenness centrality of key nodes, the author's co-citation analysis is based on the author as a unit to study the situation where the documents published by multiple authors are cited by other authors at the same time. This can identify authoritative authors with high influence in the field. According to the betweenness centrality indicator, the author's co-citation map is shown in figure 3 . It turns out that among the scholars of environmental pollution research, the top four betweenness centrality indicator of authors are Braden JB (0.14), Cervero R (0.08), Brunekreef B (0.08, tied for second), and Hoek G (0.07).

Figure 3.

Figure 3.  Author's Co-citation Map.

3.1.2. Analysis of research institutions

Using the Institutional analysis function of CiteSpace, we get the figure of the institutional co-occurrence network, as shown in figure 4 .

Figure 4.

Figure 4.  Co-occurrence Map of Research Institutions.

According to the volume of published papers and centrality indicators, the statistical information of the institution is shown in table 1 . It turns out that the top five publications are: Chinese Academy of Sciences (154 articles), University of Chinese Academy of Sciences (72 articles), Beijing Normal University (43 articles), Utrecht University (41 articles), and University of California, Berkeley (34 articles). The centrality index reflects the cooperative relationship between institutions. The presentation of the centrality index in the paper is automatically arranged and generated by the software, so there is a situation where the same centrality involves multiple institutions. According to table 2 , Utrecht University in the Netherlands and University of Melbourne in Australia are ranked first in terms of centrality, both of which are 0.06. It should be noted that 'Years' in the table refers to the time when the author's or institution's first article appeared.

Table 1.  Volume of published papers by institutions and centrality (Top10).

Table 2.  Centrality of institutions (Top10).

3.1.3. Analysis of author's nations

Using the Nations analysis function of CiteSpace, we get the country co-occurrence network map, as shown in figure 5 .

Figure 5.

Figure 5.  State Co-occurrence Map.

Similarly, according to the volume of published papers and centrality indicators, the relevant statistical information is organized as shown in tables 3 and 4 . It can be seen that the US (943 papers), China (790 papers), and the UK (297 papers) ranked the top three in terms of publication volume. The top three countries in terms of centrality are the US (0.32), Netherlands (0.21), and the UK (0.2). It can be found that the US is far ahead not only in the volume of published papers but also in centrality indicators, so it is the most important nation in the study of LP. The total amount of Chinese publications is also very high, but the centrality is not high, which shows that China needs to further strengthen its international cooperation in the publication of documents in the future, and better integrate with the research on worldwide frontier issues.

Table 3.  Volume of published papers by nations (Top10).

Table 4.  Centrality of nations (Top10).

3.1.4. Analysis of journals

By searching the LP in the database, we can get the journals that focus on this topic. As shown in figure 6 , we can find that the top five journals are Sustainability (242 papers), International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (Abbreviation: IJERPH, 193 papers), Land Use Policy (108 papers), Science of the Total Environment (98 papers) and Journal of Cleaner Production (79 papers).

Figure 6.

Figure 6.  Volume of papers on LP topics published in the journals.

Selecting the Cited Journal option in the CiteSpace node type to perform a 'journal co-citation' analysis. From this we have obtained high-impact journals among foreign journals. The results are shown in figure 7 . According to the centrality index, relevant statistical information is shown in table 5 . And, the information of co-citation frequency is reflected in table 6 . It can be found that AMBIO (0.13) ranks first in centrality, 7 so it is an authoritative journal for the study of LP.

Figure 7.

Figure 7.  The journals Co-citation map.

Table 5.  Co-citation centrality of journals (Top 10).

Table 6.  Co-citation Frequency Of Journals (Top 10).

(Note: The full name of ATMOS ENVIRON is Atmospheric Environment , the full name of ENVIRON PLANN A is Environment and Planning A-Economy and Space , the full name of AM J AGR ECON is American Journal of Agricultural Economics , the full name of ANN NY ACAD SCI is Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences , the full name of ENVIRON PLANN B is Environment and Planning B-Planning and Design, the full name of URBAN STUD is Urban Studies , the full name of QJ ECON is Quarterly Journal of Economics , the full name of ARCH ENVIRON HEALTH is Archives of Environmental Health , the full name of Sci Total Environ is Science of the Total Environment , the full name of Environ Sci Technol is Environmental Science & Technology , the full name of J Environ Manage is Journal of Environmental Management , the full name of Ecol Econ is Ecological Economics , the full name of Environ Pollut is Environmental Pollution , the full name of Environ Health Persp is Environmental Health Perspectives .)

3.2. Analysis of topical information

3.2.1. keyword co-occurrence.

Keyword co-occurrence analysis is the most common and effective analysis method for document content. The keywords are the refinement of the core content of the papers. Through the high-frequency co-occurrence of keywords, we can intuitively identify and determine the research context and frontier hot issues of the selected subject area (such as 'Land Pollution' in this article). Select the 'Keyword' option in the CiteSpace node type to get the keyword co-occurrence graph, and the result is shown in figure 8 . Among them, 'land use' (552 times), 'pollution' (540 times), 'air pollution' (469 times), 'impact' (410 times), and 'management' (259 times) are all high-frequency words. Furthermore, by focusing on centrality information, we found that the top three are 'pollution' (0.16), 'agriculture' (0.09), 'air pollution' (0.08) and 'climate change' (0.08, tied for third).

Figure 8.

Figure 8.  Keyword Co-occurrence map.

3.2.2. Keyword burstiness

CiteSpace can do burstiness analysis of keywords, which can well grasp the research hotspots of specific selected topics in a certain year. From the perspective of the time evolution of keywords, if the frequency of occurrence of a keyword in a certain year increase, it means that the topic represented by the keyword is a hot spot in that year. This type of keyword is called a burst term. Furthermore, in order to further obtain information such as the burst strength, beginning year, and duration of keywords, and to discover research hotspots and their evolutionary trajectories in different periods of time, through the Control Panel selects the keyword burstiness option to calculate, filters the top ten keywords according to the burst strength. The relevant statistical information is shown in table 7 . We can find that the top three burst strengths of LP studies are agriculture (13.32), pollution (11.92), and conservation (8.48).

Table 7.  Keyword burstiness information (Top10).

3.2.3. Keyword clustering

Although the direction of the selected topic is determined, the keywords in different journal articles are trivial and independent, so it is necessary to perform cluster analysis on these keywords. Cluster analysis can not only systematically integrate and classify decentralized keywords, but also help researchers to understand the detailed research directions involved in this subject area conveniently and intuitively. Keyword clustering analysis is one of the characteristic functions of CiteSpace. It provides three algorithms: LSI, LLR, and MI. The results of the three algorithms are not the same. The LLR algorithm is more commonly used. The clustering results of LP studies are summarized as shown in table 8 .

Table 8.  Clustering results based on LLR algorithm.

Table 8 clearly reflects the clustering results of the LP study. Among them, there are 12 first-level clustering results. Due to limitations of paper, the author selected 10 related keywords for the second-level clustering results. Correspondingly, the index value for evaluating the clustering result is reflected in the Q Value and the S Value. According to the corresponding interval of the value, it can be found that the overall clustering structure of this paper is significant (Q = 0.4524 > 0.3), and the clustering result is reliable (S = 0.7551 > 0.7). 8

From the clustering results in table 8 , it can be found that the current research covers different aspects of the natural environment and ecological pollution research more comprehensively, and partly involves the dimensions of human social development. It should be pointed out that the results of LP research involved in the natural ecological environment are more abundant, such as 'air pollution' (Mayer 1999 , Brunekreef and Holgate 2002 , Chen et al 2017 ), 'water quality' (Olmstead 2010 , Tyagi et al 2013 , Boyd 2019 ) , 'soil conservation' (McConnell 1983 , Blanco and Lal 2008 , Hellin 2019 ), 'air quality' (Jones 1999 , Jacob and Winner 2009 , Wolkoff 2018 ), 'land cover' (Lambin et al 2001 , Lambin et al 2003 , Wulder et al 2018 ) and other topics. These issues are essentially closely related to the production and living activities of human society. Therefore, the natural issues in the world today are, to a great extent, natural-social issues.

On the one hand, human social activities will bring land pollution problems, on the other hand, these can also carry out reasonable and scientific control and protection of the natural environment. The promulgation of a series of policies related to environmental pollution prevention and control and ecological protection, and the development of innovation-driven green technologies reflect the agency of mankind in the face of natural problems. For example, Jahiel ( 1998 ) pointed out that China's Ninth National People's Congress not only made reforms in the field of government management system, but also clearly stated that environmental issues are serious issues that the central government needs to pay more attention to in the future. Khanna ( 2001 ) argues that the approach to environmental protection has evolved from a regulatory-driven adversarial 'government-led' approach to a more proactive approach, including voluntary and 'enterprise-led' and 'social-led' initiatives to self-regulate the environmental performance of society and the market. At the same time, the government has provided more and more environmental information on enterprises and products to attract market forces and communities, and by showing their preference for environmentally friendly companies to create demand for corporate environmental self-regulation. Jaffe et al ( 2002 ) pointed out that in the past ten years, the relationship between technological change and environmental policy has attracted more and more attention from scholars and policy makers, not only because the environmental impact of social activities is significantly affected by technological changes, but also environmental policy intervention will produce new constraints and incentives that affect the technological development process. Annicchiarico & Di ( 2015 ) studied the dynamic behavior of the economy under different environmental policy systems based on the new Keynesian model, and found that the emission cap policy may suppress macroeconomic fluctuations; staggered price adjustments have significantly changed the environmental policy systems that have been implemented performance; the response of the best environmental policy is strongly influenced by the degree of price adjustment and the response of monetary policy. Yoeli et al ( 2017 ) believes that in order to increase consumer protection of energy and other resources, government agencies, public utilities, and energy-related companies can supplement regulatory and market-based policy. Carlsson et al ( 2021 ) discussed the use of green nudge (behavioral intervention aimed at reducing negative externalities) as an environmental policy tool. Therefore, they proposed a new framework. Empirical research shows that whether it is pure or ethical, green nudge will have a significant impact on behavior and the environment, but its impact is highly dependent on the environment. To sum up, we can clearly see from the clustering results that the research topics and directions related to LP basically cover all issues related to the natural environment and ecology, and also show a close relationship with human social activities.

According to the clustering results, we can further obtain the time-line graph of keyword, as shown in figure 9 .

Figure 9.

Figure 9.  Keyword evolution time-line graph.

3.2.4. Literature co-citation

Literature co-citation is essentially the same as the principle of author co-citation and journal co-citation. It reflects the citation phenomenon between two specific articles. This relationship is caused by citing them at the same time by a specific other article. At the same time, the relationship between the two cited articles is dynamic. By analyzing the betweenness centrality of key nodes, the basic authoritative literature in the field of LP studies can be identified. The result is shown in figure 10 .

Figure 10.

Figure 10.  Literature Co-citation map.

Still exporting it according to the indicator of betweenness centrality, the detailed information we get is shown in table 9 .

Table 9.  Literatures listed by betweenness centrality indicators (Top 10).

Table 9 shows the basic and representative literature on LP research, involving several fields: (1) climate change air pollution and air quality issues, such as Lubowski et al ( 2006 ) discussed the impact of land use change on carbon emissions and climate change. They believe that if the US chooses to implement the greenhouse gas emission reduction plan, it is necessary to decide whether to include carbon sequestration policies as part of the domestic portfolio of compliance activities. Han et al ( 2014 ) discussed the relationship between urbanization level and air pollution. They pointed out that there is a causal relationship between land pollution and air pollution. (2) land use and soil pollution issues, such as Beelen et al ( 2013 ) used land use regression (LUR) to explain and predict the spatial comparison of air pollution concentration, and explained the environmental pollution caused by land use. Brook et al ( 2010 ) discussed the relationship between land use change and air pollution and its impact on cardiovascular disease. (3) agricultural issues and the decline of biodiversity, such as Polasky et al ( 2008 ) developed a landscape-level model to analyze the biological and economic consequences of alternative land use patterns. They found that land pollution caused by land use reduced biodiversity. Fezzi et al ( 2010 ) described a statistical method to derive the impact of policy options aimed at reducing nitrate diffusion pollution on the farm economy. Butchart et al ( 2010 ) and Kalcic et al ( 2012 ) discussed the relationship between global biodiversity reduction and land pollution. (4) global water supply and cost accounting, such as Hoekstra ( 2011 ) discussed the challenge of land pollution to global water supply. He believes that land pollution will greatly increase the treatment cost of water supply. (5) worldwide disease problems, such as Lim et al ( 2012 ) found that land pollution leads to the re-pollution of livestock, vegetables, and fruits, forming a serious dietary risk of exceeding the content of harmful substances.

4. Discussion: challenges and prospects

The above analysis shows that LP research still has some shortcomings and needs to be further improved. From the perspective of research objects, the current research on LP mainly presents two types of characteristics: one part of the literature takes LP as an independent variable to explore the impact of LP on social and economic development and ecosystem services, and the other part of the literature takes LP as the dependent variable to explore the impact of spatial environmental factors on LP. We found that most of this literature suffers from quantitative bias and relies mainly on new methods, especially cluster analysis. Many studies have used GIS to quantify the impact of LP on social and economic development and ecosystem services, or geospatial methods to determine the impact of environmental factors on LP in a region. However, our study shows that integrated studies emphasizing the natural and human dimensions of land contamination are clearly lacking. A complex systems approach can help scholars to study the causal relationships between LP and the corresponding policy design, socioeconomics, and environment. Therefore, it is necessary to bring land use change as a factor into this process and its consequences. Secondly, among the studies related to land pollution and environmental remediation, different remediation methods correspond to the factors leading to land pollution and the scale of land pollution, but these methods are often single remediation strategies and do not do cost-benefit or socio-economic perspectives, we believe that the research needs to combine experimental results with socio-economic analysis to propose joint pollution remediation methods. Finally, local, or regional forces undoubtedly have a great influence on the LP process, and the driving forces from globalization cannot be ignored. Cross-border (transnational) LP has become an important reality of current LP problems, and land pollution from large flows of runoff, ocean currents, air currents, goods, people and capital play an important role in the open land system, especially global climate change has become an important topic in land pollution research. Research needs to link local LP and global-scale factors, but LP is currently under-researched at the broadest scales.

4.1. Bringing land use change as a factor into LP studies

Although many current studies have brought land use as a factor into LP studies, current LP studies are to some extent fragmented. On the one hand, current studies focus more on land use types related to human use such as agricultural land, industrial land, urbanization, etc.; on the other hand, current studies seldom take the time of land use change as a variable and do not examine the land use transition. On the other hand, the current studies seldom consider land use change over time as a variable and do not examine the mechanisms and effects of land use transition on land pollution. The process of land use change is coupled between humans and nature and needs to be studied from an integrated perspective (Aspinall and Staiano 2017 , Verburg et al 2013 ). Therefore, presenting trend changes in land use patterns in a land systems science approach (including land scale, land spatial pattern, pollution, and degradation patterns, etc.) is beneficial to improve the explanatory power of existing studies on land pollution formation (Robinson 2006 , Verburg et al 2013 ). Our study shows that integrated studies emphasizing the natural and human dimensions of land pollution are clearly inadequate. In particular, after bringing land use change as a factor into LP studies, the study of causal relationships between LP and corresponding policy design, socioeconomics and environment (integrated study of natural and human dimensions) will also be more widely emphasized.

4.2. Socio-economic analysis of LP remediation methods

Environmental remediation is an important research topic among LP studies, and these studies mainly focus on technical strategies for environmental remediation, such as physical remediation, solidification/stabilization techniques, leaching methods, application of chelating agents, microbial remediation, phytoremediation, vermicomposting, etc. (Elżbieta and Krystyna 2015 , Dhaliwal et al 2020 ). Among the current studies related to land contamination and environmental remediation, different remediation methods correspond to different scales of land contamination according to the factors that lead to land contamination and the scale of land contamination, but these methods are often single remediation strategies, and the treatment efficiency of a single remediation technique may be reduced due to the complexity of certain contaminants. And without cost-benefit or socio-economic perspectives, we believe that the research needs to combine LP experimental results with socio-economic analysis to propose joint pollution remediation methods. In addition, land remediation projects also show obvious regional characteristics, for example, for land contaminated by industrial pollution sources, combined physical-chemical remediation techniques are mostly used, such as the application of combined soil replacement-solidification/stabilization remediation techniques, combined solidification/stabilization-leaching remediation techniques, and combined chelating agent-leaching remediation techniques. Land contaminated by agricultural pollution sources generally uses physical-chemical or chemical-biological remediation techniques. By taking advantage of rapid physical or chemical remediation, the characteristics of nondestructive bioremediation techniques can be combined. For land contaminated by domestic pollution sources, combined phytoremediation-microbial remediation and combined microbial-Earthworm remediation-phytoremediation remediation techniques are generally used (Wu et al 2022 ). Therefore, appropriate remediation techniques should be selected based on socioeconomic factors, pollutant types, pollutant sources, and predictions of remediation costs/effectiveness.

4.3. Linking regional LP to globalization

The betweenness centrality indicator (table 9 ) indicates that the impact of globalization on LP has become the focus of current research. However, in the literature review, we still see that LP studies have a tradition of region-based studies, focusing on the causes of land pollution and its impacts in a particular region. With globalization, there are indications that LP has a large impact on global environmental change, global health, and global biodiversity; while global warming, global natural factors (runoff, ocean currents, air currents, etc.) and global movement of people/capital have a negative impact on land pollution. However, the distant drivers of LP have received little attention. In order to understand the impact of global forces on regional land pollution, it is necessary to capture visible or invisible information related to LP using information geography and statistical methods or approaches, which include information geography methods such as remote sensing, GIS, and also methods such as qualitative comparative analysis (QCA). These methods help to discover that LP-related causality is not limited to local factors, but also includes the effects of globalization, such as market economies, technology diffusion, international political forces, and ethnic conflicts/wars (Tang 2015 ).

5. Conclusion

The paper locates 'land pollution' in the core collection of the Web of Science database, uses CiteSpace software to process all relevant research articles, and presents the research dynamics on LP completely and clearly. We draw the following conclusions:

First, through the indicator of betweenness centrality, basic and authoritative authors in this field include Braden Brennan, Cervero Robert, Brunekreef Bert, Hoek Gerard, etc.; basic and authoritative journals include AMBIO , Science , Atmospheric Environment , etc. From the perspective of institutions and affiliated nations that publish papers, the United States is an important place for research on LP.

Second, keywords such as 'land use', 'soil pollution', 'air pollution', 'impact', and 'management' are all high-frequency words. The result of keyword clustering and the co-citation information of documents indicate the historical dynamics of LP research, which mainly include natural dimensions such as air, land, and water, as well as social dimensions such as urbanization and environmental policies. In addition, through careful inspection, it can be found that these two dimensions are intertwined. The change or deterioration of the natural environment poses challenges to human survival, social production, social life, and related governance, and we can exert our agency and take corresponding scientific measures to deal with these major challenges.

Third, in academic research, there is more cooperation among countries, which can be clearly seen from the connection between countries in figure 5 . The question is, how to convert academic achievements into practical performance, that is, to generate actual returns for the control of LP, which requires more practical consultation and concerted actions among various countries, and truly regard the problem of LP as a global problem. Therefore, we believe that social organizations may become a third force alongside the market and government to deal with LP. And this may be a focus for future academic research and action.

Finally, current LP research remains challenges and prospects: (1) future research needs to incorporate land use change as a factor in the LP formation process and its consequences; (2) research needs to combine experimental results with socioeconomic analysis to propose joint pollution remediation methods; (3) local, or regional forces may have a strong influence on the LP process, and the driving forces from globalization cannot be ignored.

Data availability statement

The data that support the findings of this study are openly available at the following URL/DOI: https://doi.org/Web of Science database (https://clarivate.com/webofsciencegroup/solutions/web-of-science-core-collection/) .

Author contributions

Conceptualization, L L and L G, methodology, B Z and M Z, software, T H, validation, L L, L G and B Z, formal analysis, T H All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.

This research was funded by the Ministry of Education China, grant number 21YJC790033.

Institutional review board statement

Not applicable.

Informed consent statement

Conflicts of interest.

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Curated by a team of in-house Web of Science™ Editors, the Web of Science Core Collection™ contains over 21,100 peer-reviewed, high-quality scholarly journals published worldwide (including Open Access journals) in over 250 sciences, social sciences, and arts & humanities disciplines.

CiteSpace software can be used to observe the research trend or dynamics of a certain research field, and it is a bibliometric tool that presents authors, research institutions, keywords, and other aspects in a visual map so that relevant researchers can easily and efficiently grasp the specific or basic situation of the research field.

AMBIO is an international environmental and ecological science journal founded by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in 1972. AMBIO's main topics include environmental impact assessment, biodiversity and its protection, environment and sustainable development, animal and plant ecosystems and global changes, and several major environmental and ecological issues.

Q Value: Modularity, which means the value of clustering module. It is generally believed that Q > 0.3 means that the cluster structure is significant; S Value: Silhouette, which means the average contour value of the cluster. It is generally believed that a cluster of S > 0.5 is reasonable, and S > 0.7 It means that the clustering is reliable.

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    Chronic respiratory disease, lung cancer, heart disease, and even brain damage are all long-term health consequences. Various Effects of Land Pollution are listed below. Climate Change - Land contamination, such as that caused by mining, farming, and factories, may allow harmful chemicals to enter the soil and water.

  6. Land pollution: An introduction to causes, effects, and solutions

    A wide-ranging introduction that covers air, water, and waste pollution, plus related issues such as energy use, global warming, and ozone depletion. Pollution: Causes, Effects, and Control by Roy Harrison (editor). Royal Society of Chemistry, 2015. A substantial introductory volume for college students.

  7. LAND POLLUTION

    Mar 3, 2013 • Download as PPTX, PDF •. 150 likes • 78,609 views. H. HammadShariq. Causes, Effects and Solutions for Land Pollution. Education. 1 of 26. Download now. LAND POLLUTION - Download as a PDF or view online for free.

  8. Land pollution (causes, effects, and solutions)

    Land pollution is a serious environmental problem that affects the health and well-being of humans, animals, and plants. In this video, you will learn about the causes, effects, and solutions of ...

  9. Pollution

    Pollution is the introduction of harmful materials into the environment. These harmful materials are called pollutants. Pollutants can be natural, such as volcanic ash. They can also be created by human activity, such as trash or runoff produced by factories. Pollutants damage the quality of air, water, and land.

  10. PPT

    Land Pollution. By: Maddie, Grace, Alyssa, Deandra, and Dominique. What is Land Pollution?. Land pollution can contribute and help contaminate the air and water. Land pollution is caused by man-made actions. Land Pollution affects the soil on the Earth. Slideshow 9693196 by maryrosed

  11. Land Pollution.ppt

    Land Pollution.ppt - Free download as Powerpoint Presentation (.ppt / .pptx), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or view presentation slides online. Scribd is the world's largest social reading and publishing site.

  12. Land Pollution Presentation by Tamia Williams on Prezi

    For grant requests, funding pitches, program proposals, or any other kind of education or nonprofit presentation, this Prezi template is the way to generate interest and momentum. Like all Prezi education templates and Prezi nonprofit templates, it's easily customizable. W W For grant requests, funding pitches, progra….

  13. LAND POLLUTION

    Disposal of industrial waste on land is the major cause for land pollution. The industrial pollutants are mainly discharged from paper mills, chemical industries, sugar factory, tanneries, textile etc., Industrial sludges are more dangerous than industrial solid wastes. 6 URBAN WASTES Urban wastes includes both commercial and domestic wastes.

  14. Land Pollution PPT and PDF for Free Download

    Here we are giving you Land Pollution PPT with PDF. All you need to do is just click on the download link and get it. Land Pollution PPT Download. Land Pollution PDF Download. It was all about Land Pollution PPT with pdf. If you liked it then please share it or if you want to ask anything then please hit comment button. https://studymafia.org ...

  15. PPT

    Presentation Transcript. Land Pollution. What is Land Pollution? Land Pollution is the degradation of Earth's land surfaces often caused by human activities and their misuse of land resources. It occurs when waste is not disposed properly. Urbanization, the growth of rural lands into urban areas and industrialization that results in the ...

  16. Land pollution

    Land pollution is caused by various human activities including mining, industrialization, agriculture, construction, and improper waste disposal. It leads to soil pollution which decreases fertility and contaminates crops, posing health risks. Land pollution also damages the environment through overcrowded landfills, toxic runoff that pollutes ...

  17. PPT

    Presentation Transcript. DEFINITION: WHAT IS LAND POLLUTION? • The result of man's misuse of the soil • The degradation of the health and quality of the land surface • The addition of undesirable matter to the land, matter that damages terrestrial organisms that depend on the land. CAUSES OF LAND POLLUTION 1.

  18. Soil Pollution Prevention

    Free Google Slides theme, PowerPoint template, and Canva presentation template. We're so focused on air pollution that sometimes we forget to look at the ground. Soil pollution is a very important issue that needs to be addressed, as it affects the vegetables and the fruit that we grow! Share your own proposal on prevention of soil pollution!

  19. Land pollution or soil pollution

    Soil pollution occurs through direct sources like waste disposal and indirect sources like acid rain. It harms soil quality and plant/animal health. Common direct causes are poor management of domestic, industrial, and agricultural waste, as well as soil erosion. Indirect causes include acid rain and radioactive waste disposal.

  20. Pollution

    Jerry A. Nathanson. Pollution, addition of any substance or form of energy to the environment at a rate faster than it can be dispersed or stored in a harmless form. The major kinds of pollution are usually classified by environment and include air, water, and land pollution. Learn more about the history of pollution.

  21. PPT

    By Angela Fang. Land Pollution. Every year one American produces over 3285 pounds of hazardous waste Every day Americans throw away 1 million bushels of litter out their car window In an average day in the United States, people throw out 200,000 tons of edible food. Download Presentation. birth defects.

  22. Land pollution research: progress, challenges, and prospects

    This paper comprehensively searched all the literature on the subject of 'land pollution' through the core collection of the Web of Science database, and systematically processed the research literature from 1944 to 2021 using CiteSpace software, and carried out bibliometric analysis and visual presentation, which uncovers the LP research dynamics in detail, and draw the following conclusions ...

  23. Free Pollution-related templates for Google Slides & PowerPoint

    Download the Noise Pollution and its Health Effects presentation for PowerPoint or Google Slides. Healthcare goes beyond curing patients and combating illnesses. Raising awareness about diseases, informing people about prevention methods, discussing some good practices, or even talking about a balanced diet—there are many topics related to ...