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Collaboration, information literacy, writing process, mla checklist.

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1. Is the heading in the upper left-hand corner of the first page? 

2. Does the heading include:

  • Your Instructor’s name?
  • The course name?

3. Does the paper have an original title (other than something like “Final Paper”)?

  • Is the title presented without being bolded, italicized, or placed in quotation marks

4. Does the paper have 1″ margins on all sides?

5. Is the paper written in Times New Roman (or another standard font your professor allows) and in 12-pt. font?

6. Is everything double-spaced (including any notes and the works cited page)?

7. Are your last name and the page number in the upper right-hand corner of each page (0.5″ from the top, or inserted using the “header” function in Word)?

8.If you’ve used outside sources, do you have a works cited page? Is it titled “Works Cited” (without the quotation marks)? Does it have a page number (that follows the last page of your paper) and your last name?

9. Are the entries in your list of works cited in alphabetical order by the author’s last name?

  • Does each source have an entry on the works cited page?
  • Are all direct quotes in quotation marks?
  • Do all paraphrases and summaries clearly indicate that they come from other sources?
  • Does each in-text reference include a parenthetical citation that includes the author’s last name (unless it is obvious from the context of the sentence who you are referencing) and the page number from which the information was taken?
  • If a quotation is 4 lines or more, is it block-quoted? (i.e. double-spaced, indented 1 inch from the left margin)
  • Have you clearly indicated where you found all information you did not previously know?
  • Does your works cited page conform to MLA format?

Brevity – Say More with Less

Brevity – Say More with Less

Clarity (in Speech and Writing)

Clarity (in Speech and Writing)

Coherence – How to Achieve Coherence in Writing

Coherence – How to Achieve Coherence in Writing

Diction

Flow – How to Create Flow in Writing

Inclusivity – Inclusive Language

Inclusivity – Inclusive Language

Simplicity

The Elements of Style – The DNA of Powerful Writing

Unity

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Home / MLA Sample Paper

MLA Sample Paper

Mla sample paper #1.

If you’ve been wondering how to produce a research paper that is strong in both formatting and writing, you’ve come to the right place.

Check out our first sample paper below. It is a helpful and clearly labeled visual aid to refer to. Note that while these sample papers do not include MLA abstracts , you should check with your instructor to see if an abstract should be included.

Visual Sample Paper

The example research paper below is one that was written in college for a course on the Inklings. The Inklings were a group of writers in England before WWII, including C.S. Lewis and J.R.R. Tolkien.

The abbreviated MLA paper below (linked here without annotations) is about J.R.R. Tolkien’s Lord of the Rings and how the author used myth, story, and song to link all of his works together. Tolkien is famous for creating a fantasy universe called Middle-earth, which readers can’t truly understand until they read all of the books about Middle-earth ( The Silmarillian, The Hobbit, and The Lord of the Rings ).

Since we’re here to learn how to format an essay, we’ve pointed out some important things about the paper to help you write a correctly formatted essay.

For starters, the essay is in MLA format. That means it follows the style manual of the Modern Language Association, which tells you how to format the paper itself and every source you cite. You’ll also see notes like how long a paragraph should be, how to use commas properly, and how to correctly punctuate a title. Some of these guidelines are different from those in APA format , so be sure to confirm you are using the correct style in your paper.

Pay special attention to the MLA format works cited. We only used one type of source (books), but both citations are correct according to the 9th edition of MLA, published in 2021. When you’re writing your own paper, you need to make sure you always use the most recent edition of the style manual. You’ll also want to check with your instructor to see if you need to include an MLA annotated bibliography with your paper, which contains additional information summarizing and evaluating each source after the regular citation.

Whether you need MLA, APA citations , or Chicago style notes, look up the latest edition before turning in a paper.

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MLA Sample Paper #2

See below for an example paper or click below to download it as a Word Document.

mla essay check

The MLA header should be one inch from the top and left margins. The heading and the entire paper should be double spaced.

Eli YaffarabeProfessor Rapheor

28 August 2018

Privatization of Prisons in Texas

              The privatization of governmental services has increased dramatically in the past decade as local, state, and federal agencies have searched for ways to cut costs while still meeting their mandated responsibility to provide various public services. This privatizing trend has particularly affected the criminal justice system. Since the early 1990s, privatized correctional facilities have increased significantly, nationally and statewide. This policy has far-ranging consequences not only within the criminal justice system, but as an instructive example for government officials when considering the costs and benefits of privatization as a public policy option. By 2001, thirty states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico had privately-operated correctional facilities (Austin and Coventry 4). This movement has incited considerable debate and controversy, mainly because prison privatization calls for giving the private sector direct control over the lives of a captive human population.

Surprisingly, there has been little objective and concrete analysis of the privatization of prisons in the United States. This is probably for two reasons: first, ideological arguments on the matter have pushed out substantive research, and second, because this trend has only recently accelerated in the U.S. and mainly on a state level. However, case studies and statistics at the state level are more accessible. With capacity for over 30,000 prisoners in 43 facilities, the state of Texas has privatized more of its prison system than any state in the nation (McDonald and Patten Jr. iv).

Yaffarabe 2

              Public policy concerning the criminal justice system has become more daunting and important in the last decade. The problems in the system are twofold: an overcrowding prison population, mainly due to “three strikes” legislation and reducing early parole; and the costs of operating prisons with this growing population (Austin and Coventry). According to the most recent U.S. Department of Justice survey, slightly over 2.2 million people were incarcerated in correctional facilities in this country in 2003. In comparison, in 1993, 1.37 million people were imprisoned in this country (Beck and Harrison 1).

At the same time, the growth of privately operated correctional facilities has increased significantly in this country. Private prisons now hold 95,522 inmates in this country, which is 6.5 percent of total prisoners (Beck and Harrison 5). In Texas, 16,570 inmates (10 percent of its prison population) are held in private facilities, about 10,000 more than the next highest state. Furthermore, six states had at least 25 percent of their prison population housed in private prisons, led by New Mexico (44%), Alaska (31%), and Montana (29%). These current statistics show that while state governments have been forced to manage and operate overcrowded and over-capacity prisons at considerable costs, many have turned to the private sector to operate prisons (McDonald and Patten Jr.). According to the General Accounting Office, prison operating costs have grown steadily since 1980, increasing almost 550 percent since 1980 based on inflation-adjusted dollars (Austin and Coventry 1).

Prison privatization started in the early 1980s, ostensibly to ease the burden on taxpayers by offering financial relief to private companies to run state prisons. Thomas Beasley founded Corrections Corporation of America in 1983, “the nation’s leader in the construction and management of private prisons” (Darling). That year, Corrections Corporation of America set up the first privately-operated prison in Tennessee. Since then, the number of private

Yaffarabe 3

correctional facility firms has grown to 14 (Austin and Coventry 3). The privatization of prisons occurs in two ways. First, state government can contract out (or outsource) specific services in a correctional facility to a private company after a bidding process. Second, and more radically, private companies build their own privately-managed prisons and contract with state governments to house their inmates. This latter approach, giving private correctional facility firms wide latitude over inmates, is taken in the Texas criminal justice system. In fact, many of these privately operated facilities “have no relationship at all with the state governments in these states, other than an obligation to pay corporate income taxes” (McDonald and Patten Jr. v).

(Due to its length, the remainder of this sample paper is omitted).

Yaffarabe 4

Works Cited Page

Austin, James, and Garry Coventry. Emerging Issues on Privatized Prisons . Bureau of Justice Assistance, Feb. 2001, www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/bja/181249.pdf.

Beck, Allen J., and Paige Harrison. Prisoners in 2003 . Bureau of Justice Statistics, Nov. 2004, www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/p03.pdf.

McDonald, Douglas, and Carl Patten Jr. Governments’ Management of Private Prisons . Abt Associates, 15 Sept. 2003, www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/203968.pdf.

Darling, Michael. “Pitt News: University of Pittsburgh Shouldn’t Lend Its Name to Prison Privatization.” CorpWatch , 15 Nov. 2004, corpwatch.org/article/pitt-news-univeristy-pittsburgh-shouldnt-lend-its-name-prison-privatization.

MLA Formatting Guide

MLA Formatting

  • Annotated Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • Block Quotes
  • et al Usage
  • In-text Citations
  • Paraphrasing
  • Page Numbers
  • Sample Paper
  • Works Cited
  • MLA 8 Updates
  • MLA 9 Updates
  • View MLA Guide

Citation Examples

  • Book Chapter
  • Journal Article
  • Magazine Article
  • Newspaper Article
  • Website (no author)
  • View all MLA Examples

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An in-text citation is a short citation that is placed next to the text being cited. The basic element needed for an in-text citation is the author’s name . The publication year is not required in in-text citations. Sometimes, page numbers or line numbers are also included, especially when text is quoted from the source being cited. In-text citations are mentioned in the text in two ways: as a citation in prose or a parenthetical citation.

Citation in prose

Citations in prose are incorporated into the text and act as a part of the sentence. Usually, citations in prose use the author’s full name when cited the first time in the text. Thereafter, only the surname is used. Avoid including the middle initial even if it is present in the works-cited-list entry. An example of the first citation in prose for a source with one author is given below:

Doug Barry explains the status of the UK.

Parenthetical

Parenthetical citations add only the author’s surname at the end of the sentence in parentheses. An example of a parenthetical citation is given below:

The status of the UK is explained (Barry).

Examples of in-text citations

Here are a few examples of in-text citations for works with various numbers and types of authors:

Use both the first name and surname of the author if you are mentioning the author for the first time in the prose. In subsequent occurrences, use only the author’s surname. Always use only the author’s surname in parenthetical citations.

Citation in prose:

First mention: Stephen George asserts …. (17).

Subsequent occurrences: George argues …. (17).

Parenthetical:

…. (George 17).

Two authors

Use the first name and surname of both authors if you are mentioning the work for the first time in the prose. In subsequent occurrences, use only the surnames of the two authors. Always use only the authors’ surnames in parenthetical citations. Use “and” to separate the two authors in parenthetical citations.

First mention: Kane Williams and Clark Ronald ….

Subsequent occurrences: Williams and Ronald ….

…. (Williams and Ronald).

Three or more authors

For citations in prose, use the first name and surname of the first author followed by “and others” or “and colleagues.” For parenthetical citations, use only the surname of the first author followed by “et al.”

Krishnan Sethu and colleagues…. or Krishnan Sethu and others ….

…. (Sethu et al.).

Corporate author

For citations in prose, treat the corporate author like you would treat the author’s name. For parenthetical citations, shorten the organization name to the shortest noun phrase. For example, shorten the Modern Language Association of America to Modern Language Association.

The Language Literary Association of Canada….

…. (Language Literary Association).

If there is no author for the source, use the source’s title in place of the author’s name for both citations in prose and parenthetical citations.

When you add such in-text citations, italicize the text of the title. If the source title is longer than a noun phrase, use a shortened version of the title. For example, shorten the title Fantastic Beasts and Where to Find Them to Fantastic Beasts .

Endgame explains …. (121).

…. ( Endgame 121).

In MLA style, two types of citations are used to cite a source: a short citation used within the text (called the in-text citation) and a full citation (called the works cited list entry) within the works cited list, which appears at the end of a paper.

The works cited list entry provides the complete details of a source. An in-text citation is a short citation that is placed next to the text being cited. The in-text citation lets the reader know that the information is derived from the cited source, and helps the reader find the full citation within the works cited list.

In order to properly cite a source in MLA style, you must have both citation types in your paper. Every in-text citation has a works cited list entry. Every works cited list entry has at least one (maybe more) corresponding in-text citation.

In-text citations

The basic element needed for an in-text citation is the author’s surname . The publication year is not required in in-text citations. Sometimes, page numbers or line numbers are also included, especially when text is quoted from the source being cited.

First mention: Sian Anderson studies ….

Subsequent occurrences: Anderson analyzes ….

….(Anderson)

or if quoting directly:

…(Anderson 9)

First mention: Paul Fin and Anna Gabriel ….

Subsequent occurrences: Fin and Gabriel ….

….(Fin and Gabriel)

…(Fin and Gabriel 27)

Paul Hill and colleagues…. or Paul Hill and others ….

….(Hill et al.)

…(Hill et al. 138)

Examples of works cited list entries

Below are a few examples of different types of works cited list entries. The examples given are for one author.

Steinman, Louise. The Knowing Body: Elements of Contemporary Performance and Dance . Shambhala Publications, 1986.

Journal article                                      

Barad, K. “Nature’s Queer Performativity.” Qui Parle , vol. 19, no. 2, 2011, pp. 121–58.

Webpage of a website

Midgelow, Vida L. “Experiences and Perceptions of the Artistic Doctorate: A Survey Report.” Artistic Doctorates in Europe,  5 Feb. 2018, www.artisticdoctorates.com/2017/12/28/experiences-and-perceptions-of-the-artistic-doctorate-survey-report/ .

YouTube video

“Behind the Scenes Chili’s Baby Back Ribs Spot.” YouTube , uploaded by Alvin Chea, 11 Sept. 2017, www.youtube.com/watch?v=gTDLh7gNRYA .

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Sample Essays: Writing with MLA Style

Congratulations to the students whose essays were selected for the 2023 edition of Writing with MLA Style! Essays were selected as examples of excellent student writing that use MLA style for citing sources. Essays have been lightly edited. 

If your institution subscribes to MLA Handbook Plus , you can access annotated versions of the essays selected in 2022 and 2023. 

Writing with MLA Style: 2023 Edition

The following essays were selected for the 2023 edition of Writing with MLA Style. The 2023 selection committee was composed of Ellen C. Carillo, University of Connecticut (chair); Rachel Ihara, Kingsborough Community College, City University of New York; and Tarshia L. Stanley, Wagner College.

Caroline Anderson (Pepperdine University)

“ L’Appel du Vide : Making Spaces for Sinful Exploration in The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde ”

Hunter Daniels (University of South Carolina, Aiken)

“Biblical Legalism and Cultural Misogyny in The Tragedy of Mariam ”

Aspen English (Southern Utah University)

“Putting the ‘Comm’ in Comics: A Communication-Theory-Informed Reading of Graphic Narratives”

Raul Martin (Lamar University)

“The Book-Object Binary: Access and Sustainability in the Academic Library”

Grace Quasebarth (Salve Regina University)

“Finding a Voice: The Loss of Machismo Criticisms through Translation in Isabel Allende’s The House of the Spirits ”

Writing with MLA Style: 2022 Edition

The following essays were selected for the 2022 edition of Writing with MLA Style. The 2022 selection committee was composed of Ellen C. Carillo, University of Connecticut; Jessica Edwards, University of Delaware (chair); and Deborah H. Holdstein, Columbia College Chicago.

Kaile Chu (New York University, Shanghai)

“Miles Apart: An Investigation into Dedicated Online Communities’ Impact on Cultural Bias”

Sietse Hagen (University of Groningen)

“The Significance of Fiction in the Debate on Dehumanizing Media Portrayals of Refugees”

Klara Ismail (University of Exeter)

“Queering the Duchess: Exploring the Body of the Female Homosexual in John Webster’s The Duchess of Malfi ”

Yasmin Mendoza (Whittier College)

“Banning without Bans”

Niki Nassiri (Stony Brook University)

“Modern-Day US Institutions and Slavery in the Twenty-First Century”

Samantha Wilber (Palm Beach Atlantic University)

“‘Pero, tu no eres facil’: The Poet X as Multicultural Bildungsroman”

Writing with MLA Style: 2019 Edition

The following essays were selected for the 2019 edition of Writing with MLA Style. The 2019 selection committee was composed of Jessica Edwards, University of Delaware; Deborah H. Holdstein, Columbia College Chicago (chair); and Liana Silva, César E. Chavez High School, Houston, Texas.

Catherine Charlton (University of King’s College, Nova Scotia)

“‘Coal Is in My Blood’: Public and Private Representations of Community Identity in Springhill, Nova Scotia”

Alyiah Gonzales (California Polytechnic State University)

“Disrupting White Normativity in Langston Hughes’s ‘I, Too’ and Toni Morrison’s ‘Recitatif’”

Meg Matthias (Miami University, Ohio)

“Prescriptions of (Living) Historical Happiness: Gendered Performance and Racial Comfort in Reenactment”

Jennifer Nguyen  (Chaminade University of Honolulu)

“The Vietnam War, the American War: Literature, Film, and Popular Memory”

Emily Schlepp (Northwest University)

“A Force of Love: A Deconstructionist Reading of Characters in Dickens’s  Great Expectations ”

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We offer smart technology you can access day or night, for all your last-minute deadlines. Citation Machine Plus’s built-in tools can help ensure you didn’t accidentally use someone else’s words without referencing them. If it does find an issue, you can use its citing tools to quickly create a citation for it.

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We think Citation Machine Plus is the best grammar checker for a fast grammar analysis and spell check to catch things you may have missed! Whether it’s an issue with subject-verb agreement, a fragmented sentence, a dangling modifier, incorrect usage of an interjection or adverb , or just a grievously misused comma, our software hunts down and points out those easy-to-correct mistakes. Plus, our program includes a reliable spell checker to help catch and correct any typos.

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Plagiarism matters more than you think

You might define plagiarism as copying someone else’s work , whether by copying another student’s paper or taking passages directly from research sources and passing them off as your own work. But did you know that it’s not just about literal copying, but about making sure you credit your sources.

Think about it: would you want someone to take your hard work without crediting you? Of course not! So it’s important to make sure that you don’t accidentally use the work and research of someone else without giving them the credit they deserve and that formatting requires. A plagiarism check provides you with peace of mind that you haven’t forgotten to cite sources.

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A paper check for peace of mind

Plagiarizing the works of another writer is a big deal in school and in life. Even if it’s a mistake, it’s the sort of mistake that no one wants to make because it’s a pretty serious issue. Luckily, it’s pretty easy to avoid if you have the right tools at your disposal! The first step to avoiding it is knowing what it is.

One plagiarism definition — probably the most commonly discussed one — is to directly steal somebody else’s words and pretend they are yours, or, alternately, to use someone else’s words and not give them credit. These actions are deliberate attempts to deceive, and they do happen in real life. More often, however, issues arise from not from intentional misconduct, but from innocent or careless mistakes that simply give an impression of copying because sources haven’t been credited as they should.

Most teachers ask you to cite the works of others so you learn to be an ethical researcher who does not plagiarize . In many cases, teachers will use a plagiarism tool to make sure students are following guidelines. However, with so many assignments, chores, friends, and other parts of life going on, it can be difficult to keep track of everything.

That’s why getting a plagiarism check — like the one from Citation Machine — can save you from forgetting to cite sources. It’s simple to use, catching missed citations and other errors. Finding and correcting these problems before you turn in your paper can make the difference between a stellar grade and a failing one.

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Why wear out your own tired eyes after you’ve already researched, written, and proofread that long essay or term paper? Even the most attentive student might miss a minor detail or in-text citation when reviewing their own paper. Instead, use our software to check your paper and catch missed citations or accidentally copied passages of text before you turn it in. With Citation Machine Plus, a smart plagiarism check is only a few clicks away, allowing you to catch missed citations or accidentally copied text.

So why not try it out? It’s free to scan a paper and can help catch those pesky errors hiding in your text, even if it’s as simple as a quick fix of a  pronoun or a missing preposition . And with an affordable subscription plan, you can upgrade and unlock all of our powerful writing and citing tools.

How a plagiarism check helps you

We often think of citing sources to avoid plagiarizing as something that helps other people, because it’s focused on correctly crediting the work done by others and not passing it off as your own or accidentally implying that it’s your own by failing to cite sources. But using a plagiarism checker to do this actually benefits you, the student, too!

When you submit your paper to be double-checked and to make sure that you haven’t plagiarized in any way, you’re also protecting yourself. How does that work? It’s all based on the way these tools function in the first place. Most of them are built around algorithms that compare uploaded papers to a vast database of existing work. This may include research databases of published works (think papers in academic journals, books, newspapers, and other print and digital sources), as well as information found online on websites.

So when you submit to a free plagiarism checker — or a subscription-based one — you’re comparing your own writing to other writings online. Your essay is checked using algorithms. How does this help you? In short, it protects you from accidentally getting a reputation as a plagiarist. Once you’ve uploaded a paper, the checker will scan your writing to make sure that your writing is wholly your own, saving you plenty of headaches and ensuring that your original ideas are shining through clearly with support from sources, rather than borrowing too heavily from other research.

If that’s not reason enough to use a checker, then remember this: if you’re in any sort of formal writing class, whether in high school or in college, your teacher is very likely to have access to a checker through their department. “Check paper for plagiarism” is at the top of the to-do list when teachers sit down to grade papers — in fact, many have a rubric that has a section for academic honesty and proper citations.

Since your teachers are already using this kind of software, wouldn’t it be great if you could too? The great news is you can! A Citation Machine Plus subscription gives you access to a set of tools built specifically for students, allowing you to check your paper on your own, before even submitting your work for grading. The more you check on your own, the more you learn, which can help you avoid making mistakes in the future.

But that’s not all.

So, what is plagiarism?

Let’s start with the basics. You might be surprised about what really counts in the overall plagiarism definition. For instance, have you ever heard of incremental plagiarism? Also called “patchwork,”  this happens when you take bits and pieces from multiple sources, without citing, and pass it off as your own work. This is common with specific turns of phrase or ideas, but it’s also what can happen if you aren’t careful with citing all sources. A paper-checking service can help catch these issues before they get to your teacher’s desk.

When we talk about plagiarism, we’re talking about a wide variety of issues. It can mean deliberately copying from another source, whether it’s a book, an academic paper, or the work of a classmate or previous student. Using services that do work on behalf of a student, then put the student’s name on it, also falls into this category. As described above, deliberate incremental plagiarism — usually plagiarizing multiple sources and combining them to avoid detection — is also a major problem.

The above examples are probably the first answers that come to mind in response to the question “what is plagiarism?”, but there’s actually a lot more to it than that. Most of us wouldn’t intentionally plagiarize, but there are plenty of instances where you might do so without even realizing that you’ve done something wrong!

For instance, forgetting to cite a quoted source might result in the quoted passage tripping the algorithms when your teacher runs it through a paper checker. Or perhaps you’ve synthesized the information from your research, but you’ve inadvertently reused some particularly distinctive language from one of the original sources, making it appear like intentionally copied text even though it’s really not. Citation Machine Plus tools can help you avoid these accidents by proofreading your paper to catch any instances that could count against you and helping you fix the issues.

Here’s a detailed article if you’d like to learn more about avoiding plagiarism .

Why we cite

What do teachers want to see in your papers? When it comes to writing style, teachers will pretty much always understand that every student will have a different voice, but they’ll still be looking for certain elements that every paper should have — like citations. Essentially, the idea is to make sure that an essay has original ideas and arguments and cites sources where it uses existing information .

Remember the Golden Rule? Do unto others as they would do unto you? Most of us would not want others to take credit for our ideas, so we don’t intentionally steal someone else’s words. But with so much information in the world, it can easily occur by accident.

Unfortunately, it happens both intentionally and unintentionally enough that teachers often take student work and run it through a scan to make sure the content is original. That’s right, even teachers sometimes use online tools from a subscription-based or free plagiarism checker. It’s even a required step for many writing classes at any level, so make sure that your paper is prepared for these kinds of checks.

That being said, no teacher really wants to flag any student’s paper, and no student wants to be flagged. That’s one reason citations are so important and a vital part of ethical research and writing. When you cite your sources correctly, you’re giving credit to the originators of the ideas or quotes, which means that there’s no plagiarizing going on — just good old-fashioned research .

When you first start learning to cite your sources, you probably learned just one overall style guide. In college and in the real world, though, the style guide you’ll need to use will depend on what field you’re in. For instance, academia often sticks with Chicago citation style , while the arts and humanities tend to prefer MLA, and APA is favored by the social and behavioral sciences.

So you need MLA format help? We got you covered! How about APA format instead? No problem! We’re all over that, too! In fact, we have many more citation styles . Our classic citation tools are available for all your formatting needs.

Here’s the best part: using our tools could help you expand your knowledge for the future! Our citation formatting tools can help you become more familiar with the most popular style guides — which will make your life easier when you go to write more essays in the future! Curious about these benefits and how it works? Here’s a great place to

Citation Machine Plus: More than a plagiarism tool

Citation Machine Plus is much, much more than just a way to check plagiarism — you can scan for grammar errors, too!

Unsure if you could benefit from a Citation Machine Plus subscription? Submit your paper for a grammar and spell check with up to 5 suggestion cards for free. A simple copy and paste or paper upload, a few clicks, and it’ll start reviewing your paper. Is an adjective used incorrectly? Is a determiner in the wrong spot?

That’s where the all-in-one Citation Machine grammar checker and spell checker comes in! With this simple but powerful software, writing can be scanned for grammar mistakes. Some of the most common errors are actually some of the simplest to fix. Even better: as you learn, you’ll make fewer and fewer of them.

The tool will highlight any errors, plus more! In fact, the tool can sometimes even tell you why your mistakes are mistakes and help you correct them. That’s why we think our grammar check is the perfect helper for your papers: it doesn’t just help to catch your errors, it also helps you learn from them so that you can improve your writing over time.

Hypothetical situation (or is it?): You have just finished writing a paper for class. Maybe you spent hours writing it, maybe you only spent an hour on it. Either way, wouldn’t you feel better turning in your paper if it was proofread and reviewed?

Everybody wants an A+. The only way to get there is through practice, hard work, and learning. Citation Machine Plus writing tools can help you develop your skills by identifying potential errors in your paper. That way you can improve your paper and learn what grammatical points to focus on in the future.

Help with formatting

As it’s more than just an essay checker, the Citation Machine Plus suite of tools has a few more tricks up its sleeve! As the name implies, these tools are built for equipping you with simple, easy-to-use citation tools to help you build a bibliography for your paper.

Citation Machine Plus: Your go-to writing source

So now’s the time to stop stressing over writing errors, accidentally plagiarizing others, and citation concerns. Let Citation Machine Plus help you write well! It’s the writing companion that can help to take your academic writing to the next level, and it will give you tools you need to become a better  writer both in and out of academic contexts.

Turning in essays for class can be stressful enough on its own, but that stress can just get compounded with worries about grammar and citations. There’s no need to stress when Citation Machine Plus is at your disposal! Its tools are easy to use, all-in-one platform that helps take the worry out of writing a paper when it comes to grammar and citations. Check for everything you need, all in one place, and learn more about how to make your writing truly shine.

Whether you need a quick check of your conjunction , noun , or verb usage, a complete grammar check, a thorough plagiarism tool, or reliable help citing sources, invest in a subscription to what we believe to be one of the most user-friendly citation tools online—Citation Machine Plus!

Easy citation creation

Let’s be honest, citations are a hassle. But the great thing about a paid or free online plagiarism checker is that you can pull double duty: when you check for plagiarism, you’re also checking to see if you’ve left out any citations! We wanted students and authors to have a one-stop shop when it comes to citing; a citation creation tool at your beck and call.

And now you do!

In addition to our paper checking tools, we have citation tools! Citing sources not only makes your work more professional, it is generally required for any formal papers or research projects. Any time you use the words or direct concepts of others, it’s vital to give credit where it’s due, and a proper citation is the means to do that. Remember: when we ask “what is plagiarism?” the answer includes improperly cited sources along with intentional copying! Teachers can often use a paper-checking service through their schools, so we’ve developed similar tools for students to use.

Our classic citation tools make it easy to create a correctly-formatted citation for APA format or MLA format citation styles. ** We have taken the hassle out of citing your sources, and — trust us — you will notice the difference.

** The APA and MLA are not associated with Citation Machine, but our citation services follow their styles.

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Generally, in scholarly writing, with its emphasis on precision and clarity, the active voice is preferred. However, the passive voice is acceptable in some instances. When you run your essay through ProWritingAid’s essay checker, you get feedback on whether you 'r e using the passive or active voice to convey your idea.

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There are academic specific power verbs like appraise , investigate , debunk , support , etc., that can add more impact to your argument by giving a more positive and confident tone. The essay checker will check your writing for power verbs and notify you if you have less than three throughout your essay.

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It's easy to get attached to certain phrases and use them as crutches in your essays but this gives the impression of boring and repetitive writing. The essay checker will highlight your repeats and suggest contextually relevant alternatives.

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You can either copy and paste your essay in the essay checker field or upload your essay from your computer. Your suggestions will show once you enter text. You’ll see a number of possible grammar and spelling issues. Sign up for free to get unlimited suggestions to improve your writing style, grammar, and sentence structure. Avoid unintentional plagiarism with a premium account.

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The essay checker works with both British English and American English. Just choose the one you would like to use and your corrections will reflect this.

3. Is using an essay checker cheating?

No. The essay checker won’t ever write the essay for you. It will point out possible edits and advise you on changes you need to make. You have full autonomy and get to decide which changes to accept.

4. Will the essay checker auto-correct my work?

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Students who have an eligible student email address can get 20% off ProWritingAid Premium. Email [email protected] from your student email address to access your discount.

6. Does ProWritingAid have a plagiarism checker?

Yes! ProWritingAid’s plagiarism checker will check your work against over a billion web-pages, published works, and academic papers, so you can be sure of its originality. Find out more about pricing for plagiarism checks here .

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ICJ orders Israel to act on aid crisis in Gaza; Palestinian Authority names new cabinet

The International Court of Justice issued additional measures Thursday amending and strengthening its January order that Israel do more to prevent the deaths of civilians in Gaza.

In its new order, the judges called on Israel to “take all necessary and effective measures” to ensure the provision of basic services and humanitarian assistance to Palestinians in the enclave. Earlier Thursday, the Palestinian Authority named a new cabinet Thursday, amid discontent in the West Bank and international pressure to reform.

  • International Court of Justice issues new order for Israel to ensure aid reaches Gaza
  • Palestinian Authority announces new cabinet amid U.S. pressure
  • Netanyahu will reschedule meeting with U.S. on Rafah, White House says

Here's what to know:

Here's what to know, live coverage contributors 8.

Frances Vinall avatar

4:30 p.m. EDT 4:30 p.m. EDT

3:49 p.m. EDT Bullet Key update 3:49 p.m. EDT

2:22 p.m. EDT Bullet Key update 2:22 p.m. EDT

1:38 p.m. EDT Bullet Key update 1:38 p.m. EDT

1:24 p.m. EDT 1:24 p.m. EDT

  • Republicans hug Netanyahu tighter as Democratic tensions with Israel war strategy boil March 20, 2024 Republicans hug Netanyahu tighter as Democratic tensions with Israel war strategy boil March 20, 2024
  • Blinken begins new round of Gaza talks in Saudi Arabia March 20, 2024 Blinken begins new round of Gaza talks in Saudi Arabia March 20, 2024
  • Blinken to visit Israel amid tensions over plan to invade Rafah March 20, 2024 Blinken to visit Israel amid tensions over plan to invade Rafah March 20, 2024

12:39 p.m. EDT Bullet Key update 12:39 p.m. EDT

6:54 a.m. EDT 6:54 a.m. EDT

4:34 a.m. EDT 4:34 a.m. EDT

Israel-Gaza war

Israel-Gaza war: Secretary of State Antony Blinken is set to make a quick stop in Israel as tensions are rising between the United States and Israel over Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu’s plans to invade Rafah . The Israeli military said Wednesday that it was continuing its raid on al-Shifa Hospital in Gaza City, where people said they were trapped in dire conditions.

Middle East conflict: Tensions in the region continue to rise. As Israeli troops aim to take control of the Gaza-Egypt border crossing, officials in Cairo warn that the move would undermine the 1979 peace treaty. Meanwhile, there’s a diplomatic scramble to avert full-scale war between Israel and Lebanon .

U.S. involvement: U.S. airstrikes in Iraq and Syria killed dozens of Iranian-linked militants , according to Iraqi officials. The strikes were the first round of retaliatory action by the Biden administration for an attack in Jordan that killed three U.S. service members .

mla essay check

Fake solar eclipse glasses are everywhere ahead of the total solar eclipse. Here's how to check yours are safe

With two weeks until April 8's total solar eclipse, the American Astronomical Society is warning buyers about unsafe and counterfeit solar glasses.

the sun can be seen through a pair of dark solar eclipse glasses held up to the sky

April 8's total solar eclipse is just two weeks away today.

Millions of people along the path of totality will be viewing the total eclipse, meaning millions of pairs of eyes will gazing up at the sun for hours as the eclipse unfolds. When it comes to solar observation, safety is paramount as viewing the sun directly and without protection can cause serious and long-term damage to your eyes.

That's why ahead of the once-in-a-lifetime natural phenomenon , the American Astronomical Society (AAS) is warning people about the risks of counterfeit and knock-off solar glasses . 

Related: Solar eclipse glasses: Where to buy the best, high-quality eyewear Read more: Total solar eclipse 2024: Everything you need to know

The AAS says there is a way in which you can test your solar glasses before using them for the event. If you wear them inside, you shouldn't be able to see anything except for very bright lights, but they will appear faint. If you can see things like pictures on the wall then the glasses are not dark enough for solar viewing. If they pass that indoor test, you can take them outdoors and have a look around. 

Again, you shouldn't be able to see anything when wearing eclipse glasses other than the sun's reflection off a reflective surface and again, it should appear faint. If your glasses fail any of these home tests, you should either try and get a refund or discard them. 

It is worth noting that not all counterfeit solar glasses are fake and therefore, unsafe. Some counterfeits are just a straight rip-off as one manufacturer imitates another but still produces the same quality. There is, however, a rise in fake models which, when put on, appear no darker than regular sunglasses, which are unsafe for direct solar viewing. 

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Eye protection for solar eclipses can come in the form of a specialist telescope, binoculars, solar filters or even trusty paper eclipse glasses . Unfortunately, with the solar eclipse fast approaching, the number of fake solar glasses is rising, which can be unsafe for solar viewing.

If you want to view the solar eclipse safely, equipment that meets the ISO 12312-2 standards means that they're safe for use. For this, the equipment must be tested in a laboratory and approved by a recognized accrediting body. Unfortunately, anyone can print a statement that says their product meets the ISO standards which is why checking out the AAS's list of approved safe solar viewers can give you peace of mind. 

an image showing two different labels on the insides of eclipse glasses

We have in-depth guides to the best solar viewing kit and solar glasses worth checking out if you're looking for safe solar observing equipment just before the total solar eclipse. 

—  Best solar viewing kit 2024: Observe the April 8 solar eclipse

 — How to observe the sun safely (and what to look for)

— Total solar eclipse 2024 maps of the 'path of totality'

The total solar eclipse will be visible in certain areas of Mexico, the U.S. and Canada on April 8 for a brief period of totality. That period is when the moon will appear almost as large as the Sun and block out the star's light, leaving areas within the path of totality in darkness. You can watch the total solar eclipse live, here on space.com .

This time around, the period of totality will last for between about three and five minutes, which is considerably longer than the total solar eclipse back in 2017. If you're still unsure about safe solar observation, we have an in-depth guide on how to view the sun safely , which you can check out. 

Join our Space Forums to keep talking space on the latest missions, night sky and more! And if you have a news tip, correction or comment, let us know at: [email protected].

Alexander Cox

STAFF WRITER, E-commerce — Alex joined Space.com in June 2021 as staff writer covering space news, games, tech, toys and deals. Based in London, U.K. Graduating in June 2020, Alex studied Sports Journalism in the North East of England at Sunderland University. During his studies and since his graduation, Alex has been featured in local newspapers and online publications covering a range of sports from university rugby to Premier League soccer. In addition to a background in sports and journalism, Alex has a life-long love of Star Wars which started with watching the prequel trilogy and collecting toy lightsabers, he also grew up spending most Saturday evenings watching Doctor Who. 

Contact Alexander: E-Mail   Twitter

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  • Helio Good advise. Faulty glasses could easily be a problem. I did find the ISO standards: here The Maximum visible range in the ISO standard is 99.9968% (0.0032%). So I will assume the advertised 99.99% is likely adequate given their limited use, and of a diminished Sun thanks to the Moons blockage. :) Reply
  • billslugg A couple of comments: - Is it possible to go any lower than make a few bucks off making someone blind? - I just read a caution not to use anything but commercially supplied eclipse glasses that post an ISO endorsement. I guess that goes out the window. - The same post warned against the use of telescope quality solar filters. What's up with that ? - Now that we have a "test", can we start using our #14 or darker welding glass? Reply
  • Classical Motion I use to used welding glass. I heard that the eyes can heal from the visible damage, but the UV was the danger. So UV protection is a must. But that's just what I hear. And I had to have cataracts removed twice. So much for what I hear. Now days I would use a projection. It's easier for for me to observe down instead of up. Reply
billslugg said: A couple of comments: - Is it possible to go any lower than make a few bucks off making someone blind?
billslugg said: - I just read a caution not to use anything but commercially supplied eclipse glasses that post an ISO endorsement. I guess that goes out the window.
billslugg said: - The same post warned against the use of telescope quality solar filters. What's up with that ?
Classical Motion said: I use to used welding glass. I heard that the eyes can heal from the visible damage, but the UV was the danger. So UV protection is a must. But that's just what I hear.
  • billslugg Yes, UV, infrared and visible must all be attenuated. You might have a bad filter, one that attenuates visible to a comfortable level but passes damaging UV and infrared, which might not trigger the pain reflex. I used stacked B&W negatives at age 10, in St Croix, VI on a partial eclipse July 23, 1963 for many hours and never had any damage I ever became aware of. I have observed the Sun for many hours since then with 30x100 binoculars equipped with solar filters. I have used #14 welding glass as well. I am age 71, never had cataracts. Reply
  • Helio Is there an easy way to test for UV transmittance? Reply
Helio said: Is there an easy way to test for UV transmittance?
  • Atlan0001 Search your various glasses' brands on the internet specifying "solar eclipse" and/or UV protection. Reply
  • View All 9 Comments

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By Winnie Hu and Ana Ley

New York City completed a crucial final step on Wednesday in a decades-long effort to become the first American city to roll out a comprehensive congestion pricing program, one that aims to push motorists out of their cars and onto mass transit by charging new tolls to drive into Midtown and Lower Manhattan.

The program could start as early as mid-June after the board of the Metropolitan Transportation Authority, the state agency that will install and manage the program, voted 11-to-1 to approve the final tolling rates, which will charge most passenger cars $15 a day to enter at 60th Street and below in Manhattan. The program is expected to reduce traffic and raise $1 billion annually for public transit improvements.

It was a historic moment for New York’s leaders and transportation advocates after decades of failed attempts to advance congestion pricing even as other gridlocked cities around the world, including London, Stockholm and Singapore, proved that similar programs could reduce traffic and pollution.

While other American cities have introduced related concepts by establishing toll roads or closing streets to traffic, the plan in New York is unmatched in ambition and scale.

Congestion pricing is expected to reduce the number of vehicles that enter Lower Manhattan by about 17 percent, according to a November study by an advisory committee reporting to the M.T.A. The report also said that the total number of miles driven in 28 counties across the region would be reduced.

“This was the right thing to do,” Janno Lieber, the authority’s chairman and chief executive, said after the vote. “New York has more traffic than any place in the United States, and now we’re doing something about it.”

Congestion pricing has long been a hard sell in New York, where many people commute by car from the boroughs outside of Manhattan and the suburbs, in part because some of them do not have access to public transit.

New York State legislators finally approved congestion pricing in 2019 after Gov. Andrew M. Cuomo helped push it through. A series of recent breakdowns in the city’s subway system had underscored the need for billions of dollars to update its aging infrastructure.

It has taken another five years to reach the starting line. Before the tolling program can begin, it must be reviewed by the Federal Highway Administration, which is expected to approve it.

Congestion pricing also faces legal challenges from six lawsuits that have been brought by elected officials and residents from across the New York region. Opponents have increasingly mobilized against the program in recent months, citing the cost of the tolls and the potential environmental effects from shifting traffic and pollution to other areas as drivers avoid the tolls.

A court hearing is scheduled for April 3 and 4 on a lawsuit brought by the State of New Jersey, which is seen as the most serious legal challenge. The mayor of Fort Lee, N.J., Mark J. Sokolich, has filed a related lawsuit.

Four more lawsuits have been brought in New York: by Ed Day, the Rockland County executive; by Vito Fossella, the Staten Island borough president, and the United Federation of Teachers; and by two separate groups of city residents.

Amid the litigation, M.T.A. officials have suspended some capital construction projects that were to be paid for by the program, and they said at a committee meeting on Monday that crucial work to modernize subway signals on the A and C lines had been delayed.

Nearly all the toll readers have been installed, and will automatically charge drivers for entering the designated congestion zone at 60th Street or below. There is no toll for leaving the zone or driving around in it. Through traffic on Franklin D. Roosevelt Drive and the West Side Highway will not be tolled.

Under the final tolling structure, which was based on recommendations by the advisory panel, most passenger vehicles will be charged $15 a day from 5 a.m. to 9 p.m. on weekdays, and from 9 a.m. to 9 p.m. on weekends. The toll will be $24 for small trucks and charter buses, and will rise to $36 for large trucks and tour buses. It will be $7.50 for motorcycles.

Those tolls will be discounted by 75 percent at night, dropping the cost for a passenger vehicle to $3.75.

Fares will go up by $1.25 for taxis and black car services, and by $2.50 for Uber and Lyft. Passengers will be responsible for paying the new fees, and they will be added to every ride that begins, ends or occurs within the congestion zone. There will be no nighttime discounts. (The new fees come on top of an existing congestion surcharge that was imposed on for-hire vehicles in 2019.)

The tolls will mostly be collected using the E-ZPass system. Electronic detection points have been placed at entrances and exits to the tolling zone. Drivers who do not use an E-ZPass will pay significantly higher fees — for instance, $22.50 instead of $15 during peak hours for passenger vehicles.

Emergency vehicles like fire trucks, ambulances and police cars, as well as vehicles carrying people with disabilities, were exempted from the new tolls under the state’s congestion pricing legislation .

As for discounts, low-income drivers who make less than $50,000 annually can apply to receive half off the daytime toll after their first 10 trips in a calendar month. In addition, low-income residents of the congestion zone who make less than $60,000 a year can apply for a state tax credit.

All drivers entering the zone directly from four tolled tunnels — the Lincoln, Holland, Hugh L. Carey and Queens-Midtown — will receive a “crossing credit” that will be applied against the daytime toll. The credit will be $5 round-trip for passenger vehicles, $12 for small trucks and intercity and charter buses, $20 for large trucks and tour buses, and $2.50 for motorcycles. No credits will be offered at night.

Grace Ashford contributed reporting.

Winnie Hu is a Times reporter covering the people and neighborhoods of New York City. More about Winnie Hu

Ana Ley is a Times reporter covering New York City’s mass transit system and the millions of passengers who use it. More about Ana Ley

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MLA Works Cited: Electronic Sources (Web Publications)

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MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. This resource, updated to reflect the MLA Handbook (9 th ed.), offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the Works Cited page.

The MLA Handbook highlights principles over prescriptive practices. Essentially, a writer will need to take note of primary elements in every source, such as author, title, etc. and then assort them in a general format. Thus, by using this methodology, a writer will be able to cite any source regardless of whether it’s included in this list.

However, this guide will highlight a few concerns when citing digital sources in MLA style.

Best Practices for Managing Online Sources

Because online information can change or disappear, it is always a good idea to keep personal copies of important electronic information whenever possible. Downloading or even printing key documents ensures you have a stable backup. You can also use the Bookmark function in your web browser in order to build an easy-to-access reference for all of your project's sources (though this will not help you if the information is changed or deleted).

It is also wise to keep a record of when you first consult with each online source. MLA uses the phrase, “Accessed” to denote which date you accessed the web page when available or necessary. It is not required to do so, but it is encouraged (especially when there is no copyright date listed on a website).

Important Note on the Use of URLs in MLA

Include a URL or web address to help readers locate your sources. Because web addresses are not static (i.e., they change often) and because documents sometimes appear in multiple places on the web (e.g., on multiple databases), MLA encourages the use of citing containers such as Youtube, JSTOR, Spotify, or Netflix in order to easily access and verify sources. However, MLA only requires the www. address, so eliminate all https:// when citing URLs.

Many scholarly journal articles found in databases include a DOI (digital object identifier). If a DOI is available, cite the DOI number instead of the URL.

Online newspapers and magazines sometimes include a “permalink,” which is a shortened, stable version of a URL. Look for a “share” or “cite this” button to see if a source includes a permalink. If you can find a permalink, use that instead of a URL.

Abbreviations Commonly Used with Electronic Sources

If page numbers are not available, use par. or pars. to denote paragraph numbers. Use these in place of the p. or pp. abbreviation. Par. would be used for a single paragraph, while pars. would be used for a span of two or more paragraphs.

Basic Style for Citations of Electronic Sources (Including Online Databases)

Here are some common features you should try to find before citing electronic sources in MLA style. Not every web page will provide all of the following information. However, collect as much of the following information as possible:

  • Author and/or editor names (if available); last names first.
  • "Article name in quotation marks."
  • Title of the website, project, or book in italics.
  • Any version numbers available, including editions (ed.), revisions, posting dates, volumes (vol.), or issue numbers (no.).
  • Publisher information, including the publisher name and publishing date.
  • Take note of any page numbers (p. or pp.) or paragraph numbers (par. or pars.).
  • DOI (if available, precede it with "https://doi.org/"), otherwise a URL (without the https://) or permalink.
  • Date you accessed the material (Date Accessed). While not required, saving this information it is highly recommended, especially when dealing with pages that change frequently or do not have a visible copyright date.

Use the following format:

Author. "Title." Title of container (self contained if book) , Other contributors (translators or editors), Version (edition), Number (vol. and/or no.), Publisher, Publication Date, Location (pages, paragraphs and/or URL, DOI or permalink). 2 nd container’s title , Other contributors, Version, Number, Publisher, Publication date, Location, Date of Access (if applicable).

Citing an Entire Web Site

When citing an entire website, follow the same format as listed above, but include a compiler name if no single author is available.

Author, or compiler name (if available). Name of Site. Version number (if available), Name of institution/organization affiliated with the site (sponsor or publisher), date of resource creation (if available), DOI (preferred), otherwise include a URL or permalink. Date of access (if applicable).

Editor, author, or compiler name (if available). Name of Site . Version number, Name of institution/organization affiliated with the site (sponsor or publisher), date of resource creation (if available), URL, DOI or permalink. Date of access (if applicable).

The Purdue OWL Family of Sites . The Writing Lab and OWL at Purdue and Purdue U, 2008, owl.english.purdue.edu/owl. Accessed 23 Apr. 2008.

Felluga, Dino. Guide to Literary and Critical Theory . Purdue U, 28 Nov. 2003, www.cla.purdue.edu/english/theory/. Accessed 10 May 2006.

Course or Department Websites

Give the instructor name. Then list the title of the course (or the school catalog designation for the course) in italics. Give appropriate department and school names as well, following the course title.

Felluga, Dino. Survey of the Literature of England . Purdue U, Aug. 2006, web.ics.purdue.edu/~felluga/241/241/Home.html. Accessed 31 May 2007.

English Department . Purdue U, 20 Apr. 2009, www.cla.purdue.edu/english/. Accessed 31 May 2015.

A Page on a Web Site

For an individual page on a Web site, list the author or alias if known, followed by an indication of the specific page or article being referenced. Usually, the title of the page or article appears in a header at the top of the page. Follow this with the information covered above for entire Web sites. If the publisher is the same as the website name, only list it once.

Lundman, Susan. “How to Make Vegetarian Chili.”  eHow , www.ehow.com/how_10727_make-vegetarian-chili.html. Accessed 6 July 2015.

“ Athlete's Foot - Topic Overview. ”   WebMD , 25 Sept. 2014, www.webmd.com/skin-problems-and-treatments/tc/athletes-foot-topic-overview.

Citations for e-books closely resemble those for physical books. Simply indicate that the book in question is an e-book by putting the term "e-book" in the "version" slot of the MLA template (i.e., after the author, the title of the source, the title of the container, and the names of any other contributors).

Silva, Paul J.  How to Write a Lot: A Practical Guide to Productive Academic Writing. E-book, American Psychological Association, 2007.

If the e-book is formatted for a specific reader device or service, you can indicate this by treating this information the same way you would treat a physical book's edition number. Often, this will mean replacing "e-book" with "[App/Service] ed."

Machiavelli, Niccolo.  The Prince , translated by W. K. Marriott, Kindle ed., Library of Alexandria, 2018.

Note:  The MLA considers the term "e-book" to refer to publications formatted specifically for reading with an e-book reader device (e.g., a Kindle) or a corresponding web application. These e-books will not have URLs or DOIs. If you are citing book content from an ordinary webpage with a URL, use the "A Page on a Web Site" format above.

An Image (Including a Painting, Sculpture, or Photograph)

Provide the artist's name, the work of art italicized, the date of creation, the institution and city where the work is housed. Follow this initial entry with the name of the Website in italics, and the date of access.

Goya, Francisco. The Family of Charles IV . 1800. Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid. Museo Nacional del Prado , www.museodelprado.es/en/the-collection/art-work/the-family-of-carlos-iv/f47898fc-aa1c-48f6-a779-71759e417e74. Accessed 22 May 2006.

Klee, Paul. Twittering Machine . 1922. Museum of Modern Art, New York. The Artchive , www.artchive.com/artchive/K/klee/twittering_machine.jpg.html. Accessed May 2006.

If the work cited is available on the web only, then provide the name of the artist, the title of the work, and then follow the citation format for a website. If the work is posted via a username, use that username for the author.

Adams, Clifton R. “People Relax Beside a Swimming Pool at a Country Estate Near Phoenix, Arizona, 1928.” Found, National Geographic Creative, 2 June 2016, natgeofound.tumblr.com/.

An Article in a Web Magazine

Provide the author name, article name in quotation marks, title of the web magazine in italics, publisher name, publication date, URL, and the date of access.

Bernstein, Mark. “ 10 Tips on Writing the Living Web. ”   A List Apart: For People Who Make Websites , 16 Aug. 2002, alistapart.com/article/writeliving. Accessed 4 May 2009.

An Article in an Online Scholarly Journal

For all online scholarly journals, provide the author(s) name(s), the name of the article in quotation marks, the title of the publication in italics, all volume and issue numbers, and the year of publication. Include a DOI if available, otherwise provide a URL or permalink to help readers locate the source.

Article in an Online-only Scholarly Journal

MLA requires a page range for articles that appear in Scholarly Journals. If the journal you are citing appears exclusively in an online format (i.e. there is no corresponding print publication) that does not make use of page numbers, indicate the URL or other location information.

Dolby, Nadine. “Research in Youth Culture and Policy: Current Conditions and Future Directions.” Social Work and Society: The International Online-Only Journal, vol. 6, no. 2, 2008, www.socwork.net/sws/article/view/60/362. Accessed 20 May 2009.

Article in an Online Scholarly Journal That Also Appears in Print

Cite articles in online scholarly journals that also appear in print as you would a scholarly journal in print, including the page range of the article . Provide the URL and the date of access.

Wheelis, Mark. “ Investigating Disease Outbreaks Under a Protocol to the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention. ”   Emerging Infectious Diseases , vol. 6, no. 6, 2000, pp. 595-600, wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/6/6/00-0607_article. Accessed 8 Feb. 2009.

An Article from an Online Database (or Other Electronic Subscription Service)

Cite online databases (e.g. LexisNexis, ProQuest, JSTOR, ScienceDirect) and other subscription services as containers. Thus, provide the title of the database italicized before the DOI or URL. If a DOI is not provided, use the URL instead. Provide the date of access if you wish.

Alonso, Alvaro, and Julio A. Camargo. “ Toxicity of Nitrite to Three Species of Freshwater Invertebrates. ”   Environmental Toxicology, vol. 21, no. 1, 3 Feb. 2006, pp. 90-94. Wiley Online Library , https://doi.org/10.1002/tox.20155. Accessed 26 May 2009.

Langhamer, Claire. “Love and Courtship in Mid-Twentieth-Century England.” Historical Journal, vol. 50, no. 1, 2007, pp. 173-96. ProQuest , https://doi.org/10.1017/S0018246X06005966. Accessed 27 May 2009.

E-mail (including E-mail Interviews)

Give the author of the message, followed by the subject line in quotation marks. State to whom the message was sent with the phrase, “Received by” and the recipient’s name. Include the date the message was sent. Use standard capitalization.

Kunka, Andrew. “ Re: Modernist Literature. ”  Received by John Watts, 15 Nov. 2000.

Neyhart, David. “ Re: Online Tutoring. ” Received by Joe Barbato, 1 Dec. 2016.

A Listserv, Discussion Group, or Blog Posting

Cite web postings as you would a standard web entry. Provide the author of the work, the title of the posting in quotation marks, the web site name in italics, the publisher, and the posting date. Follow with the date of access. Include screen names as author names when author name is not known. If both names are known, place the author’s name in brackets.

Author or compiler name (if available). “Posting Title.” Name of Site , Version number (if available), Name of institution/organization affiliated with the site (sponsor or publisher), URL. Date of access.

Salmar1515 [Sal Hernandez]. “Re: Best Strategy: Fenced Pastures vs. Max Number of Rooms?” BoardGameGeek , 29 Sept. 2008, boardgamegeek.com/thread/343929/best-strategy-fenced-pastures-vs-max-number-rooms. Accessed 5 Apr. 2009.

Begin with the user's Twitter handle in place of the author’s name. Next, place the tweet in its entirety in quotations, inserting a period after the tweet within the quotations. Include the date and time of posting, using the reader's time zone; separate the date and time with a comma and end with a period. Include the date accessed if you deem necessary.

@tombrokaw. “ SC demonstrated why all the debates are the engines of this campaign. ”   Twitter, 22 Jan. 2012, 3:06 a.m., twitter.com/tombrokaw/status/160996868971704320.

@PurdueWLab. “ Spring break is around the corner, and all our locations will be open next week. ”   Twitter , 5 Mar. 2012, 12:58 p.m., twitter.com/PurdueWLab/status/176728308736737282.

A YouTube Video

Video and audio sources need to be documented using the same basic guidelines for citing print sources in MLA style. Include as much descriptive information as necessary to help readers understand the type and nature of the source you are citing. If the author’s name is the same as the uploader, only cite the author once. If the author is different from the uploader, cite the author’s name before the title.

McGonigal, Jane. “Gaming and Productivity.” YouTube , uploaded by Big Think, 3 July 2012, www.youtube.com/watch?v=mkdzy9bWW3E.

“8 Hot Dog Gadgets put to the Test.” YouTube, uploaded by Crazy Russian Hacker, 6 June 2016, www.youtube.com/watch?v=WBlpjSEtELs.

A Comment on a Website or Article

List the username as the author. Use the phrase, Comment on, before the title. Use quotation marks around the article title. Name the publisher, date, time (listed on near the comment), and the URL.

Not Omniscient Enough. Comment on “ Flight Attendant Tells Passenger to ‘Shut Up’ After Argument Over Pasta. ”  ABC News, 9 Jun 2016, 4:00 p.m., abcnews.go.com/US/flight-attendant-tells-passenger-shut-argument-pasta/story?id=39704050.

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IR-2024-74 March 18, 2024

WASHINGTON — As the April 15 filing deadline approaches, the Internal Revenue Service issued a reminder to taxpayers on ways to prevent typical errors on their federal tax returns to help speed potential refunds.

Collect all tax-related paperwork

Taxpayers should collect all key documents, including Forms W-2 and 1099 , as well as any supporting paperwork for tax deductions or credits such as educational credits or mortgage interest payments. Additionally, having the previous year's tax return accessible is advisable as it may be required.

Use electronic filing

The IRS advises taxpayers and their tax advisors use electronic filing methods such as IRS Free File or alternative e-file service providers. The Direct File pilot is available for some taxpayers in 12 states. Electronic filing minimizes mathematical errors and identifies potential tax credits or deductions for which the taxpayer qualifies.

It's essential for taxpayers to carefully review their tax returns to ensure accuracy. Opting for electronic filing and selecting direct deposit is the fastest and safest way to receive a refund.

Ensure filing status is correct

Tax software serves to prevent errors in selecting a tax return filing status. For taxpayers unsure of their filing status, the Interactive Tax Assistant on IRS.gov can assist in choosing the correct status, particularly when multiple statuses might apply.

Make sure names, birthdates and Social Security numbers are correct

Taxpayers must accurately provide the name, date of birth and Social Security number for each dependent listed on their individual income tax return. The SSN and individual's name should be entered precisely as indicated on the Social Security card.

In cases where a dependent or spouse lacks a SSN and is ineligible to obtain one, an assigned Individual Tax Identification Number (ITIN) should be listed instead of a SSN.

Answer the digital assets question

Everyone who files Forms 1040, 1040-SR, 1040-NR, 1041, 1065, 1120 and 1120S must check one box answering either "Yes" or "No" to the digital asset question. The question must be answered by all taxpayers, not just by those who engaged in a transaction involving digital assets in 2023. Taxpayers must report all income related to digital asset transactions.

See IRS.gov Digital Assets  for details on when to check “yes” and how to report the income.

Report all taxable income

Keep in mind that most income is subject to taxation . Failing to accurately report income may result in accrued interest and penalties . This includes various sources of income such as interest earnings , unemployment benefits and income derived from the service industry , gig economy and digital assets . For further details, consult Publication 525, Taxable and Nontaxable Income .

Make sure banking routing and account numbers are correct

Taxpayers have the option to request direct deposit of a federal refund into one, two or even three accounts. Provide correct banking information: If expecting a refund, ensure the routing and account numbers provided for direct deposit are accurate to avoid delays or misdirected refunds.

Additionally, taxpayers can use their refund to buy U.S. Savings Bonds .

Remember to sign and date the return

When submitting a joint return, it is required for both spouses to sign and date the return. If taxpayers are preparing their taxes independently and filing electronically, they need to sign and authenticate their electronic tax return by inputting their adjusted gross income (AGI) from the prior year. Taxpayers can refer to Validating Your Electronically Filed Tax Return  for guidance if they have any inquiries.

Ensure address is correct if mailing paper returns

Taxpayers and tax professionals are urged to choose electronic filing whenever possible. However, for those who must submit a paper tax return, it's essential to verify the accurate mailing address either on IRS.gov or in the instructions provided with Form 1040 to prevent processing delays.

Keep a copy of the tax return

Upon readiness to file, taxpayers should create duplicates of their signed return and any accompanying schedules for their personal records. Maintaining copies can help them prepare future tax returns and figure mathematical computations in the event of filing an amended return. Typically, taxpayers should retain records supporting income, deductions or credits claimed on their tax return until the period of limitations for that specific tax return expires.

Request an extension, if needed

Taxpayers requiring more time to file their taxes can easily request a six-month extension until October 15, thereby avoiding late filing penalties . This extension can be requested either through IRS Free File or by submitting Form 4868, Application for Automatic Extension of Time to File U.S. Individual Income Tax Return , by April 15. It's important to note that while an extension provides extra time for filing, tax payments are still due on April 15 for most taxpayers.

Alternatively, taxpayers can seek an extension by making a full or partial payment of their estimated income tax and indicating that the payment is for an extension. This can be done using Direct Pay , the Electronic Federal Tax Payment System (EFTPS) , or a debit/credit card or digital wallet . By doing so, taxpayers avoid the necessity of filing a separate extension form and receive a confirmation number for their records.

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