## Hypothesis Testing Calculator

$H_o$: | |||

$H_a$: | μ | ≠ | μ₀ |

$n$ | = | $\bar{x}$ | = | = |

$\text{Test Statistic: }$ | = |

$\text{Degrees of Freedom: } $ | $df$ | = |

$ \text{Level of Significance: } $ | $\alpha$ | = |

## Type II Error

$H_o$: | $\mu$ | ||

$H_a$: | $\mu$ | ≠ | $\mu_0$ |

$n$ | = | σ | = | $\mu$ | = |

$\text{Level of Significance: }$ | $\alpha$ | = |

The first step in hypothesis testing is to calculate the test statistic. The formula for the test statistic depends on whether the population standard deviation (σ) is known or unknown. If σ is known, our hypothesis test is known as a z test and we use the z distribution. If σ is unknown, our hypothesis test is known as a t test and we use the t distribution. Use of the t distribution relies on the degrees of freedom, which is equal to the sample size minus one. Furthermore, if the population standard deviation σ is unknown, the sample standard deviation s is used instead. To switch from σ known to σ unknown, click on $\boxed{\sigma}$ and select $\boxed{s}$ in the Hypothesis Testing Calculator.

$\sigma$ Known | $\sigma$ Unknown | |

Test Statistic | $ z = \dfrac{\bar{x}-\mu_0}{\sigma/\sqrt{{\color{Black} n}}} $ | $ t = \dfrac{\bar{x}-\mu_0}{s/\sqrt{n}} $ |

Next, the test statistic is used to conduct the test using either the p-value approach or critical value approach. The particular steps taken in each approach largely depend on the form of the hypothesis test: lower tail, upper tail or two-tailed. The form can easily be identified by looking at the alternative hypothesis (H a ). If there is a less than sign in the alternative hypothesis then it is a lower tail test, greater than sign is an upper tail test and inequality is a two-tailed test. To switch from a lower tail test to an upper tail or two-tailed test, click on $\boxed{\geq}$ and select $\boxed{\leq}$ or $\boxed{=}$, respectively.

Lower Tail Test | Upper Tail Test | Two-Tailed Test |

$H_0 \colon \mu \geq \mu_0$ | $H_0 \colon \mu \leq \mu_0$ | $H_0 \colon \mu = \mu_0$ |

$H_a \colon \mu | $H_a \colon \mu \neq \mu_0$ |

In the p-value approach, the test statistic is used to calculate a p-value. If the test is a lower tail test, the p-value is the probability of getting a value for the test statistic at least as small as the value from the sample. If the test is an upper tail test, the p-value is the probability of getting a value for the test statistic at least as large as the value from the sample. In a two-tailed test, the p-value is the probability of getting a value for the test statistic at least as unlikely as the value from the sample.

To test the hypothesis in the p-value approach, compare the p-value to the level of significance. If the p-value is less than or equal to the level of signifance, reject the null hypothesis. If the p-value is greater than the level of significance, do not reject the null hypothesis. This method remains unchanged regardless of whether it's a lower tail, upper tail or two-tailed test. To change the level of significance, click on $\boxed{.05}$. Note that if the test statistic is given, you can calculate the p-value from the test statistic by clicking on the switch symbol twice.

In the critical value approach, the level of significance ($\alpha$) is used to calculate the critical value. In a lower tail test, the critical value is the value of the test statistic providing an area of $\alpha$ in the lower tail of the sampling distribution of the test statistic. In an upper tail test, the critical value is the value of the test statistic providing an area of $\alpha$ in the upper tail of the sampling distribution of the test statistic. In a two-tailed test, the critical values are the values of the test statistic providing areas of $\alpha / 2$ in the lower and upper tail of the sampling distribution of the test statistic.

To test the hypothesis in the critical value approach, compare the critical value to the test statistic. Unlike the p-value approach, the method we use to decide whether to reject the null hypothesis depends on the form of the hypothesis test. In a lower tail test, if the test statistic is less than or equal to the critical value, reject the null hypothesis. In an upper tail test, if the test statistic is greater than or equal to the critical value, reject the null hypothesis. In a two-tailed test, if the test statistic is less than or equal the lower critical value or greater than or equal to the upper critical value, reject the null hypothesis.

Lower Tail Test | Upper Tail Test | Two-Tailed Test |

If $z \leq -z_\alpha$, reject $H_0$. | If $z \geq z_\alpha$, reject $H_0$. | If $z \leq -z_{\alpha/2}$ or $z \geq z_{\alpha/2}$, reject $H_0$. |

If $t \leq -t_\alpha$, reject $H_0$. | If $t \geq t_\alpha$, reject $H_0$. | If $t \leq -t_{\alpha/2}$ or $t \geq t_{\alpha/2}$, reject $H_0$. |

When conducting a hypothesis test, there is always a chance that you come to the wrong conclusion. There are two types of errors you can make: Type I Error and Type II Error. A Type I Error is committed if you reject the null hypothesis when the null hypothesis is true. Ideally, we'd like to accept the null hypothesis when the null hypothesis is true. A Type II Error is committed if you accept the null hypothesis when the alternative hypothesis is true. Ideally, we'd like to reject the null hypothesis when the alternative hypothesis is true.

Condition | ||||

$H_0$ True | $H_a$ True | |||

Conclusion | Accept $H_0$ | Correct | Type II Error | |

Reject $H_0$ | Type I Error | Correct |

Hypothesis testing is closely related to the statistical area of confidence intervals. If the hypothesized value of the population mean is outside of the confidence interval, we can reject the null hypothesis. Confidence intervals can be found using the Confidence Interval Calculator . The calculator on this page does hypothesis tests for one population mean. Sometimes we're interest in hypothesis tests about two population means. These can be solved using the Two Population Calculator . The probability of a Type II Error can be calculated by clicking on the link at the bottom of the page.

## t-test Calculator

Table of contents

Welcome to our t-test calculator! Here you can not only easily perform one-sample t-tests , but also two-sample t-tests , as well as paired t-tests .

Do you prefer to find the p-value from t-test, or would you rather find the t-test critical values? Well, this t-test calculator can do both! 😊

What does a t-test tell you? Take a look at the text below, where we explain what actually gets tested when various types of t-tests are performed. Also, we explain when to use t-tests (in particular, whether to use the z-test vs. t-test) and what assumptions your data should satisfy for the results of a t-test to be valid. If you've ever wanted to know how to do a t-test by hand, we provide the necessary t-test formula, as well as tell you how to determine the number of degrees of freedom in a t-test.

## When to use a t-test?

A t-test is one of the most popular statistical tests for location , i.e., it deals with the population(s) mean value(s).

There are different types of t-tests that you can perform:

- A one-sample t-test;
- A two-sample t-test; and
- A paired t-test.

In the next section , we explain when to use which. Remember that a t-test can only be used for one or two groups . If you need to compare three (or more) means, use the analysis of variance ( ANOVA ) method.

The t-test is a parametric test, meaning that your data has to fulfill some assumptions :

- The data points are independent; AND
- The data, at least approximately, follow a normal distribution .

If your sample doesn't fit these assumptions, you can resort to nonparametric alternatives. Visit our Mann–Whitney U test calculator or the Wilcoxon rank-sum test calculator to learn more. Other possibilities include the Wilcoxon signed-rank test or the sign test.

## Which t-test?

Your choice of t-test depends on whether you are studying one group or two groups:

One sample t-test

Choose the one-sample t-test to check if the mean of a population is equal to some pre-set hypothesized value .

The average volume of a drink sold in 0.33 l cans — is it really equal to 330 ml?

The average weight of people from a specific city — is it different from the national average?

## Two-sample t-test

Choose the two-sample t-test to check if the difference between the means of two populations is equal to some pre-determined value when the two samples have been chosen independently of each other.

In particular, you can use this test to check whether the two groups are different from one another .

The average difference in weight gain in two groups of people: one group was on a high-carb diet and the other on a high-fat diet.

The average difference in the results of a math test from students at two different universities.

This test is sometimes referred to as an independent samples t-test , or an unpaired samples t-test .

## Paired t-test

A paired t-test is used to investigate the change in the mean of a population before and after some experimental intervention , based on a paired sample, i.e., when each subject has been measured twice: before and after treatment.

In particular, you can use this test to check whether, on average, the treatment has had any effect on the population .

The change in student test performance before and after taking a course.

The change in blood pressure in patients before and after administering some drug.

## How to do a t-test?

So, you've decided which t-test to perform. These next steps will tell you how to calculate the p-value from t-test or its critical values, and then which decision to make about the null hypothesis.

Decide on the alternative hypothesis :

Use a two-tailed t-test if you only care whether the population's mean (or, in the case of two populations, the difference between the populations' means) agrees or disagrees with the pre-set value.

Use a one-tailed t-test if you want to test whether this mean (or difference in means) is greater/less than the pre-set value.

Compute your T-score value :

Formulas for the test statistic in t-tests include the sample size , as well as its mean and standard deviation . The exact formula depends on the t-test type — check the sections dedicated to each particular test for more details.

Determine the degrees of freedom for the t-test:

The degrees of freedom are the number of observations in a sample that are free to vary as we estimate statistical parameters. In the simplest case, the number of degrees of freedom equals your sample size minus the number of parameters you need to estimate . Again, the exact formula depends on the t-test you want to perform — check the sections below for details.

The degrees of freedom are essential, as they determine the distribution followed by your T-score (under the null hypothesis). If there are d degrees of freedom, then the distribution of the test statistics is the t-Student distribution with d degrees of freedom . This distribution has a shape similar to N(0,1) (bell-shaped and symmetric) but has heavier tails . If the number of degrees of freedom is large (>30), which generically happens for large samples, the t-Student distribution is practically indistinguishable from N(0,1).

💡 The t-Student distribution owes its name to William Sealy Gosset, who, in 1908, published his paper on the t-test under the pseudonym "Student". Gosset worked at the famous Guinness Brewery in Dublin, Ireland, and devised the t-test as an economical way to monitor the quality of beer. Cheers! 🍺🍺🍺

## p-value from t-test

Recall that the p-value is the probability (calculated under the assumption that the null hypothesis is true) that the test statistic will produce values at least as extreme as the T-score produced for your sample . As probabilities correspond to areas under the density function, p-value from t-test can be nicely illustrated with the help of the following pictures:

The following formulae say how to calculate p-value from t-test. By cdf t,d we denote the cumulative distribution function of the t-Student distribution with d degrees of freedom:

p-value from left-tailed t-test:

p-value = cdf t,d (t score )

p-value from right-tailed t-test:

p-value = 1 − cdf t,d (t score )

p-value from two-tailed t-test:

p-value = 2 × cdf t,d (−|t score |)

or, equivalently: p-value = 2 − 2 × cdf t,d (|t score |)

However, the cdf of the t-distribution is given by a somewhat complicated formula. To find the p-value by hand, you would need to resort to statistical tables, where approximate cdf values are collected, or to specialized statistical software. Fortunately, our t-test calculator determines the p-value from t-test for you in the blink of an eye!

## t-test critical values

Recall, that in the critical values approach to hypothesis testing, you need to set a significance level, α, before computing the critical values , which in turn give rise to critical regions (a.k.a. rejection regions).

Formulas for critical values employ the quantile function of t-distribution, i.e., the inverse of the cdf :

Critical value for left-tailed t-test: cdf t,d -1 (α)

critical region:

(-∞, cdf t,d -1 (α)]

Critical value for right-tailed t-test: cdf t,d -1 (1-α)

[cdf t,d -1 (1-α), ∞)

Critical values for two-tailed t-test: ±cdf t,d -1 (1-α/2)

(-∞, -cdf t,d -1 (1-α/2)] ∪ [cdf t,d -1 (1-α/2), ∞)

To decide the fate of the null hypothesis, just check if your T-score lies within the critical region:

If your T-score belongs to the critical region , reject the null hypothesis and accept the alternative hypothesis.

If your T-score is outside the critical region , then you don't have enough evidence to reject the null hypothesis.

## How to use our t-test calculator

Choose the type of t-test you wish to perform:

A one-sample t-test (to test the mean of a single group against a hypothesized mean);

A two-sample t-test (to compare the means for two groups); or

A paired t-test (to check how the mean from the same group changes after some intervention).

Two-tailed;

Left-tailed; or

Right-tailed.

This t-test calculator allows you to use either the p-value approach or the critical regions approach to hypothesis testing!

Enter your T-score and the number of degrees of freedom . If you don't know them, provide some data about your sample(s): sample size, mean, and standard deviation, and our t-test calculator will compute the T-score and degrees of freedom for you .

Once all the parameters are present, the p-value, or critical region, will immediately appear underneath the t-test calculator, along with an interpretation!

## One-sample t-test

The null hypothesis is that the population mean is equal to some value μ 0 \mu_0 μ 0 .

The alternative hypothesis is that the population mean is:

- different from μ 0 \mu_0 μ 0 ;
- smaller than μ 0 \mu_0 μ 0 ; or
- greater than μ 0 \mu_0 μ 0 .

One-sample t-test formula :

- μ 0 \mu_0 μ 0 — Mean postulated in the null hypothesis;
- n n n — Sample size;
- x ˉ \bar{x} x ˉ — Sample mean; and
- s s s — Sample standard deviation.

Number of degrees of freedom in t-test (one-sample) = n − 1 n-1 n − 1 .

The null hypothesis is that the actual difference between these groups' means, μ 1 \mu_1 μ 1 , and μ 2 \mu_2 μ 2 , is equal to some pre-set value, Δ \Delta Δ .

The alternative hypothesis is that the difference μ 1 − μ 2 \mu_1 - \mu_2 μ 1 − μ 2 is:

- Different from Δ \Delta Δ ;
- Smaller than Δ \Delta Δ ; or
- Greater than Δ \Delta Δ .

In particular, if this pre-determined difference is zero ( Δ = 0 \Delta = 0 Δ = 0 ):

The null hypothesis is that the population means are equal.

The alternate hypothesis is that the population means are:

- μ 1 \mu_1 μ 1 and μ 2 \mu_2 μ 2 are different from one another;
- μ 1 \mu_1 μ 1 is smaller than μ 2 \mu_2 μ 2 ; and
- μ 1 \mu_1 μ 1 is greater than μ 2 \mu_2 μ 2 .

Formally, to perform a t-test, we should additionally assume that the variances of the two populations are equal (this assumption is called the homogeneity of variance ).

There is a version of a t-test that can be applied without the assumption of homogeneity of variance: it is called a Welch's t-test . For your convenience, we describe both versions.

## Two-sample t-test if variances are equal

Use this test if you know that the two populations' variances are the same (or very similar).

Two-sample t-test formula (with equal variances) :

where s p s_p s p is the so-called pooled standard deviation , which we compute as:

- Δ \Delta Δ — Mean difference postulated in the null hypothesis;
- n 1 n_1 n 1 — First sample size;
- x ˉ 1 \bar{x}_1 x ˉ 1 — Mean for the first sample;
- s 1 s_1 s 1 — Standard deviation in the first sample;
- n 2 n_2 n 2 — Second sample size;
- x ˉ 2 \bar{x}_2 x ˉ 2 — Mean for the second sample; and
- s 2 s_2 s 2 — Standard deviation in the second sample.

Number of degrees of freedom in t-test (two samples, equal variances) = n 1 + n 2 − 2 n_1 + n_2 - 2 n 1 + n 2 − 2 .

## Two-sample t-test if variances are unequal (Welch's t-test)

Use this test if the variances of your populations are different.

Two-sample Welch's t-test formula if variances are unequal:

- s 1 s_1 s 1 — Standard deviation in the first sample;
- s 2 s_2 s 2 — Standard deviation in the second sample.

The number of degrees of freedom in a Welch's t-test (two-sample t-test with unequal variances) is very difficult to count. We can approximate it with the help of the following Satterthwaite formula :

Alternatively, you can take the smaller of n 1 − 1 n_1 - 1 n 1 − 1 and n 2 − 1 n_2 - 1 n 2 − 1 as a conservative estimate for the number of degrees of freedom.

🔎 The Satterthwaite formula for the degrees of freedom can be rewritten as a scaled weighted harmonic mean of the degrees of freedom of the respective samples: n 1 − 1 n_1 - 1 n 1 − 1 and n 2 − 1 n_2 - 1 n 2 − 1 , and the weights are proportional to the standard deviations of the corresponding samples.

As we commonly perform a paired t-test when we have data about the same subjects measured twice (before and after some treatment), let us adopt the convention of referring to the samples as the pre-group and post-group.

The null hypothesis is that the true difference between the means of pre- and post-populations is equal to some pre-set value, Δ \Delta Δ .

The alternative hypothesis is that the actual difference between these means is:

Typically, this pre-determined difference is zero. We can then reformulate the hypotheses as follows:

The null hypothesis is that the pre- and post-means are the same, i.e., the treatment has no impact on the population .

The alternative hypothesis:

- The pre- and post-means are different from one another (treatment has some effect);
- The pre-mean is smaller than the post-mean (treatment increases the result); or
- The pre-mean is greater than the post-mean (treatment decreases the result).

Paired t-test formula

In fact, a paired t-test is technically the same as a one-sample t-test! Let us see why it is so. Let x 1 , . . . , x n x_1, ... , x_n x 1 , ... , x n be the pre observations and y 1 , . . . , y n y_1, ... , y_n y 1 , ... , y n the respective post observations. That is, x i , y i x_i, y_i x i , y i are the before and after measurements of the i -th subject.

For each subject, compute the difference, d i : = x i − y i d_i := x_i - y_i d i := x i − y i . All that happens next is just a one-sample t-test performed on the sample of differences d 1 , . . . , d n d_1, ... , d_n d 1 , ... , d n . Take a look at the formula for the T-score :

Δ \Delta Δ — Mean difference postulated in the null hypothesis;

n n n — Size of the sample of differences, i.e., the number of pairs;

x ˉ \bar{x} x ˉ — Mean of the sample of differences; and

s s s — Standard deviation of the sample of differences.

Number of degrees of freedom in t-test (paired): n − 1 n - 1 n − 1

## t-test vs Z-test

We use a Z-test when we want to test the population mean of a normally distributed dataset, which has a known population variance . If the number of degrees of freedom is large, then the t-Student distribution is very close to N(0,1).

Hence, if there are many data points (at least 30), you may swap a t-test for a Z-test, and the results will be almost identical. However, for small samples with unknown variance, remember to use the t-test because, in such cases, the t-Student distribution differs significantly from the N(0,1)!

🙋 Have you concluded you need to perform the z-test? Head straight to our z-test calculator !

## What is a t-test?

A t-test is a widely used statistical test that analyzes the means of one or two groups of data. For instance, a t-test is performed on medical data to determine whether a new drug really helps.

## What are different types of t-tests?

Different types of t-tests are:

- One-sample t-test;
- Two-sample t-test; and
- Paired t-test.

## How to find the t value in a one sample t-test?

To find the t-value:

- Subtract the null hypothesis mean from the sample mean value.
- Divide the difference by the standard deviation of the sample.
- Multiply the resultant with the square root of the sample size.

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ol{padding-top:0;}.css-1dtpypy ul:not(:first-child),.css-1dtpypy ol:not(:first-child){padding-top:4px;} Test setup

Choose test type

t-test for the population mean, μ, based on one independent sample . Null hypothesis H 0 : μ = μ 0

Alternative hypothesis H 1

## Test details

Significance level α

The probability that we reject a true H 0 (type I error).

Degrees of freedom

Calculated as sample size minus one.

## Test results

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- Knowledge Base

## Hypothesis Testing | A Step-by-Step Guide with Easy Examples

Published on November 8, 2019 by Rebecca Bevans . Revised on June 22, 2023.

Hypothesis testing is a formal procedure for investigating our ideas about the world using statistics . It is most often used by scientists to test specific predictions, called hypotheses, that arise from theories.

There are 5 main steps in hypothesis testing:

- State your research hypothesis as a null hypothesis and alternate hypothesis (H o ) and (H a or H 1 ).
- Collect data in a way designed to test the hypothesis.
- Perform an appropriate statistical test .
- Decide whether to reject or fail to reject your null hypothesis.
- Present the findings in your results and discussion section.

Though the specific details might vary, the procedure you will use when testing a hypothesis will always follow some version of these steps.

## Table of contents

Step 1: state your null and alternate hypothesis, step 2: collect data, step 3: perform a statistical test, step 4: decide whether to reject or fail to reject your null hypothesis, step 5: present your findings, other interesting articles, frequently asked questions about hypothesis testing.

After developing your initial research hypothesis (the prediction that you want to investigate), it is important to restate it as a null (H o ) and alternate (H a ) hypothesis so that you can test it mathematically.

The alternate hypothesis is usually your initial hypothesis that predicts a relationship between variables. The null hypothesis is a prediction of no relationship between the variables you are interested in.

- H 0 : Men are, on average, not taller than women. H a : Men are, on average, taller than women.

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For a statistical test to be valid , it is important to perform sampling and collect data in a way that is designed to test your hypothesis. If your data are not representative, then you cannot make statistical inferences about the population you are interested in.

There are a variety of statistical tests available, but they are all based on the comparison of within-group variance (how spread out the data is within a category) versus between-group variance (how different the categories are from one another).

If the between-group variance is large enough that there is little or no overlap between groups, then your statistical test will reflect that by showing a low p -value . This means it is unlikely that the differences between these groups came about by chance.

Alternatively, if there is high within-group variance and low between-group variance, then your statistical test will reflect that with a high p -value. This means it is likely that any difference you measure between groups is due to chance.

Your choice of statistical test will be based on the type of variables and the level of measurement of your collected data .

- an estimate of the difference in average height between the two groups.
- a p -value showing how likely you are to see this difference if the null hypothesis of no difference is true.

Based on the outcome of your statistical test, you will have to decide whether to reject or fail to reject your null hypothesis.

In most cases you will use the p -value generated by your statistical test to guide your decision. And in most cases, your predetermined level of significance for rejecting the null hypothesis will be 0.05 – that is, when there is a less than 5% chance that you would see these results if the null hypothesis were true.

In some cases, researchers choose a more conservative level of significance, such as 0.01 (1%). This minimizes the risk of incorrectly rejecting the null hypothesis ( Type I error ).

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The results of hypothesis testing will be presented in the results and discussion sections of your research paper , dissertation or thesis .

In the results section you should give a brief summary of the data and a summary of the results of your statistical test (for example, the estimated difference between group means and associated p -value). In the discussion , you can discuss whether your initial hypothesis was supported by your results or not.

In the formal language of hypothesis testing, we talk about rejecting or failing to reject the null hypothesis. You will probably be asked to do this in your statistics assignments.

However, when presenting research results in academic papers we rarely talk this way. Instead, we go back to our alternate hypothesis (in this case, the hypothesis that men are on average taller than women) and state whether the result of our test did or did not support the alternate hypothesis.

If your null hypothesis was rejected, this result is interpreted as “supported the alternate hypothesis.”

These are superficial differences; you can see that they mean the same thing.

You might notice that we don’t say that we reject or fail to reject the alternate hypothesis . This is because hypothesis testing is not designed to prove or disprove anything. It is only designed to test whether a pattern we measure could have arisen spuriously, or by chance.

If we reject the null hypothesis based on our research (i.e., we find that it is unlikely that the pattern arose by chance), then we can say our test lends support to our hypothesis . But if the pattern does not pass our decision rule, meaning that it could have arisen by chance, then we say the test is inconsistent with our hypothesis .

If you want to know more about statistics , methodology , or research bias , make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples.

- Normal distribution
- Descriptive statistics
- Measures of central tendency
- Correlation coefficient

Methodology

- Cluster sampling
- Stratified sampling
- Types of interviews
- Cohort study
- Thematic analysis

Research bias

- Implicit bias
- Cognitive bias
- Survivorship bias
- Availability heuristic
- Nonresponse bias
- Regression to the mean

Hypothesis testing is a formal procedure for investigating our ideas about the world using statistics. It is used by scientists to test specific predictions, called hypotheses , by calculating how likely it is that a pattern or relationship between variables could have arisen by chance.

A hypothesis states your predictions about what your research will find. It is a tentative answer to your research question that has not yet been tested. For some research projects, you might have to write several hypotheses that address different aspects of your research question.

A hypothesis is not just a guess — it should be based on existing theories and knowledge. It also has to be testable, which means you can support or refute it through scientific research methods (such as experiments, observations and statistical analysis of data).

Null and alternative hypotheses are used in statistical hypothesis testing . The null hypothesis of a test always predicts no effect or no relationship between variables, while the alternative hypothesis states your research prediction of an effect or relationship.

## Cite this Scribbr article

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Bevans, R. (2023, June 22). Hypothesis Testing | A Step-by-Step Guide with Easy Examples. Scribbr. Retrieved July 18, 2024, from https://www.scribbr.com/statistics/hypothesis-testing/

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## Rebecca Bevans

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## Hypothesis Test Calculator

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For optimal use, please visit DATAtab on your desktop PC!

## Metric Variables:

Ordinal variables:, nominal variables:, hypothesis test calculator.

Do you want to calculate a hypothesis test such as a t-test , Chi Square test or an ANOVA ? You can do that easily here in the browser.

If you want to use your own data just clear the upper table

- Clear the table in the Hypothesis test calculator.
- Copy your data into the table.
- Select the variables.

In the hypothesis test calculator you can calculate e.g. a t-test, a chi-square test, a binomial test or an analysis of variance. If you need a more detailed explanation, you can find more information in the tutorials.

In order to use the hypothesis test calculator, you must first formulate your hypothesis and collect your data. DATAtab will then suggest the hypothesis test you need based on the data entered into the statistics calculator.

## p value calculator

With the p value calculator you can calculate the p value for different tests. There is a wide range of methods for this. Just click on the variables you want to evaluate above and DATAtab will give you the tests you can use.

For example, if you select a metric and a categorical variable, the Independent t-Test calculator is automatically selected. If your data is not normally distributed, simply use the Mann-Whitney U-test calculator.

## H0 and H1 calculator

With the h0 and h1 calculator for the different hypothesis test you can calculate the p-value which gives you an indication if you can reject the H0 or not.

Cite DATAtab: DATAtab Team (2024). DATAtab: Online Statistics Calculator. DATAtab e.U. Graz, Austria. URL https://datatab.net

## Descriptive Statistics

Hypothesis test, t-test calculator.

To calculate a t-Test online just select one metric Variable and one nominal Variable with two values. Here you can easily calculate a t-test online, just copy your data into the upper table and select one or two variables.

- One sample t-test Calculator : If you click on a metric variable and specify the test value, a one sample t test is calculated
- Independent t-test Calculator : If you click on one metric variable and one nominal variable with two categories, an independent samples t test is calculated
- Paired t-test Calculator : If you click on two metric variables, a paired samples t test is calculated.

## One sample, independent samples, paired samples

There are different types of t-tests, each with its own specific purpose. The main differences between these t-tests lie in the nature of the data being compared (independent or paired) and the purpose of the test (comparing two groups, comparing paired observations, or comparing a sample mean to a known value).

Here are the three most common types of difference t-tests:

## Independent samples t-test

This test is used to compare the means of two independent groups. It assumes that the two groups are independent of each other, and the observations within each group are normally distributed. The independent samples t-test is appropriate when you want to determine if there is a significant difference between the means of two distinct groups. If you have more than two groups you can calculate an analysis of variance online .

## Paired samples t-test

This test is used when you have paired or matched observations in two groups. It compares the mean differences between the paired observations. The paired samples t-test assumes that the differences between paired observations are normally distributed. It is commonly used when you want to evaluate if there is a significant difference before and after an intervention or when comparing related observations within the same subjects. If you have more than two paired groups you can use the Repeated measures ANOVA Calculator

## One-sample t-test

This test compares the mean of a single sample to a known or hypothesized value. It is used when you have a sample and want to determine if the mean of that sample significantly differs from a specified value. The one-sample t-test assumes that the observations are normally distributed.

It is crucial to choose the appropriate t-test based on the specific research question and the characteristics of the data.

## Assumptions for the t-test

To calculate a t-test, the individual groups must be normally distributed. If the assumptions are not met, a non-parametric test can be used. For example, you can calculate the Mann-Whitney U test online or in the paired case use the Wilcoxon Signed-Rank test calculator .

## Hypothesis Testing Calculator Online

Hypothesis testing is a foundational method used in statistics to infer the validity of a hypothesis about a population parameter. The Hypothesis Testing Calculator facilitates this process by automating the computations necessary for the t-test , a method used to compare sample means against a hypothesized mean or against each other. Let’s delve into the formulas this calculator uses to execute one-sample and two-sample t-tests.

## One-Sample t-Test

## Two-Sample t-Test

Equal variances:, unequal variances (welch’s t-test):, table of critical t-values.

Confidence Level (%) | df=10 | df=30 | df=50 | df=100 |
---|---|---|---|---|

90 | 1.812 | 1.697 | 1.676 | 1.660 |

95 | 2.228 | 2.042 | 2.009 | 1.984 |

99 | 3.169 | 2.750 | 2.678 | 2.626 |

These values are crucial in hypothesis testing as they help define the threshold for significance, assisting users of the calculator in interpreting their results accurately.

The calculated t-value is 3.00. Using the critical t-values table, at 95% confidence level and 35 degrees of freedom, the critical value is approximately 2.030. Since 3.00 > 2.030, the null hypothesis is reject, indicating a significant difference from the hypothesize mean.

## Most Common FAQs

Yes, while the t-test is specifically design for means, the principles of hypothesis testing apply to other parameters such as proportions and variances. Which can also be tested using appropriate versions of hypothesis tests such as the z-test and F-test.

## Related Calculators

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## One Sample T Test Calculator

## Enter sample data

## Reporting results in APA style

One sample t-test, what is a one sample t-test, how to use the one sample t test calculator, calculators.

- Calculators
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- Which Statistics Test?

## T Test Calculator for 2 Dependent Means

The t -test for dependent means (also called a repeated-measures t -test, paired samples t -test, matched pairs t -test and matched samples t -test) is used to compare the means of two sets of scores that are directly related to each other. So, for example, it could be used to test whether subjects' galvanic skin responses are different under two conditions - first, on exposure to a photograph of a beach scene; second, on exposure to a photograph of a spider.

Requirements

- The data is normally distributed
- Scale of measurement should be interval or ratio
- The two sets of scores are paired or matched in some way

Null Hypothesis

H 0 : U D = U 1 - U 2 = 0, where U D equals the mean of the population of difference scores across the two measurements.

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## Keyboard Shortcuts

Hypothesis testing.

Key Topics:

- Basic approach
- Null and alternative hypothesis
- Decision making and the p -value
- Z-test & Nonparametric alternative

## Basic approach to hypothesis testing

- State a model describing the relationship between the explanatory variables and the outcome variable(s) in the population and the nature of the variability. State all of your assumptions .
- Specify the null and alternative hypotheses in terms of the parameters of the model.
- Invent a test statistic that will tend to be different under the null and alternative hypotheses.
- Using the assumptions of step 1, find the theoretical sampling distribution of the statistic under the null hypothesis of step 2. Ideally the form of the sampling distribution should be one of the “standard distributions”(e.g. normal, t , binomial..)
- Calculate a p -value , as the area under the sampling distribution more extreme than your statistic. Depends on the form of the alternative hypothesis.
- Choose your acceptable type 1 error rate (alpha) and apply the decision rule : reject the null hypothesis if the p-value is less than alpha, otherwise do not reject.

sampled from a with unknown mean μ and known variance σ . : μ = μ H : μ ≤ μ H : μ ≥ μ | : μ ≠ μ H : μ > μ H : μ < μ |

- \(\frac{\bar{X}-\mu_0}{\sigma / \sqrt{n}}\)
- general form is: (estimate - value we are testing)/(st.dev of the estimate)
- z-statistic follows N(0,1) distribution
- 2 × the area above |z|, area above z,or area below z, or
- compare the statistic to a critical value, |z| ≥ z α/2 , z ≥ z α , or z ≤ - z α
- Choose the acceptable level of Alpha = 0.05, we conclude …. ?

## Making the Decision

It is either likely or unlikely that we would collect the evidence we did given the initial assumption. (Note: “likely” or “unlikely” is measured by calculating a probability!)

If it is likely , then we “ do not reject ” our initial assumption. There is not enough evidence to do otherwise.

If it is unlikely , then:

- either our initial assumption is correct and we experienced an unusual event or,
- our initial assumption is incorrect

In statistics, if it is unlikely, we decide to “ reject ” our initial assumption.

## Example: Criminal Trial Analogy

First, state 2 hypotheses, the null hypothesis (“H 0 ”) and the alternative hypothesis (“H A ”)

- H 0 : Defendant is not guilty.
- H A : Defendant is guilty.

Usually the H 0 is a statement of “no effect”, or “no change”, or “chance only” about a population parameter.

While the H A , depending on the situation, is that there is a difference, trend, effect, or a relationship with respect to a population parameter.

- It can one-sided and two-sided.
- In two-sided we only care there is a difference, but not the direction of it. In one-sided we care about a particular direction of the relationship. We want to know if the value is strictly larger or smaller.

Then, collect evidence, such as finger prints, blood spots, hair samples, carpet fibers, shoe prints, ransom notes, handwriting samples, etc. (In statistics, the data are the evidence.)

Next, you make your initial assumption.

- Defendant is innocent until proven guilty.

In statistics, we always assume the null hypothesis is true .

Then, make a decision based on the available evidence.

- If there is sufficient evidence (“beyond a reasonable doubt”), reject the null hypothesis . (Behave as if defendant is guilty.)
- If there is not enough evidence, do not reject the null hypothesis . (Behave as if defendant is not guilty.)

If the observed outcome, e.g., a sample statistic, is surprising under the assumption that the null hypothesis is true, but more probable if the alternative is true, then this outcome is evidence against H 0 and in favor of H A .

An observed effect so large that it would rarely occur by chance is called statistically significant (i.e., not likely to happen by chance).

## Using the p -value to make the decision

The p -value represents how likely we would be to observe such an extreme sample if the null hypothesis were true. The p -value is a probability computed assuming the null hypothesis is true, that the test statistic would take a value as extreme or more extreme than that actually observed. Since it's a probability, it is a number between 0 and 1. The closer the number is to 0 means the event is “unlikely.” So if p -value is “small,” (typically, less than 0.05), we can then reject the null hypothesis.

## Significance level and p -value

Significance level, α, is a decisive value for p -value. In this context, significant does not mean “important”, but it means “not likely to happened just by chance”.

α is the maximum probability of rejecting the null hypothesis when the null hypothesis is true. If α = 1 we always reject the null, if α = 0 we never reject the null hypothesis. In articles, journals, etc… you may read: “The results were significant ( p <0.05).” So if p =0.03, it's significant at the level of α = 0.05 but not at the level of α = 0.01. If we reject the H 0 at the level of α = 0.05 (which corresponds to 95% CI), we are saying that if H 0 is true, the observed phenomenon would happen no more than 5% of the time (that is 1 in 20). If we choose to compare the p -value to α = 0.01, we are insisting on a stronger evidence!

Neither decision of rejecting or not rejecting the H entails proving the null hypothesis or the alternative hypothesis. We merely state there is enough evidence to behave one way or the other. This is also always true in statistics! |

So, what kind of error could we make? No matter what decision we make, there is always a chance we made an error.

Errors in Criminal Trial:

Errors in Hypothesis Testing

Type I error (False positive): The null hypothesis is rejected when it is true.

- α is the maximum probability of making a Type I error.

Type II error (False negative): The null hypothesis is not rejected when it is false.

- β is the probability of making a Type II error

There is always a chance of making one of these errors. But, a good scientific study will minimize the chance of doing so!

The power of a statistical test is its probability of rejecting the null hypothesis if the null hypothesis is false. That is, power is the ability to correctly reject H 0 and detect a significant effect. In other words, power is one minus the type II error risk.

\(\text{Power }=1-\beta = P\left(\text{reject} H_0 | H_0 \text{is false } \right)\)

Which error is worse?

Type I = you are innocent, yet accused of cheating on the test. Type II = you cheated on the test, but you are found innocent.

This depends on the context of the problem too. But in most cases scientists are trying to be “conservative”; it's worse to make a spurious discovery than to fail to make a good one. Our goal it to increase the power of the test that is to minimize the length of the CI.

We need to keep in mind:

- the effect of the sample size,
- the correctness of the underlying assumptions about the population,
- statistical vs. practical significance, etc…

(see the handout). To study the tradeoffs between the sample size, α, and Type II error we can use power and operating characteristic curves.

Assume data are independently sampled from a normal distribution with unknown mean μ and known variance σ = 9. Make an initial assumption that μ = 65. Specify the hypothesis: H : μ = 65 H : μ ≠ 65 z-statistic: 3.58 z-statistic follow N(0,1) distribution
The -value, < 0.0001, indicates that, if the average height in the population is 65 inches, it is unlikely that a sample of 54 students would have an average height of 66.4630. Alpha = 0.05. Decision: -value < alpha, thus Conclude that the average height is not equal to 65. |

What type of error might we have made?

Type I error is claiming that average student height is not 65 inches, when it really is. Type II error is failing to claim that the average student height is not 65in when it is.

We rejected the null hypothesis, i.e., claimed that the height is not 65, thus making potentially a Type I error. But sometimes the p -value is too low because of the large sample size, and we may have statistical significance but not really practical significance! That's why most statisticians are much more comfortable with using CI than tests.

Based on the CI only, how do you know that you should reject the null hypothesis? The 95% CI is (65.6628,67.2631) ... What about practical and statistical significance now? Is there another reason to suspect this test, and the -value calculations? |

There is a need for a further generalization. What if we can't assume that σ is known? In this case we would use s (the sample standard deviation) to estimate σ.

If the sample is very large, we can treat σ as known by assuming that σ = s . According to the law of large numbers, this is not too bad a thing to do. But if the sample is small, the fact that we have to estimate both the standard deviation and the mean adds extra uncertainty to our inference. In practice this means that we need a larger multiplier for the standard error.

We need one-sample t -test.

## One sample t -test

- Assume data are independently sampled from a normal distribution with unknown mean μ and variance σ 2 . Make an initial assumption, μ 0 .

: μ = μ H : μ ≤ μ H : μ ≥ μ | : μ ≠ μ H : μ > μ H : μ < μ |

- t-statistic: \(\frac{\bar{X}-\mu_0}{s / \sqrt{n}}\) where s is a sample st.dev.
- t-statistic follows t -distribution with df = n - 1
- Alpha = 0.05, we conclude ….

## Testing for the population proportion

Let's go back to our CNN poll. Assume we have a SRS of 1,017 adults.

We are interested in testing the following hypothesis: H 0 : p = 0.50 vs. p > 0.50

What is the test statistic?

If alpha = 0.05, what do we conclude?

We will see more details in the next lesson on proportions, then distributions, and possible tests.

## Hypothesis Test Graph Generator

Note: After clicking "Draw here", you can click the "Copy to Clipboard" button (in Internet Explorer), or right-click on the graph and choose Copy. In your Word processor, choose Paste-Special from the Edit menu, and select "Bitmap" from the choices

Note: This creates the graph based on the shape of the normal curve, which is a reasonable approximation to the t-distribution for a large sample size. These graphs are not appropriate if you are doing a t-distribution with small sample size (less than 30).

## Student's t-distribution calculator with graph generator

Critical value calculator - student's t-distribution.

This statistical calculator allows you to calculate the critical value corresponding to the Student's t-distribution, you can also see the result in a graph through our online graph generator and if you wish you can download the graph. Just enter the significance value (alpha), degrees of freedom, and left, right, or both tails.

## Critical value result

P-value calculator - student's t distribution.

Use our online statistical calculator to calculate the p-value of the Student's t-distribution. You just need to enter the t-value and degrees of freedom and specify the tail. In addition to the p-value, you can get and download the graph created with our graph generator

## p-value result

One sample t-test calculator.

The one sample t-test is a statistical hypothesis test calculator, use our calculator to check if you get a statistically significant result or not. To obtain it, fill in the corresponding fields and you will obtain the value of the t-score, p-value, critical value, and the degrees of freedom. You can also download a graph that will display your results in the form of the Student's t-distribution.

## T-score result

Two sample t-test calculator.

To determine whether or not the means of two groups are equal, you can use our two-sample t-test calculator that applies the t-test. The results are displayed in a Student's t-distribution plot that you can download. To complete the form, you must include information for both groups, including the mean, standard deviation, sample size, significance level,and whether the test is left, right, or two-tailed.

## Common questions related to the Student's t-distribution

In this section, we will try to address the most frequently asked questions about the Student's t-distribution. To give you a fundamental and complementary understanding, we will try to dive into the underlying ideas of the t-distribution. The approach we want to take is to answer the most common questions from students with relevant information. Let's tackle problems simply and offer short and understandable solutions.

## Questions related to the student's t-distribution

The formula in relation to the probability density function (pdf) for Student's t-distribution, is given as follows:

Where: π is the pi (approximately 3.14), ν correspond to the degrees of freedom, and Γ is the Euler Gamma function.

A distribution of mean estimates derived from samples taken from a population is what is, by definition, the Student's t-distribution. The t-distribution, commonly known as the Student's t-distribution, is a type of symmetric bell-shaped distribution, it has a lower height but a wider spread than the normal distribution. It is symmetric around 0, but the t-distribution has a wider spread than the typical normal distribution curve, or put another way, the t-distribution has a high standard deviation. The variability of individual observations around their mean is measured by a standard deviation. The degrees of freedom (df) are n - 1. So, df is equal to n – 1, where n is the sample size. The degrees of freedom affect the shape of each t distribution curve.

When the sample size is less than 30 and the population standard deviation is unknown, the t-distribution is utilized in hypothesis testing. It is helpful when the sample size is relatively small or the population standard deviation is unknown. It resembles the normal distribution more closely as sample size grows.

A statistical metric known as the standard deviation is used to quantify the distances between each observation and the mean in a set of data. The standard deviation calculates the degree of dispersion or variability. In other words, it's used to calculate how much a random variable deviates from the mean.

The t-value and t-score have the same meanings. It is one of the relative position measurements. By definition, a value of t defines the location of a continuous random variable, X, in relation to the number of standard deviations from the mean.

The significance level is a point in the normal distribution that must be understood in order to either reject or fail to reject the null hypothesis and to assess whether or not the results are statistically significant. If you decide to make use of our t distribution calculator , you must enter the alpha value corresponding to the significance level. The most common alpha values are 0.1, 0.05 or 0.01. Generally, the most common confidence intervals are: 90%, 95% and 99% (1 − α is the confidence level).

The p-value is a probability with a value ranging from 0 to 1. It is used to test a hypothesis. As an example, in some experiment, we choose the significance level value as 0.05, in this case, the alternative hypothesis is more likely to be supported by stronger evidence when the p-value is less than 0.05 (p-value < 0.05), in case the p-value is high (p-value > 0.05), the probability of accepting the null hypothesis is also high.

The z and t distributions are symmetric and bell-shaped. However, what most characterizes the t distribution are its tails, since they are heavier than in the normal distribution. Furthermore, it can be seen that there are more values in the t-distribution located at the ends of the tail instead of the center of the distribution. You must have the population standard deviation to use the standard normal or z distribution. On the other hand, one of the important conditions for adopting the t distribution is that the population variance is unknown

The t-test , it is a parametric comparison test, is used if the means of two samples are compared using a hypothesis test, if they are independent, from two separate samples, or dependent, a sample evaluated at two different times. The procedure is carried out to evaluate if the differences between the means are significant, determining that they are not due to chance.

To interpret the results of a t-test, you can compare the t-score to the critical value and consider the p-value. A high t-score and low p-value indicate that there is a statistically significant difference between the two means, while a low t-score and high p-value indicate that the difference is not statistically significant. The degrees of freedom and the significance level (alpha) also play a role in determining the critical value and the p-value.

A one sample t-test is a statistical procedure used to test whether the mean of a single sample is significantly different from a hypothesized mean. It is used to determine whether the sample comes from a population with a mean that is different from the hypothesized mean. To perform a one sample t-test using a calculator, you need to input the following information: The sample data, including the mean and standard deviation. The hypothesized mean. The significance level (alpha). The type of tail (left, right, or two-tailed). The calculator will then calculate the t-score and p-value based on this information, and will also provide the critical value and degrees of freedom. To interpret the results, you can compare the t-score to the critical value and consider the p-value. If the t-score is greater than the critical value and the p-value is less than the significance level, you can reject the null hypothesis and conclude that the sample mean is significantly different from the hypothesized mean. If the t-score is less than the critical value or the p-value is greater than the significance level, you cannot reject the null hypothesis and must conclude that the sample mean is not significantly different from the hypothesized mean.

A two-sample t-test is a statistical procedure used to determine whether there is a significant difference between the means of two groups. It is often used to compare the means of two groups in order to determine whether a difference exists between them. For example, a researcher might use a two-sample t-test to determine whether there is a significant difference in the average scores on a test between males and females, or between two different treatment groups in a medical study. The t-test is based on the t-statistic , which is calculated from the sample data and represents the difference between the two groups in relation to the variation within the groups. The t-test is used to determine whether this difference is statistically significant, meaning that it is unlikely to have occurred by chance.

## Hypothesis Maker Online

Looking for a hypothesis maker? This online tool for students will help you formulate a beautiful hypothesis quickly, efficiently, and for free.

Are you looking for an effective hypothesis maker online? Worry no more; try our online tool for students and formulate your hypothesis within no time.

- 🔎 How to Use the Tool?
- ⚗️ What Is a Hypothesis in Science?

## 👍 What Does a Good Hypothesis Mean?

- 🧭 Steps to Making a Good Hypothesis

## 🔗 References

📄 hypothesis maker: how to use it.

Our hypothesis maker is a simple and efficient tool you can access online for free.

If you want to create a research hypothesis quickly, you should fill out the research details in the given fields on the hypothesis generator.

Below are the fields you should complete to generate your hypothesis:

- Who or what is your research based on? For instance, the subject can be research group 1.
- What does the subject (research group 1) do?
- What does the subject affect? - This shows the predicted outcome, which is the object.
- Who or what will be compared with research group 1? (research group 2).

Once you fill the in the fields, you can click the ‘Make a hypothesis’ tab and get your results.

## ⚗️ What Is a Hypothesis in the Scientific Method?

A hypothesis is a statement describing an expectation or prediction of your research through observation.

It is similar to academic speculation and reasoning that discloses the outcome of your scientific test . An effective hypothesis, therefore, should be crafted carefully and with precision.

A good hypothesis should have dependent and independent variables . These variables are the elements you will test in your research method – it can be a concept, an event, or an object as long as it is observable.

You can observe the dependent variables while the independent variables keep changing during the experiment.

In a nutshell, a hypothesis directs and organizes the research methods you will use, forming a large section of research paper writing.

## Hypothesis vs. Theory

A hypothesis is a realistic expectation that researchers make before any investigation. It is formulated and tested to prove whether the statement is true. A theory, on the other hand, is a factual principle supported by evidence. Thus, a theory is more fact-backed compared to a hypothesis.

Another difference is that a hypothesis is presented as a single statement , while a theory can be an assortment of things . Hypotheses are based on future possibilities toward a specific projection, but the results are uncertain. Theories are verified with undisputable results because of proper substantiation.

When it comes to data, a hypothesis relies on limited information , while a theory is established on an extensive data set tested on various conditions.

You should observe the stated assumption to prove its accuracy.

Since hypotheses have observable variables, their outcome is usually based on a specific occurrence. Conversely, theories are grounded on a general principle involving multiple experiments and research tests.

This general principle can apply to many specific cases.

The primary purpose of formulating a hypothesis is to present a tentative prediction for researchers to explore further through tests and observations. Theories, in their turn, aim to explain plausible occurrences in the form of a scientific study.

It would help to rely on several criteria to establish a good hypothesis. Below are the parameters you should use to analyze the quality of your hypothesis.

Testability | You should be able to test the hypothesis to present a true or false outcome after the investigation. Apart from the logical hypothesis, ensure you can test your predictions with . |
---|---|

Variables | It should have a dependent and independent variable. Identifying the appropriate variables will help readers comprehend your prediction and what to expect at the conclusion phase. |

Cause and effect | A good hypothesis should have a cause-and-effect connection. One variable should influence others in some way. It should be written as an “if-then” statement to allow the researcher to make accurate predictions of the investigation results. However, this rule does not apply to a . |

Clear language | Writing can get complex, especially when complex research terminology is involved. So, ensure your hypothesis has expressed as a brief statement. Avoid being vague because your readers might get confused. Your hypothesis has a direct impact on your entire research paper’s quality. Thus, use simple words that are easy to understand. |

Ethics | Hypothesis generation should comply with . Don’t formulate hypotheses that contravene taboos or are questionable. Besides, your hypothesis should have correlations to published academic works to look data-based and authoritative. |

## 🧭 6 Steps to Making a Good Hypothesis

Writing a hypothesis becomes way simpler if you follow a tried-and-tested algorithm. Let’s explore how you can formulate a good hypothesis in a few steps:

## Step #1: Ask Questions

The first step in hypothesis creation is asking real questions about the surrounding reality.

Why do things happen as they do? What are the causes of some occurrences?

Your curiosity will trigger great questions that you can use to formulate a stellar hypothesis. So, ensure you pick a research topic of interest to scrutinize the world’s phenomena, processes, and events.

## Step #2: Do Initial Research

Carry out preliminary research and gather essential background information about your topic of choice.

The extent of the information you collect will depend on what you want to prove.

Your initial research can be complete with a few academic books or a simple Internet search for quick answers with relevant statistics.

Still, keep in mind that in this phase, it is too early to prove or disapprove of your hypothesis.

## Step #3: Identify Your Variables

Now that you have a basic understanding of the topic, choose the dependent and independent variables.

Take note that independent variables are the ones you can’t control, so understand the limitations of your test before settling on a final hypothesis.

## Step #4: Formulate Your Hypothesis

You can write your hypothesis as an ‘if – then’ expression . Presenting any hypothesis in this format is reliable since it describes the cause-and-effect you want to test.

For instance: If I study every day, then I will get good grades.

## Step #5: Gather Relevant Data

Once you have identified your variables and formulated the hypothesis, you can start the experiment. Remember, the conclusion you make will be a proof or rebuttal of your initial assumption.

So, gather relevant information, whether for a simple or statistical hypothesis, because you need to back your statement.

## Step #6: Record Your Findings

Finally, write down your conclusions in a research paper .

Outline in detail whether the test has proved or disproved your hypothesis.

Edit and proofread your work, using a plagiarism checker to ensure the authenticity of your text.

We hope that the above tips will be useful for you. Note that if you need to conduct business analysis, you can use the free templates we’ve prepared: SWOT , PESTLE , VRIO , SOAR , and Porter’s 5 Forces .

## ❓ Hypothesis Formulator FAQ

Updated: Jul 19th, 2024

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Use our hypothesis maker whenever you need to formulate a hypothesis for your study. We offer a very simple tool where you just need to provide basic info about your variables, subjects, and predicted outcomes. The rest is on us. Get a perfect hypothesis in no time!

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## COMMENTS

Hypothesis Testing Calculator. The first step in hypothesis testing is to calculate the test statistic. The formula for the test statistic depends on whether the population standard deviation (σ) is known or unknown. If σ is known, our hypothesis test is known as a z test and we use the z distribution. If σ is unknown, our hypothesis test is ...

Calculation Example: There are six steps you would follow in hypothesis testing: Formulate the null and alternative hypotheses in three different ways: H 0: θ = θ 0 v e r s u s H 1: θ ≠ θ 0. H 0: θ ≤ θ 0 v e r s u s H 1: θ > θ 0. H 0: θ ≥ θ 0 v e r s u s H 1: θ < θ 0.

Alternative to statistical software like SPSS and STATA. DATAtab was designed for ease of use and is a compelling alternative to statistical programs such as SPSS and STATA. On datatab.net, data can be statistically evaluated directly online and very easily (e.g. t-test, regression, correlation etc.). DATAtab's goal is to make the world of statistical data analysis as simple as possible, no ...

Recall, that in the critical values approach to hypothesis testing, you need to set a significance level, α, before computing the critical values, which in turn give rise to critical regions (a.k.a. rejection regions). Formulas for critical values employ the quantile function of t-distribution, i.e., the inverse of the cdf:. Critical value for left-tailed t-test:

Hypothesis testing is an important part of statistical analysis because it allows you to make population-level inferences based on sample data. Our calculator makes this process easier by providing user-friendly interfaces and step-by-step directions for performing different tests. Here are several significant advantages:

There are 5 main steps in hypothesis testing: State your research hypothesis as a null hypothesis and alternate hypothesis (H o) and (H a or H 1 ). Collect data in a way designed to test the hypothesis. Perform an appropriate statistical test. Decide whether to reject or fail to reject your null hypothesis. Present the findings in your results ...

Hypothesis Test Calculator. Upload your data set below to get started. Upload File. Or input your data as csv. column_one,column_two,column_three 1,2,3 4,5,6 7,8,9. Submit CSV. Sharing helps us build more free tools.

S.3 Hypothesis Testing. In reviewing hypothesis tests, we start first with the general idea. Then, we keep returning to the basic procedures of hypothesis testing, each time adding a little more detail. The general idea of hypothesis testing involves: Making an initial assumption. Collecting evidence (data).

This simple t -test calculator, provides full details of the t-test calculation, including sample mean, sum of squares and standard deviation. A t -test is used when you're looking at a numerical variable - for example, height - and then comparing the averages of two separate populations or groups (e.g., males and females).

Copy your data into the table. Select the variables. In the hypothesis test calculator you can calculate e.g. a t-test, a chi-square test, a binomial test or an analysis of variance. If you need a more detailed explanation, you can find more information in the tutorials. In order to use the hypothesis test calculator, you must first formulate ...

A single sample t-test (or one sample t-test) is used to compare the mean of a single sample of scores to a known or hypothetical population mean. So, for example, it could be used to determine whether the mean diastolic blood pressure of a particular group differs from 85, a value determined by a previous study. Requirements.

To calculate a t-Test online just select one metric Variable and one nominal Variable with two values. Here you can easily calculate a t-test online, just copy your data into the upper table and select one or two variables. Paired t-test Calculator: If you click on two metric variables, a paired samples t test is calculated.

Hypothesis testing is a foundational method used in statistics to infer the validity of a hypothesis about a population parameter. The Hypothesis Testing Calculator facilitates this process by automating the computations necessary for the t-test, a method used to compare sample means against a hypothesized mean or against each other.Let's delve into the formulas this calculator uses to ...

If the biologist set her significance level \(\alpha\) at 0.05 and used the critical value approach to conduct her hypothesis test, she would reject the null hypothesis if her test statistic t* were less than -1.6939 (determined using statistical software or a t-table):s-3-3. Since the biologist's test statistic, t* = -4.60, is less than -1.6939, the biologist rejects the null hypothesis.

Significance tests give us a formal process for using sample data to evaluate the likelihood of some claim about a population value. Learn how to conduct significance tests and calculate p-values to see how likely a sample result is to occur by random chance. You'll also see how we use p-values to make conclusions about hypotheses.

The one-sample t-test determines if the mean of a single sample is significantly different from a known population mean. The one sample t-test calculator calculates the one sample t-test p-value and the effect size. When you enter the raw data, the one sample t-test calculator provides also the Shapiro-Wilk normality test result and the outliers.

Scale of measurement should be interval or ratio. The two sets of scores are paired or matched in some way. Null Hypothesis. H 0: U D = U 1 - U 2 = 0, where U D equals the mean of the population of difference scores across the two measurements. Equation. A T-test calculator that compares 2 dependent population means for statistical significance.

Specify the null and alternative hypotheses in terms of the parameters of the model. Invent a test statistic that will tend to be different under the null and alternative hypotheses. Using the assumptions of step 1, find the theoretical sampling distribution of the statistic under the null hypothesis of step 2.

Hypothesis Test Graph Generator. Note: After clicking "Draw here", you can click the "Copy to Clipboard" button (in Internet Explorer), or right-click on the graph and choose Copy. In your Word processor, choose Paste-Special from the Edit menu, and select "Bitmap" from the choices. Note: This creates the graph based on the shape of the normal ...

Simple hypothesis testing. Niels has a Magic 8 -Ball, which is a toy used for fortune-telling or seeking advice. To consult the ball, you ask the ball a question and shake it. One of 5 different possible answers then appears at random in the ball. Niels sensed that the ball answers " Ask again later " too frequently.

It is used to test a hypothesis. As an example, in some experiment, we choose the significance level value as 0.05, in this case, the alternative hypothesis is more likely to be supported by stronger evidence when the p-value is less than 0.05 (p-value < 0.05), in case the p-value is high (p-value > 0.05), the probability of accepting the null ...

Our hypothesis maker is a simple and efficient tool you can access online for free. If you want to create a research hypothesis quickly, you should fill out the research details in the given fields on the hypothesis generator. Below are the fields you should complete to generate your hypothesis:

Abstract. In this article, we deal with sequential testing of multiple hypotheses. In the general scheme of construction of optimal tests based on the backward induction, we propose a modification which provides a simplified (generally speaking, and suboptimal) version of the optimal test, for any particular criterion of optimization.