Hypothesis Testing
About hypothesis testing.
Contents (Click to skip to the section):
What is a Hypothesis?
What is hypothesis testing.
 Hypothesis Testing Examples (One Sample Z Test).
 Hypothesis Test on a Mean (TI 83).
Bayesian Hypothesis Testing.
 More Hypothesis Testing Articles
 Hypothesis Tests in One Picture
 Critical Values
What is the Null Hypothesis?
Need help with a homework problem? Check out our tutoring page!
A hypothesis is an educated guess about something in the world around you. It should be testable, either by experiment or observation. For example:
 A new medicine you think might work.
 A way of teaching you think might be better.
 A possible location of new species.
 A fairer way to administer standardized tests.
It can really be anything at all as long as you can put it to the test.
What is a Hypothesis Statement?
If you are going to propose a hypothesis, it’s customary to write a statement. Your statement will look like this: “If I…(do this to an independent variable )….then (this will happen to the dependent variable ).” For example:
 If I (decrease the amount of water given to herbs) then (the herbs will increase in size).
 If I (give patients counseling in addition to medication) then (their overall depression scale will decrease).
 If I (give exams at noon instead of 7) then (student test scores will improve).
 If I (look in this certain location) then (I am more likely to find new species).
A good hypothesis statement should:
 Include an “if” and “then” statement (according to the University of California).
 Include both the independent and dependent variables.
 Be testable by experiment, survey or other scientifically sound technique.
 Be based on information in prior research (either yours or someone else’s).
 Have design criteria (for engineering or programming projects).
Hypothesis testing can be one of the most confusing aspects for students, mostly because before you can even perform a test, you have to know what your null hypothesis is. Often, those tricky word problems that you are faced with can be difficult to decipher. But it’s easier than you think; all you need to do is:
 Figure out your null hypothesis,
 State your null hypothesis,
 Choose what kind of test you need to perform,
 Either support or reject the null hypothesis .
If you trace back the history of science, the null hypothesis is always the accepted fact. Simple examples of null hypotheses that are generally accepted as being true are:
 DNA is shaped like a double helix.
 There are 8 planets in the solar system (excluding Pluto).
 Taking Vioxx can increase your risk of heart problems (a drug now taken off the market).
How do I State the Null Hypothesis?
You won’t be required to actually perform a real experiment or survey in elementary statistics (or even disprove a fact like “Pluto is a planet”!), so you’ll be given word problems from reallife situations. You’ll need to figure out what your hypothesis is from the problem. This can be a little trickier than just figuring out what the accepted fact is. With word problems, you are looking to find a fact that is nullifiable (i.e. something you can reject).
Hypothesis Testing Examples #1: Basic Example
A researcher thinks that if knee surgery patients go to physical therapy twice a week (instead of 3 times), their recovery period will be longer. Average recovery times for knee surgery patients is 8.2 weeks.
The hypothesis statement in this question is that the researcher believes the average recovery time is more than 8.2 weeks. It can be written in mathematical terms as: H 1 : μ > 8.2
Next, you’ll need to state the null hypothesis . That’s what will happen if the researcher is wrong . In the above example, if the researcher is wrong then the recovery time is less than or equal to 8.2 weeks. In math, that’s: H 0 μ ≤ 8.2
Rejecting the null hypothesis
Ten or so years ago, we believed that there were 9 planets in the solar system. Pluto was demoted as a planet in 2006. The null hypothesis of “Pluto is a planet” was replaced by “Pluto is not a planet.” Of course, rejecting the null hypothesis isn’t always that easy— the hard part is usually figuring out what your null hypothesis is in the first place.
Hypothesis Testing Examples (One Sample Z Test)
The one sample z test isn’t used very often (because we rarely know the actual population standard deviation ). However, it’s a good idea to understand how it works as it’s one of the simplest tests you can perform in hypothesis testing. In English class you got to learn the basics (like grammar and spelling) before you could write a story; think of one sample z tests as the foundation for understanding more complex hypothesis testing. This page contains two hypothesis testing examples for one sample ztests .
One Sample Hypothesis Testing Example: One Tailed Z Test
A principal at a certain school claims that the students in his school are above average intelligence. A random sample of thirty students IQ scores have a mean score of 112.5. Is there sufficient evidence to support the principal’s claim? The mean population IQ is 100 with a standard deviation of 15.
Step 1: State the Null hypothesis . The accepted fact is that the population mean is 100, so: H 0 : μ = 100.
Step 2: State the Alternate Hypothesis . The claim is that the students have above average IQ scores, so: H 1 : μ > 100. The fact that we are looking for scores “greater than” a certain point means that this is a onetailed test.
Step 4: State the alpha level . If you aren’t given an alpha level , use 5% (0.05).
Step 5: Find the rejection region area (given by your alpha level above) from the ztable . An area of .05 is equal to a zscore of 1.645.
Step 6: If Step 6 is greater than Step 5, reject the null hypothesis. If it’s less than Step 5, you cannot reject the null hypothesis. In this case, it is more (4.56 > 1.645), so you can reject the null.
One Sample Hypothesis Testing Examples: #3
Blood glucose levels for obese patients have a mean of 100 with a standard deviation of 15. A researcher thinks that a diet high in raw cornstarch will have a positive or negative effect on blood glucose levels. A sample of 30 patients who have tried the raw cornstarch diet have a mean glucose level of 140. Test the hypothesis that the raw cornstarch had an effect.
 State the null hypothesis : H 0 :μ=100
 State the alternate hypothesis : H 1 :≠100
 State your alpha level. We’ll use 0.05 for this example. As this is a twotailed test, split the alpha into two. 0.05/2=0.025
 Find the zscore associated with your alpha level . You’re looking for the area in one tail only . A zscore for 0.75(10.025=0.975) is 1.96. As this is a twotailed test, you would also be considering the left tail (z = 1.96)
 If Step 5 is less than 1.96 or greater than 1.96 (Step 3), reject the null hypothesis . In this case, it is greater, so you can reject the null.
*This process is made much easier if you use a TI83 or Excel to calculate the zscore (the “critical value”). See:
 Critical z value TI 83
 Z Score in Excel
Hypothesis Testing Examples: Mean (Using TI 83)
You can use the TI 83 calculator for hypothesis testing, but the calculator won’t figure out the null and alternate hypotheses; that’s up to you to read the question and input it into the calculator.
Example problem : A sample of 200 people has a mean age of 21 with a population standard deviation (σ) of 5. Test the hypothesis that the population mean is 18.9 at α = 0.05.
Step 1: State the null hypothesis. In this case, the null hypothesis is that the population mean is 18.9, so we write: H 0 : μ = 18.9
Step 2: State the alternative hypothesis. We want to know if our sample, which has a mean of 21 instead of 18.9, really is different from the population, therefore our alternate hypothesis: H 1 : μ ≠ 18.9
Step 3: Press Stat then press the right arrow twice to select TESTS.
Step 4: Press 1 to select 1:ZTest… . Press ENTER.
Step 5: Use the right arrow to select Stats .
Step 6: Enter the data from the problem: μ 0 : 18.9 σ: 5 x : 21 n: 200 μ: ≠μ 0
Step 7: Arrow down to Calculate and press ENTER. The calculator shows the pvalue: p = 2.87 × 10 9
This is smaller than our alpha value of .05. That means we should reject the null hypothesis .
Bayesian Hypothesis Testing: What is it?
Bayesian hypothesis testing helps to answer the question: Can the results from a test or survey be repeated? Why do we care if a test can be repeated? Let’s say twenty people in the same village came down with leukemia. A group of researchers find that cellphone towers are to blame. However, a second study found that cellphone towers had nothing to do with the cancer cluster in the village. In fact, they found that the cancers were completely random. If that sounds impossible, it actually can happen! Clusters of cancer can happen simply by chance . There could be many reasons why the first study was faulty. One of the main reasons could be that they just didn’t take into account that sometimes things happen randomly and we just don’t know why.
It’s good science to let people know if your study results are solid, or if they could have happened by chance. The usual way of doing this is to test your results with a pvalue . A p value is a number that you get by running a hypothesis test on your data. A P value of 0.05 (5%) or less is usually enough to claim that your results are repeatable. However, there’s another way to test the validity of your results: Bayesian Hypothesis testing. This type of testing gives you another way to test the strength of your results.
Traditional testing (the type you probably came across in elementary stats or AP stats) is called NonBayesian. It is how often an outcome happens over repeated runs of the experiment. It’s an objective view of whether an experiment is repeatable. Bayesian hypothesis testing is a subjective view of the same thing. It takes into account how much faith you have in your results. In other words, would you wager money on the outcome of your experiment?
Differences Between Traditional and Bayesian Hypothesis Testing.
Traditional testing (Non Bayesian) requires you to repeat sampling over and over, while Bayesian testing does not. The main different between the two is in the first step of testing: stating a probability model. In Bayesian testing you add prior knowledge to this step. It also requires use of a posterior probability , which is the conditional probability given to a random event after all the evidence is considered.
Arguments for Bayesian Testing.
Many researchers think that it is a better alternative to traditional testing, because it:
 Includes prior knowledge about the data.
 Takes into account personal beliefs about the results.
Arguments against.
 Including prior data or knowledge isn’t justifiable.
 It is difficult to calculate compared to nonBayesian testing.
Back to top
Hypothesis Testing Articles
 What is Ad Hoc Testing?
 Composite Hypothesis Test
 What is a Rejection Region?
 What is a Two Tailed Test?
 How to Decide if a Hypothesis Test is a One Tailed Test or a Two Tailed Test.
 How to Decide if a Hypothesis is a Left Tailed Test or a RightTailed Test.
 How to State the Null Hypothesis in Statistics.
 How to Find a Critical Value .
 How to Support or Reject a Null Hypothesis.
Specific Tests:
 Brunner Munzel Test (Generalized Wilcoxon Test).
 Chi Square Test for Normality.
 CochranMantelHaenszel Test.
 Granger Causality Test .
 Hotelling’s TSquared.
 KPSS Test .
 What is a LikelihoodRatio Test?
 Log rank test .
 MANCOVA Assumptions.
 MANCOVA Sample Size.
 Marascuilo Procedure
 Rao’s Spacing Test
 Rayleigh test of uniformity.
 Sequential Probability Ratio Test.
 How to Run a Sign Test.
 T Test: one sample.
 TTest: Two sample .
 Welch’s ANOVA .
 Welch’s Test for Unequal Variances .
 ZTest: one sample .
 Z Test: Two Proportion.
 Wald Test .
Related Articles:
 What is an Acceptance Region?
 How to Calculate Chebyshev’s Theorem.
 Contrast Analysis
 Decision Rule.
 Degrees of Freedom .
 Directional Test
 False Discovery Rate
 How to calculate the Least Significant Difference.
 Levels in Statistics.
 How to Calculate Margin of Error.
 Mean Difference (Difference in Means)
 The Multiple Testing Problem .
 What is the NeymanPearson Lemma?
 What is an Omnibus Test?
 One Sample Median Test .
 How to Find a Sample Size (General Instructions).
 Sig 2(Tailed) meaning in results
 What is a Standardized Test Statistic?
 How to Find Standard Error
 Standardized values: Example.
 How to Calculate a TScore.
 TScore Vs. a Z.Score.
 Testing a Single Mean.
 Unequal Sample Sizes.
 Uniformly Most Powerful Tests.
 How to Calculate a ZScore.
Have a language expert improve your writing
Run a free plagiarism check in 10 minutes, generate accurate citations for free.
 Knowledge Base
Methodology
 How to Write a Strong Hypothesis  Steps & Examples
How to Write a Strong Hypothesis  Steps & Examples
Published on May 6, 2022 by Shona McCombes . Revised on November 20, 2023.
A hypothesis is a statement that can be tested by scientific research. If you want to test a relationship between two or more variables, you need to write hypotheses before you start your experiment or data collection .
Example: Hypothesis
Daily apple consumption leads to fewer doctor’s visits.
Table of contents
What is a hypothesis, developing a hypothesis (with example), hypothesis examples, other interesting articles, frequently asked questions about writing hypotheses.
A hypothesis states your predictions about what your research will find. It is a tentative answer to your research question that has not yet been tested. For some research projects, you might have to write several hypotheses that address different aspects of your research question.
A hypothesis is not just a guess – it should be based on existing theories and knowledge. It also has to be testable, which means you can support or refute it through scientific research methods (such as experiments, observations and statistical analysis of data).
Variables in hypotheses
Hypotheses propose a relationship between two or more types of variables .
 An independent variable is something the researcher changes or controls.
 A dependent variable is something the researcher observes and measures.
If there are any control variables , extraneous variables , or confounding variables , be sure to jot those down as you go to minimize the chances that research bias will affect your results.
In this example, the independent variable is exposure to the sun – the assumed cause . The dependent variable is the level of happiness – the assumed effect .
Receive feedback on language, structure, and formatting
Professional editors proofread and edit your paper by focusing on:
 Academic style
 Vague sentences
 Style consistency
See an example
Step 1. Ask a question
Writing a hypothesis begins with a research question that you want to answer. The question should be focused, specific, and researchable within the constraints of your project.
Step 2. Do some preliminary research
Your initial answer to the question should be based on what is already known about the topic. Look for theories and previous studies to help you form educated assumptions about what your research will find.
At this stage, you might construct a conceptual framework to ensure that you’re embarking on a relevant topic . This can also help you identify which variables you will study and what you think the relationships are between them. Sometimes, you’ll have to operationalize more complex constructs.
Step 3. Formulate your hypothesis
Now you should have some idea of what you expect to find. Write your initial answer to the question in a clear, concise sentence.
4. Refine your hypothesis
You need to make sure your hypothesis is specific and testable. There are various ways of phrasing a hypothesis, but all the terms you use should have clear definitions, and the hypothesis should contain:
 The relevant variables
 The specific group being studied
 The predicted outcome of the experiment or analysis
5. Phrase your hypothesis in three ways
To identify the variables, you can write a simple prediction in if…then form. The first part of the sentence states the independent variable and the second part states the dependent variable.
In academic research, hypotheses are more commonly phrased in terms of correlations or effects, where you directly state the predicted relationship between variables.
If you are comparing two groups, the hypothesis can state what difference you expect to find between them.
6. Write a null hypothesis
If your research involves statistical hypothesis testing , you will also have to write a null hypothesis . The null hypothesis is the default position that there is no association between the variables. The null hypothesis is written as H 0 , while the alternative hypothesis is H 1 or H a .
 H 0 : The number of lectures attended by firstyear students has no effect on their final exam scores.
 H 1 : The number of lectures attended by firstyear students has a positive effect on their final exam scores.
Research question  Hypothesis  Null hypothesis 

What are the health benefits of eating an apple a day?  Increasing apple consumption in over60s will result in decreasing frequency of doctor’s visits.  Increasing apple consumption in over60s will have no effect on frequency of doctor’s visits. 
Which airlines have the most delays?  Lowcost airlines are more likely to have delays than premium airlines.  Lowcost and premium airlines are equally likely to have delays. 
Can flexible work arrangements improve job satisfaction?  Employees who have flexible working hours will report greater job satisfaction than employees who work fixed hours.  There is no relationship between working hour flexibility and job satisfaction. 
How effective is high school sex education at reducing teen pregnancies?  Teenagers who received sex education lessons throughout high school will have lower rates of unplanned pregnancy teenagers who did not receive any sex education.  High school sex education has no effect on teen pregnancy rates. 
What effect does daily use of social media have on the attention span of under16s?  There is a negative between time spent on social media and attention span in under16s.  There is no relationship between social media use and attention span in under16s. 
If you want to know more about the research process , methodology , research bias , or statistics , make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples.
 Sampling methods
 Simple random sampling
 Stratified sampling
 Cluster sampling
 Likert scales
 Reproducibility
Statistics
 Null hypothesis
 Statistical power
 Probability distribution
 Effect size
 Poisson distribution
Research bias
 Optimism bias
 Cognitive bias
 Implicit bias
 Hawthorne effect
 Anchoring bias
 Explicit bias
A hypothesis is not just a guess — it should be based on existing theories and knowledge. It also has to be testable, which means you can support or refute it through scientific research methods (such as experiments, observations and statistical analysis of data).
Null and alternative hypotheses are used in statistical hypothesis testing . The null hypothesis of a test always predicts no effect or no relationship between variables, while the alternative hypothesis states your research prediction of an effect or relationship.
Hypothesis testing is a formal procedure for investigating our ideas about the world using statistics. It is used by scientists to test specific predictions, called hypotheses , by calculating how likely it is that a pattern or relationship between variables could have arisen by chance.
Cite this Scribbr article
If you want to cite this source, you can copy and paste the citation or click the “Cite this Scribbr article” button to automatically add the citation to our free Citation Generator.
McCombes, S. (2023, November 20). How to Write a Strong Hypothesis  Steps & Examples. Scribbr. Retrieved June 25, 2024, from https://www.scribbr.com/methodology/hypothesis/
Is this article helpful?
Shona McCombes
Other students also liked, construct validity  definition, types, & examples, what is a conceptual framework  tips & examples, operationalization  a guide with examples, pros & cons, "i thought ai proofreading was useless but..".
I've been using Scribbr for years now and I know it's a service that won't disappoint. It does a good job spotting mistakes”
9.4 Full Hypothesis Test Examples
Tests on means, example 9.8.
Jeffrey, as an eightyear old, established a mean time of 16.43 seconds for swimming the 25yard freestyle, with a standard deviation of 0.8 seconds . His dad, Frank, thought that Jeffrey could swim the 25yard freestyle faster using goggles. Frank bought Jeffrey a new pair of expensive goggles and timed Jeffrey for 15 25yard freestyle swims . For the 15 swims, Jeffrey's mean time was 16 seconds. Frank thought that the goggles helped Jeffrey to swim faster than the 16.43 seconds. Conduct a hypothesis test using a preset α = 0.05. Assume that the swim times for the 25yard freestyle are normal.
Set up the Hypothesis Test:
Since the problem is about a mean, this is a test of a single population mean .
H 0 : μ = 16.43 H a : μ < 16.43
For Jeffrey to swim faster, his time will be less than 16.43 seconds. The "<" tells you this is lefttailed.
Determine the distribution needed:
Random variable: X ¯ X ¯ = the mean time to swim the 25yard freestyle.
Distribution for the test: X ¯ X ¯ is normal (population standard deviation is known: σ = 0.8)
X ¯ ~ N ( μ , σ X n ) X ¯ ~ N ( μ , σ X n ) Therefore, X ¯ ~ N ( 16.43 , 0.8 15 ) X ¯ ~ N ( 16.43 , 0.8 15 )
μ = 16.43 comes from H 0 and not the data. σ = 0.8, and n = 15.
Calculate the p value using the normal distribution for a mean:
p value = P ( x ¯ x ¯ < 16) = 0.0187 where the sample mean in the problem is given as 16.
p value = 0.0187 (This is called the actual level of significance .) The p value is the area to the left of the sample mean is given as 16.
μ = 16.43 comes from H 0 . Our assumption is μ = 16.43.
Interpretation of the p value: If H 0 is true , there is a 0.0187 probability (1.87%)that Jeffrey's mean time to swim the 25yard freestyle is 16 seconds or less. Because a 1.87% chance is small, the mean time of 16 seconds or less is unlikely to have happened randomly. It is a rare event.
Compare α and the p value:
α = 0.05 p value = 0.0187 α > p value
Make a decision: Since α > α > p value, reject H 0 .
This indicates that you reject the null hypothesis that the mean time to swim the 25yard freestyle is at least 16.43 seconds.
Conclusion: At the 5% significance level, there is sufficient evidence that Jeffrey's mean time to swim the 25yard freestyle is less than 16.43 seconds. Thus, based on the sample data, we conclude that Jeffrey swims faster using the new goggles.
The Type I and Type II errors for this problem are as follows: The Type I error is to conclude that Jeffrey swims the 25yard freestyle, on average, in less than 16.43 seconds when, in fact, he actually swims the 25yard freestyle, on average, in at least 16.43 seconds. (Reject the null hypothesis when the null hypothesis is true.)
The Type II error is that there is not evidence to conclude that Jeffrey swims the 25yard freestyle, on average, in less than 16.43 seconds when, in fact, he actually does swim the 25yard freestyle, on average, in less than 16.43 seconds. (Do not reject the null hypothesis when the null hypothesis is false.)
The mean throwing distance of a football for Marco, a high school quarterback, is 40 yards, with a standard deviation of two yards. The team coach tells Marco to adjust his grip to get more distance. The coach records the distances for 20 throws. For the 20 throws, Marco’s mean distance was 45 yards. The coach thought the different grip helped Marco throw farther than 40 yards. Conduct a hypothesis test using a preset α = 0.05. Assume the throw distances for footballs are normal.
First, determine what type of test this is, set up the hypothesis test, find the p value, sketch the graph, and state your conclusion.
Example 9.9
Jasmine has just begun her new job on the sales force of a very competitive company. In a sample of 16 sales calls it was found that she closed the contract for an average value of 108 dollars with a standard deviation of 12 dollars. Test at 5% significance that the population mean is at least 100 dollars against the alternative that it is less than 100 dollars. Company policy requires that new members of the sales force must exceed an average of $100 per contract during the trial employment period. Can we conclude that Jasmine has met this requirement at the significance level of 95%?
 H 0 : µ ≤ 100 H a : µ > 100 The null and alternative hypothesis are for the parameter µ because the number of dollars of the contracts is a continuous random variable. Also, this is a onetailed test because the company has only an interested if the number of dollars per contact is below a particular number not "too high" a number. This can be thought of as making a claim that the requirement is being met and thus the claim is in the alternative hypothesis.
 Test statistic: t c = x ¯ − µ 0 s n = 108 − 100 ( 12 16 ) = 2.67 t c = x ¯ − µ 0 s n = 108 − 100 ( 12 16 ) = 2.67
 Critical value: t a = 1.753 t a = 1.753 with n1 degrees of freedom= 15
The test statistic is a Student's t because the sample size is below 30; therefore, we cannot use the normal distribution. Comparing the calculated value of the test statistic and the critical value of t t ( t a ) ( t a ) at a 5% significance level, we see that the calculated value is in the tail of the distribution. Thus, we conclude that 108 dollars per contract is significantly larger than the hypothesized value of 100 and thus we cannot accept the null hypothesis. There is evidence that supports Jasmine's performance meets company standards.
It is believed that a stock price for a particular company will grow at a rate of $5 per week with a standard deviation of $1. An investor believes the stock won’t grow as quickly. The changes in stock price is recorded for ten weeks and are as follows: $4, $3, $2, $3, $1, $7, $2, $1, $1, $2. Perform a hypothesis test using a 5% level of significance. State the null and alternative hypotheses, state your conclusion, and identify the Type I errors.
Example 9.10
A manufacturer of salad dressings uses machines to dispense liquid ingredients into bottles that move along a filling line. The machine that dispenses salad dressings is working properly when 8 ounces are dispensed. Suppose that the average amount dispensed in a particular sample of 35 bottles is 7.91 ounces with a variance of 0.03 ounces squared, s 2 s 2 . Is there evidence that the machine should be stopped and production wait for repairs? The lost production from a shutdown is potentially so great that management feels that the level of significance in the analysis should be 99%.
Again we will follow the steps in our analysis of this problem.
STEP 1 : Set the Null and Alternative Hypothesis. The random variable is the quantity of fluid placed in the bottles. This is a continuous random variable and the parameter we are interested in is the mean. Our hypothesis therefore is about the mean. In this case we are concerned that the machine is not filling properly. From what we are told it does not matter if the machine is overfilling or underfilling, both seem to be an equally bad error. This tells us that this is a twotailed test: if the machine is malfunctioning it will be shutdown regardless if it is from overfilling or underfilling. The null and alternative hypotheses are thus:
STEP 2 : Decide the level of significance and draw the graph showing the critical value.
This problem has already set the level of significance at 99%. The decision seems an appropriate one and shows the thought process when setting the significance level. Management wants to be very certain, as certain as probability will allow, that they are not shutting down a machine that is not in need of repair. To draw the distribution and the critical value, we need to know which distribution to use. Because this is a continuous random variable and we are interested in the mean, and the sample size is greater than 30, the appropriate distribution is the normal distribution and the relevant critical value is 2.575 from the normal table or the ttable at 0.005 column and infinite degrees of freedom. We draw the graph and mark these points.
STEP 3 : Calculate sample parameters and the test statistic. The sample parameters are provided, the sample mean is 7.91 and the sample variance is .03 and the sample size is 35. We need to note that the sample variance was provided not the sample standard deviation, which is what we need for the formula. Remembering that the standard deviation is simply the square root of the variance, we therefore know the sample standard deviation, s, is 0.173. With this information we calculate the test statistic as 3.07, and mark it on the graph.
STEP 4 : Compare test statistic and the critical values Now we compare the test statistic and the critical value by placing the test statistic on the graph. We see that the test statistic is in the tail, decidedly greater than the critical value of 2.575. We note that even the very small difference between the hypothesized value and the sample value is still a large number of standard deviations. The sample mean is only 0.08 ounces different from the required level of 8 ounces, but it is 3 plus standard deviations away and thus we cannot accept the null hypothesis.
STEP 5 : Reach a Conclusion
Three standard deviations of a test statistic will guarantee that the test will fail. The probability that anything is within three standard deviations is almost zero. Actually it is 0.0026 on the normal distribution, which is certainly almost zero in a practical sense. Our formal conclusion would be “ At a 99% level of significance we cannot accept the hypothesis that the sample mean came from a distribution with a mean of 8 ounces” Or less formally, and getting to the point, “At a 99% level of significance we conclude that the machine is under filling the bottles and is in need of repair”.
Try It 9.10
A company records the mean time of employees working in a day. The mean comes out to be 475 minutes, with a standard deviation of 45 minutes. A manager recorded times of 20 employees. The times of working were (frequencies are in parentheses) 460(3); 465(2); 470(3); 475(1); 480(6); 485(3); 490(2).
Conduct a hypothesis test using a 2.5% level of significance to determine if the mean time is more than 475 .
Hypothesis Test for Proportions
Just as there were confidence intervals for proportions, or more formally, the population parameter p of the binomial distribution, there is the ability to test hypotheses concerning p .
The population parameter for the binomial is p . The estimated value (point estimate) for p is p′ where p′ = x/n , x is the number of successes in the sample and n is the sample size.
When you perform a hypothesis test of a population proportion p , you take a simple random sample from the population. The conditions for a binomial distribution must be met, which are: there are a certain number n of independent trials meaning random sampling, the outcomes of any trial are binary, success or failure, and each trial has the same probability of a success p . The shape of the binomial distribution needs to be similar to the shape of the normal distribution. To ensure this, the quantities np′ and nq′ must both be greater than five ( np′ > 5 and nq′ > 5). In this case the binomial distribution of a sample (estimated) proportion can be approximated by the normal distribution with μ = np μ = np and σ = npq σ = npq . Remember that q = 1 – p q = 1 – p . There is no distribution that can correct for this small sample bias and thus if these conditions are not met we simply cannot test the hypothesis with the data available at that time. We met this condition when we first were estimating confidence intervals for p .
Again, we begin with the standardizing formula modified because this is the distribution of a binomial.
Substituting p 0 p 0 , the hypothesized value of p , we have:
This is the test statistic for testing hypothesized values of p , where the null and alternative hypotheses take one of the following forms:
Twotailed test  Onetailed test  Onetailed test 

H : p = p  H : p ≤ p  H : p ≥ p 
H : p ≠ p  H : p > p  H : p < p 
The decision rule stated above applies here also: if the calculated value of Z c shows that the sample proportion is "too many" standard deviations from the hypothesized proportion, the null hypothesis cannot be accepted. The decision as to what is "too many" is predetermined by the analyst depending on the level of significance required in the test.
Example 9.11
The mortgage department of a large bank is interested in the nature of loans of firsttime borrowers. This information will be used to tailor their marketing strategy. They believe that 50% of firsttime borrowers take out smaller loans than other borrowers. They perform a hypothesis test to determine if the percentage is the same or different from 50% . They sample 100 firsttime borrowers and find 53 of these loans are smaller that the other borrowers. For the hypothesis test, they choose a 5% level of significance.
STEP 1 : Set the null and alternative hypothesis.
H 0 : p = 0.50 H a : p ≠ 0.50
The words "is the same or different from" tell you this is a twotailed test. The Type I and Type II errors are as follows: The Type I error is to conclude that the proportion of borrowers is different from 50% when, in fact, the proportion is actually 50%. (Reject the null hypothesis when the null hypothesis is true). The Type II error is there is not enough evidence to conclude that the proportion of first time borrowers differs from 50% when, in fact, the proportion does differ from 50%. (You fail to reject the null hypothesis when the null hypothesis is false.)
STEP 2 : Decide the level of significance and draw the graph showing the critical value
The level of significance has been set by the problem at the 5% level. Because this is twotailed test onehalf of the alpha value will be in the upper tail and onehalf in the lower tail as shown on the graph. The critical value for the normal distribution at the 95% level of confidence is 1.96. This can easily be found on the student’s ttable at the very bottom at infinite degrees of freedom remembering that at infinity the tdistribution is the normal distribution. Of course the value can also be found on the normal table but you have go looking for onehalf of 95 (0.475) inside the body of the table and then read out to the sides and top for the number of standard deviations.
STEP 3 : Calculate the sample parameters and critical value of the test statistic.
The test statistic is a normal distribution, Z, for testing proportions and is:
For this case, the sample of 100 found 53 of these loans were smaller than those of other borrowers. The sample proportion, p′ = 53/100= 0.53 The test question, therefore, is : “Is 0.53 significantly different from .50?” Putting these values into the formula for the test statistic we find that 0.53 is only 0.60 standard deviations away from .50. This is barely off of the mean of the standard normal distribution of zero. There is virtually no difference from the sample proportion and the hypothesized proportion in terms of standard deviations.
STEP 4 : Compare the test statistic and the critical value.
The calculated value is well within the critical values of ± 1.96 standard deviations and thus we cannot reject the null hypothesis. To reject the null hypothesis we need significant evident of difference between the hypothesized value and the sample value. In this case the sample value is very nearly the same as the hypothesized value measured in terms of standard deviations.
STEP 5 : Reach a conclusion
The formal conclusion would be “At a 5% level of significance we cannot reject the null hypothesis that 50% of firsttime borrowers take out smaller loans than other borrowers.” Notice the length to which the conclusion goes to include all of the conditions that are attached to the conclusion. Statisticians, for all the criticism they receive, are careful to be very specific even when this seems trivial. Statisticians cannot say more than they know, and the data constrain the conclusion to be within the metes and bounds of the data.
Try It 9.11
A teacher believes that 85% of students in the class will want to go on a field trip to the local zoo. The teacher performs a hypothesis test to determine if the percentage is the same or different from 85%. The teacher samples 50 students and 39 reply that they would want to go to the zoo. For the hypothesis test, use a 1% level of significance.
Example 9.12
Suppose a consumer group suspects that the proportion of households that have three or more cell phones is 30%. A cell phone company has reason to believe that the proportion is not 30%. Before they start a big advertising campaign, they conduct a hypothesis test. Their marketing people survey 150 households with the result that 43 of the households have three or more cell phones.
Here is an abbreviate version of the system to solve hypothesis tests applied to a test on a proportions.
Try It 9.12
Marketers believe that 92% of adults in the United States own a cell phone. A cell phone manufacturer believes that number is actually lower. 200 American adults are surveyed, of which, 174 report having cell phones. Use a 5% level of significance. State the null and alternative hypothesis, find the p value, state your conclusion, and identify the Type I and Type II errors.
Example 9.13
The National Institute of Standards and Technology provides exact data on conductivity properties of materials. Following are conductivity measurements for 11 randomly selected pieces of a particular type of glass.
1.11; 1.07; 1.11; 1.07; 1.12; 1.08; .98; .98; 1.02; .95; .95 Is there convincing evidence that the average conductivity of this type of glass is greater than one? Use a significance level of 0.05.
Let’s follow a fourstep process to answer this statistical question.
 H 0 : μ ≤ 1
 H a : μ > 1
 Plan : We are testing a sample mean without a known population standard deviation with less than 30 observations. Therefore, we need to use a Student'st distribution. Assume the underlying population is normal.
 Do the calculations and draw the graph .
 State the Conclusions : We cannot accept the null hypothesis. It is reasonable to state that the data supports the claim that the average conductivity level is greater than one.
Try It 9.13
The boiling point of a specific liquid is measured for 15 samples, and the boiling points are obtained as follows:
205; 206; 206; 202; 199; 194; 197; 198; 198; 201; 201; 202; 207; 211; 205
Is there convincing evidence that the average boiling point is greater than 200? Use a significance level of 0.1. Assume the population is normal.
Example 9.14
In a study of 420,019 cell phone users, 172 of the subjects developed brain cancer. Test the claim that cell phone users developed brain cancer at a greater rate than that for noncell phone users (the rate of brain cancer for noncell phone users is 0.0340%). Since this is a critical issue, use a 0.005 significance level. Explain why the significance level should be so low in terms of a Type I error.
 H 0 : p ≤ 0.00034
 H a : p > 0.00034
If we commit a Type I error, we are essentially accepting a false claim. Since the claim describes cancercausing environments, we want to minimize the chances of incorrectly identifying causes of cancer.
 We will be testing a sample proportion with x = 172 and n = 420,019. The sample is sufficiently large because we have np' = 420,019(0.00034) = 142.8, nq' = 420,019(0.99966) = 419,876.2, two independent outcomes, and a fixed probability of success p' = 0.00034. Thus we will be able to generalize our results to the population.
Try It 9.14
In a study of 390,000 moisturizer users, 138 of the subjects developed skin diseases. Test the claim that moisturizer users developed skin diseases at a greater rate than that for nonmoisturizer users (the rate of skin diseases for nonmoisturizer users is 0.041%). Since this is a critical issue, use a 0.005 significance level. Explain why the significance level should be so low in terms of a Type I error.
This book may not be used in the training of large language models or otherwise be ingested into large language models or generative AI offerings without OpenStax's permission.
Want to cite, share, or modify this book? This book uses the Creative Commons Attribution License and you must attribute OpenStax.
Access for free at https://openstax.org/books/introductorybusinessstatistics2e/pages/1introduction
 Authors: Alexander Holmes, Barbara Illowsky, Susan Dean
 Publisher/website: OpenStax
 Book title: Introductory Business Statistics 2e
 Publication date: Dec 13, 2023
 Location: Houston, Texas
 Book URL: https://openstax.org/books/introductorybusinessstatistics2e/pages/1introduction
 Section URL: https://openstax.org/books/introductorybusinessstatistics2e/pages/94fullhypothesistestexamples
© Dec 6, 2023 OpenStax. Textbook content produced by OpenStax is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License . The OpenStax name, OpenStax logo, OpenStax book covers, OpenStax CNX name, and OpenStax CNX logo are not subject to the Creative Commons license and may not be reproduced without the prior and express written consent of Rice University.
 school Campus Bookshelves
 menu_book Bookshelves
 perm_media Learning Objects
 login Login
 how_to_reg Request Instructor Account
 hub Instructor Commons
Margin Size
 Download Page (PDF)
 Download Full Book (PDF)
 Periodic Table
 Physics Constants
 Scientific Calculator
 Reference & Cite
 Tools expand_more
 Readability
selected template will load here
This action is not available.
7.5: Full Hypothesis Test Examples
 Last updated
 Save as PDF
 Page ID 79055
\( \newcommand{\vecs}[1]{\overset { \scriptstyle \rightharpoonup} {\mathbf{#1}} } \)
\( \newcommand{\vecd}[1]{\overset{\!\!\rightharpoonup}{\vphantom{a}\smash {#1}}} \)
\( \newcommand{\id}{\mathrm{id}}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\)
( \newcommand{\kernel}{\mathrm{null}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\range}{\mathrm{range}\,}\)
\( \newcommand{\RealPart}{\mathrm{Re}}\) \( \newcommand{\ImaginaryPart}{\mathrm{Im}}\)
\( \newcommand{\Argument}{\mathrm{Arg}}\) \( \newcommand{\norm}[1]{\ #1 \}\)
\( \newcommand{\inner}[2]{\langle #1, #2 \rangle}\)
\( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\)
\( \newcommand{\id}{\mathrm{id}}\)
\( \newcommand{\kernel}{\mathrm{null}\,}\)
\( \newcommand{\range}{\mathrm{range}\,}\)
\( \newcommand{\RealPart}{\mathrm{Re}}\)
\( \newcommand{\ImaginaryPart}{\mathrm{Im}}\)
\( \newcommand{\Argument}{\mathrm{Arg}}\)
\( \newcommand{\norm}[1]{\ #1 \}\)
\( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\) \( \newcommand{\AA}{\unicode[.8,0]{x212B}}\)
\( \newcommand{\vectorA}[1]{\vec{#1}} % arrow\)
\( \newcommand{\vectorAt}[1]{\vec{\text{#1}}} % arrow\)
\( \newcommand{\vectorB}[1]{\overset { \scriptstyle \rightharpoonup} {\mathbf{#1}} } \)
\( \newcommand{\vectorC}[1]{\textbf{#1}} \)
\( \newcommand{\vectorD}[1]{\overrightarrow{#1}} \)
\( \newcommand{\vectorDt}[1]{\overrightarrow{\text{#1}}} \)
\( \newcommand{\vectE}[1]{\overset{\!\!\rightharpoonup}{\vphantom{a}\smash{\mathbf {#1}}}} \)
Tests on Means
Example \(\PageIndex{1}\)
Jeffrey, as an eightyear old, established a mean time of 16.43 seconds for swimming the 25yard freestyle.
His dad, Frank, thought that Jeffrey could swim the 25yard freestyle faster using goggles. Frank bought Jeffrey a new pair of expensive goggles and timed Jeffrey for 15 25yard freestyle swims . For the 15 swims, Jeffrey's mean time was 16 seconds , with a standard deviation of 0.8 seconds . Frank thought that the goggles helped Jeffrey to swim faster than the 16.43 seconds. Conduct a hypothesis test using test statistics and \(p\)values with a preset \(\alpha = 0.05\).
Set up the Hypothesis Test:
Since the problem is about a mean, this is a test of a single population mean .
Set the null and alternative hypothesis:
In this case there is an implied challenge or claim. This is that the goggles will reduce the swimming time. The effect of this is to set the hypothesis as a onetailed test. The claim will always be in the alternative hypothesis because the burden of proof always lies with the alternative. Remember that the status quo must be defeated with a high degree of confidence, in this case 95% confidence. The null and alternative hypotheses are thus:
\(H_0: \mu \geq 16.43\) \(H_a: \mu < 16.43\)
For Jeffrey to swim faster, his time should be less than 16.43 seconds. The "<" tells you this is lefttailed.
Determine the distribution needed:
Random variable: \(\overline x\) = the mean time to swim the 25yard freestyle.
Distribution for the test statistic:
The sample size is less than 30 and we do not know the population standard deviation so this is a t test. The proper formula is: \(t_{obs}=\frac{\overline{x}\mu_{0}}{s / \sqrt{n}}\)
\(\mu_ 0 = 16.43\) comes from \(H_0\) and not the data. \(\overline x = 16\), \(s = 0.8\), and \(n = 15\).
Our step 2, setting the level of confidence, has already been determined by the problem, \(\alpha\) of .05 corresponds to a 95% confidence level. It is worth thinking about the meaning of this choice. The Type I error is to conclude that Jeffrey swims the 25yard freestyle, on average, in less than 16.43 seconds when, in fact, he actually swims the 25yard freestyle, on average, in 16.43 seconds or more. (Reject the null hypothesis when the null hypothesis is true.) For this case the only concern with a Type I error would seem to be that Jeffrey’s dad may fail to bet on his son’s victory because he does not have appropriate confidence in the effect of the goggles.
To find the critical value we need to select the appropriate test statistic. We have concluded that this is a t test on the basis of the sample size and that we are interested in a population mean. We can now draw the graph of the t distribution and mark the critical value. For this problem the degrees of freedom are n1, or 14. Looking up 14 degrees of freedom at the 0.05 column of the t table we find 1.761. This is the critical value and we can put this on our graph.
Step 3 is the calculation of the test statistic using the formula we have selected. We find that the observed test statistic is 2.08, meaning that the sample mean is 2.08 standard errors below the hypothesized mean of 16.43.
\[t_{obs}=\frac{\overline{x}\mu_{0}}{s / \sqrt{n}}=\frac{1616.43}{.8 / \sqrt{15}}=2.08\nonumber\]
Figure \(\PageIndex{1}\)
Step 4 has us compare the test statistic and the critical value and mark these on the graph. We see that the test statistic is in the tail and thus we move to step 4 and reach a conclusion. The probability that an average time of 16 minutes could come from a distribution with a population mean of 16.43 minutes is too unlikely to have occurred under the null hypothesis. We reject the null.
Step 5 has us state our conclusions first formally and then less formally. A formal conclusion would be stated as: “With a 95% level of confidence we reject the null hypothesis that the swimming time with goggles comes from a distribution with a population mean time of 16.43 minutes.” Less formally, “With 95% confidence, we believe that the goggles improved swimming speed".
If we wished to use the \(p\)value system of reaching a conclusion we would calculate the statistic and take the additional step to find the probability of being 2.08 standard errors from the mean on a t distribution. The \(p\)value interval is (.025, .05), that we get by looking up the onetailed probabilities associated with the closest t scores (1.761 and 2.145) to the observed test statistic (2.08) in the relevant df row of 14 in the t table. Comparing this interval to the significance level of .05 we see that we reject the null. The \(p\)value has been put on the graph as the shaded area beyond 2.08 and it shows that it is smaller than the hatched area which is the \(\alpha\) level of 0.05. Both methods reach the same conclusion that we reject the null hypothesis.
Exercise \(\PageIndex{1}\)
The mean throwing distance of a football for Marco, a high school freshman quarterback, is 40 yards, with a standard deviation of two yards. The team coach tells Marco to adjust his grip to get more distance. The coach records the distances for 20 throws. For the 20 throws, Marco’s mean distance was 45 yards. The coach thought the different grip helped Marco throw farther than 40 yards. Conduct a hypothesis test using a preset \(\alpha = 0.05\). Assume the throw distances for footballs are normal.
First, determine what type of test this is, set up the hypothesis test, find the \(p\)value, sketch the graph, and state your conclusion.
Example \(\PageIndex{2}\)
Jane has just begun her new job as on the sales force of a very competitive company. In a sample of 16 sales calls it was found that she closed the contract for an average value of 108 dollars with a standard deviation of 12 dollars. Company policy requires that new members of the sales force must exceed an average of $100 per contract during the trial employment period. Can we conclude that Jane has met this requirement at the significance level of 5%?
 \(H_0: \mu \leq 100\) \(H_a: \mu > 100\) The null and alternative hypothesis are for the parameter \(\mu\) because the number of dollars of the contracts is a continuous random variable. Also, this is a onetailed test because the company has only an interested if the number of dollars per contact is below a particular number not "too high" a number. This can be thought of as making a claim that the requirement is being met and thus the claim is in the alternative hypothesis.
 Test statistic: \(t_{obs}=\frac{\overline{x}\mu_{0}}{\frac{s}{\sqrt{n}}}=\frac{108100}{\left(\frac{12}{\sqrt{16}}\right)}=2.67\)
 Critical value: \(t_\alpha=1.753\) with \(n1\) degrees of freedom = 15
The test statistic is a Student's t because the sample size is below 100; therefore, we cannot use the normal distribution. Comparing the observed value of the test statistic and the critical value of t at a 5% significance level, we see that the observed value is in the tail of the distribution. Thus, we conclude that 108 dollars per contract is significantly larger than the hypothesized value of 100 and thus we must reject the null hypothesis. There is evidence that Jane's performance meets company standards.
Figure \(\PageIndex{2}\)
Exercise \(\PageIndex{2}\)
It is believed that a stock price for a particular company will grow at a rate of $5 per week with a standard deviation of $1. An investor believes the stock won’t grow as quickly. The changes in stock price is recorded for ten weeks and are as follows: $4, $3, $2, $3, $1, $7, $2, $1, $1, $2. Perform a hypothesis test using a 5% level of significance. State the null and alternative hypotheses, state your conclusion, and identify the Type I and Type II errors.
Example \(\PageIndex{3}\)
A manufacturer of salad dressings uses machines to dispense liquid ingredients into bottles that move along a filling line. The machine that dispenses salad dressings is working properly when 8 ounces are dispensed. Suppose that the average amount dispensed in a particular sample of 35 bottles is 7.91 ounces with a variance of 0.03 ounces squared, \(s^2\). Is there evidence that the machine should be stopped and production wait for repairs? The lost production from a shutdown is potentially so great that management feels that the level of confidence in the analysis should be 99%.
Again we will follow the steps in our analysis of this problem.
STEP 1 : Set the null and alternative hypothesis.
The random variable is the quantity of fluid placed in the bottles. This is a continuous random variable and the parameter we are interested in is the mean. Our hypothesis therefore is about the mean. In this case we are concerned that the machine is not filling properly. From what we are told it does not matter if the machine is overfilling or underfilling, both seem to be an equally bad error. This tells us that this is a twotailed test: if the machine is malfunctioning it will be shutdown regardless if it is from overfilling or underfilling. The null and alternative hypotheses are thus:
\[H_0:\mu=8\nonumber\]
\[Ha:\mu \neq 8\nonumber\]
STEP 2 : Decide the level of significance and draw the graph showing the critical value.
This problem has already set the level of confidence at 99%. The decision seems an appropriate one and shows the thought process when setting the significance level. Management wants to be very certain, as certain as probability will allow, that they are not shutting down a machine that is not in need of repair. To draw the distribution and the critical value, we need to know which distribution to use. Because the sample size is under 100, the appropriate distribution is the t distribution and the relevant critical value is 2.750 from the t table at 0.005 column and 30 degrees of freedom (closest available row to our actual 34 df here). We need to draw the graph and mark these points.
STEP 3 : Calculate sample parameters and the test statistic.
The sample parameters are provided, the sample mean is 7.91 and the sample variance is .03 and the sample size is 35. We need to note that the sample variance was provided, not the sample standard deviation, which is what we need for the formula. Remembering that the standard deviation is simply the square root of the variance, we therefore know the sample standard deviation, \(s\), is 0.173. With this information we can calculate the test statistic as 3.07, and mark it on the graph.
\[t_{obs}=\frac{\overline{x}\mu_{0}}{s / \sqrt{n}}=\frac{7.918}{\cdot 173 / \sqrt{35}}=3.07\nonumber\]
STEP 4 : Compare test statistic and the critical values.
Now we compare the test statistic and the critical value by placing the test statistic on the graph. The test statistic is in the tail, decidedly greater than the critical value of 2.750. We note that even the very small difference between the hypothesized value and the sample value is still a large number of standard errors. The sample mean is only 0.08 ounces different from the required level of 8 ounces, but it is 3+ standard errors away from the required 8 ounces, and thus we reject the null hypothesis.
STEP 5 : Reach a conclusion.
Three standard errors of a test statistic will guarantee that the test will fail. The probability that anything is beyond three standard errors of a hypothesized null value  given a large enough sample size  is close to zero. Looking at the closest t scores in df =30 row in the t table, we get the \(p\)value interval of (.01, .002) after doubling the onetailed probabilities of .005 and .001. Our formal conclusion would be “At a 99% level of confidence, we reject the null hypothesis that the sample mean came from a distribution with a mean of 8 ounces”. Or less formally, and getting to the point, “At a 99% level of confidence, we conclude that the machine is underfilling the bottles and is in need of repair”.
Hypothesis Test for Proportions
Just as there were confidence intervals for proportions, or more formally, the population parameter \(P\), there is the ability to test hypotheses concerning \(P\).
The estimated value (point estimate) for \(P\) is \(P^{\prime}\) where \(P^{\prime} = x/n\), \(x\) is the number of observations in the category of interest in the sample and \(n\) is the sample size.
When you perform a hypothesis test of a population proportion \(P\), you take a random sample from the population. To ensure normality of the distribution, sampling must be random and the total sample size must be greater than 100. There is no distribution that can correct for this small sample bias and thus if these conditions are not met we simply cannot test the hypothesis with the data available at that time. We met this condition when we were first estimating confidence intervals for \(P\).
Again, we begin with the modified standardizing formula:
\[z=\frac{P^{\prime}P}{\sqrt{\frac{P(1P)}{n}}}\nonumber\]
Substituting \(P_0\), the hypothesized value of \(P\), we have:
\[z_{obs}=\frac{P^{\prime}P_{0}}{\sqrt{\frac{P_{0} (1P_{0})}{n}}}\nonumber\]
This is the test statistic for testing hypothesized values of \(P\), where the null and alternative hypotheses take one of the following forms:
Twotailed test  Onetailed test  Onetailed test 

\(H_0: P = P_0\)  \(H_0: P \leq P_0\)  \(H_0: P \geq P_0\) 
\(H_a: P \neq P_0\)  \(H_a: P > P_0\)  \(H_a: P < P_0\) 
Table \(\PageIndex{1}\)
The decision rule stated above applies here also: if the calculated value of \(z_{obs}\) shows that the sample proportion is "too many" standard errors from the hypothesized proportion, the null hypothesis is rejected. The decision as to what is "too many" is predetermined by the analyst depending on the level of significance required in the test.
Example \(\PageIndex{4}\)
The mortgage department of a large bank is interested in the nature of loans of firsttime borrowers. This information will be used to tailor their marketing strategy. They believe that 50% of firsttime borrowers take out smaller loans than other borrowers. They perform a hypothesis test to determine if the percentage is different from 50% . They sample 101 firsttime borrowers and find 54 of these loans are smaller that the other borrowers. For the hypothesis test, they choose a 5% level of significance.
\(H_0: P = 0.50\) \(H_a: P \neq 0.50\)
The words "is different from" tell you this is a twotailed test. The Type I and Type II errors are as follows: The Type I error is to conclude that the proportion of borrowers is different from 50% when, in fact, the proportion is actually 50%. (Reject the null hypothesis when the null hypothesis is true). The Type II error is there is not enough evidence to conclude that the proportion of first time borrowers differs from 50% when, in fact, the proportion does differ from 50%. (You fail to reject the null hypothesis when the null hypothesis is false.)
STEP 2 : Decide the level of significance and draw the graph showing the critical value
The level of confidence has been set by the problem at 95%. Because this is twotailed test onehalf of the \(\alpha\) value will be in the upper tail and onehalf in the lower tail as shown on the graph. The critical value for the normal distribution at the 95% level of confidence is 1.96. This can easily be found on the Student’s t table at the very bottom at infinite degrees of freedom remembering that at infinity the t distribution is the normal distribution. Of course, the value can also be found on the standard normal table but you have go looking for the tail probability, \(\alpha\)/2, inside the body of the table and then read out to the sides and top for the number of standard errors.
Figure \(\PageIndex{3}\)
STEP 3 : Calculate the sample parameters and critical value of the test statistic.
The test statistic is a normal distribution, \(z\), for testing proportions and is:
\[z=\frac{P^{\prime}P_{0}}{\sqrt{\frac{P_{0} (1P_{0})}{n}}}=\frac{.53.50}{\sqrt{\frac{.5(.5)}{101}}}=0.60\nonumber\]
For this case, the sample of 101 found 54 firsttime borrowers were different from other borrowers. The sample proportion, \(P^{\prime} = 54/101= 0.53\) The test question, therefore, is : “Is 0.53 significantly different from 0.50?” Putting these values into the formula for the test statistic we find that 0.53 is only 0.60 standard errors away from 0.50. This is barely off of the mean of the standard normal distribution of zero. There is virtually no difference from the sample proportion and the hypothesized proportion in terms of standard errors.
STEP 4 : Compare the test statistic and the critical value.
The observed value is well within the critical values of \(\pm 1.96\) standard errors and thus we cannot reject the null hypothesis. To reject the null hypothesis we need significant evidence of difference between the hypothesized value and the sample value. In this case the sample value is very nearly the same as the hypothesized value measured in terms of standard errors.
The formal conclusion would be “At a 95% level of confidence we cannot reject the null hypothesis that 50% of firsttime borrowers have the same size loans as other borrowers”. Less formally, we would say that “There is no evidence that onehalf of firsttime borrowers are significantly different in loan size from other borrowers”. Notice the length to which the conclusion goes to include all of the conditions that are attached to the conclusion. Statisticians, for all the criticism they receive, are careful to be very specific even when this seems trivial. Statisticians cannot say more than they know and the data constrain the conclusion to be within the metes and bounds of the data.
Exercise \(\PageIndex{3}\)
A teacher believes that 85% of students in the class will want to go on a field trip to the local zoo. She performs a hypothesis test to determine if the percentage is the same or different from 85%. The teacher samples 104 students and 89 reply that they would want to go to the zoo. For the hypothesis test, use a 1% level of significance.
Example \(\PageIndex{5}\)
Suppose a consumer group suspects that the proportion of households that have three or more cell phones is 30%. A cell phone company has reason to believe that the proportion is not 30%. Before they start a big advertising campaign, they conduct a hypothesis test using 90% confidence. Their marketing people survey 150 households with the result that 43 of the households have three or more cell phones.
Here is an abbreviated version of the system to solve hypothesis tests applied to a test on a proportions.
\[H_0 : P = 0.3 \nonumber\]
\[H_a : P \neq 0.3 \nonumber\]
\[n = 150\nonumber\]
\[P^{\prime}=\frac{x}{n}=\frac{43}{150}=0.287\nonumber\]
\[z_{obs}=\frac{P^{\prime}P_{0}}{\sqrt{\frac{P_{0} (1P_{0})}{n}}}=\frac{0.2870.3}{\sqrt{\frac{.3(.7)}{150}}}=0.347\nonumber\]
At a confidence level of 90% we cannot reject the null hypothesis that the consumer group is correct.
Figure \(\PageIndex{4}\)
Example \(\PageIndex{6}\)
In a study of 420,019 cell phone users, 172 of the subjects developed brain cancer. Test the claim that cell phone users developed brain cancer at a greater rate than that for noncell phone users (the rate of brain cancer for noncell phone users is 0.0340%). Since this is a critical issue, use a 0.005 significance level. Explain why the significance level should be so low in terms of a Type I error.
We need to conduct a hypothesis test on the claimed cancer rate. Our hypotheses will be:
If we commit a Type I error, we are essentially accepting an incorrect claim. Since the claim describes cancercausing environments, we want to minimize the chances of incorrectly identifying causes of cancer.
Tutorial Playlist
Statistics tutorial, everything you need to know about the probability density function in statistics, the best guide to understand central limit theorem, an indepth guide to measures of central tendency : mean, median and mode, the ultimate guide to understand conditional probability.
A Comprehensive Look at Percentile in Statistics
The Best Guide to Understand Bayes Theorem
Everything you need to know about the normal distribution, an indepth explanation of cumulative distribution function, a complete guide to chisquare test, what is hypothesis testing in statistics types and examples, understanding the fundamentals of arithmetic and geometric progression, the definitive guide to understand spearman’s rank correlation, mean squared error: overview, examples, concepts and more, all you need to know about the empirical rule in statistics, the complete guide to skewness and kurtosis, a holistic look at bernoulli distribution.
All You Need to Know About Bias in Statistics
A Complete Guide to Get a Grasp of Time Series Analysis
The Key Differences Between ZTest Vs. TTest
The Complete Guide to Understand Pearson's Correlation
A complete guide on the types of statistical studies, everything you need to know about poisson distribution, your best guide to understand correlation vs. regression, the most comprehensive guide for beginners on what is correlation, what is hypothesis testing in statistics types and examples.
Lesson 10 of 24 By Avijeet Biswal
Table of Contents
In today’s datadriven world , decisions are based on data all the time. Hypothesis plays a crucial role in that process, whether it may be making business decisions, in the health sector, academia, or in quality improvement. Without hypothesis & hypothesis tests, you risk drawing the wrong conclusions and making bad decisions. In this tutorial, you will look at Hypothesis Testing in Statistics.
The Ultimate Ticket to Top Data Science Job Roles
What Is Hypothesis Testing in Statistics?
Hypothesis Testing is a type of statistical analysis in which you put your assumptions about a population parameter to the test. It is used to estimate the relationship between 2 statistical variables.
Let's discuss few examples of statistical hypothesis from reallife 
 A teacher assumes that 60% of his college's students come from lowermiddleclass families.
 A doctor believes that 3D (Diet, Dose, and Discipline) is 90% effective for diabetic patients.
Now that you know about hypothesis testing, look at the two types of hypothesis testing in statistics.
Hypothesis Testing Formula
Z = ( x̅ – μ0 ) / (σ /√n)
 Here, x̅ is the sample mean,
 μ0 is the population mean,
 σ is the standard deviation,
 n is the sample size.
How Hypothesis Testing Works?
An analyst performs hypothesis testing on a statistical sample to present evidence of the plausibility of the null hypothesis. Measurements and analyses are conducted on a random sample of the population to test a theory. Analysts use a random population sample to test two hypotheses: the null and alternative hypotheses.
The null hypothesis is typically an equality hypothesis between population parameters; for example, a null hypothesis may claim that the population means return equals zero. The alternate hypothesis is essentially the inverse of the null hypothesis (e.g., the population means the return is not equal to zero). As a result, they are mutually exclusive, and only one can be correct. One of the two possibilities, however, will always be correct.
Your Dream Career is Just Around The Corner!
Null Hypothesis and Alternate Hypothesis
The Null Hypothesis is the assumption that the event will not occur. A null hypothesis has no bearing on the study's outcome unless it is rejected.
H0 is the symbol for it, and it is pronounced Hnaught.
The Alternate Hypothesis is the logical opposite of the null hypothesis. The acceptance of the alternative hypothesis follows the rejection of the null hypothesis. H1 is the symbol for it.
Let's understand this with an example.
A sanitizer manufacturer claims that its product kills 95 percent of germs on average.
To put this company's claim to the test, create a null and alternate hypothesis.
H0 (Null Hypothesis): Average = 95%.
Alternative Hypothesis (H1): The average is less than 95%.
Another straightforward example to understand this concept is determining whether or not a coin is fair and balanced. The null hypothesis states that the probability of a show of heads is equal to the likelihood of a show of tails. In contrast, the alternate theory states that the probability of a show of heads and tails would be very different.
Become a Data Scientist with Handson Training!
Hypothesis Testing Calculation With Examples
Let's consider a hypothesis test for the average height of women in the United States. Suppose our null hypothesis is that the average height is 5'4". We gather a sample of 100 women and determine that their average height is 5'5". The standard deviation of population is 2.
To calculate the zscore, we would use the following formula:
z = ( x̅ – μ0 ) / (σ /√n)
z = (5'5"  5'4") / (2" / √100)
z = 0.5 / (0.045)
We will reject the null hypothesis as the zscore of 11.11 is very large and conclude that there is evidence to suggest that the average height of women in the US is greater than 5'4".
Steps of Hypothesis Testing
Hypothesis testing is a statistical method to determine if there is enough evidence in a sample of data to infer that a certain condition is true for the entire population. Here’s a breakdown of the typical steps involved in hypothesis testing:
Formulate Hypotheses
 Null Hypothesis (H0): This hypothesis states that there is no effect or difference, and it is the hypothesis you attempt to reject with your test.
 Alternative Hypothesis (H1 or Ha): This hypothesis is what you might believe to be true or hope to prove true. It is usually considered the opposite of the null hypothesis.
Choose the Significance Level (α)
The significance level, often denoted by alpha (α), is the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis when it is true. Common choices for α are 0.05 (5%), 0.01 (1%), and 0.10 (10%).
Select the Appropriate Test
Choose a statistical test based on the type of data and the hypothesis. Common tests include ttests, chisquare tests, ANOVA, and regression analysis . The selection depends on data type, distribution, sample size, and whether the hypothesis is onetailed or twotailed.
Collect Data
Gather the data that will be analyzed in the test. This data should be representative of the population to infer conclusions accurately.
Calculate the Test Statistic
Based on the collected data and the chosen test, calculate a test statistic that reflects how much the observed data deviates from the null hypothesis.
Determine the pvalue
The pvalue is the probability of observing test results at least as extreme as the results observed, assuming the null hypothesis is correct. It helps determine the strength of the evidence against the null hypothesis.
Make a Decision
Compare the pvalue to the chosen significance level:
 If the pvalue ≤ α: Reject the null hypothesis, suggesting sufficient evidence in the data supports the alternative hypothesis.
 If the pvalue > α: Do not reject the null hypothesis, suggesting insufficient evidence to support the alternative hypothesis.
Report the Results
Present the findings from the hypothesis test, including the test statistic, pvalue, and the conclusion about the hypotheses.
Perform Posthoc Analysis (if necessary)
Depending on the results and the study design, further analysis may be needed to explore the data more deeply or to address multiple comparisons if several hypotheses were tested simultaneously.
Types of Hypothesis Testing
To determine whether a discovery or relationship is statistically significant, hypothesis testing uses a ztest. It usually checks to see if two means are the same (the null hypothesis). Only when the population standard deviation is known and the sample size is 30 data points or more, can a ztest be applied.
A statistical test called a ttest is employed to compare the means of two groups. To determine whether two groups differ or if a procedure or treatment affects the population of interest, it is frequently used in hypothesis testing.
ChiSquare
You utilize a Chisquare test for hypothesis testing concerning whether your data is as predicted. To determine if the expected and observed results are wellfitted, the Chisquare test analyzes the differences between categorical variables from a random sample. The test's fundamental premise is that the observed values in your data should be compared to the predicted values that would be present if the null hypothesis were true.
Hypothesis Testing and Confidence Intervals
Both confidence intervals and hypothesis tests are inferential techniques that depend on approximating the sample distribution. Data from a sample is used to estimate a population parameter using confidence intervals. Data from a sample is used in hypothesis testing to examine a given hypothesis. We must have a postulated parameter to conduct hypothesis testing.
Bootstrap distributions and randomization distributions are created using comparable simulation techniques. The observed sample statistic is the focal point of a bootstrap distribution, whereas the null hypothesis value is the focal point of a randomization distribution.
A variety of feasible population parameter estimates are included in confidence ranges. In this lesson, we created just twotailed confidence intervals. There is a direct connection between these twotail confidence intervals and these twotail hypothesis tests. The results of a twotailed hypothesis test and twotailed confidence intervals typically provide the same results. In other words, a hypothesis test at the 0.05 level will virtually always fail to reject the null hypothesis if the 95% confidence interval contains the predicted value. A hypothesis test at the 0.05 level will nearly certainly reject the null hypothesis if the 95% confidence interval does not include the hypothesized parameter.
Become a Data Scientist through handson learning with hackathons, masterclasses, webinars, and AskMeAnything! Start learning now!
Simple and Composite Hypothesis Testing
Depending on the population distribution, you can classify the statistical hypothesis into two types.
Simple Hypothesis: A simple hypothesis specifies an exact value for the parameter.
Composite Hypothesis: A composite hypothesis specifies a range of values.
A company is claiming that their average sales for this quarter are 1000 units. This is an example of a simple hypothesis.
Suppose the company claims that the sales are in the range of 900 to 1000 units. Then this is a case of a composite hypothesis.
OneTailed and TwoTailed Hypothesis Testing
The OneTailed test, also called a directional test, considers a critical region of data that would result in the null hypothesis being rejected if the test sample falls into it, inevitably meaning the acceptance of the alternate hypothesis.
In a onetailed test, the critical distribution area is onesided, meaning the test sample is either greater or lesser than a specific value.
In two tails, the test sample is checked to be greater or less than a range of values in a TwoTailed test, implying that the critical distribution area is twosided.
If the sample falls within this range, the alternate hypothesis will be accepted, and the null hypothesis will be rejected.
Become a Data Scientist With RealWorld Experience
Right Tailed Hypothesis Testing
If the larger than (>) sign appears in your hypothesis statement, you are using a righttailed test, also known as an upper test. Or, to put it another way, the disparity is to the right. For instance, you can contrast the battery life before and after a change in production. Your hypothesis statements can be the following if you want to know if the battery life is longer than the original (let's say 90 hours):
 The null hypothesis is (H0 <= 90) or less change.
 A possibility is that battery life has risen (H1) > 90.
The crucial point in this situation is that the alternate hypothesis (H1), not the null hypothesis, decides whether you get a righttailed test.
Left Tailed Hypothesis Testing
Alternative hypotheses that assert the true value of a parameter is lower than the null hypothesis are tested with a lefttailed test; they are indicated by the asterisk "<".
Suppose H0: mean = 50 and H1: mean not equal to 50
According to the H1, the mean can be greater than or less than 50. This is an example of a Twotailed test.
In a similar manner, if H0: mean >=50, then H1: mean <50
Here the mean is less than 50. It is called a Onetailed test.
Type 1 and Type 2 Error
A hypothesis test can result in two types of errors.
Type 1 Error: A TypeI error occurs when sample results reject the null hypothesis despite being true.
Type 2 Error: A TypeII error occurs when the null hypothesis is not rejected when it is false, unlike a TypeI error.
Suppose a teacher evaluates the examination paper to decide whether a student passes or fails.
H0: Student has passed
H1: Student has failed
Type I error will be the teacher failing the student [rejects H0] although the student scored the passing marks [H0 was true].
Type II error will be the case where the teacher passes the student [do not reject H0] although the student did not score the passing marks [H1 is true].
Level of Significance
The alpha value is a criterion for determining whether a test statistic is statistically significant. In a statistical test, Alpha represents an acceptable probability of a Type I error. Because alpha is a probability, it can be anywhere between 0 and 1. In practice, the most commonly used alpha values are 0.01, 0.05, and 0.1, which represent a 1%, 5%, and 10% chance of a Type I error, respectively (i.e. rejecting the null hypothesis when it is in fact correct).
A pvalue is a metric that expresses the likelihood that an observed difference could have occurred by chance. As the pvalue decreases the statistical significance of the observed difference increases. If the pvalue is too low, you reject the null hypothesis.
Here you have taken an example in which you are trying to test whether the new advertising campaign has increased the product's sales. The pvalue is the likelihood that the null hypothesis, which states that there is no change in the sales due to the new advertising campaign, is true. If the pvalue is .30, then there is a 30% chance that there is no increase or decrease in the product's sales. If the pvalue is 0.03, then there is a 3% probability that there is no increase or decrease in the sales value due to the new advertising campaign. As you can see, the lower the pvalue, the chances of the alternate hypothesis being true increases, which means that the new advertising campaign causes an increase or decrease in sales.
Our Data Scientist Master's Program covers core topics such as R, Python, Machine Learning, Tableau, Hadoop, and Spark. Get started on your journey today!
Why Is Hypothesis Testing Important in Research Methodology?
Hypothesis testing is crucial in research methodology for several reasons:
 Provides evidencebased conclusions: It allows researchers to make objective conclusions based on empirical data, providing evidence to support or refute their research hypotheses.
 Supports decisionmaking: It helps make informed decisions, such as accepting or rejecting a new treatment, implementing policy changes, or adopting new practices.
 Adds rigor and validity: It adds scientific rigor to research using statistical methods to analyze data, ensuring that conclusions are based on sound statistical evidence.
 Contributes to the advancement of knowledge: By testing hypotheses, researchers contribute to the growth of knowledge in their respective fields by confirming existing theories or discovering new patterns and relationships.
When Did Hypothesis Testing Begin?
Hypothesis testing as a formalized process began in the early 20th century, primarily through the work of statisticians such as Ronald A. Fisher, Jerzy Neyman, and Egon Pearson. The development of hypothesis testing is closely tied to the evolution of statistical methods during this period.
 Ronald A. Fisher (1920s): Fisher was one of the key figures in developing the foundation for modern statistical science. In the 1920s, he introduced the concept of the null hypothesis in his book "Statistical Methods for Research Workers" (1925). Fisher also developed significance testing to examine the likelihood of observing the collected data if the null hypothesis were true. He introduced pvalues to determine the significance of the observed results.
 NeymanPearson Framework (1930s): Jerzy Neyman and Egon Pearson built on Fisher’s work and formalized the process of hypothesis testing even further. In the 1930s, they introduced the concepts of Type I and Type II errors and developed a decisionmaking framework widely used in hypothesis testing today. Their approach emphasized the balance between these errors and introduced the concepts of the power of a test and the alternative hypothesis.
The dialogue between Fisher's and NeymanPearson's approaches shaped the methods and philosophy of statistical hypothesis testing used today. Fisher emphasized the evidential interpretation of the pvalue. At the same time, Neyman and Pearson advocated for a decisiontheoretical approach in which hypotheses are either accepted or rejected based on predetermined significance levels and power considerations.
The application and methodology of hypothesis testing have since become a cornerstone of statistical analysis across various scientific disciplines, marking a significant statistical development.
Limitations of Hypothesis Testing
Hypothesis testing has some limitations that researchers should be aware of:
 It cannot prove or establish the truth: Hypothesis testing provides evidence to support or reject a hypothesis, but it cannot confirm the absolute truth of the research question.
 Results are samplespecific: Hypothesis testing is based on analyzing a sample from a population, and the conclusions drawn are specific to that particular sample.
 Possible errors: During hypothesis testing, there is a chance of committing type I error (rejecting a true null hypothesis) or type II error (failing to reject a false null hypothesis).
 Assumptions and requirements: Different tests have specific assumptions and requirements that must be met to accurately interpret results.
Learn All The Tricks Of The BI Trade
After reading this tutorial, you would have a much better understanding of hypothesis testing, one of the most important concepts in the field of Data Science . The majority of hypotheses are based on speculation about observed behavior, natural phenomena, or established theories.
If you are interested in statistics of data science and skills needed for such a career, you ought to explore the Post Graduate Program in Data Science.
If you have any questions regarding this ‘Hypothesis Testing In Statistics’ tutorial, do share them in the comment section. Our subject matter expert will respond to your queries. Happy learning!
1. What is hypothesis testing in statistics with example?
Hypothesis testing is a statistical method used to determine if there is enough evidence in a sample data to draw conclusions about a population. It involves formulating two competing hypotheses, the null hypothesis (H0) and the alternative hypothesis (Ha), and then collecting data to assess the evidence. An example: testing if a new drug improves patient recovery (Ha) compared to the standard treatment (H0) based on collected patient data.
2. What is H0 and H1 in statistics?
In statistics, H0 and H1 represent the null and alternative hypotheses. The null hypothesis, H0, is the default assumption that no effect or difference exists between groups or conditions. The alternative hypothesis, H1, is the competing claim suggesting an effect or a difference. Statistical tests determine whether to reject the null hypothesis in favor of the alternative hypothesis based on the data.
3. What is a simple hypothesis with an example?
A simple hypothesis is a specific statement predicting a single relationship between two variables. It posits a direct and uncomplicated outcome. For example, a simple hypothesis might state, "Increased sunlight exposure increases the growth rate of sunflowers." Here, the hypothesis suggests a direct relationship between the amount of sunlight (independent variable) and the growth rate of sunflowers (dependent variable), with no additional variables considered.
4. What are the 2 types of hypothesis testing?
 Onetailed (or onesided) test: Tests for the significance of an effect in only one direction, either positive or negative.
 Twotailed (or twosided) test: Tests for the significance of an effect in both directions, allowing for the possibility of a positive or negative effect.
The choice between onetailed and twotailed tests depends on the specific research question and the directionality of the expected effect.
5. What are the 3 major types of hypothesis?
The three major types of hypotheses are:
 Null Hypothesis (H0): Represents the default assumption, stating that there is no significant effect or relationship in the data.
 Alternative Hypothesis (Ha): Contradicts the null hypothesis and proposes a specific effect or relationship that researchers want to investigate.
 Nondirectional Hypothesis: An alternative hypothesis that doesn't specify the direction of the effect, leaving it open for both positive and negative possibilities.
Find our PL300 Microsoft Power BI Certification Training Online Classroom training classes in top cities:
Name  Date  Place  

20 Jul 4 Aug 2024, Weekend batch  Your City  
10 Aug 25 Aug 2024, Weekend batch  Chicago  
6 Sep 21 Sep 2024, Weekdays batch  Houston 
About the Author
Avijeet is a Senior Research Analyst at Simplilearn. Passionate about Data Analytics, Machine Learning, and Deep Learning, Avijeet is also interested in politics, cricket, and football.
Recommended Resources
Free eBook: Top Programming Languages For A Data Scientist
Normality Test in Minitab: Minitab with Statistics
Machine Learning Career Guide: A Playbook to Becoming a Machine Learning Engineer
 PMP, PMI, PMBOK, CAPM, PgMP, PfMP, ACP, PBA, RMP, SP, and OPM3 are registered marks of the Project Management Institute, Inc.
If you're seeing this message, it means we're having trouble loading external resources on our website.
If you're behind a web filter, please make sure that the domains *.kastatic.org and *.kasandbox.org are unblocked.
To log in and use all the features of Khan Academy, please enable JavaScript in your browser.
Unit 12: Significance tests (hypothesis testing)
About this unit.
Significance tests give us a formal process for using sample data to evaluate the likelihood of some claim about a population value. Learn how to conduct significance tests and calculate pvalues to see how likely a sample result is to occur by random chance. You'll also see how we use pvalues to make conclusions about hypotheses.
The idea of significance tests
 Simple hypothesis testing (Opens a modal)
 Idea behind hypothesis testing (Opens a modal)
 Examples of null and alternative hypotheses (Opens a modal)
 Pvalues and significance tests (Opens a modal)
 Comparing Pvalues to different significance levels (Opens a modal)
 Estimating a Pvalue from a simulation (Opens a modal)
 Using Pvalues to make conclusions (Opens a modal)
 Simple hypothesis testing Get 3 of 4 questions to level up!
 Writing null and alternative hypotheses Get 3 of 4 questions to level up!
 Estimating Pvalues from simulations Get 3 of 4 questions to level up!
Error probabilities and power
 Introduction to Type I and Type II errors (Opens a modal)
 Type 1 errors (Opens a modal)
 Examples identifying Type I and Type II errors (Opens a modal)
 Introduction to power in significance tests (Opens a modal)
 Examples thinking about power in significance tests (Opens a modal)
 Consequences of errors and significance (Opens a modal)
 Type I vs Type II error Get 3 of 4 questions to level up!
 Error probabilities and power Get 3 of 4 questions to level up!
Tests about a population proportion
 Constructing hypotheses for a significance test about a proportion (Opens a modal)
 Conditions for a z test about a proportion (Opens a modal)
 Reference: Conditions for inference on a proportion (Opens a modal)
 Calculating a z statistic in a test about a proportion (Opens a modal)
 Calculating a Pvalue given a z statistic (Opens a modal)
 Making conclusions in a test about a proportion (Opens a modal)
 Writing hypotheses for a test about a proportion Get 3 of 4 questions to level up!
 Conditions for a z test about a proportion Get 3 of 4 questions to level up!
 Calculating the test statistic in a z test for a proportion Get 3 of 4 questions to level up!
 Calculating the Pvalue in a z test for a proportion Get 3 of 4 questions to level up!
 Making conclusions in a z test for a proportion Get 3 of 4 questions to level up!
Tests about a population mean
 Writing hypotheses for a significance test about a mean (Opens a modal)
 Conditions for a t test about a mean (Opens a modal)
 Reference: Conditions for inference on a mean (Opens a modal)
 When to use z or t statistics in significance tests (Opens a modal)
 Example calculating t statistic for a test about a mean (Opens a modal)
 Using TI calculator for Pvalue from t statistic (Opens a modal)
 Using a table to estimate Pvalue from t statistic (Opens a modal)
 Comparing Pvalue from t statistic to significance level (Opens a modal)
 Free response example: Significance test for a mean (Opens a modal)
 Writing hypotheses for a test about a mean Get 3 of 4 questions to level up!
 Conditions for a t test about a mean Get 3 of 4 questions to level up!
 Calculating the test statistic in a t test for a mean Get 3 of 4 questions to level up!
 Calculating the Pvalue in a t test for a mean Get 3 of 4 questions to level up!
 Making conclusions in a t test for a mean Get 3 of 4 questions to level up!
More significance testing videos
 Hypothesis testing and pvalues (Opens a modal)
 Onetailed and twotailed tests (Opens a modal)
 Zstatistics vs. Tstatistics (Opens a modal)
 Small sample hypothesis test (Opens a modal)
 Large sample proportion hypothesis testing (Opens a modal)
 Bipolar Disorder
 Therapy Center
 When To See a Therapist
 Types of Therapy
 Best Online Therapy
 Best Couples Therapy
 Best Family Therapy
 Managing Stress
 Sleep and Dreaming
 Understanding Emotions
 SelfImprovement
 Healthy Relationships
 Student Resources
 Personality Types
 Guided Meditations
 Verywell Mind Insights
 2024 Verywell Mind 25
 Mental Health in the Classroom
 Editorial Process
 Meet Our Review Board
 Crisis Support
How to Write a Great Hypothesis
Hypothesis Definition, Format, Examples, and Tips
Kendra Cherry, MS, is a psychosocial rehabilitation specialist, psychology educator, and author of the "Everything Psychology Book."
Amy Morin, LCSW, is a psychotherapist and international bestselling author. Her books, including "13 Things Mentally Strong People Don't Do," have been translated into more than 40 languages. Her TEDx talk, "The Secret of Becoming Mentally Strong," is one of the most viewed talks of all time.
Verywell / Alex Dos Diaz
 The Scientific Method
Hypothesis Format
Falsifiability of a hypothesis.
 Operationalization
Hypothesis Types
Hypotheses examples.
 Collecting Data
A hypothesis is a tentative statement about the relationship between two or more variables. It is a specific, testable prediction about what you expect to happen in a study. It is a preliminary answer to your question that helps guide the research process.
Consider a study designed to examine the relationship between sleep deprivation and test performance. The hypothesis might be: "This study is designed to assess the hypothesis that sleepdeprived people will perform worse on a test than individuals who are not sleepdeprived."
At a Glance
A hypothesis is crucial to scientific research because it offers a clear direction for what the researchers are looking to find. This allows them to design experiments to test their predictions and add to our scientific knowledge about the world. This article explores how a hypothesis is used in psychology research, how to write a good hypothesis, and the different types of hypotheses you might use.
The Hypothesis in the Scientific Method
In the scientific method , whether it involves research in psychology, biology, or some other area, a hypothesis represents what the researchers think will happen in an experiment. The scientific method involves the following steps:
 Forming a question
 Performing background research
 Creating a hypothesis
 Designing an experiment
 Collecting data
 Analyzing the results
 Drawing conclusions
 Communicating the results
The hypothesis is a prediction, but it involves more than a guess. Most of the time, the hypothesis begins with a question which is then explored through background research. At this point, researchers then begin to develop a testable hypothesis.
Unless you are creating an exploratory study, your hypothesis should always explain what you expect to happen.
In a study exploring the effects of a particular drug, the hypothesis might be that researchers expect the drug to have some type of effect on the symptoms of a specific illness. In psychology, the hypothesis might focus on how a certain aspect of the environment might influence a particular behavior.
Remember, a hypothesis does not have to be correct. While the hypothesis predicts what the researchers expect to see, the goal of the research is to determine whether this guess is right or wrong. When conducting an experiment, researchers might explore numerous factors to determine which ones might contribute to the ultimate outcome.
In many cases, researchers may find that the results of an experiment do not support the original hypothesis. When writing up these results, the researchers might suggest other options that should be explored in future studies.
In many cases, researchers might draw a hypothesis from a specific theory or build on previous research. For example, prior research has shown that stress can impact the immune system. So a researcher might hypothesize: "People with highstress levels will be more likely to contract a common cold after being exposed to the virus than people who have lowstress levels."
In other instances, researchers might look at commonly held beliefs or folk wisdom. "Birds of a feather flock together" is one example of folk adage that a psychologist might try to investigate. The researcher might pose a specific hypothesis that "People tend to select romantic partners who are similar to them in interests and educational level."
Elements of a Good Hypothesis
So how do you write a good hypothesis? When trying to come up with a hypothesis for your research or experiments, ask yourself the following questions:
 Is your hypothesis based on your research on a topic?
 Can your hypothesis be tested?
 Does your hypothesis include independent and dependent variables?
Before you come up with a specific hypothesis, spend some time doing background research. Once you have completed a literature review, start thinking about potential questions you still have. Pay attention to the discussion section in the journal articles you read . Many authors will suggest questions that still need to be explored.
How to Formulate a Good Hypothesis
To form a hypothesis, you should take these steps:
 Collect as many observations about a topic or problem as you can.
 Evaluate these observations and look for possible causes of the problem.
 Create a list of possible explanations that you might want to explore.
 After you have developed some possible hypotheses, think of ways that you could confirm or disprove each hypothesis through experimentation. This is known as falsifiability.
In the scientific method , falsifiability is an important part of any valid hypothesis. In order to test a claim scientifically, it must be possible that the claim could be proven false.
Students sometimes confuse the idea of falsifiability with the idea that it means that something is false, which is not the case. What falsifiability means is that if something was false, then it is possible to demonstrate that it is false.
One of the hallmarks of pseudoscience is that it makes claims that cannot be refuted or proven false.
The Importance of Operational Definitions
A variable is a factor or element that can be changed and manipulated in ways that are observable and measurable. However, the researcher must also define how the variable will be manipulated and measured in the study.
Operational definitions are specific definitions for all relevant factors in a study. This process helps make vague or ambiguous concepts detailed and measurable.
For example, a researcher might operationally define the variable " test anxiety " as the results of a selfreport measure of anxiety experienced during an exam. A "study habits" variable might be defined by the amount of studying that actually occurs as measured by time.
These precise descriptions are important because many things can be measured in various ways. Clearly defining these variables and how they are measured helps ensure that other researchers can replicate your results.
Replicability
One of the basic principles of any type of scientific research is that the results must be replicable.
Replication means repeating an experiment in the same way to produce the same results. By clearly detailing the specifics of how the variables were measured and manipulated, other researchers can better understand the results and repeat the study if needed.
Some variables are more difficult than others to define. For example, how would you operationally define a variable such as aggression ? For obvious ethical reasons, researchers cannot create a situation in which a person behaves aggressively toward others.
To measure this variable, the researcher must devise a measurement that assesses aggressive behavior without harming others. The researcher might utilize a simulated task to measure aggressiveness in this situation.
Hypothesis Checklist
 Does your hypothesis focus on something that you can actually test?
 Does your hypothesis include both an independent and dependent variable?
 Can you manipulate the variables?
 Can your hypothesis be tested without violating ethical standards?
The hypothesis you use will depend on what you are investigating and hoping to find. Some of the main types of hypotheses that you might use include:
 Simple hypothesis : This type of hypothesis suggests there is a relationship between one independent variable and one dependent variable.
 Complex hypothesis : This type suggests a relationship between three or more variables, such as two independent and dependent variables.
 Null hypothesis : This hypothesis suggests no relationship exists between two or more variables.
 Alternative hypothesis : This hypothesis states the opposite of the null hypothesis.
 Statistical hypothesis : This hypothesis uses statistical analysis to evaluate a representative population sample and then generalizes the findings to the larger group.
 Logical hypothesis : This hypothesis assumes a relationship between variables without collecting data or evidence.
A hypothesis often follows a basic format of "If {this happens} then {this will happen}." One way to structure your hypothesis is to describe what will happen to the dependent variable if you change the independent variable .
The basic format might be: "If {these changes are made to a certain independent variable}, then we will observe {a change in a specific dependent variable}."
A few examples of simple hypotheses:
 "Students who eat breakfast will perform better on a math exam than students who do not eat breakfast."
 "Students who experience test anxiety before an English exam will get lower scores than students who do not experience test anxiety."
 "Motorists who talk on the phone while driving will be more likely to make errors on a driving course than those who do not talk on the phone."
 "Children who receive a new reading intervention will have higher reading scores than students who do not receive the intervention."
Examples of a complex hypothesis include:
 "People with highsugar diets and sedentary activity levels are more likely to develop depression."
 "Younger people who are regularly exposed to green, outdoor areas have better subjective wellbeing than older adults who have limited exposure to green spaces."
Examples of a null hypothesis include:
 "There is no difference in anxiety levels between people who take St. John's wort supplements and those who do not."
 "There is no difference in scores on a memory recall task between children and adults."
 "There is no difference in aggression levels between children who play firstperson shooter games and those who do not."
Examples of an alternative hypothesis:
 "People who take St. John's wort supplements will have less anxiety than those who do not."
 "Adults will perform better on a memory task than children."
 "Children who play firstperson shooter games will show higher levels of aggression than children who do not."
Collecting Data on Your Hypothesis
Once a researcher has formed a testable hypothesis, the next step is to select a research design and start collecting data. The research method depends largely on exactly what they are studying. There are two basic types of research methods: descriptive research and experimental research.
Descriptive Research Methods
Descriptive research such as case studies , naturalistic observations , and surveys are often used when conducting an experiment is difficult or impossible. These methods are best used to describe different aspects of a behavior or psychological phenomenon.
Once a researcher has collected data using descriptive methods, a correlational study can examine how the variables are related. This research method might be used to investigate a hypothesis that is difficult to test experimentally.
Experimental Research Methods
Experimental methods are used to demonstrate causal relationships between variables. In an experiment, the researcher systematically manipulates a variable of interest (known as the independent variable) and measures the effect on another variable (known as the dependent variable).
Unlike correlational studies, which can only be used to determine if there is a relationship between two variables, experimental methods can be used to determine the actual nature of the relationship—whether changes in one variable actually cause another to change.
The hypothesis is a critical part of any scientific exploration. It represents what researchers expect to find in a study or experiment. In situations where the hypothesis is unsupported by the research, the research still has value. Such research helps us better understand how different aspects of the natural world relate to one another. It also helps us develop new hypotheses that can then be tested in the future.
Thompson WH, Skau S. On the scope of scientific hypotheses . R Soc Open Sci . 2023;10(8):230607. doi:10.1098/rsos.230607
Taran S, Adhikari NKJ, Fan E. Falsifiability in medicine: what clinicians can learn from Karl Popper [published correction appears in Intensive Care Med. 2021 Jun 17;:]. Intensive Care Med . 2021;47(9):10541056. doi:10.1007/s0013402106432z
Eyler AA. Research Methods for Public Health . 1st ed. Springer Publishing Company; 2020. doi:10.1891/9780826182067.0004
Nosek BA, Errington TM. What is replication ? PLoS Biol . 2020;18(3):e3000691. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.3000691
Aggarwal R, Ranganathan P. Study designs: Part 2  Descriptive studies . Perspect Clin Res . 2019;10(1):3436. doi:10.4103/picr.PICR_154_18
Nevid J. Psychology: Concepts and Applications. Wadworth, 2013.
By Kendra Cherry, MSEd Kendra Cherry, MS, is a psychosocial rehabilitation specialist, psychology educator, and author of the "Everything Psychology Book."
User Preferences
Content preview.
Arcu felis bibendum ut tristique et egestas quis:
 Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris
 Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate
 Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident
Keyboard Shortcuts
10.1  setting the hypotheses: examples.
A significance test examines whether the null hypothesis provides a plausible explanation of the data. The null hypothesis itself does not involve the data. It is a statement about a parameter (a numerical characteristic of the population). These population values might be proportions or means or differences between means or proportions or correlations or odds ratios or any other numerical summary of the population. The alternative hypothesis is typically the research hypothesis of interest. Here are some examples.
Example 10.2: Hypotheses with One Sample of One Categorical Variable Section
About 10% of the human population is lefthanded. Suppose a researcher at Penn State speculates that students in the College of Arts and Architecture are more likely to be lefthanded than people found in the general population. We only have one sample since we will be comparing a population proportion based on a sample value to a known population value.
 Research Question : Are artists more likely to be lefthanded than people found in the general population?
 Response Variable : Classification of the student as either righthanded or lefthanded
State Null and Alternative Hypotheses
 Null Hypothesis : Students in the College of Arts and Architecture are no more likely to be lefthanded than people in the general population (population percent of lefthanded students in the College of Art and Architecture = 10% or p = .10).
 Alternative Hypothesis : Students in the College of Arts and Architecture are more likely to be lefthanded than people in the general population (population percent of lefthanded students in the College of Arts and Architecture > 10% or p > .10). This is a onesided alternative hypothesis.
Example 10.3: Hypotheses with One Sample of One Measurement Variable Section
A generic brand of the antihistamine Diphenhydramine markets a capsule with a 50 milligram dose. The manufacturer is worried that the machine that fills the capsules has come out of calibration and is no longer creating capsules with the appropriate dosage.
 Research Question : Does the data suggest that the population mean dosage of this brand is different than 50 mg?
 Response Variable : dosage of the active ingredient found by a chemical assay.
 Null Hypothesis : On the average, the dosage sold under this brand is 50 mg (population mean dosage = 50 mg).
 Alternative Hypothesis : On the average, the dosage sold under this brand is not 50 mg (population mean dosage ≠ 50 mg). This is a twosided alternative hypothesis.
Example 10.4: Hypotheses with Two Samples of One Categorical Variable Section
Many people are starting to prefer vegetarian meals on a regular basis. Specifically, a researcher believes that females are more likely than males to eat vegetarian meals on a regular basis.
 Research Question : Does the data suggest that females are more likely than males to eat vegetarian meals on a regular basis?
 Response Variable : Classification of whether or not a person eats vegetarian meals on a regular basis
 Explanatory (Grouping) Variable: Sex
 Null Hypothesis : There is no sex effect regarding those who eat vegetarian meals on a regular basis (population percent of females who eat vegetarian meals on a regular basis = population percent of males who eat vegetarian meals on a regular basis or p females = p males ).
 Alternative Hypothesis : Females are more likely than males to eat vegetarian meals on a regular basis (population percent of females who eat vegetarian meals on a regular basis > population percent of males who eat vegetarian meals on a regular basis or p females > p males ). This is a onesided alternative hypothesis.
Example 10.5: Hypotheses with Two Samples of One Measurement Variable Section
Obesity is a major health problem today. Research is starting to show that people may be able to lose more weight on a low carbohydrate diet than on a low fat diet.
 Research Question : Does the data suggest that, on the average, people are able to lose more weight on a low carbohydrate diet than on a low fat diet?
 Response Variable : Weight loss (pounds)
 Explanatory (Grouping) Variable : Type of diet
 Null Hypothesis : There is no difference in the mean amount of weight loss when comparing a low carbohydrate diet with a low fat diet (population mean weight loss on a low carbohydrate diet = population mean weight loss on a low fat diet).
 Alternative Hypothesis : The mean weight loss should be greater for those on a low carbohydrate diet when compared with those on a low fat diet (population mean weight loss on a low carbohydrate diet > population mean weight loss on a low fat diet). This is a onesided alternative hypothesis.
Example 10.6: Hypotheses about the relationship between Two Categorical Variables Section
 Research Question : Do the odds of having a stroke increase if you inhale second hand smoke ? A casecontrol study of nonsmoking stroke patients and controls of the same age and occupation are asked if someone in their household smokes.
 Variables : There are two different categorical variables (Stroke patient vs control and whether the subject lives in the same household as a smoker). Living with a smoker (or not) is the natural explanatory variable and having a stroke (or not) is the natural response variable in this situation.
 Null Hypothesis : There is no relationship between whether or not a person has a stroke and whether or not a person lives with a smoker (odds ratio between stroke and secondhand smoke situation is = 1).
 Alternative Hypothesis : There is a relationship between whether or not a person has a stroke and whether or not a person lives with a smoker (odds ratio between stroke and secondhand smoke situation is > 1). This is a onetailed alternative.
This research question might also be addressed like example 11.4 by making the hypotheses about comparing the proportion of stroke patients that live with smokers to the proportion of controls that live with smokers.
Example 10.7: Hypotheses about the relationship between Two Measurement Variables Section
 Research Question : A financial analyst believes there might be a positive association between the change in a stock's price and the amount of the stock purchased by nonmanagement employees the previous day (stock trading by management being under "insidertrading" regulatory restrictions).
 Variables : Daily price change information (the response variable) and previous day stock purchases by nonmanagement employees (explanatory variable). These are two different measurement variables.
 Null Hypothesis : The correlation between the daily stock price change (\$) and the daily stock purchases by nonmanagement employees (\$) = 0.
 Alternative Hypothesis : The correlation between the daily stock price change (\$) and the daily stock purchases by nonmanagement employees (\$) > 0. This is a onesided alternative hypothesis.
Example 10.8: Hypotheses about comparing the relationship between Two Measurement Variables in Two Samples Section
 Research Question : Is there a linear relationship between the amount of the bill (\$) at a restaurant and the tip (\$) that was left. Is the strength of this association different for family restaurants than for fine dining restaurants?
 Variables : There are two different measurement variables. The size of the tip would depend on the size of the bill so the amount of the bill would be the explanatory variable and the size of the tip would be the response variable.
 Null Hypothesis : The correlation between the amount of the bill (\$) at a restaurant and the tip (\$) that was left is the same at family restaurants as it is at fine dining restaurants.
 Alternative Hypothesis : The correlation between the amount of the bill (\$) at a restaurant and the tip (\$) that was left is the difference at family restaurants then it is at fine dining restaurants. This is a twosided alternative hypothesis.
 Search Search Please fill out this field.
What Is Hypothesis Testing?
Step 1: define the hypothesis, step 2: set the criteria, step 3: calculate the statistic, step 4: reach a conclusion, types of errors, the bottom line.
 Trading Skills
 Trading Basic Education
Hypothesis Testing in Finance: Concept and Examples
Charlene Rhinehart is a CPA , CFE, chair of an Illinois CPA Society committee, and has a degree in accounting and finance from DePaul University.
Your investment advisor proposes you a monthly income investment plan that promises a variable return each month. You will invest in it only if you are assured of an average $180 monthly income. Your advisor also tells you that for the past 300 months, the scheme had investment returns with an average value of $190 and a standard deviation of $75. Should you invest in this scheme? Hypothesis testing comes to the aid for such decisionmaking.
Key Takeaways
 Hypothesis testing is a mathematical tool for confirming a financial or business claim or idea.
 Hypothesis testing is useful for investors trying to decide what to invest in and whether the instrument is likely to provide a satisfactory return.
 Despite the existence of different methodologies of hypothesis testing, the same four steps are used: define the hypothesis, set the criteria, calculate the statistic, and reach a conclusion.
 This mathematical model, like most statistical tools and models, has limitations and is prone to certain errors, necessitating investors also considering other models in conjunction with this one
Hypothesis or significance testing is a mathematical model for testing a claim, idea or hypothesis about a parameter of interest in a given population set, using data measured in a sample set. Calculations are performed on selected samples to gather more decisive information about the characteristics of the entire population, which enables a systematic way to test claims or ideas about the entire dataset.
Here is a simple example: A school principal reports that students in their school score an average of 7 out of 10 in exams. To test this “hypothesis,” we record marks of say 30 students (sample) from the entire student population of the school (say 300) and calculate the mean of that sample. We can then compare the (calculated) sample mean to the (reported) population mean and attempt to confirm the hypothesis.
To take another example, the annual return of a particular mutual fund is 8%. Assume that mutual fund has been in existence for 20 years. We take a random sample of annual returns of the mutual fund for, say, five years (sample) and calculate its mean. We then compare the (calculated) sample mean to the (claimed) population mean to verify the hypothesis.
This article assumes readers' familiarity with concepts of a normal distribution table, formula, pvalue and related basics of statistics.
Different methodologies exist for hypothesis testing, but the same four basic steps are involved:
Usually, the reported value (or the claim statistics) is stated as the hypothesis and presumed to be true. For the above examples, the hypothesis will be:
 Example A: Students in the school score an average of 7 out of 10 in exams.
 Example B: The annual return of the mutual fund is 8% per annum.
This stated description constitutes the “ Null Hypothesis (H 0 ) ” and is assumed to be true – the way a defendant in a jury trial is presumed innocent until proven guilty by the evidence presented in court. Similarly, hypothesis testing starts by stating and assuming a “ null hypothesis ,” and then the process determines whether the assumption is likely to be true or false.
The important point to note is that we are testing the null hypothesis because there is an element of doubt about its validity. Whatever information that is against the stated null hypothesis is captured in the Alternative Hypothesis (H 1 ). For the above examples, the alternative hypothesis will be:
 Students score an average that is not equal to 7.
 The annual return of the mutual fund is not equal to 8% per annum.
In other words, the alternative hypothesis is a direct contradiction of the null hypothesis.
As in a trial, the jury assumes the defendant's innocence (null hypothesis). The prosecutor has to prove otherwise (alternative hypothesis). Similarly, the researcher has to prove that the null hypothesis is either true or false. If the prosecutor fails to prove the alternative hypothesis, the jury has to let the defendant go (basing the decision on the null hypothesis). Similarly, if the researcher fails to prove an alternative hypothesis (or simply does nothing), then the null hypothesis is assumed to be true.
The decisionmaking criteria have to be based on certain parameters of datasets.
The decisionmaking criteria have to be based on certain parameters of datasets and this is where the connection to normal distribution comes into the picture.
As per the standard statistics postulate about sampling distribution , for any sample size n, the sampling distribution of X is normal if the X from which the sample is drawn is normally distributed. Hence, the probabilities of all other possible sample mean that one could select are normally distributed.
For e.g., determine if the average daily return, of any stock listed on XYZ stock market , around New Year's Day is greater than 2%.
H 0 : Null Hypothesis: mean = 2%
H 1 : Alternative Hypothesis: mean > 2% (this is what we want to prove)
Take the sample (say of 50 stocks out of total 500) and compute the mean of the sample.
For a normal distribution, 95% of the values lie within two standard deviations of the population mean. Hence, this normal distribution and central limit assumption for the sample dataset allows us to establish 5% as a significance level. It makes sense as, under this assumption, there is less than a 5% probability (10095) of getting outliers that are beyond two standard deviations from the population mean. Depending upon the nature of datasets, other significance levels can be taken at 1%, 5% or 10%. For financial calculations (including behavioral finance), 5% is the generally accepted limit. If we find any calculations that go beyond the usual two standard deviations, then we have a strong case of outliers to reject the null hypothesis.
Graphically, it is represented as follows:
In the above example, if the mean of the sample is much larger than 2% (say 3.5%), then we reject the null hypothesis. The alternative hypothesis (mean >2%) is accepted, which confirms that the average daily return of the stocks is indeed above 2%.
However, if the mean of the sample is not likely to be significantly greater than 2% (and remains at, say, around 2.2%), then we CANNOT reject the null hypothesis. The challenge comes on how to decide on such close range cases. To make a conclusion from selected samples and results, a level of significance is to be determined, which enables a conclusion to be made about the null hypothesis. The alternative hypothesis enables establishing the level of significance or the "critical value” concept for deciding on such close range cases.
According to the textbook standard definition, “A critical value is a cutoff value that defines the boundaries beyond which less than 5% of sample means can be obtained if the null hypothesis is true. Sample means obtained beyond a critical value will result in a decision to reject the null hypothesis." In the above example, if we have defined the critical value as 2.1%, and the calculated mean comes to 2.2%, then we reject the null hypothesis. A critical value establishes a clear demarcation about acceptance or rejection.
This step involves calculating the required figure(s), known as test statistics (like mean, zscore , pvalue , etc.), for the selected sample. (We'll get to these in a later section.)
With the computed value(s), decide on the null hypothesis. If the probability of getting a sample mean is less than 5%, then the conclusion is to reject the null hypothesis. Otherwise, accept and retain the null hypothesis.
There can be four possible outcomes in samplebased decisionmaking, with regard to the correct applicability to the entire population:

 
 Correct  Incorrect (TYPE 1 Error  a) 
 Incorrect (TYPE 2 Error  b)  Correct 
The “Correct” cases are the ones where the decisions taken on the samples are truly applicable to the entire population. The cases of errors arise when one decides to retain (or reject) the null hypothesis based on the sample calculations, but that decision does not really apply for the entire population. These cases constitute Type 1 ( alpha ) and Type 2 ( beta ) errors, as indicated in the table above.
Selecting the correct critical value allows eliminating the type1 alpha errors or limiting them to an acceptable range.
Alpha denotes the error on the level of significance and is determined by the researcher. To maintain the standard 5% significance or confidence level for probability calculations, this is retained at 5%.
According to the applicable decisionmaking benchmarks and definitions:
 “This (alpha) criterion is usually set at 0.05 (a = 0.05), and we compare the alpha level to the pvalue. When the probability of a Type I error is less than 5% (p < 0.05), we decide to reject the null hypothesis; otherwise, we retain the null hypothesis.”
 The technical term used for this probability is the pvalue . It is defined as “the probability of obtaining a sample outcome, given that the value stated in the null hypothesis is true. The pvalue for obtaining a sample outcome is compared to the level of significance."
 A Type II error, or beta error, is defined as the probability of incorrectly retaining the null hypothesis, when in fact it is not applicable to the entire population.
A few more examples will demonstrate this and other calculations.
A monthly income investment scheme exists that promises variable monthly returns. An investor will invest in it only if they are assured of an average $180 monthly income. The investor has a sample of 300 months’ returns which has a mean of $190 and a standard deviation of $75. Should they invest in this scheme?
Let’s set up the problem. The investor will invest in the scheme if they are assured of the investor's desired $180 average return.
H 0 : Null Hypothesis: mean = 180
H 1 : Alternative Hypothesis: mean > 180
Method 1: Critical Value Approach
Identify a critical value X L for the sample mean, which is large enough to reject the null hypothesis – i.e. reject the null hypothesis if the sample mean >= critical value X L
P (identify a Type I alpha error) = P (reject H 0 given that H 0 is true),
This would be achieved when the sample mean exceeds the critical limits.
= P (given that H 0 is true) = alpha
Graphically, it appears as follows:
Taking alpha = 0.05 (i.e. 5% significance level), Z 0.05 = 1.645 (from the Ztable or normal distribution table)
= > X L = 180 +1.645*(75/sqrt(300)) = 187.12
Since the sample mean (190) is greater than the critical value (187.12), the null hypothesis is rejected, and the conclusion is that the average monthly return is indeed greater than $180, so the investor can consider investing in this scheme.
Method 2: Using Standardized Test Statistics
One can also use standardized value z.
Test Statistic, Z = (sample mean – population mean) / (stddev / sqrt (no. of samples).
Then, the rejection region becomes the following:
Z= (190 – 180) / (75 / sqrt (300)) = 2.309
Our rejection region at 5% significance level is Z> Z 0.05 = 1.645.
Since Z= 2.309 is greater than 1.645, the null hypothesis can be rejected with a similar conclusion mentioned above.
Method 3: Pvalue Calculation
We aim to identify P (sample mean >= 190, when mean = 180).
= P (Z >= (190 180) / (75 / sqrt (300))
= P (Z >= 2.309) = 0.0084 = 0.84%
The following table to infer pvalue calculations concludes that there is confirmed evidence of average monthly returns being higher than 180:
pvalue  Inference 
less than 1%  supporting alternative hypothesis 
between 1% and 5%  supporting alternative hypothesis 
between 5% and 10%  supporting alternative hypothesis 
greater than 10%  supporting alternative hypothesis 
A new stockbroker (XYZ) claims that their brokerage fees are lower than that of your current stock broker's (ABC). Data available from an independent research firm indicates that the mean and stddev of all ABC broker clients are $18 and $6, respectively.
A sample of 100 clients of ABC is taken and brokerage charges are calculated with the new rates of XYZ broker. If the mean of the sample is $18.75 and stddev is the same ($6), can any inference be made about the difference in the average brokerage bill between ABC and XYZ broker?
H 0 : Null Hypothesis: mean = 18
H 1 : Alternative Hypothesis: mean <> 18 (This is what we want to prove.)
Rejection region: Z <=  Z 2.5 and Z>=Z 2.5 (assuming 5% significance level, split 2.5 each on either side).
Z = (sample mean – mean) / (stddev / sqrt (no. of samples))
= (18.75 – 18) / (6/(sqrt(100)) = 1.25
This calculated Z value falls between the two limits defined by:
 Z 2.5 = 1.96 and Z 2.5 = 1.96.
This concludes that there is insufficient evidence to infer that there is any difference between the rates of your existing broker and the new broker.
Alternatively, The pvalue = P(Z< 1.25)+P(Z >1.25)
= 2 * 0.1056 = 0.2112 = 21.12% which is greater than 0.05 or 5%, leading to the same conclusion.
Graphically, it is represented by the following:
Criticism Points for the Hypothetical Testing Method:
 A statistical method based on assumptions
 Errorprone as detailed in terms of alpha and beta errors
 Interpretation of pvalue can be ambiguous, leading to confusing results
Hypothesis testing allows a mathematical model to validate a claim or idea with a certain confidence level. However, like the majority of statistical tools and models, it is bound by a few limitations. The use of this model for making financial decisions should be considered with a critical eye, keeping all dependencies in mind. Alternate methods like Bayesian Inference are also worth exploring for similar analysis.
Gregory J. Privitera. " Chapter 8: Introduction to Hypothesis Testing ." Statistics for Behavioral Sciences, Part III: Probability and the Foundations of Inferential Statistics. Sage Publications , pp. 45.
Rice University, OpenStax. " Introductory Statistics 2e: 7.1 The Central Limit Theorem for Sample Means (Averages) ."
Gregory J. Privitera. " Chapter 8: Introduction to Hypothesis Testing ." Statistics for Behavioral Sciences, Part III: Probability and the Foundations of Inferential Statistics. Sage Publications , pp. 56.
Gregory J. Privitera. " Chapter 8: Introduction to Hypothesis Testing ." Statistics for Behavioral Sciences, Part III: Probability and the Foundations of Inferential Statistics. Sage Publications , pp. 13.
Gregory J. Privitera. " Chapter 8: Introduction to Hypothesis Testing ." Statistics for Behavioral Sciences, Part III: Probability and the Foundations of Inferential Statistics. Sage Publications , pp. 6.
Gregory J. Privitera. " Chapter 8: Introduction to Hypothesis Testing ." Statistics for Behavioral Sciences, Part III: Probability and the Foundations of Inferential Statistics. Sage Publications , pp. 67.
Gregory J. Privitera. " Chapter 8: Introduction to Hypothesis Testing ." Statistics for Behavioral Sciences, Part III: Probability and the Foundations of Inferential Statistics. Sage Publications , pp. 10.
Gregory J. Privitera. " Chapter 8: Introduction to Hypothesis Testing ." Statistics for Behavioral Sciences, Part III: Probability and the Foundations of Inferential Statistics. Sage Publications , pp. 11.
Gregory J. Privitera. " Chapter 8: Introduction to Hypothesis Testing ." Statistics for Behavioral Sciences, Part III: Probability and the Foundations of Inferential Statistics. Sage Publications , pp. 7, 1011.
 Terms of Service
 Editorial Policy
 Privacy Policy
 Your Privacy Choices
Statistics Made Easy
4 Examples of Hypothesis Testing in Real Life
In statistics, hypothesis tests are used to test whether or not some hypothesis about a population parameter is true.
To perform a hypothesis test in the real world, researchers will obtain a random sample from the population and perform a hypothesis test on the sample data, using a null and alternative hypothesis:
 Null Hypothesis (H 0 ): The sample data occurs purely from chance.
 Alternative Hypothesis (H A ): The sample data is influenced by some nonrandom cause.
If the pvalue of the hypothesis test is less than some significance level (e.g. α = .05), then we can reject the null hypothesis and conclude that we have sufficient evidence to say that the alternative hypothesis is true.
The following examples provide several situations where hypothesis tests are used in the real world.
Example 1: Biology
Hypothesis tests are often used in biology to determine whether some new treatment, fertilizer, pesticide, chemical, etc. causes increased growth, stamina, immunity, etc. in plants or animals.
For example, suppose a biologist believes that a certain fertilizer will cause plants to grow more during a onemonth period than they normally do, which is currently 20 inches. To test this, she applies the fertilizer to each of the plants in her laboratory for one month.
She then performs a hypothesis test using the following hypotheses:
 H 0 : μ = 20 inches (the fertilizer will have no effect on the mean plant growth)
 H A : μ > 20 inches (the fertilizer will cause mean plant growth to increase)
If the pvalue of the test is less than some significance level (e.g. α = .05), then she can reject the null hypothesis and conclude that the fertilizer leads to increased plant growth.
Example 2: Clinical Trials
Hypothesis tests are often used in clinical trials to determine whether some new treatment, drug, procedure, etc. causes improved outcomes in patients.
For example, suppose a doctor believes that a new drug is able to reduce blood pressure in obese patients. To test this, he may measure the blood pressure of 40 patients before and after using the new drug for one month.
He then performs a hypothesis test using the following hypotheses:
 H 0 : μ after = μ before (the mean blood pressure is the same before and after using the drug)
 H A : μ after < μ before (the mean blood pressure is less after using the drug)
If the pvalue of the test is less than some significance level (e.g. α = .05), then he can reject the null hypothesis and conclude that the new drug leads to reduced blood pressure.
Example 3: Advertising Spend
Hypothesis tests are often used in business to determine whether or not some new advertising campaign, marketing technique, etc. causes increased sales.
For example, suppose a company believes that spending more money on digital advertising leads to increased sales. To test this, the company may increase money spent on digital advertising during a twomonth period and collect data to see if overall sales have increased.
They may perform a hypothesis test using the following hypotheses:
 H 0 : μ after = μ before (the mean sales is the same before and after spending more on advertising)
 H A : μ after > μ before (the mean sales increased after spending more on advertising)
If the pvalue of the test is less than some significance level (e.g. α = .05), then the company can reject the null hypothesis and conclude that increased digital advertising leads to increased sales.
Example 4: Manufacturing
Hypothesis tests are also used often in manufacturing plants to determine if some new process, technique, method, etc. causes a change in the number of defective products produced.
For example, suppose a certain manufacturing plant wants to test whether or not some new method changes the number of defective widgets produced per month, which is currently 250. To test this, they may measure the mean number of defective widgets produced before and after using the new method for one month.
They can then perform a hypothesis test using the following hypotheses:
 H 0 : μ after = μ before (the mean number of defective widgets is the same before and after using the new method)
 H A : μ after ≠ μ before (the mean number of defective widgets produced is different before and after using the new method)
If the pvalue of the test is less than some significance level (e.g. α = .05), then the plant can reject the null hypothesis and conclude that the new method leads to a change in the number of defective widgets produced per month.
Additional Resources
Introduction to Hypothesis Testing Introduction to the One Sample ttest Introduction to the Two Sample ttest Introduction to the Paired Samples ttest
Featured Posts
Hey there. My name is Zach Bobbitt. I have a Masters of Science degree in Applied Statistics and I’ve worked on machine learning algorithms for professional businesses in both healthcare and retail. I’m passionate about statistics, machine learning, and data visualization and I created Statology to be a resource for both students and teachers alike. My goal with this site is to help you learn statistics through using simple terms, plenty of realworld examples, and helpful illustrations.
Leave a Reply Cancel reply
Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *
Join the Statology Community
Sign up to receive Statology's exclusive study resource: 100 practice problems with stepbystep solutions. Plus, get our latest insights, tutorials, and data analysis tips straight to your inbox!
By subscribing you accept Statology's Privacy Policy.
Testing Claims Using Hypothesis
saubhagya verma
Analytics Vidhya
Have you ever wondered what is the total number of corn buds in corn? Probably not! This is because corns aren’t that important to us. They don’t form a major part of our expenses.
However, for Kellogg’s calculating the number of corn buds in corn is a big deal. The famous Corn Flakes of Kellogg’s are made by processing these corn buds. Since corn buds form a major part of their final product, it is important for them to know about the number of buds in corn so that they can predict the number of Corn Flakes.
Let us suppose that a corn bud contains around 70 buds on average and each corn is priced the same as 10 rupees. Also, the corn bud to cornflake ratio (input to output ratio) is 1:1 and the price of 70 units of cornflake is 40 rupees. So on average, the profit generated by the company will be approximately 30 rupees on each such corn assuming that the company has no other costs.
So here you can see how the number of buds in corn can impact the profitability of a multibillion dollar company. We use Hypothesis testing to find the answers to these kinds of claims (a corn bud contains around 70 buds on average) by using statistics. This testing helps us to understand the likelihood that the claim will be true or not based upon a sample of inputs. Let us understand the basic concepts that are instrumental for doing hypothesis testing.
What is a Hypothesis?
In layman's terms, the hypothesis is an assumption or a proposed explanation about a phenomenon. We formulate hypotheses whenever we aren’t sure about the real value of a population parameter. So, we assume a particular value for the population parameter to test a claim against it. Some examples of hypotheses are shown below:
 A person’s shoe preference is unrelated to its color.
 The number of candies in an M&M’s box is equal.
 The number of leaves taken by employees per month is equal to 5 days.
 The number of pets in a household is unrelated to the number of people living in it.
Basic Components Of Hypothesis Testing
 Statistic: A statistic is a central value that we use to summarize the sample data. So you can say that any representative value that is derived from the sample is called a statistic. For example, We find mean, variance, and proportion values from our sample which are used to find test statistics.
 Parameter: Just as a statistic is used to summarize the sample, a parameter is used to summarize the properties of the population. We also use parameters to represent the entire population. Similar to the case of statistic values, we calculate mean, variance, proportion values from our sample which are used in hypothesis analysis.
3. Point Estimate : A point estimate involves the calculation of a single best value that is representative of the unknown population parameter. We use a point estimate to find a value that acts as a central tendency for the population parameter. There are two methods commonly used to calculate point estimates:
 Method of Moments: In this method, we basically equate population moments to the respective sample moments in order to get an estimate.
 Method of Maximum Likelihood: In this method, we find the likelihood of a sample statistic by using a population density function or probability function [f(x,0)]of the population. We differentiate the Likelihood function with respect to the population parameters to get the maximum likelihood estimator for each particular parameter.
4. Confidence Interval : We use confidence intervals to find a range of estimate values that the population parameters can take based upon the sample analysis. Unlike Point estimate, we don’t want to find an exact value for the unknown population parameters, instead, we want to know the range that parameter can take at a certain level of probability. Thus, confidence intervals are designed to contain the parameter’s value based upon a stated probability.
The interpretation of a 95% confidence interval (Left side limit, Right side limit) means that there is a 95% chance that the population parameter will lie between the Left side limit and the Right side limit. The limit values of the confidence intervals are also called Critical Values .
5. Rare Event Rule: This rule is a quintessential property that allows us to make inferences about the population by using sample data. The rare event rule simply states that if we make an assumption about an event and find that the probability of that observed event is very small, then our assumption is false.
“If, under a given assumption, the probability of a particular observed event is exceptionally small, we conclude that the assumption is probably not correct.”
The basic idea here is that we test a Hypothesis claim by contrasting between two different things:
 An event that easily occurs by chance. (Null Hypothesis)
 An event that is highly unlikely to occur by chance. (Alternate Hypothesis)
So we use the knowledge from the Rule of Rare events to accept or reject the original assumption while doing the Hypothesis testing. This rule forms the basis for the Test of Significance.
6. Test of Significance: This is a formal procedure used to check whether the observed data aligns with our assumed value or claimed value. We use p values to examine whether we can reject the Null Hypothesis or not by comparing it with the test statistic derived from the sample data. In this test, we take a certain level of significance at the start and test our claim with respect to that particular level of significance only.
7. Test Statistic : A test statistic is a value that is derived from a sample statistic. We convert the sample statistic value into a distribution score such as Z score (Normal Distribution), t score (T distribution), or Chiscore (Chisquare distribution). If the score value lies in the confidence interval of the sample distribution then we fail to reject the null hypothesis, else we reject the null hypothesis.
8. PValue: The P in this value stands for Probability Value. The PValue is the probability of getting a value of the test statistic that is considered to be as extreme as the one representing the sample data while assuming that the null hypothesis is true. If the PValue is small enough then we say that the results are statistically significant. The method of calculating the pvalue changes depending upon the distribution of the sample. However, you can quickly calculate all the p values using the link mentioned below.
Quick PValue Calculators
This is a set of very simple calculators that generate pvalues from various test scores (i.e., ttest, chisquare….
www.socscistatistics.com
Two Hypotheses used in testing
We all can agree that life is hard. Some people have to be truly extraordinary to be accepted by society whereas some just get it by sheer luck. Well, the same is the case when we talk about hypotheses. The Null Hypothesis always gets the benefit of the doubt and the Alternate Hypothesis has to showcase truly exceptional results in order to be accepted by statisticians. I can’t help but wonder if hypotheses were a real person how would the alternate Hypothesis look at the Null Hypothesis.
Since we are familiar with the dynamics of the relationship between null and alternate Hypotheses, let’s formally understand both of them.
 Null Hypothesis: A null hypothesis is an initial claim or a generally accepted fact about the population. The null hypothesis is basically a statement which states that the value of the population parameter is equal to some assumed value. In Hypothesis testing, we directly test the claim of the null hypothesis. We can either fail to reject the null hypothesis or reject the null hypothesis. Let us understand the meaning of failing to reject a null hypothesis with an example shown in the video below.
2. Alternate Hypothesis: An alternate hypothesis is an actual claim that we want to test against the general information available on population parameters. An alternate Hypothesis is a statement which states that the value of the parameter is different from the one specified in the Null Hypothesis. In the world of Statistics, Rejection of null Hypothesis invariably means acceptance of Alternate Hypothesis. Let us understand the meaning of rejection of the Null Hypothesis with an example shown in the video below.
Steps involved in Hypothesis testing:
In order to do hypothesis testing, We will use the following steps:
Step 1: Read the question and understand which parameters are used for analysis. It can be mean (μ), variance(σ), or proportion (p^).
Step 2: formulate the null Hypothesis based upon the target parameter to be studied in the problem.
Step 3: While forming the alternate hypothesis, figure out the type of tail which will be studied in the test.
Step 4: Check from the table below to identify which test to use based upon the target parameter which is to be tested.
Step 5: Now after choosing the test you must also decide the level of significance(α) and the level of confidence(1 α) for your test.
Step 6: Now check out the formulas mentioned below to calculate the test statistic from the available values of the parameter.
Step 7: After Calculating the test statistic’s value you can use two methods to analyze your results.
 Pvalue Analysis : In this form of analysis we compare the pvalue of the test statistic with our alpha value and we reject the null hypothesis only when alpha is less than the pvalue.
 Acceptance Interval Analysis : In this analysis, we compare the test statistic value with the confidence interval of the distribution. If the test statistic value lies within the confidence interval then the null hypothesis is accepted else we reject the null hypothesis.
Types of Error
Just like any other human activity, hypothesis testing also involves a certain degree of errors that arise from the test of significance. Predominantly there are two kinds of errors that are most prevalent in hypothesis testing.
 Type I Error: A type 1 error occurs when the null hypothesis is true but we mistakenly reject the null hypothesis. The symbol α (Alpha) is used to represents Type 1 error.
 Type II Error: A type 2 error occurs when the null hypothesis is false but we mistakenly fail to reject the null hypothesis. The symbol β (Beta) is used to represents Type 1 error.
This was all for today’s brief introduction to the theory of Hypothesis testing. We will conduct an example problem based upon Kellogg's corn hypothesis that we discussed at the start of our discussion in the next blog. Stay tuned for the next blog and Take care!
 https://www.simplypsychology.org/confidenceinterval.html
 Alma Better course materials
 https://www.thoughtco.com/examplesofahypothesis609090
 Statistics from A to Z — Confusing Concepts Clarified Youtube channel.
 pvalues calculator from https://www.socscistatistics.com/pvalues/
 https://365datascience.com/tutorials/statisticstutorials/significancelevelrejectregion/
 https://www.scribbr.com/statistics/typeiandtypeiierrors/
Written by saubhagya verma
I am a budding Data Science enthusiast who is actively learning about the various facets of Data.
Text to speech
Get sciencebacked answers as you write with Paperpal's Research feature
How to Write a Hypothesis? Types and Examples
All research studies involve the use of the scientific method, which is a mathematical and experimental technique used to conduct experiments by developing and testing a hypothesis or a prediction about an outcome. Simply put, a hypothesis is a suggested solution to a problem. It includes elements that are expressed in terms of relationships with each other to explain a condition or an assumption that hasn’t been verified using facts. 1 The typical steps in a scientific method include developing such a hypothesis, testing it through various methods, and then modifying it based on the outcomes of the experiments.
A research hypothesis can be defined as a specific, testable prediction about the anticipated results of a study. 2 Hypotheses help guide the research process and supplement the aim of the study. After several rounds of testing, hypotheses can help develop scientific theories. 3 Hypotheses are often written as ifthen statements.
Here are two hypothesis examples:
Dandelions growing in nitrogenrich soils for two weeks develop larger leaves than those in nitrogenpoor soils because nitrogen stimulates vegetative growth. 4
If a company offers flexible work hours, then their employees will be happier at work. 5
Table of Contents
 What is a hypothesis?
 Types of hypotheses
 Characteristics of a hypothesis
 Functions of a hypothesis
 How to write a hypothesis
 Hypothesis examples
 Frequently asked questions
What is a hypothesis?
A hypothesis expresses an expected relationship between variables in a study and is developed before conducting any research. Hypotheses are not opinions but rather are expected relationships based on facts and observations. They help support scientific research and expand existing knowledge. An incorrectly formulated hypothesis can affect the entire experiment leading to errors in the results so it’s important to know how to formulate a hypothesis and develop it carefully.
A few sources of a hypothesis include observations from prior studies, current research and experiences, competitors, scientific theories, and general conditions that can influence people. Figure 1 depicts the different steps in a research design and shows where exactly in the process a hypothesis is developed. 4
There are seven different types of hypotheses—simple, complex, directional, nondirectional, associative and causal, null, and alternative.
Types of hypotheses
The seven types of hypotheses are listed below: 5 , 6,7
 Simple : Predicts the relationship between a single dependent variable and a single independent variable.
Example: Exercising in the morning every day will increase your productivity.
 Complex : Predicts the relationship between two or more variables.
Example: Spending three hours or more on social media daily will negatively affect children’s mental health and productivity, more than that of adults.
 Directional : Specifies the expected direction to be followed and uses terms like increase, decrease, positive, negative, more, or less.
Example: The inclusion of intervention X decreases infant mortality compared to the original treatment.
 Nondirectional : Does not predict the exact direction, nature, or magnitude of the relationship between two variables but rather states the existence of a relationship. This hypothesis may be used when there is no underlying theory or if findings contradict prior research.
Example: Cats and dogs differ in the amount of affection they express.
 Associative and causal : An associative hypothesis suggests an interdependency between variables, that is, how a change in one variable changes the other.
Example: There is a positive association between physical activity levels and overall health.
A causal hypothesis, on the other hand, expresses a causeandeffect association between variables.
Example: Longterm alcohol use causes liver damage.
 Null : Claims that the original hypothesis is false by showing that there is no relationship between the variables.
Example: Sleep duration does not have any effect on productivity.
 Alternative : States the opposite of the null hypothesis, that is, a relationship exists between two variables.
Example: Sleep duration affects productivity.
Characteristics of a hypothesis
So, what makes a good hypothesis? Here are some important characteristics of a hypothesis. 8,9
 Testable : You must be able to test the hypothesis using scientific methods to either accept or reject the prediction.
 Falsifiable : It should be possible to collect data that reject rather than support the hypothesis.
 Logical : Hypotheses shouldn’t be a random guess but rather should be based on previous theories, observations, prior research, and logical reasoning.
 Positive : The hypothesis statement about the existence of an association should be positive, that is, it should not suggest that an association does not exist. Therefore, the language used and knowing how to phrase a hypothesis is very important.
 Clear and accurate : The language used should be easily comprehensible and use correct terminology.
 Relevant : The hypothesis should be relevant and specific to the research question.
 Structure : Should include all the elements that make a good hypothesis: variables, relationship, and outcome.
Functions of a hypothesis
The following list mentions some important functions of a hypothesis: 1
 Maintains the direction and progress of the research.
 Expresses the important assumptions underlying the proposition in a single statement.
 Establishes a suitable context for researchers to begin their investigation and for readers who are referring to the final report.
 Provides an explanation for the occurrence of a specific phenomenon.
 Ensures selection of appropriate and accurate facts necessary and relevant to the research subject.
To summarize, a hypothesis provides the conceptual elements that complete the known data, conceptual relationships that systematize unordered elements, and conceptual meanings and interpretations that explain the unknown phenomena. 1
How to write a hypothesis
Listed below are the main steps explaining how to write a hypothesis. 2,4,5
 Make an observation and identify variables : Observe the subject in question and try to recognize a pattern or a relationship between the variables involved. This step provides essential background information to begin your research.
For example, if you notice that an office’s vending machine frequently runs out of a specific snack, you may predict that more people in the office choose that snack over another.
 Identify the main research question : After identifying a subject and recognizing a pattern, the next step is to ask a question that your hypothesis will answer.
For example, after observing employees’ break times at work, you could ask “why do more employees take breaks in the morning rather than in the afternoon?”
 Conduct some preliminary research to ensure originality and novelty : Your initial answer, which is your hypothesis, to the question is based on some preexisting information about the subject. However, to ensure that your hypothesis has not been asked before or that it has been asked but rejected by other researchers you would need to gather additional information.
For example, based on your observations you might state a hypothesis that employees work more efficiently when the air conditioning in the office is set at a lower temperature. However, during your preliminary research you find that this hypothesis was proven incorrect by a prior study.
 Develop a general statement : After your preliminary research has confirmed the originality of your proposed answer, draft a general statement that includes all variables, subjects, and predicted outcome. The statement could be if/then or declarative.
 Finalize the hypothesis statement : Use the PICOT model, which clarifies how to word a hypothesis effectively, when finalizing the statement. This model lists the important components required to write a hypothesis.
P opulation: The specific group or individual who is the main subject of the research
I nterest: The main concern of the study/research question
C omparison: The main alternative group
O utcome: The expected results
T ime: Duration of the experiment
Once you’ve finalized your hypothesis statement you would need to conduct experiments to test whether the hypothesis is true or false.
Hypothesis examples
The following table provides examples of different types of hypotheses. 10 ,11
Null  Hyperactivity is not related to eating sugar. 
There is no relationship between height and shoe size.  
Alternative  Hyperactivity is positively related to eating sugar. 
There is a positive association between height and shoe size.  
Simple  Students who eat breakfast perform better in exams than students who don’t eat breakfast. 
Reduced screen time improves sleep quality.  
Complex  People with highsugar diet and sedentary activity levels are more likely to develop depression. 
Motorists who talk on the phone while driving will be more likely to make errors on a driving course than those who do not talk on the phone.  
Directional  As job satisfaction increases, the rate of employee turnover decreases. 
Increase in sun exposure increases the risk of skin cancer.  
Nondirectional  College students will perform differently from elementary school students on a memory task. 
Advertising exposure correlates with variations in purchase decisions among consumers.  
Associative  Hospitals have more sick people in them than other institutions in society. 
Watching TV is related to increased snacking.  
Causal  Inadequate sleep decreases memory retention. 
Recreational drugs cause psychosis. 
Key takeaways
Here’s a summary of all the key points discussed in this article about how to write a hypothesis.
 A hypothesis is an assumption about an association between variables made based on limited evidence, which should be tested.
 A hypothesis has four parts—the research question, independent variable, dependent variable, and the proposed relationship between the variables.
 The statement should be clear, concise, testable, logical, and falsifiable.
 There are seven types of hypotheses—simple, complex, directional, nondirectional, associative and causal, null, and alternative.
 A hypothesis provides a focus and direction for the research to progress.
 A hypothesis plays an important role in the scientific method by helping to create an appropriate experimental design.
Frequently asked questions
Hypotheses and research questions have different objectives and structure. The following table lists some major differences between the two. 9
Includes a prediction based on the proposed research  No prediction is made 
Designed to forecast the relationship of and between two or more variables  Variables may be explored 
Closed ended  Open ended, invites discussion 
Used if the research topic is well established and there is certainty about the relationship between the variables  Used for new topics that haven’t been researched extensively. The relationship between different variables is less known 
Here are a few examples to differentiate between a research question and hypothesis.
What is the effect of eating an apple a day by adults aged over 60 years on the frequency of physician visits?  Eating an apple each day, after the age of 60, will result in a reduction of frequency of physician visits 
What is the effect of flexible or fixed working hours on employee job satisfaction?  Workplaces that offer flexible working hours report higher levels of employee job satisfaction than workplaces with fixed hours. 
Does drinking coffee in the morning affect employees’ productivity?  Drinking coffee in the morning improves employees’ productivity. 
Yes, here’s a simple checklist to help you gauge the effectiveness of your hypothesis. 9 1. When writing a hypothesis statement, check if it: 2. Predicts the relationship between the stated variables and the expected outcome. 3. Uses simple and concise language and is not wordy. 4. Does not assume readers’ knowledge about the subject. 5. Has observable, falsifiable, and testable results.
As mentioned earlier in this article, a hypothesis is an assumption or prediction about an association between variables based on observations and simple evidence. These statements are usually generic. Research objectives, on the other hand, are more specific and dictated by hypotheses. The same hypothesis can be tested using different methods and the research objectives could be different in each case. For example, Louis Pasteur observed that food lasts longer at higher altitudes, reasoned that it could be because the air at higher altitudes is cleaner (with fewer or no germs), and tested the hypothesis by exposing food to air cleaned in the laboratory. 12 Thus, a hypothesis is predictive—if the reasoning is correct, X will lead to Y—and research objectives are developed to test these predictions.
Null hypothesis testing is a method to decide between two assumptions or predictions between variables (null and alternative hypotheses) in a statistical relationship in a sample. The null hypothesis, denoted as H 0 , claims that no relationship exists between variables in a population and any relationship in the sample reflects a sampling error or occurrence by chance. The alternative hypothesis, denoted as H 1 , claims that there is a relationship in the population. In every study, researchers need to decide whether the relationship in a sample occurred by chance or reflects a relationship in the population. This is done by hypothesis testing using the following steps: 13 1. Assume that the null hypothesis is true. 2. Determine how likely the sample relationship would be if the null hypothesis were true. This probability is called the p value. 3. If the sample relationship would be extremely unlikely, reject the null hypothesis and accept the alternative hypothesis. If the relationship would not be unlikely, accept the null hypothesis.
To summarize, researchers should know how to write a good hypothesis to ensure that their research progresses in the required direction. A hypothesis is a testable prediction about any behavior or relationship between variables, usually based on facts and observation, and states an expected outcome.
We hope this article has provided you with essential insight into the different types of hypotheses and their functions so that you can use them appropriately in your next research project.
References
 Dalen, DVV. The function of hypotheses in research. Proquest website. Accessed April 8, 2024. https://www.proquest.com/docview/1437933010?pqorigsite=gscholar&fromopenview=true&sourcetype=Scholarly%20Journals&imgSeq=1
 McLeod S. Research hypothesis in psychology: Types & examples. SimplyPsychology website. Updated December 13, 2023. Accessed April 9, 2024. https://www.simplypsychology.org/whatisahypotheses.html
 Scientific method. Britannica website. Updated March 14, 2024. Accessed April 9, 2024. https://www.britannica.com/science/scientificmethod
 The hypothesis in science writing. Accessed April 10, 2024. https://berks.psu.edu/sites/berks/files/campus/HypothesisHandout_Final.pdf
 How to develop a hypothesis (with elements, types, and examples). Indeed.com website. Updated February 3, 2023. Accessed April 10, 2024. https://www.indeed.com/careeradvice/careerdevelopment/howtowriteahypothesis
 Types of research hypotheses. Excelsior online writing lab. Accessed April 11, 2024. https://owl.excelsior.edu/research/researchhypotheses/typesofresearchhypotheses/
 What is a research hypothesis: how to write it, types, and examples. Researcher.life website. Published February 8, 2023. Accessed April 11, 2024. https://researcher.life/blog/article/howtowritearesearchhypothesisdefinitiontypesexamples/
 Developing a hypothesis. Pressbooks website. Accessed April 12, 2024. https://opentext.wsu.edu/carriecuttler/chapter/developingahypothesis/
 What is and how to write a good hypothesis in research. Elsevier author services website. Accessed April 12, 2024. https://scientificpublishing.webshop.elsevier.com/manuscriptpreparation/whathowwritegoodhypothesisresearch/
 How to write a great hypothesis. Verywellmind website. Updated March 12, 2023. Accessed April 13, 2024. https://www.verywellmind.com/whatisahypothesis2795239
 15 Hypothesis examples. Helpfulprofessor.com Published September 8, 2023. Accessed March 14, 2024. https://helpfulprofessor.com/hypothesisexamples/
 Editage insights. What is the interconnectivity between research objectives and hypothesis? Published February 24, 2021. Accessed April 13, 2024. https://www.editage.com/insights/whatistheinterconnectivitybetweenresearchobjectivesandhypothesis
 Understanding null hypothesis testing. BCCampus open publishing. Accessed April 16, 2024. https://opentextbc.ca/researchmethods/chapter/understandingnullhypothesistesting/#:~:text=In%20null%20hypothesis%20testing%2C%20this,said%20to%20be%20statistically%20significant
Paperpal is a comprehensive AI writing toolkit that helps students and researchers achieve 2x the writing in half the time. It leverages 21+ years of STM experience and insights from millions of research articles to provide indepth academic writing, language editing, and submission readiness support to help you write better, faster.
Get accurate academic translations, rewriting support, grammar checks, vocabulary suggestions, and generative AI assistance that delivers human precision at machine speed. Try for free or upgrade to Paperpal Prime starting at US$19 a month to access premium features, including consistency, plagiarism, and 30+ submission readiness checks to help you succeed.
Experience the future of academic writing – Sign up to Paperpal and start writing for free!
Related Reads:
 Empirical Research: A Comprehensive Guide for Academics
 How to Write a Scientific Paper in 10 Steps
 What is a Literature Review? How to Write It (with Examples)
 What are Journal Guidelines on Using Generative AI Tools
Measuring Academic Success: Definition & Strategies for Excellence
What are scholarly sources and where can you find them , you may also like, how to structure an essay, leveraging generative ai to enhance student understanding of..., what’s the best chatgpt alternative for academic writing, how to write a good hook for essays,..., addressing peer review feedback and mastering manuscript revisions..., how paperpal can boost comprehension and foster interdisciplinary..., what is the importance of a concept paper..., how to write the first draft of a..., mla works cited page: format, template & examples, how to ace grant writing for research funding....
 school Campus Bookshelves
 menu_book Bookshelves
 perm_media Learning Objects
 login Login
 how_to_reg Request Instructor Account
 hub Instructor Commons
Margin Size
 Download Page (PDF)
 Download Full Book (PDF)
 Periodic Table
 Physics Constants
 Scientific Calculator
 Reference & Cite
 Tools expand_more
 Readability
selected template will load here
This action is not available.
10.26: Hypothesis Test for a Population Mean (5 of 5)
 Last updated
 Save as PDF
 Page ID 14164
\( \newcommand{\vecs}[1]{\overset { \scriptstyle \rightharpoonup} {\mathbf{#1}} } \)
\( \newcommand{\vecd}[1]{\overset{\!\!\rightharpoonup}{\vphantom{a}\smash {#1}}} \)
\( \newcommand{\id}{\mathrm{id}}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\)
( \newcommand{\kernel}{\mathrm{null}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\range}{\mathrm{range}\,}\)
\( \newcommand{\RealPart}{\mathrm{Re}}\) \( \newcommand{\ImaginaryPart}{\mathrm{Im}}\)
\( \newcommand{\Argument}{\mathrm{Arg}}\) \( \newcommand{\norm}[1]{\ #1 \}\)
\( \newcommand{\inner}[2]{\langle #1, #2 \rangle}\)
\( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\)
\( \newcommand{\id}{\mathrm{id}}\)
\( \newcommand{\kernel}{\mathrm{null}\,}\)
\( \newcommand{\range}{\mathrm{range}\,}\)
\( \newcommand{\RealPart}{\mathrm{Re}}\)
\( \newcommand{\ImaginaryPart}{\mathrm{Im}}\)
\( \newcommand{\Argument}{\mathrm{Arg}}\)
\( \newcommand{\norm}[1]{\ #1 \}\)
\( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\) \( \newcommand{\AA}{\unicode[.8,0]{x212B}}\)
\( \newcommand{\vectorA}[1]{\vec{#1}} % arrow\)
\( \newcommand{\vectorAt}[1]{\vec{\text{#1}}} % arrow\)
\( \newcommand{\vectorB}[1]{\overset { \scriptstyle \rightharpoonup} {\mathbf{#1}} } \)
\( \newcommand{\vectorC}[1]{\textbf{#1}} \)
\( \newcommand{\vectorD}[1]{\overrightarrow{#1}} \)
\( \newcommand{\vectorDt}[1]{\overrightarrow{\text{#1}}} \)
\( \newcommand{\vectE}[1]{\overset{\!\!\rightharpoonup}{\vphantom{a}\smash{\mathbf {#1}}}} \)
Learning Objectives
 Interpret the Pvalue as a conditional probability.
We finish our discussion of the hypothesis test for a population mean with a review of the meaning of the Pvalue, along with a review of type I and type II errors.
Review of the Meaning of the Pvalue
At this point, we assume you know how to use a Pvalue to make a decision in a hypothesis test. The logic is always the same. If we pick a level of significance (α), then we compare the Pvalue to α.
 If the Pvalue ≤ α, reject the null hypothesis. The data supports the alternative hypothesis.
 If the Pvalue > α, do not reject the null hypothesis. The data is not strong enough to support the alternative hypothesis.
In fact, we find that we treat these as “rules” and apply them without thinking about what the Pvalue means. So let’s pause here and review the meaning of the Pvalue, since it is the connection between probability and decisionmaking in inference.
Birth Weights in a Town
Let’s return to the familiar context of birth weights for babies in a town. Suppose that babies in the town had a mean birth weight of 3,500 grams in 2010. This year, a random sample of 50 babies has a mean weight of about 3,400 grams with a standard deviation of about 500 grams. Here is the distribution of birth weights in the sample.
Obviously, this sample weighs less on average than the population of babies in the town in 2010. A decrease in the town’s mean birth weight could indicate a decline in overall health of the town. But does this sample give strong evidence that the town’s mean birth weight is less than 3,500 grams this year?
We now know how to answer this question with a hypothesis test. Let’s use a significance level of 5%.
Let μ = mean birth weight in the town this year. The null hypothesis says there is “no change from 2010.”
 H 0 : μ < 3,500
 H a : μ = 3,500
Since the sample is large, we can conduct the Ttest (without worrying about the shape of the distribution of birth weights for individual babies.)
Statistical software tells us the Pvalue is 0.082 = 8.2%. Since the Pvalue is greater than 0.05, we fail to reject the null hypothesis.
Our conclusion: This sample does not suggest that the mean birth weight this year is less than 3,500 grams ( P value = 0.082). The sample from this year has a mean of 3,400 grams, which is 100 grams lower than the mean in 2010. But this difference is not statistically significant. It can be explained by the chance fluctuation we expect to see in random sampling.
What Does the PValue of 0.082 Tell Us?
A simulation can help us understand the Pvalue. In a simulation, we assume that the population mean is 3,500 grams. This is the null hypothesis. We assume the null hypothesis is true and select 1,000 random samples from a population with a mean of 3,500 grams. The mean of the sampling distribution is at 3,500 (as predicted by the null hypothesis.) We see this in the simulated sampling distribution.
In the simulation, we can see that about 8.6% of the samples have a mean less than 3,400. Since probability is the relative frequency of an event in the long run, we say there is an 8.6% chance that a random sample of 500 babies has a mean less than 3,400 if the population mean is 3,500. We can see that the corresponding area to the left of T = −1.41 in the Tmodel (with df = 49) also gives us a good estimate of the probability. This area is the Pvalue, about 8.2%.
If we generalize this statement, we say the Pvalue is the probability that random samples have results more extreme than the data if the null hypothesis is true. (By more extreme, we mean further from value of the parameter, in the direction of the alternative hypothesis.) We can also describe the Pvalue in terms of Tscores. The Pvalue is the probability that the test statistic from a random sample has a value more extreme than that associated with the data if the null hypothesis is true.
What Does a PValue Mean?
Do women who smoke run the risk of shorter pregnancy and premature birth? The mean pregnancy length is 266 days. We test the following hypotheses.
 H 0 : μ = 266
 H a : μ < 266
Suppose a random sample of 40 women who smoke during their pregnancy have a mean pregnancy length of 260 days with a standard deviation of 21 days. The Pvalue is 0.04.
What probability does the Pvalue of 0.04 describe? Label each of the following interpretations as valid or invalid.
https://assessments.lumenlearning.co...sessments/3654
https://assessments.lumenlearning.co...sessments/3655
https://assessments.lumenlearning.co...sessments/3656
Review of Type I and Type II Errors
We know that statistical inference is based on probability, so there is always some chance of making a wrong decision. Recall that there are two types of wrong decisions that can be made in hypothesis testing. When we reject a null hypothesis that is true, we commit a type I error. When we fail to reject a null hypothesis that is false, we commit a type II error.
The following table summarizes the logic behind type I and type II errors.
It is possible to have some influence over the likelihoods of committing these errors. But decreasing the chance of a type I error increases the chance of a type II error. We have to decide which error is more serious for a given situation. Sometimes a type I error is more serious. Other times a type II error is more serious. Sometimes neither is serious.
Recall that if the null hypothesis is true, the probability of committing a type I error is α. Why is this? Well, when we choose a level of significance (α), we are choosing a benchmark for rejecting the null hypothesis. If the null hypothesis is true, then the probability that we will reject a true null hypothesis is α. So the smaller α is, the smaller the probability of a type I error.
It is more complicated to calculate the probability of a type II error. The best way to reduce the probability of a type II error is to increase the sample size. But once the sample size is set, larger values of α will decrease the probability of a type II error (while increasing the probability of a type I error).
General Guidelines for Choosing a Level of Significance
 If the consequences of a type I error are more serious, choose a small level of significance (α).
 If the consequences of a type II error are more serious, choose a larger level of significance (α). But remember that the level of significance is the probability of committing a type I error.
 In general, we pick the largest level of significance that we can tolerate as the chance of a type I error.
Let’s return to the investigation of the impact of smoking on pregnancy length.
Recap of the hypothesis test: The mean human pregnancy length is 266 days. We test the following hypotheses.
https://assessments.lumenlearning.co...sessments/3778
https://assessments.lumenlearning.co...sessments/3779
https://assessments.lumenlearning.co...sessments/3780
Let’s Summarize
In this “Hypothesis Test for a Population Mean,” we looked at the four steps of a hypothesis test as they relate to a claim about a population mean.
Step 1: Determine the hypotheses.
 The hypotheses are claims about the population mean, µ.
 The null hypothesis is a hypothesis that the mean equals a specific value, µ 0 .
Step 2: Collect the data.
Since the hypothesis test is based on probability, random selection or assignment is essential in data production. Additionally, we need to check whether the tmodel is a good fit for the sampling distribution of sample means. To use the tmodel, the variable must be normally distributed in the population or the sample size must be more than 30. In practice, it is often impossible to verify that the variable is normally distributed in the population. If this is the case and the sample size is not more than 30, researchers often use the tmodel if the sample is not strongly skewed and does not have outliers.
Step 3: Assess the evidence.
 If a tmodel is appropriate, determine the ttest statistic for the data’s sample mean.
 Use the test statistic, together with the alternative hypothesis, to determine the Pvalue.
 The Pvalue is the probability of finding a random sample with a mean at least as extreme as our sample mean, assuming that the null hypothesis is true.
 As in all hypothesis tests, if the alternative hypothesis is greater than, the Pvalue is the area to the right of the test statistic. If the alternative hypothesis is less than, the Pvalue is the area to the left of the test statistic. If the alternative hypothesis is not equal to, the Pvalue is equal to double the tail area beyond the test statistic.
Step 4: Give the conclusion.
The logic of the hypothesis test is always the same. To state a conclusion about H 0 , we compare the Pvalue to the significance level, α.
 If P ≤ α, we reject H 0 . We conclude there is significant evidence in favor of H a .
 If P > α, we fail to reject H 0 . We conclude the sample does not provide significant evidence in favor of H a .
 We write the conclusion in the context of the research question. Our conclusion is usually a statement about the alternative hypothesis (we accept H a or fail to acceptH a ) and should include the Pvalue.
Other Hypothesis Testing Notes
 Remember that the Pvalue is the probability of seeing a sample mean at least as extreme as the one from the data if the null hypothesis is true. The probability is about the random sample; it is not a “chance” statement about the null or alternative hypothesis.
 If our test results in rejecting a null hypothesis that is actually true, then it is called a type I error.
 If our test results in failing to reject a null hypothesis that is actually false, then it is called a type II error.
 If rejecting a null hypothesis would be very expensive, controversial, or dangerous, then we really want to avoid a type I error. In this case, we would set a strict significance level (a small value of α, such as 0.01).
 Finally, remember the phrase “garbage in, garbage out.” If the data collection methods are poor, then the results of a hypothesis test are meaningless.
Contributors and Attributions
 Concepts in Statistics. Provided by : Open Learning Initiative. Located at : http://oli.cmu.edu . License : CC BY: Attribution
AI Generator
A claim is a formal request for compensation, reimbursement, or acknowledgment of a right. It often involves submitting relevant documentation to support the demand. For instance, a Payment Claim is submitted to receive due payment for services rendered, while an Authorization Letter to Claim grants permission for another person to claim on behalf of the rightful owner. In specialized fields, a Construction Claim addresses disputes or additional costs in building projects, and an Insurance Claim seeks financial recovery for losses covered under an insurance policy.
What is Claim?
A claim is a formal request for compensation, reimbursement, or acknowledgment of a right, often supported by relevant documentation. It is commonly used in various contexts such as payments, insurance, and legal disputes.
Examples of Claim
 Payment Claim – Requesting payment for completed work or services rendered.
 Insurance Claim – Seeking compensation for damages covered by an insurance policy.
 Warranty Claim – Requesting repair or replacement of a defective product under warranty.
 Construction Claim – Demanding additional payment due to unforeseen costs or changes in a construction project.
 Medical Claim – Seeking reimbursement for medical expenses from an insurance provider.
 Travel Claim – Requesting compensation for travelrelated issues like delays or cancellations.
 Tax Claim – Filing for a refund of overpaid taxes.
 Unemployment Claim – Applying for unemployment benefits after losing a job.
 Legal Claim – Initiating a lawsuit to seek damages or enforce rights.
 Return Claim – Requesting a refund or exchange for a purchased product.
 Accident Claim – Seeking compensation for injuries or damages from an accident.
 Compensation Claim – Requesting payment for workrelated injuries or losses.
 Insurance Claim for Natural Disaster – Asking for financial assistance after damages from a natural disaster.
 Shipping Claim – Seeking reimbursement for lost or damaged goods during shipping.
 Bank Claim – Disputing unauthorized transactions on a bank account.
 Intellectual Property Claim – Asserting rights over copyrighted or patented material.
 Rebate Claim – Requesting a partial refund for a purchased product as part of a promotion.
 Inheritance Claim – Seeking a share of an estate as an heir.
 Student Loan Claim – Requesting forgiveness or discharge of student loan debt.
 Utility Claim – Disputing charges or requesting reimbursement for service outages from utility providers.
Types of Claims
 Factual Claims: Statements that can be proven true or false based on evidence or facts. They rely on verifiable data and objective research.
 Value Claims: Assertions that evaluate the worth, rightness, or morality of something. These claims often reflect personal or societal values and are subjective.
 Policy Claims: Proposals for action or change, suggesting what should be done in a particular situation. They advocate for specific policies or courses of action.
 Definition Claims: Arguments about the meaning or categorization of a term or concept. They seek to define or redefine the way something is understood.
 Cause and Effect Claims: Statements that argue a causeandeffect relationship between two or more things. They explain how one event leads to another.
 Comparative Claims: Assertions that compare one thing to another, highlighting similarities or differences. These claims evaluate relative qualities or characteristics.
 Predictive Claims: Forecasts about what will happen in the future based on current evidence or trends. They anticipate outcomes and future events.
What is Claim Reason Evidence in Writing?
Claim : A claim is the main argument or thesis statement of a piece of writing. It is the writer’s position on a particular topic or issue. The claim should be specific, debatable, and clearly stated.
Example: Claim: “School uniforms improve student behavior and academic performance.”
Reason : A reason explains why the claim is valid. It provides the rationale behind the claim and shows why the reader should accept it. Reasons should be logical and directly support the claim.
Example: Reason: “Uniforms create a sense of equality among students, reducing peer pressure and distractions.”
Evidence : Evidence consists of facts, statistics, examples, expert opinions, or other data that support the reason. It provides concrete proof that the reason is valid and, consequently, that the claim is true.
Example: Evidence: “A study conducted by XYZ University found that schools with uniform policies saw a 20% decrease in disciplinary issues and a 15% increase in test scores.”
Claim of policy
A claim of policy is a statement that advocates for a specific course of action or change in policy. It suggests that certain actions should be taken to address a problem or improve a situation. This type of claim often includes a proposal for a solution and is typically supported by evidence showing why the proposed action is necessary and beneficial.
Examples of Claims of Policy:
 Education: “Schools should implement a mandatory financial literacy curriculum to better prepare students for managing their personal finances.”
 Environment: “The government should ban singleuse plastics to reduce environmental pollution and protect marine life.”
 Healthcare: “All countries should adopt universal healthcare systems to ensure that every citizen has access to essential medical services.”
 Workplace: “Companies should offer flexible workfromhome options to improve employee productivity and job satisfaction.”
 Public Safety: “Cities should invest in more extensive public transportation networks to reduce traffic congestion and lower carbon emissions.”
Components of a Claim of Policy:
 Problem Identification: Clearly define the issue that needs to be addressed.
 Proposed Solution: Outline the specific action or change in policy being advocated.
 Justification: Provide reasons and evidence to support why the proposed solution is necessary and beneficial.
 Implementation: Suggest how the proposed policy can be effectively implemented.
Structure of an Argumentative Essay
 Introduction
 Thesis Statement
 Body Paragraphs
 Counterarguments and Rebuttals
1. Introduction
The introduction sets the stage for your essay. It should:
 Provide background information on the topic.
 Present the issue at hand.
 Capture the reader’s attention.
“In today’s digital age, the use of social media has become ubiquitous. While it offers numerous benefits, there is a growing concern about its impact on mental health. This essay will argue that excessive social media use leads to increased anxiety and depression among teenagers.”
2. Thesis Statement
The thesis statement clearly states your main argument. It should be concise and specific.
“Excessive use of social media contributes to heightened anxiety and depression among teenagers.”
3. Body Paragraphs
Each body paragraph should focus on one main idea that supports your thesis. Include evidence such as statistics, quotes, studies, and reallife examples.
Paragraph 1:
 Topic Sentence: Excessive social media use disrupts sleep patterns.
 Evidence: Studies show that teens who use social media excessively are more likely to experience poor sleep quality.
 Explanation: Poor sleep quality is linked to increased anxiety and depression.
Paragraph 2:
 Topic Sentence: Social media promotes unrealistic expectations.
 Evidence: A survey revealed that 60% of teenagers feel pressured to look perfect on social media.
 Explanation: This pressure can lead to low selfesteem and mental health issues.
Paragraph 3:
 Topic Sentence: Online bullying is prevalent on social media platforms.
 Evidence: Reports indicate that 30% of teenagers have experienced cyberbullying.
 Explanation: Victims of cyberbullying are more likely to suffer from anxiety and depression.
4. Counterarguments and Rebuttals
Addressing counterarguments strengthens your essay by showing you have considered multiple viewpoints.
Counterargument: Some argue that social media helps teenagers build social connections and support networks.
Rebuttal: While social media can facilitate connections, it often leads to superficial relationships. Moreover, the negative effects on mental health outweigh the potential benefits of these connections.
5. Conclusion
The conclusion should summarize your main points and restate the thesis in light of the evidence presented. It should also provide a final thought or call to action.
What is a claim in an argumentative essay?
A claim is the main argument or stance you take on a particular issue in your essay.
How should I state my claim?
State your claim clearly and concisely in the thesis statement of your introduction.
Can a claim be a question?
No, a claim should be a declarative statement, not a question.
How many claims should an essay have?
Generally, one main claim is supported by several smaller, supporting claims.
What makes a strong claim?
A strong claim is specific, debatable, and backed by evidence.
Can a claim be a fact?
No, a claim should be an argument that requires support and evidence, not a universally accepted fact.
Do I need to address counterclaims?
Yes, addressing counterclaims strengthens your argument by showing consideration of opposing views.
Can a claim change during the writing process?
Yes, refining your claim as you gather more evidence and insights is common.
What is the difference between a claim and a topic sentence?
A claim is the main argument of the essay, while a topic sentence introduces the main idea of a paragraph.
How do I make my claim debatable?
Ensure your claim presents a viewpoint that others might dispute or have differing opinions on.
Text prompt
 Instructive
 Professional
10 Examples of Public speaking
20 Examples of Gas lighting
IMAGES
VIDEO
COMMENTS
Present the findings in your results and discussion section. Though the specific details might vary, the procedure you will use when testing a hypothesis will always follow some version of these steps. Table of contents. Step 1: State your null and alternate hypothesis. Step 2: Collect data. Step 3: Perform a statistical test.
The alternative hypothesis (H a) is the other answer to your research question. It claims that there's an effect in the population. Often, your alternative hypothesis is the same as your research hypothesis. In other words, it's the claim that you expect or hope will be true. The alternative hypothesis is the complement to the null hypothesis.
This page contains two hypothesis testing examples for one sample ztests. One Sample Hypothesis Testing Example: One Tailed Z Test. A principal at a certain school claims that the students in his school are above average intelligence. A random sample of thirty students IQ scores have a mean score of 112.5. Is there sufficient evidence to ...
If the biologist set her significance level \(\alpha\) at 0.05 and used the critical value approach to conduct her hypothesis test, she would reject the null hypothesis if her test statistic t* were less than 1.6939 (determined using statistical software or a ttable):s33. Since the biologist's test statistic, t* = 4.60, is less than 1.6939, the biologist rejects the null hypothesis.
Developing a hypothesis (with example) Step 1. Ask a question. Writing a hypothesis begins with a research question that you want to answer. The question should be focused, specific, and researchable within the constraints of your project. Example: Research question.
A teacher believes that 85% of students in the class will want to go on a field trip to the local zoo. The teacher performs a hypothesis test to determine if the percentage is the same or different from 85%. The teacher samples 50 students and 39 reply that they would want to go to the zoo. For the hypothesis test, use a 1% level of significance.
Conduct a hypothesis test using test statistics and \(p\)values with a preset \(\alpha = 0.05\). Answer. Set up the Hypothesis Test: Since the problem is about a mean, this is a test of a single population mean. Set the null and alternative hypothesis: In this case there is an implied challenge or claim.
The alternative hypothesis, H1 , is the competing claim suggesting an effect or a difference. Statistical tests determine whether to reject the null hypothesis in favor of the alternative hypothesis based on the data. ... For example, a simple hypothesis might state, "Increased sunlight exposure increases the growth rate of sunflowers." Here ...
Unit 12: Significance tests (hypothesis testing) Significance tests give us a formal process for using sample data to evaluate the likelihood of some claim about a population value. Learn how to conduct significance tests and calculate pvalues to see how likely a sample result is to occur by random chance. You'll also see how we use pvalues ...
9.6: Additional Information and Full Hypothesis Test Examples. For each of the word problems, use a solution sheet to do the hypothesis test. The solution sheet is found in . Please feel free to make copies of the solution sheets. ... A particular brand of tires claims that its deluxe tire averages at least 50,000 miles before it needs to be ...
A hypothesis is a tentative statement about the relationship between two or more variables. It is a specific, testable prediction about what you expect to happen in a study. It is a preliminary answer to your question that helps guide the research process. Consider a study designed to examine the relationship between sleep deprivation and test ...
There is sufficient evidence to support the claim that… Or, we would write: We fail to reject the null hypothesis at the 5% significance level. There is not sufficient evidence to support the claim that… The following examples show how to write a hypothesis test conclusion in both scenarios. Example 1: Reject the Null Hypothesis Conclusion
10.1  Setting the Hypotheses: Examples. A significance test examines whether the null hypothesis provides a plausible explanation of the data. The null hypothesis itself does not involve the data. It is a statement about a parameter (a numerical characteristic of the population). These population values might be proportions or means or ...
Statistics: Hypothesis Testing . A hypothesis is a claim made about a population. A hypothesis test uses sample data to test the validity of the claim. This handout will define the basic elements of hypothesis testing and provide the steps to perform hypothesis tests using the Pvalue method and the critical value method.
For the hypothesis test, use a 1% level of significance. Example 9.5.12. Suppose a consumer group suspects that the proportion of households that have three or more cell phones is 30%. A cell phone company has reason to believe that the proportion is not 30%.
Example 8.4.7. Joon believes that 50% of firsttime brides in the United States are younger than their grooms. She performs a hypothesis test to determine if the percentage is the same or different from 50%. Joon samples 100 firsttime brides and 53 reply that they are younger than their grooms.
Step 1: Define the Hypothesis. Usually, the reported value (or the claim statistics) is stated as the hypothesis and presumed to be true. For the above examples, the hypothesis will be: Example A ...
Example 1: Biology. Hypothesis tests are often used in biology to determine whether some new treatment, fertilizer, pesticide, chemical, etc. causes increased growth, stamina, immunity, etc. in plants or animals. For example, suppose a biologist believes that a certain fertilizer will cause plants to grow more during a onemonth period than ...
STA 2023 & 2122. The first thing needed to know is that there are two Hypotheses called the Null Hypothesis (H0) and the Alternative Hypothesis (H1); they are mutually exclusive. There is also a claim, which is something that can be said or inferred to the Population Proportion or the Population Mean. This claim can be that the proportion has ...
Review. In a hypothesis test, sample data is evaluated in order to arrive at a decision about some type of claim.If certain conditions about the sample are satisfied, then the claim can be evaluated for a population. In a hypothesis test, we: Evaluate the null hypothesis, typically denoted with \(H_{0}\).The null is not rejected unless the hypothesis test shows otherwise.
Null Hypothesis: A null hypothesis is an initial claim or a generally accepted fact about the population. The null hypothesis is basically a statement which states that the value of the population ...
Example: Longterm alcohol use causes liver damage. Null: Claims that the original hypothesis is false by showing that there is no relationship between the variables. Example: Sleep duration does not have any effect on productivity. Alternative: States the opposite of the null hypothesis, that is, a relationship exists between two variables.
The hypotheses are claims about the population mean, µ. The null hypothesis is a hypothesis that the mean equals a specific value, µ 0. The alternative hypothesis is the competing claim that µ is less than, greater than, or not equal to the . When is < or > , the test is a onetailed test. When is ≠ , the test is a twotailed test.
A claim is a formal request for compensation, reimbursement, or acknowledgment of a right, often supported by relevant documentation. It is commonly used in various contexts such as payments, insurance, and legal disputes. Examples of Claim. Payment Claim  Requesting payment for completed work or services rendered.