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What is Reported Speech and how to use it? with Examples

Published by

Olivia Drake

Reported speech and indirect speech are two terms that refer to the same concept, which is the act of expressing what someone else has said.

On this page:

Reported speech is different from direct speech because it does not use the speaker’s exact words. Instead, the reporting verb is used to introduce the reported speech, and the tense and pronouns are changed to reflect the shift in perspective. There are two main types of reported speech: statements and questions.

1. Reported Statements: In reported statements, the reporting verb is usually “said.” The tense in the reported speech changes from the present simple to the past simple, and any pronouns referring to the speaker or listener are changed to reflect the shift in perspective. For example, “I am going to the store,” becomes “He said that he was going to the store.”

2. Reported Questions: In reported questions, the reporting verb is usually “asked.” The tense in the reported speech changes from the present simple to the past simple, and the word order changes from a question to a statement. For example, “What time is it?” becomes “She asked what time it was.”

It’s important to note that the tense shift in reported speech depends on the context and the time of the reported speech. Here are a few more examples:

  • Direct speech: “I will call you later.”Reported speech: He said that he would call me later.
  • Direct speech: “Did you finish your homework?”Reported speech: She asked if I had finished my homework.
  • Direct speech: “I love pizza.”Reported speech: They said that they loved pizza.

When do we use reported speech?

Reported speech is used to report what someone else has said, thought, or written. It is often used in situations where you want to relate what someone else has said without quoting them directly.

Reported speech can be used in a variety of contexts, such as in news reports, academic writing, and everyday conversation. Some common situations where reported speech is used include:

News reports:  Journalists often use reported speech to quote what someone said in an interview or press conference.

Business and professional communication:  In professional settings, reported speech can be used to summarize what was discussed in a meeting or to report feedback from a customer.

Conversational English:  In everyday conversations, reported speech is used to relate what someone else said. For example, “She told me that she was running late.”

Narration:  In written narratives or storytelling, reported speech can be used to convey what a character said or thought.

How to make reported speech?

1. Change the pronouns and adverbs of time and place: In reported speech, you need to change the pronouns, adverbs of time and place to reflect the new speaker or point of view. Here’s an example:

Direct speech: “I’m going to the store now,” she said. Reported speech: She said she was going to the store then.

In this example, the pronoun “I” is changed to “she” and the adverb “now” is changed to “then.”

2. Change the tense: In reported speech, you usually need to change the tense of the verb to reflect the change from direct to indirect speech. Here’s an example:

Direct speech: “I will meet you at the park tomorrow,” he said. Reported speech: He said he would meet me at the park the next day.

In this example, the present tense “will” is changed to the past tense “would.”

3. Change reporting verbs: In reported speech, you can use different reporting verbs such as “say,” “tell,” “ask,” or “inquire” depending on the context of the speech. Here’s an example:

Direct speech: “Did you finish your homework?” she asked. Reported speech: She asked if I had finished my homework.

In this example, the reporting verb “asked” is changed to “said” and “did” is changed to “had.”

Overall, when making reported speech, it’s important to pay attention to the verb tense and the changes in pronouns, adverbs, and reporting verbs to convey the original speaker’s message accurately.

How do I change the pronouns and adverbs in reported speech?

1. Changing Pronouns: In reported speech, the pronouns in the original statement must be changed to reflect the perspective of the new speaker. Generally, the first person pronouns (I, me, my, mine, we, us, our, ours) are changed according to the subject of the reporting verb, while the second and third person pronouns (you, your, yours, he, him, his, she, her, hers, it, its, they, them, their, theirs) are changed according to the object of the reporting verb. For example:

Direct speech: “I love chocolate.” Reported speech: She said she loved chocolate.

Direct speech: “You should study harder.” Reported speech: He advised me to study harder.

Direct speech: “She is reading a book.” Reported speech: They noticed that she was reading a book.

2. Changing Adverbs: In reported speech, the adverbs and adverbial phrases that indicate time or place may need to be changed to reflect the perspective of the new speaker. For example:

Direct speech: “I’m going to the cinema tonight.” Reported speech: She said she was going to the cinema that night.

Direct speech: “He is here.” Reported speech: She said he was there.

Note that the adverb “now” usually changes to “then” or is omitted altogether in reported speech, depending on the context.

It’s important to keep in mind that the changes made to pronouns and adverbs in reported speech depend on the context and the perspective of the new speaker. With practice, you can become more comfortable with making these changes in reported speech.

How do I change the tense in reported speech?

In reported speech, the tense of the reported verb usually changes to reflect the change from direct to indirect speech. Here are some guidelines on how to change the tense in reported speech:

Present simple in direct speech changes to past simple in reported speech. For example: Direct speech: “I like pizza.” Reported speech: She said she liked pizza.

Present continuous in direct speech changes to past continuous in reported speech. For example: Direct speech: “I am studying for my exam.” Reported speech: He said he was studying for his exam.

Present perfect in direct speech changes to past perfect in reported speech. For example: Direct speech: “I have finished my work.” Reported speech: She said she had finished her work.

Past simple in direct speech changes to past perfect in reported speech. For example: Direct speech: “I visited my grandparents last weekend.” Reported speech: She said she had visited her grandparents the previous weekend.

Will in direct speech changes to would in reported speech. For example: Direct speech: “I will help you with your project.” Reported speech: He said he would help me with my project.

Can in direct speech changes to could in reported speech. For example: Direct speech: “I can speak French.” Reported speech: She said she could speak French.

Remember that the tense changes in reported speech depend on the tense of the verb in the direct speech, and the tense you use in reported speech should match the time frame of the new speaker’s perspective. With practice, you can become more comfortable with changing the tense in reported speech.

Do I always need to use a reporting verb in reported speech?

No, you do not always need to use a reporting verb in reported speech. However, using a reporting verb can help to clarify who is speaking and add more context to the reported speech.

In some cases, the reported speech can be introduced by phrases such as “I heard that” or “It seems that” without using a reporting verb. For example:

Direct speech: “I’m going to the cinema tonight.” Reported speech with a reporting verb: She said she was going to the cinema tonight. Reported speech without a reporting verb: It seems that she’s going to the cinema tonight.

However, it’s important to note that using a reporting verb can help to make the reported speech more formal and accurate. When using reported speech in academic writing or journalism, it’s generally recommended to use a reporting verb to make the reporting more clear and credible.

Some common reporting verbs include say, tell, explain, ask, suggest, and advise. For example:

Direct speech: “I think we should invest in renewable energy.” Reported speech with a reporting verb: She suggested that they invest in renewable energy.

Overall, while using a reporting verb is not always required, it can be helpful to make the reported speech more clear and accurate

How to use reported speech to report questions and commands?

1. Reporting Questions: When reporting questions, you need to use an introductory phrase such as “asked” or “wondered” followed by the question word (if applicable), subject, and verb. You also need to change the word order to make it a statement. Here’s an example:

Direct speech: “What time is the meeting?” Reported speech: She asked what time the meeting was.

Note that the question mark is not used in reported speech.

2. Reporting Commands: When reporting commands, you need to use an introductory phrase such as “ordered” or “told” followed by the person, to + infinitive, and any additional information. Here’s an example:

Direct speech: “Clean your room!” Reported speech: She ordered me to clean my room.

Note that the exclamation mark is not used in reported speech.

In both cases, the tense of the reported verb should be changed accordingly. For example, present simple changes to past simple, and future changes to conditional. Here are some examples:

Direct speech: “Will you go to the party with me?”Reported speech: She asked if I would go to the party with her. Direct speech: “Please bring me a glass of water.”Reported speech: She requested that I bring her a glass of water.

Remember that when using reported speech to report questions and commands, the introductory phrases and verb tenses are important to convey the intended meaning accurately.

How to make questions in reported speech?

To make questions in reported speech, you need to use an introductory phrase such as “asked” or “wondered” followed by the question word (if applicable), subject, and verb. You also need to change the word order to make it a statement. Here are the steps to make questions in reported speech:

Identify the reporting verb: The first step is to identify the reporting verb in the sentence. Common reporting verbs used to report questions include “asked,” “inquired,” “wondered,” and “wanted to know.”

Change the tense and pronouns: Next, you need to change the tense and pronouns in the sentence to reflect the shift from direct to reported speech. The tense of the verb is usually shifted back one tense (e.g. from present simple to past simple) in reported speech. The pronouns should also be changed as necessary to reflect the shift in perspective from the original speaker to the reporting speaker.

Use an appropriate question word: If the original question contained a question word (e.g. who, what, where, when, why, how), you should use the same question word in the reported question. If the original question did not contain a question word, you can use “if” or “whether” to introduce the reported question.

Change the word order: In reported speech, the word order of the question changes from the inverted form to a normal statement form. The subject usually comes before the verb, unless the original question started with a question word.

Here are some examples of reported questions:

Direct speech: “Did you finish your homework?”Reported speech: He wanted to know if I had finished my homework. Direct speech: “Where are you going?”Reported speech: She wondered where I was going.

Remember that when making questions in reported speech, the introductory phrases and verb tenses are important to convey the intended meaning accurately.

Here you can find more examples of direct and indirect questions

What is the difference between reported speech an indirect speech?

In reported or indirect speech, you are retelling or reporting what someone said using your own words. The tense of the reported speech is usually shifted back one tense from the tense used in the original statement. For example, if someone said, “I am going to the store,” in reported speech you would say, “He/she said that he/she was going to the store.”

The main difference between reported speech and indirect speech is that reported speech usually refers to spoken language, while indirect speech can refer to both spoken and written language. Additionally, indirect speech is a broader term that includes reported speech as well as other ways of expressing what someone else has said, such as paraphrasing or summarizing.

Examples of direct speech to reported

  • Direct speech: “I am hungry,” she said. Reported speech: She said she was hungry.
  • Direct speech: “Can you pass the salt, please?” he asked. Reported speech: He asked her to pass the salt.
  • Direct speech: “I will meet you at the cinema,” he said. Reported speech: He said he would meet her at the cinema.
  • Direct speech: “I have been working on this project for hours,” she said. Reported speech: She said she had been working on the project for hours.
  • Direct speech: “What time does the train leave?” he asked. Reported speech: He asked what time the train left.
  • Direct speech: “I love playing the piano,” she said. Reported speech: She said she loved playing the piano.
  • Direct speech: “I am going to the grocery store,” he said. Reported speech: He said he was going to the grocery store.
  • Direct speech: “Did you finish your homework?” the teacher asked. Reported speech: The teacher asked if he had finished his homework.
  • Direct speech: “I want to go to the beach,” she said. Reported speech: She said she wanted to go to the beach.
  • Direct speech: “Do you need help with that?” he asked. Reported speech: He asked if she needed help with that.
  • Direct speech: “I can’t come to the party,” he said. Reported speech: He said he couldn’t come to the party.
  • Direct speech: “Please don’t leave me,” she said. Reported speech: She begged him not to leave her.
  • Direct speech: “I have never been to London before,” he said. Reported speech: He said he had never been to London before.
  • Direct speech: “Where did you put my phone?” she asked. Reported speech: She asked where she had put her phone.
  • Direct speech: “I’m sorry for being late,” he said. Reported speech: He apologized for being late.
  • Direct speech: “I need some help with this math problem,” she said. Reported speech: She said she needed some help with the math problem.
  • Direct speech: “I am going to study abroad next year,” he said. Reported speech: He said he was going to study abroad the following year.
  • Direct speech: “Can you give me a ride to the airport?” she asked. Reported speech: She asked him to give her a ride to the airport.
  • Direct speech: “I don’t know how to fix this,” he said. Reported speech: He said he didn’t know how to fix it.
  • Direct speech: “I hate it when it rains,” she said. Reported speech: She said she hated it when it rained.

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English Grammar – Using ALREADY & YET

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  • I 've already visited three universities.
  • She 's just won the match.
  • I haven't made a decision yet .
  • ‘ Have you seen that new film yet ? ’   ‘ Yes, I have . / No, I haven't . ’
  • visit  →  visit ed   arrive  →  arriv ed
  • have, had  →  had   lose, lost  →  lost
  • do, did  →  done   eat, ate  →  eaten
  • They 've just made a big announcement.
  • Have you finished that book yet ?
  • Spring has already arrived in Madrid!
  • Practice 1   Gap-fill
  • Practice 2   Gap-fill
  • Practice 3   Multiple choice
  • Practice 4   Multiple choice
  • Practice 5   Gap-fill
  • Practice 6   Multiple choice
  • Practice 7   Multiple choice
  • Practice 8   Gap-fill
  • Practice 9   Gap-fill
  • Practice 10   Gap-fill
  • Practice 11   Gap-fill
  • Adverbs with the Present Perfect Tense

In the last lesson we saw when to use the present perfect tense . Now we will look at more situations of when to use the present perfect tense but now using adverbs .

We often use the adverbs just, ever / never, still, yet and already with the present perfect tense. These adverbs generally refer to a time period between the past and now. Let’s look at each one more in detail.

JUST – Events that recently occurred – Recent past events

We often use the adverb JUST with the present perfect tense. JUST means very recently, a short moment ago. This is a recently completed action with a connection to now. For example:

  • Be careful, I have just broken a glass and there are pieces on the floor.

This is a recently completed action. It is a finished event: The glass broke in the past. BUT with a connection to now, the present: Be careful NOW because you might cut yourself.

Notice how the word JUST is positioned between have/has and the Past Participle. Look at this example:

  • A: Would you like to go out to dinner with us? B: Thanks, but I ‘ve  just  eaten  an entire pizza. (I ate the pizza recently so now I am not hungry)

Now, something important to know is: In British English , JUST is used with the PERFECT TENSE

  • Be careful, I have just broken a glass.

Now look at this sentence.

  • Be careful, I just broke a glass.

It has JUST but not with the present perfect tense. That is because in American English the PAST SIMPLE tense is often used instead of the present perfect tense. So…

  • Be careful, I have just broken a glass. (🇬🇧 British English – Perfect Tense)
  • Be careful, I just broke a glass. (🇺🇸 American English – Past Tense)

JUST with the present perfect tense in English - British English - American English

EVER / NEVER – Talking about general experiences

When the adverbs EVER and NEVER are used with the present perfect tense, they usually refer to an event happening (or not happening) at some moment in your life – any time up to now.

EVER is used in the present perfect question: Have you ever …?

  • Have you ever fallen asleep at work? (at any moment in your life up to now)
  • Has  he ever   tried  a steak and mushroom pie? (in his life)

EVER can also be used with the first time :

  • This is the first time I have ever been to Australia.
  • It is the first time she has ever done

EVER in these cases emphasizes that it has never happened before in your life. Also, notice the position of EVER between HAVE/HAS and the past participle.

NEVER = at no time in my past. It is considered a negative sentence.

  • I ‘ve   never   seen  a UFO. (in my life)
  • She ’s never been to Argentina. (in her life – up until this point of her life)

Again, the adverb never is between the auxiliary have or has and the past participle .

EVER and NEVER with the present perfect tense in English - English Grammar Lesson

STILL – Events that continue to happen after a long time

The adverb STILL can be used with the present perfect tense to express that we have waited a long time for something to happen or be done and it hasn’t happened yet. This situation continues to happen. When used in the present perfect tense, it is normally in negative sentences.

  • He still hasn’t finished the report. (It has taken a long time)
  • I still haven’t had (I have had to wait to have lunch)
  • They still haven’t paid (I’m waiting for it to happen)

Notice how STILL goes before the auxiliary haven’t or hasn’t .

STILL with the present perfect tense in English - English Grammar Lesson

YET – An event has not happened, but it is expected

The adverb YET usually refers to something that has not happened, but you expect it to happen (usually soon). We normally put YET at the end of the sentence. YET is used in negative sentences and questions.

  • A: Are Jack and Jill at this event?

B: No, they  haven’t arrived   yet . (they’re not here now, but I expect them to be here soon)

  • I’m hungry. I haven’t had lunch yet . (I thought I was going to have lunch before now, but it hasn’t happened. I expect to have lunch soon)
  • Have you finished your homework yet ?

Now look at this sentence:

  • I haven’t received a letter from her yet .

In British English , YET is used with the PERFECT TENSE Now look at this sentence:

  • I didn’t receive a letter from her yet .

It has YET but not with the present perfect tense. That is because in American English the PAST SIMPLE tense is sometimes used instead of the present perfect tense. So…

  • I haven’t received a letter from her yet . (🇬🇧 British English – Present Perfect)
  • I didn’t receive a letter from her yet . (🇺🇸 American English – Past Simple)

YET with the present perfect tense in English - British English - American English

ALREADY – Events that occurred before you expected

The adverb ALREADY can be used with the present perfect tense to express that something has happened early or before expected. This can come as a surprise.

Notice how the adverb ALREADY goes between the auxiliary and the past participle.

  • She has   already   finished  the report. (I expected her to finish it later, not so quickly)
  • I ’ve already had lunch. (Yes, it happened some time before now. You didn’t expect it.)
  • We ’ve already chosen what we would like to eat. (You probably expected us to take more time to choose.)
  • He has already taken the trash out. (Earlier than you expected. You probably thought he would do it later)

You can see that ALREADY is used in affirmative sentences. We don’t use ALREADY with negative sentences. Now look at this sentence:

  • I have already eaten .

In British English , ALREADY is used with the PERFECT TENSE Now look at this sentence:

  • I already ate .

It has ALREADY but not with the present perfect tense. That is because in American English the PAST SIMPLE tense is sometimes used instead of the present perfect tense. So…

  • I have already eaten . (🇬🇧 British English – Present Perfect)
  • I already ate . (🇺🇸 American English – Past Simple)

ALREADY with the present perfect tense in English - British English - American English

Still vs. Yet vs. Just vs. Already

Now compare these sentences and see how there is a difference in meaning between them:

  • He still hasn’t finished the report. (It has taken a long time and I continue to have to wait for it)
  • He hasn’t finished the report yet . (It has not been done though I expect it to happen soon)
  • He has just finished the report. (It was completed a moment ago)
  • He has already finished the report. (It has been done sooner than expected)

Comparing STILL, YET, JUST, ALREADY, EVER and NEVER with Present Perfect Tense in English

See our other English lesson about STILL / YET / ALREADY .

I hope you found this lesson about using adverbs with the present perfect tense useful. If you did, please let other people know about it.

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Present Perfect

For recently finished actions.

Present Perfect For recent completed actions

Table of Contents

In this grammar section we will have a look at the tense Present Perfect to talk about recently finished/completed actions.

A: How long have you worked there? B: I have worked there for 3 years.

A: How long have you been friends? B: We haven’t been friends for long. We have been friends since 2022

The video gives an overview of to Present Perfect for something recently completed/finished actions.

It shows the meaning/usage: when and why to use the Present Perfect.

For the form and the pronunciation have a look a the different webpages:

  • Present perfect form
  • Present perfect pronunciation

Usage/ Meaning

How and when do we use the Present Perfect?

Timeline Present Perfect for recently finished actions just

Present Perfect is also used to talk about something recently finished.

I have just done my homework: This means not so long ago you finished your homework . It is an unspecified time in the past . We don’t know when the person did it, but it wasn’t so long ago . It is usually used to stress that you finished the action and there it no need to do it anymore or no need to worry about it anymore .

Timeline Present Perfect for recently finished actions already

I have already done my homework: This means you finished your homework somewhere before now . It is an unspecified time in the past . We don’t know when the person did it . It is usually used to stress that you finished the action and there it no need to do it anymore or no need to worry about it anymore .

Timeline Present Perfect for recently finished actions yet

Present Perfect is also used to talk about something that is not finished.

I haven’t done my homework yet : This means you did not finished your homework somewhere before now but that you will do it later . It is usually used to stress that you did not finished the action but you will do it somewhere soon in the future.

  • Just: recently finished actions. positive and questions. Between have and the main verb : I have just finished . 
  • Already: finished actions. positive and questions. Between have and the main verb : I have already finished .
  • Yet: not finished, but will finish it later. Negative and questions. At the end of the sentence: I haven’t finished yet .

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Have a look at the questions and write your answers in the comments below . Also give us some more details about when, where, why,….

  • What have you already done today?
  • What haven’t you done yet today, but must still do today?
  • What have you just finished before answering these questions?
  • Have you just had some food?
  • Have you already finished your homework?
  • Have you already studied today?
  • Have you just had a phone call?
  • Have you already had lunch today?
  • Which movie have you already seen more than 2 times?
  • Which goals in your life have you already achieved?

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The Present Perfect Tense

  • Past perfect means before another action in the past.
  • Present perfect means before now.
  • Future perfect means before another action in the future.
  • Past perfect: I had done my homework and so the test was easy.
  • Present perfect: I have done my homework hard and so the test is easy.
  • Future perfect: I will have done my homework hard and so the test will be easy.
  • “I wasn’t hungry yesterday because I had eaten a large breakfast”
  • “I am not hungry now because I have eaten a large breakfast”
  • “I won’t be hungry tomorrow because I will have eaten a large breakfast”

Grammar Resources

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did you finished your homework yet

did you finished your homework yet

  • English (US)

What is the difference between did you finish your homework yet? and did you finish your homework already? and have you finished your homework yet? ?Feel free to just provide example sentences.

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Those two questions are functionally the same. However, there are circumstances when "yet" makes a difference. For example: - "Have you been to that restaurant?" - "Have you been to that restaurant yet?" The second one implies that there's a pre-existing expectation that this person goes to the restaurant. The first does not. Perfect tense is totally fine in questions, as far as I know. In fact, the past perfect is often used instead of regular past tense in British English! Your English is great, keep it up!

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did you finished your homework yet

did you finish your homework yet? and have you finished your homework yet? Are totally the same, you can use them interchangeably. did you finish your homework already? Also has the same meaning but “already” suggests you are surprised by the time it took them, they finished it faster than expected.

"did you finish your homework already" implies that the speaker expected them to not be done yet. for example, i would say this if my friend finished their homework extremely quickly. if you emphasize "already", then you are especially shocked. you can also say "have you already finished your homework" and "did you already finish your homework". it makes no difference, just personal preference. "have you finished your homework already" is technically correct, but uncommon. -------- "did you finish your homework yet" and "have you finished your homework yet" are interchangeable, and are both commonly used. they imply nothing. for example, if i wanted to ask my friend about a problem on their homework, i could ask this. or, if a child wants to play outside, a parent might ask them this first. i hope this helps english is confusing., 1. the speaker could expect either. for example: a: "that restaurant is great, you should try it sometime" b: "ok, i will." [later] a: "have you been to that restaurant yet" a expects that b would go sometime, but it doesn't need to be done yet. ----or---- a: "remember to send me that email by 8:00pm." b: "sure, will do." [later, 9:00pm] a: "did you send it yet" a expects that b has sent the email by this point, but a has not. 2. "i haven't seen that movie." "i haven't seen that movie yet." the second implies that the speaker intends to see the movie, the first does not. 3. i'm no expert, but it seems that "already" almost always goes before the verb for this sentence structure. i found a bunch of examples here: https://sentence.yourdictionary.com/already i hope i didn't make it more confusing.

did you finished your homework yet

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India election results 2024: How will votes be counted?

Here’s how votes for India’s Lok Sabha polls will be counted using EVMs on June 4.

Indian polling officials

India’s multiphase voting concluded on Saturday after seven rounds of elections over 44 days. The giant electoral exercise – the largest in democratic history – saw 15 million polling staff travelling the length and breadth of the vast country to conduct the vote at about 1 million polling stations, many of which were located in remote villages, hills, deserts and conflict zones.

Voters have braved soaring temperatures to cast their ballots, with the seven phases – April 19 ,  April 26,   May 7 ,  May 13,   May 20,   May 25 and June 1 – recording turnouts of 66.1, 66.7, 61.0, 67.3, 60.5, 63.4 and 62 percent, respectively. An estimated 969 million people were registered to vote. Ballots were cast using electronic voting machines (EVMs).

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At stake are 543 seats in the Lok Sabha – the lower house of India’s Parliament. Votes will be counted on Tuesday, June 4.

Here’s how vote counting for elections works:

What time will votes be counted for India’s 2024 election?

Counting for all constituencies will begin at 8am (02:30 GMT) on Tuesday, June 4.

What are EVMs?

EVMs have been used in India’s elections since 2004 instead of paper ballots.

The Election Commission of India (ECI) developed these machines in collaboration with Bengaluru-based Bharat Electronics Ltd and Hyderabad-based Electronic Corporation of India Ltd, both government-owned companies. EVMs are battery-powered, so electricity is not needed for their functioning. They are not connected to the internet.

An EVM comprises two parts, which are connected through a cable:

  • Control unit: It is operated by the polling officer at the polling booth. It has a “ballot button” which lights up a green LED on the other unit of the EVM, indicating the machine is ready for voting. It shows a “Busy” light while a vote is being cast. A “Close” button allows no more votes to be cast and a “Clear” button removes all data. A section displays the total number of votes cast.
  • Balloting unit: It is kept in the voting compartment at the polling booth. The candidates’ names and symbols are fed into this unit, with a blue button next to each name. The unit also facilitates braille script to enable visually impaired voters to cast their votes without external help. Voters register their votes by pressing the blue button next to their candidate of choice. After the vote is cast, a beep sound goes off on the control unit.

INTERACTIVE_India election 2024_Machine_VVPAT_MAY28_2024 (2)-1716961735

Who oversees vote counting?

The ECI appoints a returning officer (RO) for each parliamentary constituency, making them responsible for vote counting.

An RO is supported by assistant returning officers (AROs), who are responsible for counting in the assembly segments falling under the respective parliamentary constituency. Each parliamentary constituency is divided into assembly segments corresponding to the constituencies in the respective state assemblies. Most parliamentary constituencies typically consist of six or seven assembly constituencies.

How are votes counted?

  • As voting ends, the EVMs are sealed and stored in a strongroom in the parliamentary constituency. On the day of counting, the EVMs are taken out and unsealed in the presence of representatives from all participating political parties.
  • Vote counting begins with the RO counting votes through postal ballots. The counting of EVM votes begins 30 minutes after the postal ballot count. Only the control units of the EVMs are required during the counting.
  • Since there are several assembly constituencies within a parliamentary constituency, vote counting for each assembly segment takes place in a single hall where 14 tables are set up and control units of EVMs are distributed among the tables.
  • The number of halls or tables can be increased if there is a large number of candidates. But it requires the electoral body’s prior permission. Counting can also take place in more than one location within the assembly constituency under the supervision of an ARO.
  • Before counting, several checks are carried out to ensure that the control units are sealed, assigned correctly and functioning properly.
  • In each round, votes registered in 14 EVMs are counted and the results are announced and written on a blackboard attached to each table before the next round of counting.
  • The votes are counted by counting supervisors and counting assistants on each table, who are appointed by the RO through a randomisation process.
  • The control unit of the EVM contains a “Results” button to display the number of votes each candidate received. It also shows the total number of candidates per constituency.
  • When the Results button is pressed, the EVM displays votes secured by candidates one by one, indicated by beep sounds. The control unit shows “End” after the candidates’ vote numbers are displayed.

What is the VVPAT system?

This ECI introduced the Voter Verifiable Paper Audit Trail (VVPAT) system in 2013 to build voters’ confidence in the EVMs.

A VVPAT is connected to the control unit and the balloting unit of an EVM through cables. After a voter casts their vote, the VVPAT generates a corresponding paper slip, which is visible to the voter for about seven seconds to confirm that the vote was cast properly. These slips then fall into a drop box.

The Congress and some other opposition parties have been demanding that VVPAT slips be counted to tally votes for all polling stations across the country as a measure against vote rigging. The ECI has rejected the demand. However, the Supreme Court of India has directed the poll body to match the VVPAT slips from five randomly selected assembly segments with results from respective EVMs.

When will the election results be announced?

Initial trends and subsequent results start coming in soon after the counting begins. The final results of India’s general election will likely be announced on the night of June 4 or the morning of June 5.

Where to check India’s 2024 Lok Sabha election results?

The ECI will publish the results on its website. Al Jazeera will also be bringing you live results , updated with the latest from the ECI, on June 4.

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Have/Haven't you finished your homework yet/already?

  • Thread starter sitifan
  • Start date Oct 8, 2021

Senior Member

  • Oct 8, 2021

1. Have you finished your homework yet? 2. Have you finished your homework already? 3. Haven't you finished your homework yet? 4. Haven't you finished your homework already? Are the above interrogative sentences all grammatically correct?  

The Newt

They are all potentially correct, depending on the implications and the context.  

sitifan said: 1. Have you finished your homework yet? 2. Have you finished your homework already? 3. Haven't you finished your homework yet? 4. Haven't you finished your homework already? Are the above interrogative sentences all grammatically correct? Click to expand...

Keith Bradford

Keith Bradford

No.3 is the normal question expressing suprise that the homework is taking too long. No.4 is the same question as 3, put by an American of Jewish origin (to my ear).  

"Haven't you finished your homework already?" might be an alternative to "Didn't you finish your homework already?," where the expected answer is "yes" and the speaker is befuddled by the fact that the student is acting as if it weren't finished.  

Loob

#4 doesn't work for me.  

sitifan said: 1. Have you finished your homework yet? 2. Have you finished your homework already? 3. Haven't you finished your homework yet? 4. Haven't you finished your homework already? Click to expand...

DonnyB

Moderator Emeritus

sitifan said: Is the adverb "already" used in questions that expect or encourage the answer "yes"? Click to expand...
DonnyB said: In (2), it expresses surprise that the person apparently has: in (4), it doesn't work in standard English. Click to expand...
sitifan said: 5. Do you have any questions? 6. Do you have some questions? 7. Don't you have any questions? 8. Don't you have some questions? In (8), does it work in standard English? Click to expand...
  • Oct 9, 2021

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COMMENTS

  1. you ______(finish) your homework yet? A. Did / finished

    Vocabulary › View. The doctors _____ a treatment to everyone who was sick from the virus and soon most recovered. A. concoct. B. execute. C. reactivate

  2. Have you finished your homework yet?

    1- In formal writing, there is no difference between AE and BE. 2- Many AE speakers follow the BE pattern, even in informal writing and speech. 3- Many AE speakers do not follow the BE pattern in speech; they use the simple past with yet. I think that most AE speakers would understand the two forms as having identical meanings, and would not be ...

  3. What is Reported Speech and How to Use It? with Examples

    3. Change reporting verbs: In reported speech, you can use different reporting verbs such as "say," "tell," "ask," or "inquire" depending on the context of the speech. Here's an example: Direct speech: "Did you finish your homework?" she asked. Reported speech: She asked if I had finished my homework.

  4. Past simple or present perfect?

    Have you finished your homework yet? I haven't finished my homework yet. Recently. We often use the present perfect with recently to talk about past recent actions. They 've recently bought a new car. Today, this week, this month, this year. We can use the present perfect with time expressions when the time we mention has not finished.

  5. Already, still, yet

    Still and yet. We can use still and yet in negative sentences to talk about something that didn't happen or wasn't true in the past and continues not to happen or not to be true in the present. The meaning of still and yet in these sentences is very similar, but often still shows that the speaker is more impatient or surprised.

  6. English Grammar

    "Has she finished her homework yet?" means that she has likely not completed her homework, and you want to find out if she has completed it. "Has she finished her homework already?" is used as an expression of surprise. It means that she finished it very quickly, and you are surprised at how quickly she did finish it. I hope this helps.

  7. Already or Yet?

    Have you already finished your homework? Have you finished your homework yet? FILE - Illinois Rep. Jim Watson helps his son Jacob with his homework in Jacksonville, Ill., Tuesday, Jan. 15, 2008.

  8. Present perfect simple with just, already and yet

    We can use the present perfect positive with just or already: Subject + have/has + just/already + past participle. three universities. the match. We usually use short forms ( I've, You've, He's, etc.) when we are speaking and in informal writing. We can use the present perfect negative with yet: Subject + haven't/hasn't + past participle + yet.

  9. Are you finished or have you finished or Did you finished?

    In BE: 1. Did you finish your homework at some time in the past, e.g.Did you finish your homework yesterday? 2. Have you finished your homeworknow.This is the correct answer. 3. Are you finished with your homework = Do you want to continue it or have you done enough for the moment?

  10. Adverbs with the Present Perfect Tense

    B: No, they haven't arrived yet. (they're not here now, but I expect them to be here soon) I'm hungry. I haven't had lunch yet. (I thought I was going to have lunch before now, but it hasn't happened. I expect to have lunch soon) Have you finished your homework yet? Now look at this sentence: I haven't received a letter from her yet.

  11. Did you finish? vs. Have you finished?

    1. Means have you finished (now or yet)? Implies they are nearly out of time. 2. Means did you finish (at all)? Implies that the students were out of time in the past. Were we to say 'did you finish' at the time of 1. it would indirectly imply that they are out of time and should stop work. If they haven't finished now they will not finish at ...

  12. 'Yet'

    Did you finish your homework yet? We can ask these questions without "yet". Why use it then? When we add "yet" to a question, we not only want to know if it happened, but we expect it to ...

  13. Difference between "are you done" and "have you done."

    "Are you done" asks about whether you have finished something that you have started. "Have you done" also asks if you have finished, but whether you have even started is uncertain. ("Are you done" can also be used in a "correcting" or "accusatory" way, where the asker knows full well you haven't started and that is the point he is trying to make.

  14. Present Perfect for recently finished actions

    Just. Present Perfect is also used to talk about something recently finished. I have just done my homework: This means not so long ago you finished your homework. It is an unspecified time in the past. We don't know when the person did it, but it wasn't so long ago. It is usually used to stress that you finished the action and there it no ...

  15. The Present Perfect Tense

    Just = recently: "I have just finished my homework" Already = happened sooner than expected: "I have already finished my homework". Yet = for questions or negative statements:"Have you finished your homework yet? "I haven't finished my homework yet ". For = indicates the duration of an action: "I've lived in Canada for 6 ...

  16. What is the difference between "did you finish your homework yet?" and

    Synonym for did you finish your homework yet? Those two questions are functionally the same. However, there are circumstances when "yet" makes a difference. For example: - "Have you been to that restaurant?" - "Have you been to that restaurant yet?" The second one implies that there's a pre-existing expectation that this person goes to the restaurant. The first does not. Perfect tense is ...

  17. Past simple or present perfect?

    Have you finished your homework yet? I haven't finished my homework yet. Recently. We often use the present perfect with recently to talk about past recent actions. They 've recently bought a new car. Today, this week, this month, this year. We can use the present perfect with time expressions when the time we mention has not finished.

  18. have you done/did you do your homework?

    Cumbria, UK. British English. Mar 2, 2019. #13. Since you live in the UK, use "have you done", since you are interested in the situation in the present. I think AmE usage is "did you do". Don't use "the" with "your". "Your homework" is the usual way of saying it. J.

  19. Already, still, yet

    3 We have eaten dinner. 4 We haven't eaten dinner . 5 We haven't eaten dinner. 6 I've eaten dinner but I'm hungry. 7 It's very early but I'm hungry. 8 It's dinner time but I'm not very hungry . 9 Have you washed your car ? 10 I have washed my car. Still, yet, already - What's the difference?

  20. India election results 2024: How will votes be counted?

    In each round, votes registered in 14 EVMs are counted and the results are announced and written on a blackboard attached to each table before the next round of counting. The votes are counted by ...

  21. Did you do your homework yet?

    Chines-Mandarin. Oct 26, 2010. #8. panjandrum said: This could be another example of the AE/BE variation in the use of past/present perfect. In this part of the world, the "Did you do your homework yet," version would be very odd indeed. Slightly less odd would be "Did you do your homework." (Leaving out "yet".)

  22. Have/Haven't you finished your homework yet/already?

    Oct 8, 2021. #5. "Haven't you finished your homework already?" might be an alternative to "Didn't you finish your homework already?," where the expected answer is "yes" and the speaker is befuddled by the fact that the student is acting as if it weren't finished.