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IB Biology EE examples

Filter exemplars, how do different concentrations of punica granatum extracts: peel, flower and leaves (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 mg/ml) affect the rate of reaction of α-amylase and compare with metformin (anti-diabetic drug) as measured by a spectrophotometer at 587nm, to what extent do different concentrations of magnesium nitrate (10, 20, 30, 40, 50 mm) affect the concentration of chlorophyll a and b in ocimum basilicum at 645 nm and 662 nm wavelength using spectrophotometer, want to get full marks for your ee allow us to review it for you 🎯, to what extent does varying the duration (0 mins, 5 mins, 10 mins, 15 mins, 20 mins, 25 mins) at which a 25% solution consisting of ethanol-dissolved ayurvedic spices (curcumin and black cumin) is maintained at 60°c affect the antimicrobial activity of these spices against a k12 strain of escherichia coli, what is the effect of seawater mixture (0%, 5%, 10%) on the germination of black chickpeas (cicer arietinum), green gram (vigna radiata) and fenugreek (trigonella foenum-graecum) for 5 days and their subsequent growth when watered using tap water for 10 days where growth was measured by plant height (±0.05 cm) and dry mass (±0.001 g), to what extent does the presence of acetaminophen (tylenol), polymixin b (polysporin), and diphenhydramine hydrochloride (benadryl) in the growth medium of cotoneaster acutifolius affect the average change in leaf length over a period of 15 days in five different concentrations, fast track your coursework with mark schemes moderated by ib examiners. upgrade now 🚀, what is the effect of salinity stress (0, 50, 100, 150, 200 mm nacl) measured through microscopic (stomatal aperture) and morphological (leaf area, leaf dry mass, and root length) characteristics on pre-treated radish (raphanus sativus) seeds with magnetopriming (48 hours), to what extent do bioinformatic tools such as cb dock 2 and chimera help in the analysis of phytochemicals (calotropone, quercetin, thymoquinone) compared to allopathic drugs (gemcitabine, olaparib, fluorouracil) against target receptors of pancreatic cancer (human glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase 1 (got1), threonine-protein kinase bub1, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma), how effective is the cone repair technique when treating ebstein’s anomaly in comparison to other treatments, to what extent do extracts of allium sativum (garlic) and zingiber officinale (ginger) reduce antimicrobial activity and how effective it is compared to antibiotics, to what extent does inhaling e-cigarettes affect the lungs’ vital capacity of high school students in jakarta, how is the number of errors made by participants when attempting to distinguish between the temperature of two different water baths influenced by the hours slept within a 24-hour period, to what extent do phytochemicals such as resveratrol, glyceollin and epigallocatechin-3-gallate (egcg) possess comparable antibacterial effects against staphylococcus aureus bacteria to a non-prescription otitis externa (oe) treatments such as ciprofloxacin using bacillus subtilis as a prokaryotic model organism, how does juice from garlic allium sativum cloves prepared in different ways (fresh raw, crushed one day prior, cooked, kept in oil, fermented in brine and fermented (black garlic)) affect the growth of a non-pathogenic strain of escherichia coli, to what extent does performing the dance styles, cha cha, viennese waltz, and modern contemporary affect human fitness levels as measured by oxygen consumption (vo2) and maximum heart rate (bpm), to what extent is blood pressure related to the development of alzheimer’s disease in people in age above 50, to what extent do different species of chili pepper consumption biologically affect the rate of lipid digestion in terms of ph change within 30 minutes, ¿cómo se estudia el angioedema hereditario, su diagnóstico, tratamiento, síntomas y etiología en humanos, to what extent do various concentrations of piper betle extract (1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 5%) affect the enzymatic activity of the digestive enzyme amylase, protease and lipase on their substrates (starch, casein and milk) in the the process of digestion and the estimation of vitamin c concentration in piper betle, estudio sobre el efecto de la crema dental utilizada para el cepillado de los dientes como inhibidor en la actividad enzimática de la alfa amilasa salival, how can the frameshift mutation caused by a deletion that affects the human body's melanocortin receptor gene (mcr) and leptin receptor gene (lepr) induce monogenetic obesity, to what extent does high intensity interval training (hiit) effect the maximum oxygen uptake (vo2max) in sedentary populations, investigating the effects of oil spillages on plants, what effect do differing concentrations of the growth hormone gibberellic acid, have on the growth and mortality rates of pulses, common beans (phaseolus vulgaris l.) and common peas (pisum sativum l. (partim)), how do different concentrations of two cytokinin hormones: kinetin (0.5, 1 and 1.5 mg/l) and 6-benzylaminopurine (1.5, 2 and 2.5 mg / l) affect the growth of lactuca sativa, measured by height, number of leaves and dry mass, separately and combined over 5 weeks, to what extent is frequent consumption of ultra processed food related to prevalence of overweight and obesity among high school and college students, in poland and in thailand, how does the pollution of oestrogens into freshwater systems affect the biological processes of fathead minnows, to what extent does the abundance of hormosira banksii influence biodiversity at different positions on the intertidal rocky shore, to what extent does irrigation with carbonated water affect the ferric ion (fe3+) nutrient content of brassica oleracea ‘black tuscany’ microgreens, how does the duration of exposure time to ultraviolet light affect the growth of saccharomyces cerevisiae, ¿cómo los cambios en la luminosidad con niveles de 0, 2 500 y 5 000 lux, en focos de 25 y 50 watts respectivamente, afectan a la fijación de dióxido de carbono (co2) en la sansevieria trifasciata zeylanica biología nm, knowing that fingerprints are always different, but the core is identical, to what extent is it possible to see other similarities between the minutiae of close family members, to what extent does the efficiency of lactase enzyme found in different types and brands of dietary supplements (vitaplus innolact lactase dietary supplement film-coated tablet, millandjoy lactase enzyme chewable tablets, lactase comfort drops, dr. chen soft capsule, sanct bernhard lactase enzyme capsule) differ if the prescribed dosage used, measured as the amount of glucose produced after being treated with different supplements in a given time period (30sec, 60sec, 90sec, 120sec, 150sec), how do different concentrations of salicylic acid (1mm and 1m) affect growth of radishes (raphanus sativus), under drought, osmotic and cold stress, as well as normal conditions, the impact of ph on chlorella vulgaris, between hiit and steady-state cardio, which is more impactful on physical performance, factors affecting the frequency of turn alternation in porcellio scaber (common rough woodlouse), how the increase of carbon dioxide concentration (385-405ppm) in sea water affects the functioning of great barrier reef hard corals in years 2017-2019 (scleractinia), is it possible for physarum polycephalum (the blob) to adapt and learn to cross an obstacle placed in its way to reach a determined goal, this obstacle being normal table salt (nacl)., what is the effect of different light combinations on the movement of semiaquatic turtles, red-eared slider (trachemys scripta elegans) with respect to the position of the light sources.

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International Baccalaureate (IB)

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IB students around the globe fear writing the Extended Essay, but it doesn't have to be a source of stress! In this article, I'll get you excited about writing your Extended Essay and provide you with the resources you need to get an A on it.

If you're reading this article, I'm going to assume you're an IB student getting ready to write your Extended Essay. If you're looking at this as a potential future IB student, I recommend reading our introductory IB articles first, including our guide to what the IB program is and our full coverage of the IB curriculum .

IB Extended Essay: Why Should You Trust My Advice?

I myself am a recipient of an IB Diploma, and I happened to receive an A on my IB Extended Essay. Don't believe me? The proof is in the IBO pudding:

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If you're confused by what this report means, EE is short for Extended Essay , and English A1 is the subject that my Extended Essay topic coordinated with. In layman's terms, my IB Diploma was graded in May 2010, I wrote my Extended Essay in the English A1 category, and I received an A grade on it.

What Is the Extended Essay in the IB Diploma Programme?

The IB Extended Essay, or EE , is a mini-thesis you write under the supervision of an IB advisor (an IB teacher at your school), which counts toward your IB Diploma (learn more about the major IB Diploma requirements in our guide) . I will explain exactly how the EE affects your Diploma later in this article.

For the Extended Essay, you will choose a research question as a topic, conduct the research independently, then write an essay on your findings . The essay itself is a long one—although there's a cap of 4,000 words, most successful essays get very close to this limit.

Keep in mind that the IB requires this essay to be a "formal piece of academic writing," meaning you'll have to do outside research and cite additional sources.

The IB Extended Essay must include the following:

  • A title page
  • Contents page
  • Introduction
  • Body of the essay
  • References and bibliography

Additionally, your research topic must fall into one of the six approved DP categories , or IB subject groups, which are as follows:

  • Group 1: Studies in Language and Literature
  • Group 2: Language Acquisition
  • Group 3: Individuals and Societies
  • Group 4: Sciences
  • Group 5: Mathematics
  • Group 6: The Arts

Once you figure out your category and have identified a potential research topic, it's time to pick your advisor, who is normally an IB teacher at your school (though you can also find one online ). This person will help direct your research, and they'll conduct the reflection sessions you'll have to do as part of your Extended Essay.

As of 2018, the IB requires a "reflection process" as part of your EE supervision process. To fulfill this requirement, you have to meet at least three times with your supervisor in what the IB calls "reflection sessions." These meetings are not only mandatory but are also part of the formal assessment of the EE and your research methods.

According to the IB, the purpose of these meetings is to "provide an opportunity for students to reflect on their engagement with the research process." Basically, these meetings give your supervisor the opportunity to offer feedback, push you to think differently, and encourage you to evaluate your research process.

The final reflection session is called the viva voce, and it's a short 10- to 15-minute interview between you and your advisor. This happens at the very end of the EE process, and it's designed to help your advisor write their report, which factors into your EE grade.

Here are the topics covered in your viva voce :

  • A check on plagiarism and malpractice
  • Your reflection on your project's successes and difficulties
  • Your reflection on what you've learned during the EE process

Your completed Extended Essay, along with your supervisor's report, will then be sent to the IB to be graded. We'll cover the assessment criteria in just a moment.

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What Should You Write About in Your IB Extended Essay?

You can technically write about anything, so long as it falls within one of the approved categories listed above.

It's best to choose a topic that matches one of the IB courses , (such as Theatre, Film, Spanish, French, Math, Biology, etc.), which shouldn't be difficult because there are so many class subjects.

Here is a range of sample topics with the attached extended essay:

  • Biology: The Effect of Age and Gender on the Photoreceptor Cells in the Human Retina
  • Chemistry: How Does Reflux Time Affect the Yield and Purity of Ethyl Aminobenzoate (Benzocaine), and How Effective is Recrystallisation as a Purification Technique for This Compound?
  • English: An Exploration of Jane Austen's Use of the Outdoors in Emma
  • Geography: The Effect of Location on the Educational Attainment of Indigenous Secondary Students in Queensland, Australia
  • Math: Alhazen's Billiard Problem
  • Visual Arts: Can Luc Tuymans Be Classified as a Political Painter?

You can see from how varied the topics are that you have a lot of freedom when it comes to picking a topic . So how do you pick when the options are limitless?

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How to Write a Stellar IB Extended Essay: 6 Essential Tips

Below are six key tips to keep in mind as you work on your Extended Essay for the IB DP. Follow these and you're sure to get an A!

#1: Write About Something You Enjoy

You can't expect to write a compelling essay if you're not a fan of the topic on which you're writing. For example, I just love British theatre and ended up writing my Extended Essay on a revolution in post-WWII British theatre. (Yes, I'm definitely a #TheatreNerd.)

I really encourage anyone who pursues an IB Diploma to take the Extended Essay seriously. I was fortunate enough to receive a full-tuition merit scholarship to USC's School of Dramatic Arts program. In my interview for the scholarship, I spoke passionately about my Extended Essay; thus, I genuinely think my Extended Essay helped me get my scholarship.

But how do you find a topic you're passionate about? Start by thinking about which classes you enjoy the most and why . Do you like math classes because you like to solve problems? Or do you enjoy English because you like to analyze literary texts?

Keep in mind that there's no right or wrong answer when it comes to choosing your Extended Essay topic. You're not more likely to get high marks because you're writing about science, just like you're not doomed to failure because you've chosen to tackle the social sciences. The quality of what you produce—not the field you choose to research within—will determine your grade.

Once you've figured out your category, you should brainstorm more specific topics by putting pen to paper . What was your favorite chapter you learned in that class? Was it astrophysics or mechanics? What did you like about that specific chapter? Is there something you want to learn more about? I recommend spending a few hours on this type of brainstorming.

One last note: if you're truly stumped on what to research, pick a topic that will help you in your future major or career . That way you can use your Extended Essay as a talking point in your college essays (and it will prepare you for your studies to come too!).

#2: Select a Topic That Is Neither Too Broad nor Too Narrow

There's a fine line between broad and narrow. You need to write about something specific, but not so specific that you can't write 4,000 words on it.

You can't write about WWII because that would be a book's worth of material. You also don't want to write about what type of soup prisoners of war received behind enemy lines, because you probably won’t be able to come up with 4,000 words of material about it. However, you could possibly write about how the conditions in German POW camps—and the rations provided—were directly affected by the Nazis' successes and failures on the front, including the use of captured factories and prison labor in Eastern Europe to increase production. WWII military history might be a little overdone, but you get my point.

If you're really stuck trying to pinpoint a not-too-broad-or-too-narrow topic, I suggest trying to brainstorm a topic that uses a comparison. Once you begin looking through the list of sample essays below, you'll notice that many use comparisons to formulate their main arguments.

I also used a comparison in my EE, contrasting Harold Pinter's Party Time with John Osborne's Look Back in Anger in order to show a transition in British theatre. Topics with comparisons of two to three plays, books, and so on tend to be the sweet spot. You can analyze each item and then compare them with one another after doing some in-depth analysis of each individually. The ways these items compare and contrast will end up forming the thesis of your essay!

When choosing a comparative topic, the key is that the comparison should be significant. I compared two plays to illustrate the transition in British theatre, but you could compare the ways different regional dialects affect people's job prospects or how different temperatures may or may not affect the mating patterns of lightning bugs. The point here is that comparisons not only help you limit your topic, but they also help you build your argument.

Comparisons are not the only way to get a grade-A EE, though. If after brainstorming, you pick a non-comparison-based topic and are still unsure whether your topic is too broad or narrow, spend about 30 minutes doing some basic research and see how much material is out there.

If there are more than 1,000 books, articles, or documentaries out there on that exact topic, it may be too broad. But if there are only two books that have any connection to your topic, it may be too narrow. If you're still unsure, ask your advisor—it's what they're there for! Speaking of advisors...

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Don't get stuck with a narrow topic!

#3: Choose an Advisor Who Is Familiar With Your Topic

If you're not certain of who you would like to be your advisor, create a list of your top three choices. Next, write down the pros and cons of each possibility (I know this sounds tedious, but it really helps!).

For example, Mr. Green is my favorite teacher and we get along really well, but he teaches English. For my EE, I want to conduct an experiment that compares the efficiency of American electric cars with foreign electric cars.

I had Ms. White a year ago. She teaches physics and enjoyed having me in her class. Unlike Mr. Green, Ms. White could help me design my experiment.

Based on my topic and what I need from my advisor, Ms. White would be a better fit for me than would Mr. Green (even though I like him a lot).

The moral of my story is this: do not just ask your favorite teacher to be your advisor . They might be a hindrance to you if they teach another subject. For example, I would not recommend asking your biology teacher to guide you in writing an English literature-based EE.

There can, of course, be exceptions to this rule. If you have a teacher who's passionate and knowledgeable about your topic (as my English teacher was about my theatre topic), you could ask that instructor. Consider all your options before you do this. There was no theatre teacher at my high school, so I couldn't find a theatre-specific advisor, but I chose the next best thing.

Before you approach a teacher to serve as your advisor, check with your high school to see what requirements they have for this process. Some IB high schools require your IB Extended Essay advisor to sign an Agreement Form , for instance.

Make sure that you ask your IB coordinator whether there is any required paperwork to fill out. If your school needs a specific form signed, bring it with you when you ask your teacher to be your EE advisor.

#4: Pick an Advisor Who Will Push You to Be Your Best

Some teachers might just take on students because they have to and aren't very passionate about reading drafts, only giving you minimal feedback. Choose a teacher who will take the time to read several drafts of your essay and give you extensive notes. I would not have gotten my A without being pushed to make my Extended Essay draft better.

Ask a teacher that you have experience with through class or an extracurricular activity. Do not ask a teacher that you have absolutely no connection to. If a teacher already knows you, that means they already know your strengths and weaknesses, so they know what to look for, where you need to improve, and how to encourage your best work.

Also, don't forget that your supervisor's assessment is part of your overall EE score . If you're meeting with someone who pushes you to do better—and you actually take their advice—they'll have more impressive things to say about you than a supervisor who doesn't know you well and isn't heavily involved in your research process.

Be aware that the IB only allows advisors to make suggestions and give constructive criticism. Your teacher cannot actually help you write your EE. The IB recommends that the supervisor spends approximately two to three hours in total with the candidate discussing the EE.

#5: Make Sure Your Essay Has a Clear Structure and Flow

The IB likes structure. Your EE needs a clear introduction (which should be one to two double-spaced pages), research question/focus (i.e., what you're investigating), a body, and a conclusion (about one double-spaced page). An essay with unclear organization will be graded poorly.

The body of your EE should make up the bulk of the essay. It should be about eight to 18 pages long (again, depending on your topic). Your body can be split into multiple parts. For example, if you were doing a comparison, you might have one third of your body as Novel A Analysis, another third as Novel B Analysis, and the final third as your comparison of Novels A and B.

If you're conducting an experiment or analyzing data, such as in this EE , your EE body should have a clear structure that aligns with the scientific method ; you should state the research question, discuss your method, present the data, analyze the data, explain any uncertainties, and draw a conclusion and/or evaluate the success of the experiment.

#6: Start Writing Sooner Rather Than Later!

You will not be able to crank out a 4,000-word essay in just a week and get an A on it. You'll be reading many, many articles (and, depending on your topic, possibly books and plays as well!). As such, it's imperative that you start your research as soon as possible.

Each school has a slightly different deadline for the Extended Essay. Some schools want them as soon as November of your senior year; others will take them as late as February. Your school will tell you what your deadline is. If they haven't mentioned it by February of your junior year, ask your IB coordinator about it.

Some high schools will provide you with a timeline of when you need to come up with a topic, when you need to meet with your advisor, and when certain drafts are due. Not all schools do this. Ask your IB coordinator if you are unsure whether you are on a specific timeline.

Below is my recommended EE timeline. While it's earlier than most schools, it'll save you a ton of heartache (trust me, I remember how hard this process was!):

  • January/February of Junior Year: Come up with your final research topic (or at least your top three options).
  • February of Junior Year: Approach a teacher about being your EE advisor. If they decline, keep asking others until you find one. See my notes above on how to pick an EE advisor.
  • April/May of Junior Year: Submit an outline of your EE and a bibliography of potential research sources (I recommend at least seven to 10) to your EE advisor. Meet with your EE advisor to discuss your outline.
  • Summer Between Junior and Senior Year: Complete your first full draft over the summer between your junior and senior year. I know, I know—no one wants to work during the summer, but trust me—this will save you so much stress come fall when you are busy with college applications and other internal assessments for your IB classes. You will want to have this first full draft done because you will want to complete a couple of draft cycles as you likely won't be able to get everything you want to say into 4,000 articulate words on the first attempt. Try to get this first draft into the best possible shape so you don't have to work on too many revisions during the school year on top of your homework, college applications, and extracurriculars.
  • August/September of Senior Year: Turn in your first draft of your EE to your advisor and receive feedback. Work on incorporating their feedback into your essay. If they have a lot of suggestions for improvement, ask if they will read one more draft before the final draft.
  • September/October of Senior Year: Submit the second draft of your EE to your advisor (if necessary) and look at their feedback. Work on creating the best possible final draft.
  • November-February of Senior Year: Schedule your viva voce. Submit two copies of your final draft to your school to be sent off to the IB. You likely will not get your grade until after you graduate.

Remember that in the middle of these milestones, you'll need to schedule two other reflection sessions with your advisor . (Your teachers will actually take notes on these sessions on a form like this one , which then gets submitted to the IB.)

I recommend doing them when you get feedback on your drafts, but these meetings will ultimately be up to your supervisor. Just don't forget to do them!

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The early bird DOES get the worm!

How Is the IB Extended Essay Graded?

Extended Essays are graded by examiners appointed by the IB on a scale of 0 to 34 . You'll be graded on five criteria, each with its own set of points. You can learn more about how EE scoring works by reading the IB guide to extended essays .

  • Criterion A: Focus and Method (6 points maximum)
  • Criterion B: Knowledge and Understanding (6 points maximum)
  • Criterion C: Critical Thinking (12 points maximum)
  • Criterion D: Presentation (4 points maximum)
  • Criterion E: Engagement (6 points maximum)

How well you do on each of these criteria will determine the final letter grade you get for your EE. You must earn at least a D to be eligible to receive your IB Diploma.

Although each criterion has a point value, the IB explicitly states that graders are not converting point totals into grades; instead, they're using qualitative grade descriptors to determine the final grade of your Extended Essay . Grade descriptors are on pages 102-103 of this document .

Here's a rough estimate of how these different point values translate to letter grades based on previous scoring methods for the EE. This is just an estimate —you should read and understand the grade descriptors so you know exactly what the scorers are looking for.

Here is the breakdown of EE scores (from the May 2021 bulletin):

How Does the Extended Essay Grade Affect Your IB Diploma?

The Extended Essay grade is combined with your TOK (Theory of Knowledge) grade to determine how many points you get toward your IB Diploma.

To learn about Theory of Knowledge or how many points you need to receive an IB Diploma, read our complete guide to the IB program and our guide to the IB Diploma requirements .

This diagram shows how the two scores are combined to determine how many points you receive for your IB diploma (3 being the most, 0 being the least). In order to get your IB Diploma, you have to earn 24 points across both categories (the TOK and EE). The highest score anyone can earn is 45 points.

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Let's say you get an A on your EE and a B on TOK. You will get 3 points toward your Diploma. As of 2014, a student who scores an E on either the extended essay or TOK essay will not be eligible to receive an IB Diploma .

Prior to the class of 2010, a Diploma candidate could receive a failing grade in either the Extended Essay or Theory of Knowledge and still be awarded a Diploma, but this is no longer true.

Figuring out how you're assessed can be a little tricky. Luckily, the IB breaks everything down here in this document . (The assessment information begins on page 219.)

40+ Sample Extended Essays for the IB Diploma Programme

In case you want a little more guidance on how to get an A on your EE, here are over 40 excellent (grade A) sample extended essays for your reading pleasure. Essays are grouped by IB subject.

  • Business Management 1
  • Chemistry 1
  • Chemistry 2
  • Chemistry 3
  • Chemistry 4
  • Chemistry 5
  • Chemistry 6
  • Chemistry 7
  • Computer Science 1
  • Economics 1
  • Design Technology 1
  • Design Technology 2
  • Environmental Systems and Societies 1
  • Geography 1
  • Geography 2
  • Geography 3
  • Geography 4
  • Geography 5
  • Geography 6
  • Literature and Performance 1
  • Mathematics 1
  • Mathematics 2
  • Mathematics 3
  • Mathematics 4
  • Mathematics 5
  • Philosophy 1
  • Philosophy 2
  • Philosophy 3
  • Philosophy 4
  • Philosophy 5
  • Psychology 1
  • Psychology 2
  • Psychology 3
  • Psychology 4
  • Psychology 5
  • Social and Cultural Anthropology 1
  • Social and Cultural Anthropology 2
  • Social and Cultural Anthropology 3
  • Sports, Exercise and Health Science 1
  • Sports, Exercise and Health Science 2
  • Visual Arts 1
  • Visual Arts 2
  • Visual Arts 3
  • Visual Arts 4
  • Visual Arts 5
  • World Religion 1
  • World Religion 2
  • World Religion 3

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Extended Essay: Sciences: Biology

  • Step 1 - Choosing a Subject
  • Step 2 - Choosing a Topic
  • Step 3 - Draft a Research Question
  • Step 4 - Finding Sources
  • Step 5 - Evaluating Information
  • Step 6 - Bibliography & Citation
  • Step 7 - Organizing Information
  • The Arts: Visual Arts
  • Individuals & Societies: Business Management
  • Individuals & Societies: History
  • Individuals & Societies: Psychology
  • Language Acquisition
  • Language and Literature
  • Sciences: Biology
  • Sciences: Sports, Exercise, and Health Sciences
  • Interdisciplinary Papers: World Studies
  • Assessment Criteria
  • Research Questions
  • Investigation

Extended Essay in Biology

Extended Essays in Biology

Choosing a topic

Choosing a Topic

Biology is the science that deals with living organisms and life processes. A biology EE should incorporate biological theory and emphasize why it is relevant today.

The topic must relates specifically to biology. Many topics can be approached from different viewpoints, but for an EE in biology the treatment of the topic must be clearly biological. For example, an EE in an interdisciplinary area such as biochemistry will, if registered under the subject of biology, be judged solely on its biological content.

Disease, for example, could be considered through many different lenses. A biology paper about diseases would focus on their impact on particular organisms or life processes, and not on medical treatment, or the economic effects of the disease on society.

Approaches to research

Primary Research

Essays in biology may be based on data collected by the student through:

Essays that involve lab work, or fieldwork, should include a clear and concise description of the experimental procedure. Students taking an experimental approach must also consult secondary sources.

Secondary Research

Students can base their essays on data or information obtained from literature (secondary studies). However, in this case they should use the data in an original way. Essays that simply restate facts or data taken directly from the sources are of little value.

Biology Sources

Even students doing primary research will still need to reference secondary sources. And students relying entirely on secondary sources will need to find sources not only of written information but also experimental data which they can analyze.

Writing the Essay

biology for life extended essay

An essay in the sciences requires is more than just generating and presenting data. Analysis of the data is also essential. The main body of the essay should consist of an argument or evaluation based on the data or information presented . You can gather your own data through a variety of methods, or rely on secondary data. You should use graphs, tables, or diagrams to point out the significance of your findings.

You should ensure that the main body of the essay is well structured and has an obvious logical progression. You can use numbered and headed paragraphs to impose a clear structure. Your evaluation should show that you understand the the data they have collected and its significance to the world.

In your analysis, you should also describe and explain the limitations imposed on the research by factors such as

  • the suitability and reliability of the sources accessed
  • accuracy and precision of measuring equipment
  • sample size
  • validity and reliability of statistics

Students  should also consider biological limitations such as:

  • those arising from the problem of repeatability and control when using living material
  • the difficulties of generalizing from research based on a single type of organism or environment.

Exceptions for Safety and Academic Honesty

biology for life extended essay

Safety and Ethics in Choosing a Topic

In all cases where human subjects are used as the basis for an investigation, clear evidence of informed consent must be provided in accordance with the IB guidelines.

Some topics may be inadmissible because their means of investigation are unethical. For example, investigations that:

  • are based on experiments likely to inflict pain on, or cause stress to, living organisms
  • are likely to have a harmful effect on health, eg culturing micro-organisms at or near body temperature (37°C)
  • involve access to, or publication of, confidential medical information.

Some topics may be unsuitable because of safety issues. Adequate safety apparatus and qualified supervision is required for experiments involving dangerous substances such as:

  • toxic or dangerous chemicals
  • carcinogenic substances
  • radioactive materials.

Other topics may be unsuitable because the outcome is already well known and documented in standard textbooks.

Assessed Student Work

  • The Antimicrobial Effects of Metals Copper, Barium and Silver on the Growth of Bacteria
  • Effects of different calcium salts in growth solutions on the growth of the stems of basil (Ocimum basilicum) plants grown hydroponically
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Free Biology Essay Examples & Writing Tips

Don’t know what to write about in your essay on biology? Looking for good biology essay examples for inspiration? This article has all you need!

A biology essay is a type of academic paper that focuses on a particular topic of biology. It can discuss animal life, cycles in biology, or a botanic subject. You will need to demonstrate your critical thinking skills and provide relevant evidence to support your perspective.

On this page, you will find examples of biology essays. You will also find here tips and topics prepared by our experts . They can assist you in nailing your short or extended essay.

Areas of Research for Biology Essays

If you’ve been assigned to write a biology essay, you probably know which area of research you have to choose. However, it might be beneficial to explore other available scopes. It’s useful for both interdisciplinary study and the cases when you are free to pick your area of research. In this section, let’s figure out what you can study in biology.

Here are biological areas of research you should be familiar with:

  • Cancer Biology studies this type of disease to prevent, detect, diagnose and cure it. The ultimate goal of such biologists is to eliminate cancer.
  • Cell Biology is a branch that studies the structure, function, and behavior of cells. Here, biologists study healthy and sick cells to produce vaccines, medication, etc.
  • Biochemistry is an application of chemistry to the study of biological processes on cell and molecular levels. It is a cross-discipline between chemistry and biology. The focus is on the chemical processes of living organisms.
  • Computation Biology is a study of biological data that develops algorithms and models to understand biological systems. Here, scientists either work for institutions or research for private enterprises.
  • Genetics is an area that focuses on the study of genes and genetic variations for health benefits. It looks at the way DNA affects certain diseases.
  • Human Disease is an area within which scientists study different diseases. The field covers cancer, developmental disorders, disease genes, etc.
  • Immunology is a branch of biology that focuses on immunity. Immunologists look at the way the body responds to viruses as a way to protect the organism.
  • Microbiology studies all living organisms that are too small for our eye to see. It includes bacteria, viruses, fungi, and other microorganisms.
  • Neurobiology is the study of the nervous system. Biologists examine the way the brain works and look into brain illnesses.
  • Stem Cell and Developmental Biology seeks to examine how the processes behind stem cell’s ability transform cells. The biologists in this area use the power of stem cells to model human illnesses.

Essay on Biology: Writing Tips

Want to know how to start a biology essay? Wondering about the best way to write your essay on biology? Then check out the following tips.

When you’re writing about biology, pay attention to the following features:

  • Introduction . Just as in any other form of academic writing, the first section of your paper introduces the subject. Here, explain why your ideas are relevant to biology as a science.
  • Thesis Statement. The final one or two sentences of the first paragraph should include your original hypothesis and experiment. You will be proving them in the main body. You do not have to include the results as the reader will encounter them later. If you’re struggling with this part, try our thesis generator .
  • Main Body. In this part, write about all the experiments in detail. Often, teachers require to include visual aid to prove your point. For Zoology, Anatomy, Botany, it is pretty easy to find some photos and illustrations.
  • Conclusion. Here, restate your thesis. Reemphasize the most critical aspects described in the main body. You can do it by using our summarizing tool . The goal of this last paragraph is to leave an everlasting impression on the reader.

Thank you for reading our article. We hope you found it helpful. Share it with your class peers who also study biology. Additionally, have a look at the biological essay examples below.

813 Best Essay Examples on Biology

Grass and its importance, the benefits of animals to humans essay.

  • Words: 1166

Biology of Grasses: Description and Importance

The effect of temperature on amylase activity.

  • Words: 1293

Ubiquity of Microorganisms

  • Words: 2210

Effects of Vinegar on the Germination Rate of Mung Beans Seeds

  • Words: 1750

Anaerobic Respiration and Its Applications

  • Words: 1274

Seed Germination Experiment: Results and Discussion

Bronfenbrenner’s bioecological system theory.

  • Words: 1827

Mung Seed Germination Patterns under Varying pH Values

Browning reactions explained, mitosis and meiosis in onion root tip.

  • Words: 1691

Strawberries History

  • Words: 1484

Botany and Taxonomy of the Onion

  • Words: 2414

Dark or Light Skin: Advantages and Disadvantages

Pets and people, nanobiotechnology, its advantages and disadvantages, substrate concentration and rate of enzyme reactions.

  • Words: 1730

Seed Germination and Osmosis

  • Words: 1127

Similarities and Differences of Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration

Aspects, importance and issues of biodiversity, lemon, its origin and production.

  • Words: 1115

Transpiration Process in Plants

The c-fern plant laboratory experiment.

  • Words: 1101

Ubiquity of Bacteria: Laboratory Activity

  • Words: 1496

Vitamin A: Description and Usage

Description of mitosis and meiosis, corn plant’s developmental stages, osmosis through a potato slice dipped in solutions of varying concentrations.

  • Words: 1075

Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic Cells: Key Differences

Ethnobotanical uses of plants.

  • Words: 1938

Dugesia, a Planarian With Its Peculiar Characteristics

  • Words: 3207

Rabbit Muscular System Dissection Report

Cell organelles, their functions, and disease.

  • Words: 1195

The Digestive System in the Human Body

Understanding the effects of quantity of light on plants growth.

  • Words: 1089

Importance of the Brain in Human Body

Mitosis in onion root and whitefish blastula, biochemistry dogmas and their impacts on biotechnology, vaquita – endangered species.

  • Words: 1367

The Function and Structures of the Human Heart

Different ecosystems and living things, characteristics of adult development.

  • Words: 1311

Earth Atmospheric Evolution

  • Words: 1719

A Study of the Brine Shrimps and Their Natural Environment

  • Words: 1937

Olfactics and Its Importance for Living Beings

  • Words: 1446

Common Biochemical Cycles

Wildlife management and extinction prevention in australia.

  • Words: 2902

The Human Family Tree Development

The thermoregulation is and its importance, membrane hands-on laboratory report.

  • Words: 1176

Responsible House Plant Keeping

  • Words: 2262

Cell Counting and Measurement Under Magnification

  • Words: 1641

Pollutants Effects on Cellular Respiration Rate

  • Words: 1434

The Insect Effect on Human Life

Archaea and bacteria prokaryotes dichotomous keys, rosalind franklin: the discovery of the dna structure, basic and applied biology: key differences, is earthworm beneficial or harmful to humans, biowarfare and bioterrorism: history and origin, biology lab report: biodiversity study of lichens, neuroethics, its meanings and main topics, homeostasis and regulation in the human body, the integumentary and the skeleton system.

  • Words: 1100

Digestion, Absorption and Assembly of Proteins

  • Words: 1456

The Characteristics and Importance of Nervous System

  • Words: 1705

Climate Change and Threat to Animals

Co-evolution: angiosperms and pollinating animals, consequences of orange juice on the germination of mung bean seeds, photosynthesis as a biological process, description and general information about stink bugs, forensic procedures: hairs and fibres.

  • Words: 2067

Human Circulatory System and Evolution

Photosynthesis and cellular respiration, “the egg and the sperm analysis” by emily martin, microbiological methods for assessing soil quality.

  • Words: 3861

Vegetation Monitoring From Space

  • Words: 6072

Concept of Bioethics in Society

  • Words: 2735

Melanin Theory as a Pseudoscientific Claim

  • Words: 1645

Bioremediation Technology

  • Words: 1604

Anaerobic Capacity: Power Endurance and Fatigue Index

Life in the bottom of the ocean and its protection.

  • Words: 1529

Molecular Biology. Production of pET28b and EGFP Clones

  • Words: 4609

Biology: Analysis of Egg Experiment

Operant and respondent conditioning, non-trophic interaction in marine species, nervous system: the main functions, digestive journey of cheeseburger, microbial growth and effect of ph on it.

  • Words: 1330

Environmental Microbiology Overview

  • Words: 3298

The Brain: Structure and Functions

The process of a prenatal child’s development, cane toad: introduction and threat.

  • Words: 1018

Yeast and the Fermentation Process

Lipids: fatty acids and glycerols, telescope and microscope discovery combo.

  • Words: 1932

History Of Biotechnology

  • Words: 1908

Evolution of Predator and Prey Pairings

Epithelial tissue: structure and functions, case study: human body water balance, researching the physiology of the eye.

  • Words: 1122

DNA Barcoding Sequence Analysis of Unknown Plant

  • Words: 1315

The Kingdom Fungi: The Structure, Characteristics

The anatomy and physiology of the nervous system of a rat.

  • Words: 1612

Plant Resource Allocation: Materials and Methods

  • Words: 1182

How SCOBY Changes Its Environment: Lab Experiment

  • Words: 1214

Microbiology and Its Role in Healthcare

Microbiology: zygomycota, ascomycota and basidiomycota, microbiological studies, applications, and current discoveries, brine shrimp habitat, the genus rosa’s adaptation to the environment.

  • Words: 1144

The DNA Extraction Procedure: Scientific Experiment

Invertase enzyme: description and role.

  • Words: 1151

Natural Sciences. The Phenol Red Broth Test Experiment

  • Words: 1156

Psychophysics: Definition & Fundamentals

  • Words: 1606

A Peptic Ulcer: Medical Analysis

  • Words: 1185

Plant Growth and Development With Music

Reproductive isolation and its potential effects, soil impact on the growth of plants.

  • Words: 1227

Marine Life in United Arab Emirates

  • Words: 1474

Biology Extended Essay Topics and RQs for IBDP

author

Table of contents

  • Writing Metier

It’s time for our exploration of Biology extended essay topics, a resource designed to spark your curiosity and guide your research interests in the vast and vibrant field of biology. 

Whether you’re fascinated by the intricate workings of ecosystems or intrigued by the complexities of cellular processes, this article offers a diverse range of topics collected by expert academic writers to suit your interests. 

NB! If you need assistance with your Biology assignments, you can use our biology essay writing service , which will surely assist you. Now, let’s get back to the main question of the article – BIO EE topic ideas.

Bio EE topic categories

List of biology extended essay topic categories I’ll cover in this article.

  • Impact of Urban Development on Local Ecosystems – Investigating the effects of urban expansion on biodiversity in a specific area.
  • Marine Biology and Ocean Acidification – Studying the impact of changing pH levels on marine life.
  • Invasive Species and Their Impact on Biodiversity – Analyzing how a particular invasive species has affected native wildlife.
  • Conservation Efforts for Endangered Species – Evaluating the effectiveness of current conservation strategies for a specific endangered species.
  • Climate Change and Its Effects on Ecosystems – Researching how a particular ecosystem has been impacted by climate change.
  • Nutrition and Diet’s Impact on Human Health – Exploring the effects of a specific diet on human health.
  • Exercise Physiology – Investigating how different types of exercise affect a particular aspect of human health.
  • Neurobiology of Sleep – Studying the effects of sleep patterns on cognitive functions.
  • Genetic Factors in Diseases – Exploring the role of genetics in the susceptibility to a specific disease.
  • Impact of Environmental Factors on Allergies – Analyzing how environmental changes have influenced the prevalence of allergies.
  • Gene Expression in Cancer Cells – Investigating how gene expression differs in cancerous versus normal cells.
  • Protein Synthesis and Its Regulation – Studying the regulation of protein synthesis in a specific organism or cell type.
  • Stem Cell Research and Regenerative Medicine – Exploring the potential of stem cells in treating a specific condition.
  • Viral Replication and Host Interaction – Examining how a particular virus replicates and interacts with its host.
  • DNA Repair Mechanisms – Investigating the efficacy of different DNA repair mechanisms under various conditions.
  • Photosynthesis Variations Among Plant Species – Comparing photosynthetic efficiency in different plant species.
  • Impact of Climate Change on Plant Growth – Studying how changing climates affect the growth of a specific plant species.
  • Medicinal Properties of Plants – Investigating the medicinal properties of a specific plant.
  • Plant Defense Mechanisms Against Pathogens – Exploring how a particular plant species defends itself against pathogens.
  • Genetic Modification and Crop Improvement – Analyzing the impacts of genetic modification on a specific crop’s traits.
  • Social Behavior in Insects – Studying the social structures and behaviors of a specific insect species.
  • Bird Migration Patterns – Investigating the factors influencing migration patterns of a specific bird species.
  • Physiological Adaptations in Marine Mammals – Exploring adaptations that enable marine mammals to survive in their environments.
  • Impact of Environmental Stressors on Animal Behavior – Analyzing how specific stressors affect the behavior of a particular animal species.
  • Endocrine Regulation in Animals – Studying how the endocrine system regulates processes in a specific animal.
  • Antibiotic Resistance in Bacteria – Investigating the mechanisms of antibiotic resistance in a specific bacterial strain.
  • Use of Microorganisms in Bioremediation – Exploring the use of microorganisms in cleaning up environmental pollutants.
  • Genetic Engineering and Its Applications – Analyzing the applications and implications of genetic engineering in a specific field.
  • Role of Microbiome in Human Health – Studying how the human microbiome influences health and disease.
  • Yeast Fermentation and Its Industrial Applications – Investigating the fermentation process in yeast and its uses in industry.
  • Evolutionary Adaptations to Environmental Changes – Exploring how a particular species has adapted to environmental changes over time.
  • Genetic Diversity and Population Health – Studying the impact of genetic diversity on the health of a specific population.
  • Molecular Basis of Inheritance – Investigating the molecular mechanisms of inheritance in a specific organism.
  • Speciation and Genetic Drift – Analyzing the role of genetic drift in the speciation process.
  • Human Evolutionary Biology – Studying aspects of human evolution, such as the development of specific traits.

Every category and its subcategories provide a comprehensive overview, from the microscopic wonders of microbiology to the grand scale of evolutionary biology. 

With the help of our IB writers team, I have managed to collect all these ideas for you, so I hope you will be enjoying this. I aim to inspire your investigative spirit and help you select a topic that  satisfies the IB criteria  and aligns with your passion for biology. 

IB Bio extended essay topics

bio ee topics

So, let’s begin with a list of IB Biology EE topics list.

Ecology and Environmental Science

I’m stoked to talk about Ecology and Environmental Science . It’s all about how living things interact with each other and their surroundings. Think of it like a complex dance of life, where every move affects the whole scene. 

From the hustle and bustle of city ecosystems to the quiet, yet dynamic, world of marine biology, we’ll explore how these interactions shape our planet. We’ll also explore the hot topics of invasive species and their impacts, the heroic efforts in conservation, and the big elephant in the room – climate change. 

So, let’s get ready to explore the intricate tapestry of life that makes our world fascinating!

Impact of Urban Development on Local Ecosystems

  • Research Question: How does the presence of urban green spaces affect bird species diversity in [City Name]?
  • Research Question: What impact do urban heat islands have on the behavior and distribution of [Specific Animal Species] in [City Name]?

Marine Biology and Ocean Acidification

  • Research Question: How does ocean acidification affect coral bleaching events in the [Specific Coral Reef Location]?
  • Research Question: What is the impact of increasing ocean acidification on the shell growth and survival of [Specific Shellfish Species]?

Invasive Species and Their Impact on Biodiversity

  • Research Question: What has been the impact of the invasive Zebra Mussel on native species in the Great Lakes?
  • Research Question: How do invasive plant species [Specify Species] affect the growth and survival of native plants in [Specific Region]?

Conservation Efforts for Endangered Species

  • Research Question: How effective have conservation strategies been in increasing the population of the Giant Panda in China?
  • Research Question: What are the impacts of anti-poaching measures on the survival of Rhinoceros populations in Africa?

Climate Change and Its Effects on Ecosystems

  • Research Question: How is the melting of Arctic sea ice affecting the habitat and migration patterns of polar bears?
  • Research Question: What are the effects of rising global temperatures on plant and animal life in the Alpine ecosystems?

Transitioning from the external world of Ecology and Environmental Science, we now turn to the internal intricacies of Human Physiology and Health. 

This shift brings us from exploring external ecosystems to understanding our body’s inner workings, a world where lifestyle choices meet biological responses.

Human Physiology and Health

Let’s chat about Human Physiology and Health, the amazing science of how our bodies work and how we keep them ticking. We’re diving headfirst into the world of nutrition and diet – what you eat isn’t just about taste, it’s about your health too! 

Then, we’ll check out how exercise, that thing we all know we should do more of, affects our bodies in awesome ways. Ever wondered about the science of sleep and how it messes with your brain when you don’t catch enough Z’s? We’ll cover that, along with the mysteries of genetics in diseases, and how our environment plays a sneaky role in triggering allergies. 

It’s going to be an eye-opening ride through the wonders of our bodies!

Nutrition and Diet’s Impact on Human Health

  • Research Question: How does adherence to the Mediterranean diet affect cardiovascular health indicators in adults?
  • Research Question: What is the impact of a long-term vegan diet on nutrient absorption and health in teenagers?

Exercise Physiology

  • Research Question: How does HIIT affect cardiovascular fitness in young adults?
  • Research Question: What are the effects of regular yoga practice on stress and anxiety levels in college students?

Neurobiology of Sleep

  • Research Question: How does sleep deprivation impact cognitive performance and memory in high school students?
  • Research Question: What is the relationship between sleep patterns and academic performance in IB students?

Genetic Factors in Diseases

  • Research Question: How do specific genetic factors contribute to the risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease?
  • Research Question: What is the contribution of genetics to the onset of Type 2 Diabetes in populations with high prevalence rates?

Impact of Environmental Factors on Allergies

  • Research Question: What is the correlation between air pollution levels and the prevalence of respiratory allergies in urban children?
  • Research Question: How has climate change influenced the prevalence and severity of allergic diseases in [Specific Region]?

Moving from Human Physiology and Health, we zoom into the realm of Cellular and Molecular Biology. 

Here, we swap the broader human health perspective for a closer look at life’s building blocks, delving into the microscopic universe that operates within every living being.

Cellular and Molecular Biology

Ready to geek out on Cellular and Molecular Biology? This is where we get down to the nitty-gritty of life – the cells and molecules that make up every living thing. 

We’re talking about the big bad world of cancer cells and what makes them tick, the fascinating process of how our cells make proteins, and the cutting-edge stuff like stem cell research and how viruses play a game of cat and mouse with our bodies. 

Meanwhile, make sure also to check our article with biology research paper topics for all students.

Plus, we’ll unravel the mysteries of how our cells fix their own DNA. It’s like being a detective, but for biology. Trust me, it’s cooler than it sounds!

Gene Expression in Cancer Cells

  • Research Question: How does gene expression in breast cancer cells differ from that in normal breast tissue?
  • Research Question: What role do specific oncogenes play in the development of colorectal cancer?

Protein Synthesis and Its Regulation

  • Research Question: How is protein synthesis regulated in response to physical exercise in human muscle cells?
  • Research Question: How do bacterial cells regulate protein synthesis under environmental stress conditions?

Stem Cell Research and Regenerative Medicine

  • Research Question: What is the potential of stem cell therapy in the treatment of Parkinson’s Disease?
  • Research Question: How can stem cells be used to repair damaged heart tissue?

Viral Replication and Host Interaction

  • Research Question: How does HIV replicate within human cells, and what is its impact on the immune system?
  • Research Question: How does the Influenza virus adapt to host immune responses over time?

DNA Repair Mechanisms

  • Research Question: How do DNA repair mechanisms change as human cells age?
  • Research Question: How effective are DNA repair mechanisms in skin cells exposed to different levels of UV radiation?

After diving into the microcosm of cells and molecules, we transition to Plant Biology. 

This shift steers us from the foundations of life at the cellular level to the diverse world of plants, exploring how these organisms harness and embody basic biological principles.

Plant Biology

Let’s dive into the world of Plant Biology! Plants are not just pretty to look at; they’re the backbone of all life on Earth. 

We’ll be talking about how they turn sunlight into food – a process that’s as important as it is fascinating. Ever wonder how plants are coping with our changing climate or what superpowers medicinal plants have? We’ve got that covered. 

We’ll also explore the secret life of plants, how they defend themselves against enemies, and the science behind making them stronger and better through genetic modification. 

It’s time to get our hands dirty and uncover the secrets of the plant world!

Photosynthesis Variations Among Plant Species

  • Research Question: How does photosynthetic efficiency compare between C3 and C4 plants under varying light conditions?
  • Research Question: What is the effect of varying light intensities on the rate of photosynthesis in [Specific Aquatic Plant Species]?

Impact of Climate Change on Plant Growth

  • Research Question: How are Arctic tundra plants adapting their growth patterns in response to global warming?
  • Research Question: What is the impact of elevated atmospheric CO2 levels on the growth of [Specific Plant Species]?

Medicinal Properties of Plants

  • Research Question: What are the anti-inflammatory properties of [Specific Medicinal Plant] and how can they be harnessed?
  • Research Question: What is the antioxidant capacity of different herbal teas, and how does it affect human health?

Plant Defense Mechanisms Against Pathogens

  • Research Question: How do [Specific Plant Species] defend themselves against fungal infections?
  • Research Question: What role do secondary metabolites play in the defense mechanisms of [Specific Plant Species] against herbivores?

Genetic Modification and Crop Improvement

  • Research Question: How effective are genetically modified crops in resisting drought conditions compared to traditional varieties?
  • Research Question: What is the impact of genetic modification on the nutrient content of [Specific Crop]?

From the stationary life of plants, we now step into the dynamic world of Animal Behavior and Physiology. This change of scene introduces us to the complex behaviors and physiological adaptations of animals, offering a contrasting perspective to plant biology.

Animal Behavior and Physiology

Let’s jump into the wild and wonderful world of Animal Behavior and Physiology. This is where we get to spy on the animal kingdom and learn about their secret lives. 

From the social gossip of insects to the globe-trotting adventures of migratory birds, animals have some amazing stories to tell. 

We’ll also look at how marine animals have adapted to their deep and mysterious homes, how animals respond when their environment goes bonkers, and the hormonal soap operas that dictate their lives. 

It’s like being a fly on the wall in the most interesting nature documentary ever!

Social Behavior in Insects

  • Research Question: How does the social structure of honeybee colonies affect their survival and productivity?
  • Research Question: What are the primary communication mechanisms used in ant colonies, and how do they impact colony efficiency?

Bird Migration Patterns

  • Research Question: How has climate change affected the migration routes of [Specific Bird Species]?
  • Research Question: How do magnetic fields influence the migration patterns of [Specific Bird Species]?

Physiological Adaptations in Marine Mammals

  • Research Question: What physiological adaptations allow sperm whales to dive to extreme depths?
  • Research Question: How do polar bears regulate their body temperature in the Arctic environment?

Impact of Environmental Stressors on Animal Behavior

  • Research Question: How does underwater noise pollution affect the behavior and communication of dolphins?
  • Research Question: What are the effects of urban light pollution on the nocturnal activities of [Specific Nocturnal Animal Species]?

Endocrine Regulation in Animals

  • Research Question: How do hormones regulate the reproductive behaviors in [Specific Bird Species]?
  • Research Question: How do stress-induced cortisol levels affect the behavior of [Specific Wild Animal Species] in their natural habitat?

Leaving the observable world of animals, we enter the less visible but equally important sphere of Microbiology and Biotechnology. This transition takes us from larger life forms to the microscopic, where tiny organisms significantly impact our health, environment, and technology.

Microbiology and Biotechnology

Alright, microbe hunters and tech wizards, it’s time to zoom in on Microbiology and Biotechnology. This is the world of the tiny, where bacteria and viruses hang out, and where science meets innovation . 

We’re going to explore the battleground of antibiotic resistance, how we can use tiny organisms to clean up our messes, and the mind-blowing possibilities of genetic engineering. 

Ever thought about how your gut buddies – the microbiome – affect your health? We’ll get into that too, along with the yeast party that’s behind some of your favorite bread and beverages.

Antibiotic Resistance in Bacteria

  • Research Question: What factors have contributed to the rise of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in hospitals?
  • Research Question: What are the primary mechanisms of antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli strains found in [Specific Environment]?

Use of Microorganisms in Bioremediation

  • Research Question: How effective are specific bacterial species in the bioremediation of oil spills?
  • Research Question: What is the effectiveness of using fungi in the phytoremediation of soils contaminated with heavy metals?

Genetic Engineering and Its Applications

  • Research Question: What is the potential of CRISPR-Cas9 technology in preventing genetic diseases?
  • Research Question: How has genetic engineering been used to enhance the nutritional quality of [Specific Crop]?

Role of Microbiome in Human Health

  • Research Question: What is the relationship between the gut microbiome and obesity in adults?
  • Research Question: How does the diversity of the human microbiome affect immune system functioning?

Yeast Fermentation and Its Industrial Applications

  • Research Question: How efficient is yeast fermentation in the production of biofuels compared to traditional methods?
  • Research Question: How do different yeast strains affect the flavor profiles in beer brewing?

Finally, we shift from the practical applications in Microbiology and Biotechnology to the historical narrative of Evolution and Genetics. This move links present-day biological understanding to the historical journey of life, unraveling how genetic heritage and evolutionary processes shape all living things.

Evolution and Genetics

Ready to unravel the tales of Evolution and Genetics? This is where we figure out how life on Earth got to be as diverse and fantastic as it is. We’ll be exploring the incredible adaptations organisms have made to survive and thrive, how genetic diversity is crucial for the health of species, and the molecular secrets behind inheritance. 

Ever pondered how new species come into being or what genetics reveal about our own ancient history ? Well, you’re in for a treat. We’re about to walk through time and genes to discover the roots and branches of the tree of life. Buckle up!

Evolutionary Adaptations to Environmental Changes

  • Research Question: What evolutionary adaptations have enabled cacti to thrive in harsh desert environments?
  • Research Question: How have Galápagos finches undergone adaptive radiation in response to their environment?

Genetic Diversity and Population Health

  • Research Question: How does genetic diversity affect the health and survival of animal populations on isolated islands?
  • Research Question: How can conservation genetics be used to enhance the survival prospects of [Specific Endangered Species]?

Molecular Basis of Inheritance

  • Research Question: What is the molecular basis of inheritance for Sickle Cell Anemia?
  • Research Question: How can mitochondrial DNA be used to trace maternal lineage in human populations?

Speciation and Genetic Drift

  • Research Question: What role has genetic drift played in the speciation of cichlids in Lake Victoria?
  • Research Question: How does genetic drift affect the genetic diversity of small, isolated animal populations?

Human Evolutionary Biology

  • Research Question: What evolutionary factors contributed to the development of bipedalism in early humans?
  • Research Question: What are the key genetic adaptations that enable humans to live at high altitudes?

These topics and questions aim to inspire in-depth exploration and research, allowing students to delve into various aspects of biology, from molecular to ecosystem levels. 

Use them as an inspiration for your future Ib extended essay.

Select your topic wisely!

The world of biology is rich with diverse topics suitable for an Extended Essay. From the tiny intricacies of cellular biology to the broad complexities of environmental science, each area offers a unique perspective and a chance for in-depth exploration . 

The key to a successful essay is choosing a topic that not only interests you but also challenges your analytical and research skills.

Need Extra Support?

If you’re seeking guidance with your topic selection, or if you need assistance in writing or editing your Biology Extended Essay , our team at Writing Metier is here to help. 

biology for life extended essay

Our experienced IB writers are equipped to provide the support you need to refine your ideas and enhance your writing. Contact us for personalized assistance, or simply fill out our online order form with details of your IB EE and ensure your essay is a reflection of your best efforts.

Free topic suggestions

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Vasyl Kafidoff is a co-founder and CEO at WritingMetier. He is interested in education and how modern technology makes it more accessible. He wants to bring awareness about new learning possibilities as an educational specialist. When Vasy is not working, he’s found behind a drum kit.

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Biology Essay Topics: 50+ Ideas for Your Next Project

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by  Antony W

December 16, 2023

biology essay topics

A Biological essay is a technical piece of assignment that requires careful topic selection, structure, and writing. So if your teacher hasn’t given you a title for the essay , you should tread carefully when choosing topics.

In this post, we share with you a list of 50+ Biology related ideas, which you may find useful and equally interesting during the brainstorming stage. You can use the list as inspiration to come up with a topic of your choice, or you can pick of these examples and modify it to your liking.

Key Takeaways 

  • Because Biology is a broad subject, you should choose a topic that focuses on an interesting theme or an area that you’ve always wanted to explore.
  • Check the Biology assignment prompt for guidelines on what you have to do, as these are the instructions that will inform your essay.
  • Share the topic with your teacher first, so they can give you their opinion on whether it’s a suitable one to research.

50+ Best Biology Essay Topics

Below is a list of 50+ topics that you just might find useful and interesting enough to explore in your Biology essay:

Human Biology Essay Topics

  • How does the mouse serve as a model for understanding human biology?
  • What defines the secular trend observed in human physical growth over time?
  • The significant role of medicinal plants in human life and health
  • Understanding the characteristics of human biorhythms and their implications
  • The interconnected circles of human blood circulation and the relationship between the respiratory and cardiovascular systems
  • How do neurons interact within nerve centers, and what impact does this have?
  • The influence of parental smoking, alcohol, and drug abuse on the embryonic development of a child

Controversial Biology Essay Topics

  • What are the leading theories on how life initially emerged on Earth?
  • Is there evidence suggesting that plants might experience something akin to pain?
  • Can we determine if animals possess consciousness? 
  • To what extent is animal testing essential for achieving major biological breakthroughs?
  • What defines the concept of the Last Universal Common Ancestor (LUCA) in evolutionary biology?
  • Where did eukaryotic life forms originate from and what evidence supports this?
  • Are viruses considered living entities, and why or why not?
  • What are the fundamental theories explaining the origins of the human species?
  • Why has the mystery of brain function remained unsolved despite scientific advancements?
  • Is it scientifically accurate to state that a fetus cannot feel pain?
  • What is the current understanding of the status of Nano bacteria in biological research?

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Biology Extended Essay Topics

  • How does a multicellular organism develop from a single cell?
  • What are the defining characteristics of the regeneration process in living organisms?
  • How does guided natural selection influence species’ evolution, and what are its implications?
  • What structural and anatomical features differentiate mammals, using two representatives for comparison?
  • How does catastrophe theory contribute to understanding the progression of life in nature?
  • What are the biological aspects of pathogenesis in both animals and plants?
  • How does self-regulation function within biological systems?
  • Describe the processes involved in the reproduction and development of living systems.
  • What are the fundamental organizational principles that sustain the biosphere?
  • How do different forms of movement occur at the subcellular, cellular, and organism levels?

Cell Biology Essay Topics

  • How do stem cells contribute to medical advancements?
  • What pathways in cell biology offer promising approaches for treating Alzheimer’s disease?
  • The primary research methods utilized in cell biology and how they contribute to scientific discoveries.
  • How scientists study fixed objects and the insights that this approach provide. 
  • The fundamental differences between DNA and RNA, and how do they function within cells.
  • An overview of the structure and components that constitute a cell in biology

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Zoology Essay Topics

  • What are the intricate migration patterns of birds and how do they navigate across vast distances?
  • How primate language or communication systems resemble and differ from human language.
  • Analyze how scientists analyze and manage the impact of invasive species on ecosystems.
  • Explain how different species of animals communicate with each other.
  • What historical evidence or scientific findings shed light on the domestication process of canines and its impact on their behavior and traits?
  • Is there a correlation between brain size and the intelligence or cognitive abilities of different species?

Animal Research Essay Topics

  • What factors contribute to the rising obesity rates among household pets?
  • Ethical considerations surrounding the testing of beauty products on animals
  • What cognitive functions do primates exhibit and how do these compare to human cognitive abilities?
  • How do predators and prey adapt to their roles in the ecosystem and what strategies have evolved in this ongoing interaction?
  • What variations exist in the vision of different animal species and how do these adaptations contribute to their survival?
  • The implications of fishing practices on marine conservation efforts
  • What are the consequences of removing animals from their natural habitats?

Botany Essay Topics

  • What recent breakthroughs in plant research have significantly affected modern agricultural practices? 
  • How do plants respond to various stressors and what physiological mechanisms enable them to adapt to adverse conditions?
  • Elaborate on the structural diversity and different types of fungi.
  • What recent discoveries or insights have emerged from the study of plant fossils and how do they contribute to our understanding of ancient plant life?
  • How does the process of photosynthesis function in plants and what factors influence its efficiency and effectiveness?
  • What are the mechanisms of genetic inheritance in plants and how do these mechanisms affect the traits and characteristics of plant species?
  • What are some prevalent diseases or issues affecting plants and what methods are used to manage or prevent these problems?
  • What unique characteristics define ferns, and what role do they play in the ecology and biodiversity of various habitats?

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About the author 

Antony W is a professional writer and coach at Help for Assessment. He spends countless hours every day researching and writing great content filled with expert advice on how to write engaging essays, research papers, and assignments.

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