Home — Essay Samples — Business — Advertisement — Two Advertisement Analysis


Two Advertisement Analysis

  • Categories: Advertisement Marketing and Advertising

About this sample


Words: 955 |

Published: Mar 20, 2024

Words: 955 | Pages: 2 | 5 min read

Table of contents

Advertisement 1: nike, advertisement 2: coca-cola, comparison and conclusion.

Image of Prof. Linda Burke

Cite this Essay

Let us write you an essay from scratch

  • 450+ experts on 30 subjects ready to help
  • Custom essay delivered in as few as 3 hours

Get high-quality help


Prof Ernest (PhD)

Verified writer

  • Expert in: Business Sociology


+ 120 experts online

By clicking “Check Writers’ Offers”, you agree to our terms of service and privacy policy . We’ll occasionally send you promo and account related email

No need to pay just yet!

Related Essays

2 pages / 924 words

3 pages / 1301 words

2 pages / 844 words

2 pages / 1126 words

Remember! This is just a sample.

You can get your custom paper by one of our expert writers.

121 writers online

Still can’t find what you need?

Browse our vast selection of original essay samples, each expertly formatted and styled

Related Essays on Advertisement

Microsoft. 'Microsoft Super Bowl Commercial 2014: Empowering.' YouTube, uploaded by Microsoft, 27 Jan. 2014, www.youtube.com/watch?v=qaOvHKG0Tio.

Commercials have become an integral part of modern society, shaping our perceptions and influencing our purchasing decisions. One such commercial that has garnered attention and sparked discussions is the teddy bear commercial. [...]

Advertising is a powerful tool that companies use to influence consumer behavior and create brand recognition. One such company that has been successful in creating memorable and impactful advertisements is Skittles. Skittles, a [...]

Advertising is a pervasive part of modern life, influencing the decisions and beliefs of consumers on a daily basis. In this essay, we will analyze a prominent advertisement to understand the rhetorical strategies used to [...]

Volkswagen, with the help of DDB Tribal Berlin Germany, has created an advertisement to promote their new Park Assist feature. This feature allows drivers to press a button to enable their car to park in tight spots for them by [...]

The first menstrual period can be very stressful for some girls. As it happened to Katie in the TV commercial, “First Moon Party,” by HelloFlo, which advertises a menstruation starter kit. The story is about Katie, a girl who [...]

Related Topics

By clicking “Send”, you agree to our Terms of service and Privacy statement . We will occasionally send you account related emails.

Where do you want us to send this sample?

By clicking “Continue”, you agree to our terms of service and privacy policy.

Be careful. This essay is not unique

This essay was donated by a student and is likely to have been used and submitted before

Download this Sample

Free samples may contain mistakes and not unique parts

Sorry, we could not paraphrase this essay. Our professional writers can rewrite it and get you a unique paper.

Please check your inbox.

We can write you a custom essay that will follow your exact instructions and meet the deadlines. Let's fix your grades together!

Get Your Personalized Essay in 3 Hours or Less!

We use cookies to personalyze your web-site experience. By continuing we’ll assume you board with our cookie policy .

  • Instructions Followed To The Letter
  • Deadlines Met At Every Stage
  • Unique And Plagiarism Free

advertisement comparison essay

Want to create or adapt books like this? Learn more about how Pressbooks supports open publishing practices.

16 Drafting Your Ad Analysis

Dr. Karen Palmer

Now that you have a solid outline, it’s time to start writing your ad analysis paper! Here we will work through fleshing out each part of your outline–turning your outline into a full draft.


The first part of your paper is your introduction. You may remember from the Writing Formula chapter that an introduction consists of three main parts: the hook, the introduction to the topic, and the thesis. Let’s begin with the hook. A hook does two jobs–it connects the topic of your paper to your readers, and it attempts to capture their attention.

This video highlights some of the most common techniques for writing a good hook:

Now that you have a general idea of what a hook does, let’s focus in on the kind of hook that would be most useful for your ad analysis essay. Let’s say you are doing an analysis on that milk ad we discussed earlier in the text.

Strategy 1: Connect to the topic of the ad: milk. You could say something like, “Do you drink milk?” But…would that really draw in readers? Surely, there is a better way to grab the attention of our audience.

Strategy 2: Connect to the broader topic of advertising. Here you might say something like, “Advertisers are always trying to get our attention.” Sure, this is a broad opening to the paper, but is it really going to make anyone interested in the topic?

A good idea is to brainstorm some current events or topics that link to your ad. A brainstorming list for this milk ad could include lactose intolerance, the concept of looking at TV sitcom characters as role models, the changing role of mothers, and even the pressure placed on moms (and women in general)  to be perfect. Choose something that appeals to you and that illustrates a theme that runs through the ad. When brainstorming with my classes, we often land on the idea of perfection with this particular milk ad. It makes a compelling frame for the paper.

Introducing the topic is just that–letting readers know what the paper will be about. ie An ad for ________ located in _________ magazine illustrates this concept. Note that you need to include the specific product advertised in the ad, the name of the magazine in which the ad is located, and include a connection/transition to your hook.

Finally, the last sentence of your introduction is your thesis. Here you make your argument. While you already wrote a thesis for your outline, you want to double check that the thesis connects in some way to your hook. Our example thesis is: “The advertisers successfully persuade the consumer that milk will make them a great mom by using nostalgia, milk branding, and the image of ideal motherhood.” We might make a slight adjustment here to make the connection a bit more explicit: “The advertisers play on the desire of moms to fulfill an image of perfection by using nostalgia, milk branding, and the image of ideal motherhood.”

In the ad analysis, our background consists of two different sections: the description and the discussion of context.


Remember that your audience cannot see the ad you are discussing. If you were in a room presenting to your audience, you might project an image of the ad up on a screen. Since we can’t do that in an essay, we need to describe the ad for our readers. Essentially, you want your readers to be able to draw a basic picture of your ad–or at least visualize it accurately in their minds.

This video from James Rath discussing how people with visual impairments see images on social media gives an important life reason for learning how to write solid image descriptions:

Here are some good tips for writing a description of an image:

1. Start by giving readers a one sentence overview of the ad. For our milk ad, that might be, “In this ad, three mothers from iconic sitcoms sit side by side in a beauty parlor under old-fashioned hair dryers.”

2. Determine in advance how you want readers to see the image–do you want them to look at the image left to right? Foreground to background? Clockwise? Bottom line here–don’t make readers minds jump around from place to place as they try to visualize the image.

3. Choose the key elements. You don’t have to describe every single thing in this paragraph. Tell readers who the three moms are and what show they are from. Give enough basic details so that readers know the setting is old-fashioned. Remember, you’ll be able to bring forward more detail as you analyze the ad in the body of your paper. Readers don’t need to know what color a person’s eyes are unless it’s a key part of the ad.

4. Don’t forget the text! While you should not write every word in the ad in your description, especially if there are lengthy paragraphs, you should include a brief overview of the text. ie placement, basic overview Again, you’ll be able to give specific quotes that are relevant to your analysis in the body of your paper.

5. Write in present tense!

The context of an ad really focuses on the audience of the ad. Remember that advertisers very carefully consider the audience for their product and create their advertisements to best reach that target audience. Let’s look at this from the perspective of a company looking to place an ad:

So, if an advertiser goes to this much trouble to determine the demographics of their target audience, it’s obviously important! The ad (unless perhaps it was published by an inexperienced advertiser) is not “for everyone.” An ad in Newsweek , no matter how childlike it appears, was not created for children. It was created for the audience who will purchase and read this magazine. When we do an ad analysis, we want to share similar information with our readers. What magazine is the ad placed in? What is the general focus of that publication? What kinds of articles appear in the publication? What general types of ads appear? In short, who is the audience? Of course, you can look at a magazine and get some of this information. You can also do a quick online search for the demographics of the magazine or for their media kit, which is what advertisers look at prior to purchasing advertising space to ensure the magazine is a good fit for their ad.

Now that you have the background out of the way and your audiences thoroughly understand the topic, it’s time to begin your analysis. Your thesis should have given at least three advertising strategies used in the ad. Your paper should include a paragraph for each one of those strategies.

Topic Sentence

The topic sentence should echo the wording of the thesis and clearly introduce the topic. For example, “One way the advertisers use the concept of the perfect mother to convince readers to purchase milk is by using iconic mothers from television shows.” For your next paragraph, you’d want to be sure to include a transition. For example, “Another way” or “In addition to” are both phrases that can be used to show that you are building onto your previous paragraph.

In this part of the paragraph, you want to give specific examples from the ad to support your point.

First, you should introduce the example. “The three moms from iconic tv shows are the focus of this ad.”

Next, you should give specific examples from the ad–this could be pointing out particular details about the images in the ad or quoting from the text–or both! For example, for the milk ad, you might give the specific names of the characters and the shows they are from. You might point out that every detail of their outfits are perfect. That they are wearing makeup and jewelry. That they have their wedding rings prominently focused in the image. You might also quote text, like the line from the ad that says, “Another all-time great mom line.”

Finally, wrap up your examples with a clear explanation of how the example proves your point. For example, you might say that, especially in modern times, it is very difficult for mothers to live up to the standard of perfection set by these three television moms. You might explain how causing readers to feel “less than” sets the stage for them to accept the premise that giving their children milk will make them more like these TV moms.

The wrap up for your paragraph is similar to the wrap up for the evidence provided. Here you want to reiterate your thesis in a simple sentence. For example, you might say, “Using the images of these iconic moms convinces moms that, in order to be a good mom, they must buy milk for their children.”


The conclusion of your paper is essentially a mirror image of your introduction. Think of your paper as an Oreo cookie. The introduction and the conclusion are the cookies that surround the best part–the body of the paper. Like the cookie outsides of the Oreo, the introduction and conclusion should be mirror images of each other.

1. Start with re-stating the thesis.

2. Reiterate the topic.

3. Return to your hook and elaborate.

Unlike an Oreo, the conclusion should not simply copy your introduction word for word in a different order. Try to restate your sentences in a different way. Elaborate on your hook so that you leave readers with something to think about!

 Content written by Dr. Karen Palmer and is licensed CC BY NC.

The Worry Free Writer Copyright © 2020 by Dr. Karen Palmer is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License , except where otherwise noted.

Share This Book

The Writing Center • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Comparing and Contrasting

What this handout is about.

This handout will help you first to determine whether a particular assignment is asking for comparison/contrast and then to generate a list of similarities and differences, decide which similarities and differences to focus on, and organize your paper so that it will be clear and effective. It will also explain how you can (and why you should) develop a thesis that goes beyond “Thing A and Thing B are similar in many ways but different in others.”


In your career as a student, you’ll encounter many different kinds of writing assignments, each with its own requirements. One of the most common is the comparison/contrast essay, in which you focus on the ways in which certain things or ideas—usually two of them—are similar to (this is the comparison) and/or different from (this is the contrast) one another. By assigning such essays, your instructors are encouraging you to make connections between texts or ideas, engage in critical thinking, and go beyond mere description or summary to generate interesting analysis: when you reflect on similarities and differences, you gain a deeper understanding of the items you are comparing, their relationship to each other, and what is most important about them.

Recognizing comparison/contrast in assignments

Some assignments use words—like compare, contrast, similarities, and differences—that make it easy for you to see that they are asking you to compare and/or contrast. Here are a few hypothetical examples:

  • Compare and contrast Frye’s and Bartky’s accounts of oppression.
  • Compare WWI to WWII, identifying similarities in the causes, development, and outcomes of the wars.
  • Contrast Wordsworth and Coleridge; what are the major differences in their poetry?

Notice that some topics ask only for comparison, others only for contrast, and others for both.

But it’s not always so easy to tell whether an assignment is asking you to include comparison/contrast. And in some cases, comparison/contrast is only part of the essay—you begin by comparing and/or contrasting two or more things and then use what you’ve learned to construct an argument or evaluation. Consider these examples, noticing the language that is used to ask for the comparison/contrast and whether the comparison/contrast is only one part of a larger assignment:

  • Choose a particular idea or theme, such as romantic love, death, or nature, and consider how it is treated in two Romantic poems.
  • How do the different authors we have studied so far define and describe oppression?
  • Compare Frye’s and Bartky’s accounts of oppression. What does each imply about women’s collusion in their own oppression? Which is more accurate?
  • In the texts we’ve studied, soldiers who served in different wars offer differing accounts of their experiences and feelings both during and after the fighting. What commonalities are there in these accounts? What factors do you think are responsible for their differences?

You may want to check out our handout on understanding assignments for additional tips.

Using comparison/contrast for all kinds of writing projects

Sometimes you may want to use comparison/contrast techniques in your own pre-writing work to get ideas that you can later use for an argument, even if comparison/contrast isn’t an official requirement for the paper you’re writing. For example, if you wanted to argue that Frye’s account of oppression is better than both de Beauvoir’s and Bartky’s, comparing and contrasting the main arguments of those three authors might help you construct your evaluation—even though the topic may not have asked for comparison/contrast and the lists of similarities and differences you generate may not appear anywhere in the final draft of your paper.

Discovering similarities and differences

Making a Venn diagram or a chart can help you quickly and efficiently compare and contrast two or more things or ideas. To make a Venn diagram, simply draw some overlapping circles, one circle for each item you’re considering. In the central area where they overlap, list the traits the two items have in common. Assign each one of the areas that doesn’t overlap; in those areas, you can list the traits that make the things different. Here’s a very simple example, using two pizza places:

Venn diagram indicating that both Pepper's and Amante serve pizza with unusual ingredients at moderate prices, despite differences in location, wait times, and delivery options

To make a chart, figure out what criteria you want to focus on in comparing the items. Along the left side of the page, list each of the criteria. Across the top, list the names of the items. You should then have a box per item for each criterion; you can fill the boxes in and then survey what you’ve discovered.

Here’s an example, this time using three pizza places:

As you generate points of comparison, consider the purpose and content of the assignment and the focus of the class. What do you think the professor wants you to learn by doing this comparison/contrast? How does it fit with what you have been studying so far and with the other assignments in the course? Are there any clues about what to focus on in the assignment itself?

Here are some general questions about different types of things you might have to compare. These are by no means complete or definitive lists; they’re just here to give you some ideas—you can generate your own questions for these and other types of comparison. You may want to begin by using the questions reporters traditionally ask: Who? What? Where? When? Why? How? If you’re talking about objects, you might also consider general properties like size, shape, color, sound, weight, taste, texture, smell, number, duration, and location.

Two historical periods or events

  • When did they occur—do you know the date(s) and duration? What happened or changed during each? Why are they significant?
  • What kinds of work did people do? What kinds of relationships did they have? What did they value?
  • What kinds of governments were there? Who were important people involved?
  • What caused events in these periods, and what consequences did they have later on?

Two ideas or theories

  • What are they about?
  • Did they originate at some particular time?
  • Who created them? Who uses or defends them?
  • What is the central focus, claim, or goal of each? What conclusions do they offer?
  • How are they applied to situations/people/things/etc.?
  • Which seems more plausible to you, and why? How broad is their scope?
  • What kind of evidence is usually offered for them?

Two pieces of writing or art

  • What are their titles? What do they describe or depict?
  • What is their tone or mood? What is their form?
  • Who created them? When were they created? Why do you think they were created as they were? What themes do they address?
  • Do you think one is of higher quality or greater merit than the other(s)—and if so, why?
  • For writing: what plot, characterization, setting, theme, tone, and type of narration are used?
  • Where are they from? How old are they? What is the gender, race, class, etc. of each?
  • What, if anything, are they known for? Do they have any relationship to each other?
  • What are they like? What did/do they do? What do they believe? Why are they interesting?
  • What stands out most about each of them?

Deciding what to focus on

By now you have probably generated a huge list of similarities and differences—congratulations! Next you must decide which of them are interesting, important, and relevant enough to be included in your paper. Ask yourself these questions:

  • What’s relevant to the assignment?
  • What’s relevant to the course?
  • What’s interesting and informative?
  • What matters to the argument you are going to make?
  • What’s basic or central (and needs to be mentioned even if obvious)?
  • Overall, what’s more important—the similarities or the differences?

Suppose that you are writing a paper comparing two novels. For most literature classes, the fact that they both use Caslon type (a kind of typeface, like the fonts you may use in your writing) is not going to be relevant, nor is the fact that one of them has a few illustrations and the other has none; literature classes are more likely to focus on subjects like characterization, plot, setting, the writer’s style and intentions, language, central themes, and so forth. However, if you were writing a paper for a class on typesetting or on how illustrations are used to enhance novels, the typeface and presence or absence of illustrations might be absolutely critical to include in your final paper.

Sometimes a particular point of comparison or contrast might be relevant but not terribly revealing or interesting. For example, if you are writing a paper about Wordsworth’s “Tintern Abbey” and Coleridge’s “Frost at Midnight,” pointing out that they both have nature as a central theme is relevant (comparisons of poetry often talk about themes) but not terribly interesting; your class has probably already had many discussions about the Romantic poets’ fondness for nature. Talking about the different ways nature is depicted or the different aspects of nature that are emphasized might be more interesting and show a more sophisticated understanding of the poems.

Your thesis

The thesis of your comparison/contrast paper is very important: it can help you create a focused argument and give your reader a road map so they don’t get lost in the sea of points you are about to make. As in any paper, you will want to replace vague reports of your general topic (for example, “This paper will compare and contrast two pizza places,” or “Pepper’s and Amante are similar in some ways and different in others,” or “Pepper’s and Amante are similar in many ways, but they have one major difference”) with something more detailed and specific. For example, you might say, “Pepper’s and Amante have similar prices and ingredients, but their atmospheres and willingness to deliver set them apart.”

Be careful, though—although this thesis is fairly specific and does propose a simple argument (that atmosphere and delivery make the two pizza places different), your instructor will often be looking for a bit more analysis. In this case, the obvious question is “So what? Why should anyone care that Pepper’s and Amante are different in this way?” One might also wonder why the writer chose those two particular pizza places to compare—why not Papa John’s, Dominos, or Pizza Hut? Again, thinking about the context the class provides may help you answer such questions and make a stronger argument. Here’s a revision of the thesis mentioned earlier:

Pepper’s and Amante both offer a greater variety of ingredients than other Chapel Hill/Carrboro pizza places (and than any of the national chains), but the funky, lively atmosphere at Pepper’s makes it a better place to give visiting friends and family a taste of local culture.

You may find our handout on constructing thesis statements useful at this stage.

Organizing your paper

There are many different ways to organize a comparison/contrast essay. Here are two:


Begin by saying everything you have to say about the first subject you are discussing, then move on and make all the points you want to make about the second subject (and after that, the third, and so on, if you’re comparing/contrasting more than two things). If the paper is short, you might be able to fit all of your points about each item into a single paragraph, but it’s more likely that you’d have several paragraphs per item. Using our pizza place comparison/contrast as an example, after the introduction, you might have a paragraph about the ingredients available at Pepper’s, a paragraph about its location, and a paragraph about its ambience. Then you’d have three similar paragraphs about Amante, followed by your conclusion.

The danger of this subject-by-subject organization is that your paper will simply be a list of points: a certain number of points (in my example, three) about one subject, then a certain number of points about another. This is usually not what college instructors are looking for in a paper—generally they want you to compare or contrast two or more things very directly, rather than just listing the traits the things have and leaving it up to the reader to reflect on how those traits are similar or different and why those similarities or differences matter. Thus, if you use the subject-by-subject form, you will probably want to have a very strong, analytical thesis and at least one body paragraph that ties all of your different points together.

A subject-by-subject structure can be a logical choice if you are writing what is sometimes called a “lens” comparison, in which you use one subject or item (which isn’t really your main topic) to better understand another item (which is). For example, you might be asked to compare a poem you’ve already covered thoroughly in class with one you are reading on your own. It might make sense to give a brief summary of your main ideas about the first poem (this would be your first subject, the “lens”), and then spend most of your paper discussing how those points are similar to or different from your ideas about the second.


Rather than addressing things one subject at a time, you may wish to talk about one point of comparison at a time. There are two main ways this might play out, depending on how much you have to say about each of the things you are comparing. If you have just a little, you might, in a single paragraph, discuss how a certain point of comparison/contrast relates to all the items you are discussing. For example, I might describe, in one paragraph, what the prices are like at both Pepper’s and Amante; in the next paragraph, I might compare the ingredients available; in a third, I might contrast the atmospheres of the two restaurants.

If I had a bit more to say about the items I was comparing/contrasting, I might devote a whole paragraph to how each point relates to each item. For example, I might have a whole paragraph about the clientele at Pepper’s, followed by a whole paragraph about the clientele at Amante; then I would move on and do two more paragraphs discussing my next point of comparison/contrast—like the ingredients available at each restaurant.

There are no hard and fast rules about organizing a comparison/contrast paper, of course. Just be sure that your reader can easily tell what’s going on! Be aware, too, of the placement of your different points. If you are writing a comparison/contrast in service of an argument, keep in mind that the last point you make is the one you are leaving your reader with. For example, if I am trying to argue that Amante is better than Pepper’s, I should end with a contrast that leaves Amante sounding good, rather than with a point of comparison that I have to admit makes Pepper’s look better. If you’ve decided that the differences between the items you’re comparing/contrasting are most important, you’ll want to end with the differences—and vice versa, if the similarities seem most important to you.

Our handout on organization can help you write good topic sentences and transitions and make sure that you have a good overall structure in place for your paper.

Cue words and other tips

To help your reader keep track of where you are in the comparison/contrast, you’ll want to be sure that your transitions and topic sentences are especially strong. Your thesis should already have given the reader an idea of the points you’ll be making and the organization you’ll be using, but you can help them out with some extra cues. The following words may be helpful to you in signaling your intentions:

  • like, similar to, also, unlike, similarly, in the same way, likewise, again, compared to, in contrast, in like manner, contrasted with, on the contrary, however, although, yet, even though, still, but, nevertheless, conversely, at the same time, regardless, despite, while, on the one hand … on the other hand.

For example, you might have a topic sentence like one of these:

  • Compared to Pepper’s, Amante is quiet.
  • Like Amante, Pepper’s offers fresh garlic as a topping.
  • Despite their different locations (downtown Chapel Hill and downtown Carrboro), Pepper’s and Amante are both fairly easy to get to.

You may reproduce it for non-commercial use if you use the entire handout and attribute the source: The Writing Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Make a Gift

How to Write a Comparison Essay: From Similarities to Differences


Table of contents

  • 1.1 What Сan I Compare and Contrast?
  • 1.2 Choosing a Great Topic for a Comparison Essay
  • 1.3 Education Compare and Contrast Essays Topics
  • 1.4 Sports Compare and Contrast Essays Topics
  • 1.5 Politics Compare and Contrast Essays Topics
  • 1.6 Economy Compare and Contrast Essays Topics
  • 1.7 Social Studies Compare and Contrast Essays Topics
  • 1.8 History Compare and Contrast Essays Topics
  • 1.9 Literature Compare and Contrast Essays Topics
  • 1.10 Controversial Compare and Contrast Essay Topics
  • 2.1 Thesis Statement
  • 3.0.1 Understand Your Subjects:
  • 3.0.2 Purpose of the Essay:
  • 3.0.3 Audience Consideration:
  • 3.0.4 Two Predominant Structures:
  • 4.1 Comparison Essay Outline Example
  • 5.1 Comparison Essay Format
  • 6 Bringing It All Together

As we navigate our lives, we can’t help but notice the elements in our environment, whether it’s the latest car, a fashion trend, or even some experiences. Think about your favorite Mexican restaurant, then visit another; automatically, you’re likely to size them up to each other. So when your professors assign you homework to compare two samples in a case study, it may seem natural.

But at the college level, something happens, our natural ability to compare vacates us. You may be stuck wondering how to write a comparison essay. This is a common dilemma many students face. We’ve put together this comprehensive guide to walk you through the perfect paper’s construction steps. Below, you’ll find:

  • A comprehensive guide on how to write a comparison essay, outlining its purpose, how to choose relevant topics for comparison, and the structure for presenting the content effectively.
  • That the comparison essay requires the writer to analyze two objects, events, or theories and identify their similarities and differences, supporting findings with empirical data.
  • For a successful comparison essay, it’s essential to choose relevant subjects, have a clear and precise thesis statement, and employ an effective structure, depending on the subjects and purpose of the essay.

So read on to learn how the pros from  Papersowl  suggest writing a compare and contrast essay.

What Is a Comparison Essay?

As it sounds, your comparative essay should analyze two objects, events, or theories and determine the similarities and differences . The overall goal of the paper is for the reader to clearly identify how the studied criteria are the same and where they diverge. In a marketing class, you may evaluate two similar products and develop a plan to demonstrate their features and benefits. Or, in a psychology class, you may have an in-depth look at two therapy techniques and then evaluate the results of a particular case study.

Your paper’s critical component is that you must ensure your findings are backed up with empirical data. While you may feel one subject is “better” than another, giving examples to prove your position is important. Information that can be weighed or measured, such as a device’s performance or the results of a process, is strong evidence to support a claim.

What Сan I Compare and Contrast?

As long as the main points make sense and the essay is comprehensive to the reader, anything can be used as a topic for a compare-and-contrast essay. It is important to remember that two principal subjects related in one way should be compared and contrasted. To help you better understand this concept, below is a table serving as a visual aid and showcasing examples of compare and contrast essay topics.

The “Good Examples” column presents two semantic subjects. They are not entirely different and, as such, leave more room for analysis. The column “Examples to improve” also contains subjects relevant to each other. However, a correlation between them is nearly impossible because they are different types of things from the same field. And the final column, “Examples to avoid,” as the name suggests, showcases some examples of topics that would not make a good compare and contrast essay.

Choosing a Great Topic for a Comparison Essay

What you write about could make or break your paper. As in any academic work, a good compare and contrast essay will have a purpose that adds value. For this, consider topics that are helpful in your discipline. Effective compare and contrast topics should expand the universe of knowledge or valid claims that have not yet been proven. A few examples of topics include:

Education Compare and Contrast Essays Topics

  • Home Education vs. Daycare: What will Suit your Child?
  • Spice-Cake vs. Cane: What Works Better with Kids?
  • E-learning vs. Conventional Learning.
  • Learning System in Asia vs. the West.
  • College Dream vs. Skills Acquisition.
  • Textbooks vs. E-books.
  • Private vs. Public College: Which will Suit You?.
  • Parents’ Involvement in Children’s Career Choice vs. Self Discovery.

Sports Compare and Contrast Essays Topics

  • Football or basketball: three-pointer in the soccer goal.
  • Marathons and walkathons – similar in terms of endurance, will, and fitness. However, they are also different.
  • Indoor vs. In Open Air Sports.
  • Sport-Study Balance vs. High Focus studying .
  • Early morning Exercise vs. Late night Exercise.
  • Running vs. gymming: Which one is for you?.
  • Home Exercise VS Gym Workout.
  • Tennis or Badminton: Which is Harder?.

Politics Compare and Contrast Essays Topics

  • Democracy, Monarchy, or Autocracy
  • Socialism and Communism: Is It the Same?
  • Merits of free trade vs. the demerits of Free Trade
  • Centralized Government Vs. Decentralized Government
  • Legislature and executive – Branches of Power to analyze
  • Fundamental rights Vs. State Policy’s directive principles
  • Equal opportunities versus affirmative action

Economy Compare and Contrast Essays Topics

  • Economics as Mandatory Discipline or as an Optional Pick
  • Peace vs. political unrest.
  • Economics vs. business studies: What’s More Efficient?
  • Regulated Prices vs. Free Market
  • America Tax System vs. China Tax System
  • New Laws vs Old Laws: Which is More Important
  • Macro-Economics vs. Micro-Economics.

Social Studies Compare and Contrast Essays Topics

  • Childhood in the 90s vs. Modern Day Childhood
  • Coronavirus vs. The Great Depression
  • COVID-19 vs. The Plague
  • Common-Law Vs. Civil Law
  • Rural Life to Urban Life
  • America in the 60s Vs. America Now

History Compare and Contrast Essays Topics

  • Lincoln’s Ideas vs. Washington’s ideas
  • Baroque epoch vs. Renaissance
  • Religious studies vs. Anthropology: Are They So Different?
  • Napoleon Fall vs. Hitler Fall
  • Democracy and monarchy
  • The US and the UK Election System
  • Nazism vs. Fascism: Is It the Same?

Literature Compare and Contrast Essays Topics

  • Reality vs. Fiction Literature
  • Depiction of Women in Literature in the 80s and Now
  • Memoir vs. Autobiography
  • Prose versus Poetry
  • Shakespeare Piece: Othello vs. Hamlet
  • English novels vs. French novels.
  • Roman and Greek mythology.

Controversial Compare and Contrast Essay Topics

We believe that controversial compare-and-contrast essays are the most interesting ones. They include two opposite beliefs on the same question or situation and analyze their similarity or different points. It’s the most exciting essay type to write and overwhelming to read, so look at the list of top-rated topics for such articles:

  • Intervention or Invasion: What is the Difference?
  • Religion versus Atheism.
  • LGBT++ Rights vs. Sexual Orientation Restriction.
  • Death Penalty vs. Life Sentence: What is Worse?
  • Climate Change vs. War: There Is Connection?
  • Violent video games and Shooting games.

In addition to these academic subjects, you may be tasked to write a good application comparison essay when entering college. These topics could be more light-hearted and include comparing your youth with your adolescent years or comparing two close friends.

Pre-Writing Stage


The pre-writing stage is an indispensable phase in the essay-writing process, laying the foundation for a well-organized and insightful piece. Before diving into the actual writing, this preparatory stage allows you to explore, organize, and refine their thoughts. For compare and contrast essays, this often involves researching the chosen subjects to uncover detailed information, nuances, and perspectives. Techniques such as brainstorming can help identify key points of similarity and difference, while tools like Venn diagrams visually map out where subjects overlap and where they diverge. This visual representation can be particularly invaluable in determining the essay’s structure and focus. Additionally, the pre-writing stage is an opportune time to formulate a tentative thesis statement, which will provide direction and purpose as the essay evolves. By dedicating time to this initial phase, writers can ensure a clearer, more coherent essay, minimizing potential roadblocks and revisions later in the writing process. In essence, the pre-writing is akin to blueprinting; it’s where the groundwork is laid for the construction of a compelling narrative.

Thesis Statement

The thesis statement is the anchor of any well-structured essay, offering readers a concise snapshot of what to expect. In a compare and contrast essay, the thesis not only indicates the subjects to be compared but also the focus and purpose of the comparison. Begin by pinpointing the main similarities or differences you want to highlight. For instance, if comparing apples to oranges, your thesis might read: “While apples and oranges both provide essential vitamins and are popular fruits, they differ in texture, taste, and cultural significance.” This statement not only sets the subjects of comparison but also guides readers on the specific aspects being compared.

Crafting an effective thesis requires clarity and precision. It should avoid vague language and ensure that readers can anticipate the direction of the discussion. Remember, a strong thesis statement acts as a roadmap, helping to steer both the writer and the reader through the essay’s argumentative landscape.


Structure for a Compare and Contrast Essay

When setting out to write a compare and contrast essay, one of the initial and fundamental decisions you’ll need to make is regarding the essay’s structure. Your choice of structure can have a profound impact on the clarity and effectiveness of your presentation. Here’s how you can determine the best structure for your essay:

Understand Your Subjects:

  • Before choosing a structure, you need a clear understanding of your subjects and the points of comparison. Are there numerous similarities and differences, or just a few major ones?

Purpose of the Essay:

  • Are you trying to highlight the stark differences between your subjects, shed light on unexpected similarities, or do both? Your purpose can guide the structure.

Audience Consideration:

  • Think about your readers. If your subjects are very unfamiliar to your audience, the block method might be better because it allows for a more in-depth exploration of each subject before contrasting.

Two Predominant Structures:

  • Block Method:  In this structure, you discuss all relevant points related to one subject and then move on to the next subject. This approach can be particularly useful if you want your readers to have an in-depth understanding of each subject before highlighting the contrasts.

✏️ Example:  If you’re comparing apples and oranges, you would first discuss everything about apples and then everything about oranges.

  • Point-by-Point Method:  This is a more integrated approach. For each point of comparison, you alternate between the two subjects. This method keeps the comparison and contrast front and center and can make direct contrasts clearer.

✏️ Example:  Discuss the color of apples and then the color of oranges, followed by the texture of apples and then the texture of oranges, and so on.

Whichever structure you choose, your primary goal should be clarity. Ensure that your points of comparison are clear and that readers can easily follow your reasoning. Remember, while these are the two primary structures, they are not set in stone. Depending on your topic, you might find it effective to blend these structures in some sections.

In conclusion, the structure you choose for your compare and contrast essay will significantly shape your argument’s presentation. While the block method allows for a deep dive into each subject separately, the point-by-point method maintains a tight focus on the comparison throughout the essay. Evaluate your subjects, your purpose, and your audience, and choose the structure that most effectively communicates your points.

Compare and Contrast Essay Outline

A good essay outline will contain, at a minimum, the three core sections – introduction, body, and conclusion. Often times the intro can be the most difficult to write, and it should be reserved for last. Once you have all your ideas laid out, hammering out a solid beginning is much easier to inform the reader what is to follow. You can pick out an interesting fact in your paper to write a strong hook to lure your readers in. Also, you’ll be able to tighten up your compare-and-contrast thesis to give a stronger impression.

Comparison Essay Outline Example

In this example, we’ll compare and contrast the essay point by point. In our comparison essay structure, we’ve elected to speak about similarities and follow up with differences and apply an extended conclusion with analysis and then the actual concluding paragraph for the scope of the paper.


In our comparative essay outline example, we’ve put together a basic template of what the paper should look like. Mind you, this is an informal template for an introduction to compare and contrast essay. If your course requires you to submit a formal outline in APA or MLA style, be sure to draft one according to the latest style guide.


You can use this comparative essay outline template to draft your paper as a means to get your ideas out on paper. Like many students, you could be short on time or not have the ability to complete your paper. In this case, you can use our writing service, and we’ll draft a perfect custom text for you to meet any deadlines you have.

We all have our opinions and curiosities, and sharing them with the world is a fun experience. And you can through an effective contrast and comparison paper. Just be sure to pick subjects that can be analyzed and back up your conclusions with data, and you’ll be well on your way to unlocking the world’s inner workings. Sometimes you may find a lack of inspiration for a topic or are stressed to get a high grade. We are here to help 24/7/365 to get you out of a jam and write your papers for you in your time of need. So reach out to us, and we are here to help.

Tips to Write a Compare and Contrast Essay


If you’re wondering how to write a comparison essay fast, there are a few tricks to make the most of your time. Follow these steps professional writers use, and you’ll get your paper done to meet the tightest deadlines.

  • Brainstorm on a scratch pad : You may be used to using your computer for everything, but for organizing your ideas, old-fashioned scratch paper works best. Draw a side-by-side chart and start listing out the characteristics of your subjects. Mention all the pros and cons, physical characteristics, as well as processes and applications that each possesses.
  • Make sure to choose comparable subjects that will make sense to the reader.
  • Ensure that the thesis statement is strong and to the point.
  • Do good research and ensure that your arguments are clearly stated.
  • Build your outline of compare and contrast essay : You can start to compare and contrast essay outline with your data table. Check the required length of your paper and start building a paragraph structure that will meet any bullet points and suffice the word count. Be sure to start off with your most interesting points to keep the reader engaged.
  • Draft your paper : Be sure to include a catchy title that is on point with the contents of your work. As a general rule, try not to go over 12 words in your title. Also, note that the thesis statement for the comparison and contrast essay should relate to every section of your text.
  • Use  transitional words to make it easier for the reader to follow the arguments presented in your essay.

Transitional words and phrases are the connective tissues of an essay, ensuring the flow of ideas is seamless and readers can easily navigate the content. Especially crucial in compare and contrast essays, these transitions aid in clarifying comparisons or highlighting disparities. Words like “similarly,” “likewise,” and “equally” signal similarities between subjects, guiding the reader’s understanding of how two things align. Conversely, phrases such as “on the other hand,” “however,” and “in contrast” denote differences, emphasizing the distinct characteristics of each subject.

  • Review your work : Now, it’s time to smooth out some rough patches in your initial draft and fine-tune some sections. Pay special attention to retaining your paper’s focus and meeting all the task requirements. Many students get stuck in this phase and, while they’ve met the requirements, are not happy with the final product. In this case, a comparison essay to buy is a great alternative. Hiring a specialist in your subject is the best way to get a good grade.

There are various factors to consider, such as structure, format, and even finding the right resources. Fortunately, cheap essay writing services such as PapersOwl make the process much easier. Simply provide your instructions, and their professional writers will create an original paper for you.

Comparison Essay Format

Universities are real sticklers for formatting. This may seem like an annoyance for many students, but academic work should be consistent across disciplines to aid analysts in efficiently referencing work and applying it to their own studies. Depending on your course, you may be required to write a comparison essay in MLA format or APA. So armed with the latest style guide of your choice, let’s get down to how to write a good comparison essay outline.

Bringing It All Together

Comparing and contrasting is an intrinsic part of our daily decision-making. From choosing restaurants to assessing products, we inherently evaluate based on similarities and differences. Yet, when tasked with a formal compare and contrast essay in academia, many students falter. This guide aims to simplify the process, providing structure and clarity. Emphasizing the importance of a solid thesis, structured format, and the use of transitional phrases, it offers a blueprint for effective essay writing.

Readers also enjoyed

Compare and Contrast Essay Topics For Students


Just fill out the form, press the button, and have no worries!

We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you board with our cookie policy.

advertisement comparison essay

  • Link to facebook
  • Link to linkedin
  • Link to twitter
  • Link to youtube
  • Writing Tips

How to Write a Compare and Contrast Essay

How to Write a Compare and Contrast Essay

  • 5-minute read
  • 9th March 2021

In a compare and contrast essay , you look at the similarities and differences between two subjects. How do you write one, though? Key steps include:

  • Pick two things to compare based on the assignment you were given.
  • Brainstorm the similarities and differences between your chosen subjects.
  • Choose a structure for your essay and plan how you will write it.
  • Write up your comparison and use evidence to support your argument.
  • Revise and proofread your essay to make sure it is perfect.

For more advice on each stage, check out our guide below.

1. Pick Two Subjects to Compare and Contrast

A compare and contrast assignment will ask you, unsurprisingly, to compare and contrast two things. In some cases, the assignment question will make this clear. For instance, if the assignment says “Compare how Mozart and Beethoven use melody,” you will have a very clear sense of what to write about!

Other times, you will have a choice of what to compare. In this case, you will want to pick two things that are similar enough to make a useful comparison.

For example, comparing Mozart and Beethoven makes sense because both are classical composers. This means there will be lots of points of comparison between them. But comparing Mozart to a Ferrari SF90 Stradale would just be confusing: one is a renowned composer and musician, the other is a high-end sports car, so they have very little in common that we could usefully compare.

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

At the same time, the things you pick should be different enough that you can find points of contrast. Were you asked to compare the calorific content of two types of fast food, for example, it might not make sense to compare hamburgers and cheeseburgers as they are too similar. But you could compare hamburgers and pizzas since both are forms of fast food but they differ in other respects.

As such, if you need to pick the subjects of your essay, read your assignment question carefully and try to find two things that will produce a helpful comparison.

2. Brainstorm Their Similarities and Differences

The next step is to brainstorm similarities and differences between your chosen subjects. You can do this as a simple list, but you could also use a Venn diagram .

This is a set of overlapping circles, each of which represents one subject. You can then add characteristics to each circle, with anything your subjects have in common going in the overlapping bit in the middle.

Find this useful?

Subscribe to our newsletter and get writing tips from our editors straight to your inbox.

advertisement comparison essay

Once you’ve listed characteristics, you’ll need to pick out the similarities and differences relevant to your essay. If you were assigned a question, use this to guide your choices. Otherwise, look for features that seem surprising or interesting and plan your essay around these. The key is to pick points of comparison that help us to understand each thing better, or where the similarities and differences show us something that we might not have expected or noticed otherwise.

3. Choose a Structure for Your Essay

As with any essay, you will want to start with a short introduction where you introduce your topic and what you will argue. Beyond this, most compare and contrast essays are structured in one of two ways. Decide which approach to take before you write your essay outline :

  • Divide by subject – Cover each subject in turn, looking at the key features you’ve identified in the previous step. You can then include a final section where you highlight what comparing the subjects tell us.
  • Divide by individual points – Break your essay down into a series of sections. Each section will then focus on one of the key features you’ve identified, explaining the similarities and differences between your chosen subjects.

For instance, if you were comparing two novels, you could write about each novel in turn and then compare them at the end. Alternatively, you could structure your essay so that each section covers an individual idea (e.g., one on structure, one on characters, one on language), looking at how each book uses these things.

In either case, you will want to end on a conclusion where you summarize what the comparison has shown us about the two subjects.

4. Use Supporting Evidence for Your Argument

It is important that you also back up your statements with supporting evidence. In some cases, this will simply involve pointing to the features of each subject that you’re discussing (e.g., citing specific parts of the novels you’re comparing).

However, you can also do extra research to back up your arguments. Were you comparing two countries’ economic performance, for example, you could use statistics from other studies or reports to show the similarities and differences.

5. Proofread Your Compare and Contrast Essay

Once you have a first draft of your compare and contrast essay, take a break. If you have time, leave it overnight. The aim is to come back to it with fresh eyes and reread it, looking for any areas you could improve. After this, you can redraft your essay to make sure your argument is clear, concise, and convincing.

It is also a good idea to have your essay proofread before submitting it. This will ensure your work is error free and help you get the marks you deserve.

Share this article:

Post A New Comment

Got content that needs a quick turnaround? Let us polish your work. Explore our editorial business services.

9-minute read

How to Use Infographics to Boost Your Presentation

Is your content getting noticed? Capturing and maintaining an audience’s attention is a challenge when...

8-minute read

Why Interactive PDFs Are Better for Engagement

Are you looking to enhance engagement and captivate your audience through your professional documents? Interactive...

7-minute read

Seven Key Strategies for Voice Search Optimization

Voice search optimization is rapidly shaping the digital landscape, requiring content professionals to adapt their...

4-minute read

Five Creative Ways to Showcase Your Digital Portfolio

Are you a creative freelancer looking to make a lasting impression on potential clients or...

How to Ace Slack Messaging for Contractors and Freelancers

Effective professional communication is an important skill for contractors and freelancers navigating remote work environments....

3-minute read

How to Insert a Text Box in a Google Doc

Google Docs is a powerful collaborative tool, and mastering its features can significantly enhance your...

Logo Harvard University

Make sure your writing is the best it can be with our expert English proofreading and editing.

  • PRO Courses Guides New Tech Help Pro Expert Videos About wikiHow Pro Upgrade Sign In
  • EDIT Edit this Article
  • EXPLORE Tech Help Pro About Us Random Article Quizzes Request a New Article Community Dashboard This Or That Game Popular Categories Arts and Entertainment Artwork Books Movies Computers and Electronics Computers Phone Skills Technology Hacks Health Men's Health Mental Health Women's Health Relationships Dating Love Relationship Issues Hobbies and Crafts Crafts Drawing Games Education & Communication Communication Skills Personal Development Studying Personal Care and Style Fashion Hair Care Personal Hygiene Youth Personal Care School Stuff Dating All Categories Arts and Entertainment Finance and Business Home and Garden Relationship Quizzes Cars & Other Vehicles Food and Entertaining Personal Care and Style Sports and Fitness Computers and Electronics Health Pets and Animals Travel Education & Communication Hobbies and Crafts Philosophy and Religion Work World Family Life Holidays and Traditions Relationships Youth
  • Browse Articles
  • Learn Something New
  • Quizzes Hot
  • This Or That Game
  • Train Your Brain
  • Explore More
  • Support wikiHow
  • About wikiHow
  • Log in / Sign up
  • Education and Communications
  • College University and Postgraduate
  • Academic Writing

How to Write a Compare and Contrast Essay

Last Updated: May 12, 2023 Approved

This article was co-authored by Megan Morgan, PhD . Megan Morgan is a Graduate Program Academic Advisor in the School of Public & International Affairs at the University of Georgia. She earned her PhD in English from the University of Georgia in 2015. wikiHow marks an article as reader-approved once it receives enough positive feedback. This article has 29 testimonials from our readers, earning it our reader-approved status. This article has been viewed 3,103,350 times.

The purpose of a compare and contrast essay is to analyze the differences and/or the similarities of two distinct subjects. A good compare/contrast essay doesn’t only point out how the subjects are similar or different (or even both!). It uses those points to make a meaningful argument about the subjects. While it can be a little intimidating to approach this type of essay at first, with a little work and practice, you can write a great compare-and-contrast essay!

Formulating Your Argument

Step 1 Pick two subjects that can be compared and contrasted.

  • You could pick two subjects that are in the same “category” but have differences that are significant in some way. For example, you could choose “homemade pizza vs. frozen grocery store pizza.”
  • You could pick two subjects that don’t appear to have anything in common but that have a surprising similarity. For example, you could choose to compare bats and whales. (One is tiny and flies, and the other is huge and swims, but they both use sonar to hunt.)
  • You could pick two subjects that might appear to be the same but are actually different. For example, you could choose "The Hunger Games movie vs. the book."

Step 2 Make sure that your subjects can be discussed in a meaningful way.

  • For example, ask yourself: What can we learn by thinking about “The Hunger Games” and “Battle Royale” together that we would miss out on if we thought about them separately?
  • It can be helpful to consider the “So what?” question when deciding whether your subjects have meaningful comparisons and contrasts to be made. If you say “The Hunger Games and Battle Royale are both similar and different,” and your friend asked you “So what?” what would your answer be? In other words, why bother putting these two things together?

Step 3 Brainstorm your topic.

  • A “Venn diagram” can often be helpful when brainstorming. This set of overlapping circles can help you visualize where your subjects are similar and where they differ. In the outer edges of the circle, you write what is different; in the overlapping middle area, you write what’s similar. [2] X Trustworthy Source University of North Carolina Writing Center UNC's on-campus and online instructional service that provides assistance to students, faculty, and others during the writing process Go to source
  • You can also just draw out a list of all of the qualities or characteristics of each subject. Once you’ve done that, start looking through the list for traits that both subjects share. Major points of difference are also good to note.

Step 4 Consider your main points.

  • For example, if you are comparing and contrasting cats and dogs, you might notice that both are common household pets, fairly easy to adopt, and don’t usually have many special care needs. These are points of comparison (ways they are similar).
  • You might also note that cats are usually more independent than dogs, that dogs may not provoke allergies as much as cats do, and that cats don’t get as big as many dogs do. These are points of contrast (ways they are different).
  • These points of contrast can often be good places to start thinking about your thesis, or argument. Do these differences make one animal a superior type of pet? Or a better pet choice for a specific living situation (e.g., an apartment, a farm, etc.)?

Step 5 Develop your thesis.

  • Show readers why one subject is more desirable than the other. Example: "Cats are better pets than dogs because they require less maintenance, are more independent, and are more adaptable."
  • Help readers make a meaningful comparison between two subjects. Example: "New York City and San Francisco are both great cities for young professionals, but they differ in terms of their job opportunities, social environment, and living conditions."
  • Show readers how two subjects are similar and different. Example: "While both The Catcher in the Rye and To Kill a Mockingbird explore the themes of loss of innocence and the deep bond between siblings, To Kill a Mockingbird is more concerned with racism while The Catcher in the Rye focuses on the prejudices of class."
  • In middle school and high school, the standard format for essays is often the “5-paragraph form,” with an introduction, 3 body paragraphs, and a conclusion. If your teacher recommends this form, go for it. However, you should be aware that especially in college, teachers and professors tend to want students to break out of this limited mode. Don’t get so locked into having “three main points” that you forget to fully explore your topic.

Organizing Your Essay

Step 1 Decide on a structure.

  • Subject by subject. This organization deals with all of the points about Topic A, then all of the points of Topic B. For example, you could discuss all your points about frozen pizza (in as many paragraphs as necessary), then all your points about homemade pizza. The strength of this form is that you don’t jump back and forth as much between topics, which can help your essay read more smoothly. It can also be helpful if you are using one subject as a “lens” through which to examine the other. The major disadvantage is that the comparisons and contrasts don’t really become evident until much further into the essay, and it can end up reading like a list of “points” rather than a cohesive essay. [4] X Trustworthy Source University of North Carolina Writing Center UNC's on-campus and online instructional service that provides assistance to students, faculty, and others during the writing process Go to source
  • Point by point. This type of organization switches back and forth between points. For example, you could first discuss the prices of frozen pizza vs. homemade pizza, then the quality of ingredients, then the convenience factor. The advantage of this form is that it’s very clear what you’re comparing and contrasting. The disadvantage is that you do switch back and forth between topics, so you need to make sure that you use transitions and signposts to lead your reader through your argument.
  • Compare then contrast. This organization presents all the comparisons first, then all the contrasts. It’s a pretty common way of organizing an essay, and it can be helpful if you really want to emphasize how your subjects are different. Putting the contrasts last places the emphasis on them. However, it can be more difficult for your readers to immediately see why these two subjects are being contrasted if all the similarities are first.

Step 2 Outline your essay.

  • Introduction. This paragraph comes first and presents the basic information about the subjects to be compared and contrasted. It should present your thesis and the direction of your essay (i.e., what you will discuss and why your readers should care).
  • Body Paragraphs. These are the meat of your essay, where you provide the details and evidence that support your claims. Each different section or body paragraph should tackle a different division of proof. It should provide and analyze evidence in order to connect those proofs to your thesis and support your thesis. Many middle-school and high-school essays may only require three body paragraphs, but use as many as is necessary to fully convey your argument.
  • Acknowledgement of Competitive Arguments/Concession. This paragraph acknowledges that other counter-arguments exist, but discusses how those arguments are flawed or do not apply.
  • Conclusion. This paragraph summarizes the evidence presented. It will restate the thesis, but usually in a way that offers more information or sophistication than the introduction could. Remember: your audience now has all the information you gave them about why your argument is solid. They don’t need you to just reword your original thesis. Take it to the next level!

Step 3 Outline your body paragraphs based on subject-to-subject comparison.

  • Introduction: state your intent to discuss the differences between camping in the woods or on the beach.
  • Body Paragraph 1 (Woods): Climate/Weather
  • Body Paragraph 2 (Woods): Types of Activities and Facilities
  • Body Paragraph 3 (Beach): Climate/Weather
  • Body Paragraph 4 (Beach): Types of Activities and Facilities

Step 4 Outline your body paragraphs based on point-by-point comparison.

  • Introduction

Step 5 Outline your body paragraphs based on compare then contrast.

  • Body Paragraph 1: Similarity between woods and beaches (both are places with a wide variety of things to do)
  • Body Paragraph 2: First difference between woods and beaches (they have different climates)
  • Body Paragraph 3: Second difference between woods and beaches (there are more easily accessible woods than beaches in most parts of the country)
  • Body Paragraph 4: Emphasis on the superiority of the woods to the beach

Step 6 Organize your individual body paragraphs.

  • Topic sentence: This sentence introduces the main idea and subject of the paragraph. It can also provide a transition from the ideas in the previous paragraph.
  • Body: These sentences provide concrete evidence that support the topic sentence and main idea.
  • Conclusion: this sentence wraps up the ideas in the paragraph. It may also provide a link to the next paragraph’s ideas.

Putting It All Together

Step 1 Use your brainstorming ideas to fill in your outline.

  • If you are having trouble finding evidence to support your argument, go back to your original texts and try the brainstorming process again. It could be that your argument is evolving past where it started, which is good! You just need to go back and look for further evidence.

Step 2 Remember to explain the “why.”

  • For example, in a body paragraph about the quality of ingredients in frozen vs. homemade pizza, you could close with an assertion like this: “Because you actively control the quality of the ingredients in pizza you make at home, it can be healthier for you than frozen pizza. It can also let you express your imagination. Pineapple and peanut butter pizza? Go for it! Pickles and parmesan? Do it! Using your own ingredients lets you have fun with your food.” This type of comment helps your reader understand why the ability to choose your own ingredients makes homemade pizza better.

Step 3 Come up with a title.

  • Reading your essay aloud can also help you find problem spots. Often, when you’re writing you get so used to what you meant to say that you don’t read what you actually said.

Step 5 Review your essay.

  • Avoid bias. Don't use overly negative or defamatory language to show why a subject is unfavorable; use solid evidence to prove your points instead.
  • Avoid first-person pronouns unless told otherwise. In some cases, your teacher may encourage you to use “I” and “you” in your essay. However, if the assignment or your teacher doesn’t mention it, stick with third-person instead, like “one may see” or “people may enjoy.” This is common practice for formal academic essays.
  • Proofread! Spelling and punctuation errors happen to everyone, but not catching them can make you seem lazy. Go over your essay carefully, and ask a friend to help if you’re not confident in your own proofreading skills.

Sample Body Paragraphs

Step 1 Write a body paragraph for a point-by-point compare and contrast essay.

  • "When one is deciding whether to go to the beach or the woods, the type of activities that each location offers are an important point to consider. At the beach, one can enjoy the water by swimming, surfing, or even building a sandcastle with a moat that will fill with water. When one is in the woods, one may be able to go fishing or swimming in a nearby lake, or one may not be near water at all. At the beach, one can keep one's kids entertained by burying them in sand or kicking around a soccer ball; if one is in the woods, one can entertain one's kids by showing them different plans or animals. Both the beach and the woods offer a variety of activities for adults and kids alike."

Step 2 Write a body paragraph for a subject-by-subject compare and contrast essay.

  • "The beach has a wonderful climate, many activities, and great facilities for any visitor's everyday use. If a person goes to the beach during the right day or time of year, he or she can enjoy warm, yet refreshing water, a cool breeze, and a relatively hot climate. At the beach, one can go swimming, sunbathe, or build sandcastles. There are also great facilities at the beach, such as a changing room, umbrellas, and conveniently-located restaurants and changing facilities. The climate, activities, and facilities are important points to consider when deciding between the beach and the woods."

Sample Essay Outline

advertisement comparison essay

Community Q&A

Community Answer

  • Collect your sources. Mark page numbers in books, authors, titles, dates, or other applicable information. This will help you cite your sources later on in the writing process. Thanks Helpful 0 Not Helpful 2
  • Don't rush through your writing. If you have a deadline, start early. If you rush, the writing won't not be as good as it could be. Thanks Helpful 0 Not Helpful 0
  • Use reputable sources. While Wikipedia may be an easy way to start off, try to go to more specific websites afterwards. Many schools refuse to accept Wikipedia as a valid source of information, and prefer sources with more expertise and credibility. Thanks Helpful 0 Not Helpful 0

advertisement comparison essay

  • If you have external sources, make sure you always cite them. Otherwise, you may be guilty of plagiarism. Thanks Helpful 3 Not Helpful 0

You Might Also Like

Find a Catchy Title for Your Paper/Essay

  • ↑ http://writingcenter.unc.edu/handouts/comparing-and-contrasting/
  • ↑ http://www.readwritethink.org/files/resources/interactives/compcontrast/

About This Article

Megan Morgan, PhD

To write a compare and contrast essay, try organizing your essay so you're comparing and contrasting one aspect of your subjects in each paragraph. Or, if you don't want to jump back and forth between subjects, structure your essay so the first half is about one subject and the second half is about the other. You could also write your essay so the first few paragraphs introduce all of the comparisons and the last few paragraphs introduce all of the contrasts, which can help emphasize your subjects' differences and similarities. To learn how to choose subjects to compare and come up with a thesis statement, keep reading! Did this summary help you? Yes No

  • Send fan mail to authors

Reader Success Stories

Huma Bukhari

Huma Bukhari

Feb 16, 2019

Did this article help you?

Huma Bukhari

Alain Vilfort

Mar 2, 2017

Aida Mirzaie

Aida Mirzaie

Aug 19, 2018

Michaela Mislerov

Michaela Mislerov

Apr 2, 2017

Subhashini Gunasekaran

Subhashini Gunasekaran

Jul 31, 2016

Am I a Narcissist or an Empath Quiz

Featured Articles

Right Brain vs Left Brain Test

Trending Articles

What Does “If They Wanted to, They Would” Mean and Is It True?

Watch Articles

Clean Silver Jewelry with Vinegar

  • Terms of Use
  • Privacy Policy
  • Do Not Sell or Share My Info
  • Not Selling Info

wikiHow Tech Help Pro:

Level up your tech skills and stay ahead of the curve

Advertisements Analysis and Comparison Essay

Semiotic analysis, overt vs covert messages.

When it comes to ensuring the commercial/aesthetic appeal of an advertised product, it is crucially important to remain thoroughly aware of what accounts for the specifics of the targeted audience’s consumer-behavior. In their turn, these specifics are best discussed within the context of how the targeted consumers’ cultural affiliation affects their cognitive leanings/existential attitudes, in general, and their purchasing decision-making, in particular (Mooij 2007, p. 27).

It is understood, of course, that this suggestion contradicts the assumption that, due to the rise of Globalization, the qualitative aspects of people’s consumerist behavior in different parts of the world grow increasingly unified. Hence, a ‘universalist’ theory of marketing, which implies that there is not much of a sense in adjusting advertisement-campaigns to be fully observant of how targeted buyers tend to perceive the surrounding reality.

This theory, however, cannot be referred to as such that represents an undisputed truth-value. The reason for this is simple – despite an ongoing economic Globalization, there is a plenty of evidence that the manner, in which consumers perceive the actual value of advertised goods and services, continues to be highly reflective of what happened to be the particulars of these people’s culturally defined ‘brain wiring’.

In my paper, I will aim to substantiate the validity of this thesis at length, in regards to the American (Western) and Korean (Oriental) advertisement-posters of beer, seen bellow:

Appreciation unfolds in the morning!

“Appreciation unfolds in the morning!”

King of beers

“King of beers”

American (Western)

Semantics . The advertisement-message, conveyed by American poster is clearly object-oriented. The depicted bottle of beer is meant to emphasize both: the promoted beverage’s coldness/tastefulness and the fact that it is specifically Budweiser that ‘reigns’ over the rest of the beer-brands.

This is also the reason why the bottle’s lid is flipped upside down – it makes the bottle appear as if it was wearing a ‘crown’. The bottle of Budweiser beer is situated at the poster’s very center, which increases the extent of viewers’ emotional/cognitive comfortableness with the conveyed message even further.

Syntactics . The typed message, seen above the depicted object, thoroughly correlates with the poster’s visual semiotics, because it does encourage consumers to assume that in the ‘world of beer’, Budweiser dominates.

The message’s strongly defined affirmativeness does not provide observes with much of a liberty to interpret the promoted idea’s ideological connotation.

Pragmatics . The pragmatic subtleties of this particular advertisement-poster are concerned with the poster’s assumed ability to encourage beer-consumers to believe that, by drinking Budweiser beers they become ‘empowered’.

This, of course, increases the emotional appeal of the Budweiser beer-brand to American (Western) audiences even further, because they predominantly consist of people endowed with the so-called ‘Faustian’ (domination-seeking) mentality (Greenwood 2009, p. 53).

Korean (Oriental)

Semantics . The overall message, conveyed by Korean poster, is best defined as a context-oriented. That is, by observing this poster, consumers are expected to think of the actual reason why they drink beer, as such that is being concerned with helping them to explore their individuality, rather than with allowing them to experience a purely sensory pleasure.

This is exactly the reason why the image of a smiling young woman clearly dominates the poster and why the advertised bottle of beer is situated at the poster’s bottom-right corner.

Syntactics . The typed message, seen in this poster, appears context-oriented, as well. This is because it merely encourages potential consumers to establish a dialectical link between the notions of ‘appreciation’ and ‘beer’, without forcing the audience’s members to assume that such a link exists de facto . As such, it is being fully consistent with the poster’s visual semiotics.

Pragmatics . While exposed to this poster, potential consumers are expected to consider the possibility that, by drinking the advertised beer, they will be able to substantially increase the sheer intensity of their perception of the surrounding reality’s emanations, which in turn will make them more appreciative of their life-experiences.

This implies that the poster is being fully attuned to the workings of the so-called ‘Apollonian’ (Oriental psyche), concerned with Oriental people’s strive to coexist with the nature peacefully, rather than with trying to dominate it (Greenwood, p. 54).

As it was implied earlier, the commercial appeal of American advertisement-poster reflects the designers’ awareness of the fact that the foremost psychological trait, on the part of the targeted audience’s members, is their deep-seated anxiety to dominate others. In its turn, this explains why the overt messages, conveyed by this poster (such as the logo ‘king of beers’), exploit the ‘appeal to masculinity’.

Nevertheless, there are also a number of covert (subliminal) overtones to this particular appeal. For example, the color of the poster’s background is dark-red, which is supposed to evoke in potential consumers the image of the ancient Roman god of war Mars. The poster’s vertically-aligned format is clearly reminiscent of the notion of hierarchy, which has traditionally been associated with the notion of masculinity.

Apparently, while exposed to this poster, male beer-lovers are expected to grow increasingly comfortable with the idea that by drinking Budweiser beer, they will be more likely to attain a social prominence in male-dominated societies.

Moreover, because the bottle of Budweiser beer, depicted in the poster, appears visually subliminal of an erect penis, the targeted buyers’ prolonged exposure to it will inevitably result in encouraging them to think that the consumption of Budweiser beer, on their part, is the direct pathway towards ensuring the undermined integrity of their sexual powers.

Even though that, formally speaking, Korean poster does convey the overt message that the activity of drinking beer does make people more appreciative of the surrounding reality, the actual appeal of this poster is concerned with the sheer potency of the promoted message’s covert undertones.

Apparently, poster’s designers never ceased being fully aware of the fact that, while deciding in favor of buying a particular product, Orientals tend to act in an essentially intuitive manner (Norenzayan et al. 2002, p. 653). The validity of this statement can be well illustrated in regards to the poster’s horizontally-aligned format, which correlates with these people’s tendency to think and act ‘holistically’ – that is, without trying to exercise a ‘hierarchic’ control over the surrounding reality.

The large image of a smiling young woman, contained in the poster, encourages onlookers to think of the process of consuming alcoholic beverages in terms of a ‘relaxation’, rather than in terms of an ‘aggression’. The poster’s blue-colored background emphasizes this particular perceptual aspect even further.

Because poster’s designers knew perfectly well that it is in the very nature of the targeted audience’s members to contextualize informational inputs, they made a deliberate point in downsizing the advertised product visually and in placing it in the poster’s right-bottom corner.

By doing it, they succeeded in confirming the potential consumers’ intuitive insight that the consumption of alcoholic beverages cannot be thought of as ‘thing in itself’ (as Westerners tend to do), but rather as something that makes one more emotionally comfortable, while socializing with others.

In light of what has been said earlier, it will only be logical to suggest that, when it comes to advertising commercial products, meant to appeal to Western audiences, on the one hand, and to Oriental audiences, on the other, advertisers should remain observant of the following:

Westerners tend to cognitively subjectualize themselves within the surrounding social/natural environment. As Bower (2000) noted, “In a variety of reasoning tasks… (Westerners) adopt an ‘analytic’ perspective. They look for the traits of objects while largely ignoring their context” (p. 57). In its turn, this implies that the marketing campaigns, aimed at Westerners, should provide would-be-consumers with a rationale-based reason to purchase the advertised products.

Orientals tend to think of themselves in terms of the surrounding reality’s integral part. Hence, the Orientals’ culturally predetermined tendency to think of causes and effects, as such that derive out of each other cyclically (contextually) rather than linearly (Masuda et al. 2008, p. 1265).

What it means is that, while trying to make a particular product emotionally appealing to Oriental consumers, advertisers should focus on emphasizing this product’s ability to help the targeted buyers to celebrate their existential self-identity.

The earlier conducted semiotic analysis of both posters points out to the fact that, contrary to the provisions of a ‘universalist’ marketing theory, consumers’ ethno-cultural affiliation does play an important role in how they perceive the de facto relevancy of commercial advertisements.

Therefore, even though that the application of Maslow’s ‘theory of needs’ (within the context of designing marketing-strategies) continues to remain fully appropriate, marketers should never cease being aware of the fact that consumers’ first-order, second-order and third-order priorities cannot be discussed outside of what happened to be the particulars of the concerned individuals’ cultural leanings.

The same analysis also suggests that, in order for a particular advertisement to be considered fully effective, it must be ‘covertly sound’ – that is, potential buyers should not only be in a position to recognize the legitimacy of the conveyed message consciously, but also unconsciously. In its turn, this again implies that it represents the matter of a crucial importance for marketers to be able to understand what account for the workings of the targeted audience’s ‘collective psyche’.

As it was shown throughout the course of this paper’s Analytical part, there is nothing accidental about the fact that, despite being concerned with advertising the same line of products (beer), the analyzed American and Korean posters do not correlate with each other semiotically. This is because they were designed to appeal to the groups of people, who due to the characteristics of their cultural affiliation, differ in how they indulge in cognitive processes.

Thus, it will be only logical to reinstate once again that there can indeed be very little uniformity to the deployment of marketing strategies in different parts of the world. I believe that this conclusion fully correlates with the paper’s initial thesis.

Bower, B 2000, ‘Cultures of reason’, Science News , vol. 157 no. 4, pp. 56-58.

De Mooij, M 2004, Consumer behavior and culture: consequences for global marketing and advertising , Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks.

Greenwood, S 2009, Anthropology of magic , Berg Publishers, Oxford.

Masuda, T, Gonzales, R, Kwan, L & Nisbett, R 2008, ‘Culture and aesthetic preference: comparing the attention to context of East Asians and Americans’, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin , vol. 34 no. 9, pp. 1260-1275.

Norenzayan, A, Smith, E, Beom, J & Nisbett, R 2002, ‘Cultural preferences for formal versus intuitive reasoning’, Cognitive Science , vol. 26 no. 5, pp. 653-684.

  • Effectiveness of Super Bowl Advertising
  • Influence of Television Advertising on the People
  • The Theory of Semiotics: Semiotics and Medicine
  • Cooperative Advertising: Definition & Benefits
  • The Impact of Social Media on a Brand, Its Image, and Reputation
  • Promotional and Advertising Strategies – Automotive Industry
  • Advertising to Elderly Consumers
  • Samsung Advertising Its Brand Using Pancakes During the Pancake Day
  • Chicago (A-D)
  • Chicago (N-B)

IvyPanda. (2019, June 30). Advertisements Analysis and Comparison. https://ivypanda.com/essays/advertisements-analysis-and-comparison/

"Advertisements Analysis and Comparison." IvyPanda , 30 June 2019, ivypanda.com/essays/advertisements-analysis-and-comparison/.

IvyPanda . (2019) 'Advertisements Analysis and Comparison'. 30 June.

IvyPanda . 2019. "Advertisements Analysis and Comparison." June 30, 2019. https://ivypanda.com/essays/advertisements-analysis-and-comparison/.

1. IvyPanda . "Advertisements Analysis and Comparison." June 30, 2019. https://ivypanda.com/essays/advertisements-analysis-and-comparison/.


IvyPanda . "Advertisements Analysis and Comparison." June 30, 2019. https://ivypanda.com/essays/advertisements-analysis-and-comparison/.

Library homepage

  • school Campus Bookshelves
  • menu_book Bookshelves
  • perm_media Learning Objects
  • login Login
  • how_to_reg Request Instructor Account
  • hub Instructor Commons

Margin Size

  • Download Page (PDF)
  • Download Full Book (PDF)
  • Periodic Table
  • Physics Constants
  • Scientific Calculator
  • Reference & Cite
  • Tools expand_more
  • Readability

selected template will load here

This action is not available.

Humanities LibreTexts

4.1: Introduction to Comparison and Contrast Essay

  • Last updated
  • Save as PDF
  • Page ID 174873

\( \newcommand{\vecs}[1]{\overset { \scriptstyle \rightharpoonup} {\mathbf{#1}} } \)

\( \newcommand{\vecd}[1]{\overset{-\!-\!\rightharpoonup}{\vphantom{a}\smash {#1}}} \)

\( \newcommand{\id}{\mathrm{id}}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\)

( \newcommand{\kernel}{\mathrm{null}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\range}{\mathrm{range}\,}\)

\( \newcommand{\RealPart}{\mathrm{Re}}\) \( \newcommand{\ImaginaryPart}{\mathrm{Im}}\)

\( \newcommand{\Argument}{\mathrm{Arg}}\) \( \newcommand{\norm}[1]{\| #1 \|}\)

\( \newcommand{\inner}[2]{\langle #1, #2 \rangle}\)

\( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\)

\( \newcommand{\id}{\mathrm{id}}\)

\( \newcommand{\kernel}{\mathrm{null}\,}\)

\( \newcommand{\range}{\mathrm{range}\,}\)

\( \newcommand{\RealPart}{\mathrm{Re}}\)

\( \newcommand{\ImaginaryPart}{\mathrm{Im}}\)

\( \newcommand{\Argument}{\mathrm{Arg}}\)

\( \newcommand{\norm}[1]{\| #1 \|}\)

\( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\) \( \newcommand{\AA}{\unicode[.8,0]{x212B}}\)

\( \newcommand{\vectorA}[1]{\vec{#1}}      % arrow\)

\( \newcommand{\vectorAt}[1]{\vec{\text{#1}}}      % arrow\)

\( \newcommand{\vectorB}[1]{\overset { \scriptstyle \rightharpoonup} {\mathbf{#1}} } \)

\( \newcommand{\vectorC}[1]{\textbf{#1}} \)

\( \newcommand{\vectorD}[1]{\overrightarrow{#1}} \)

\( \newcommand{\vectorDt}[1]{\overrightarrow{\text{#1}}} \)

\( \newcommand{\vectE}[1]{\overset{-\!-\!\rightharpoonup}{\vphantom{a}\smash{\mathbf {#1}}}} \)

The key to a good compare-and-contrast essay is to choose two or more subjects that connect in a meaningful way. Comparison and contrast is simply telling how two things are alike or different. The compare-and-contrast essay starts with a thesis that clearly states the two subjects that are to be compared, contrasted, or both. The thesis should focus on comparing, contrasting, or both.

Key Elements of the Compare and Contrast:

  • A compare-and-contrast essay analyzes two subjects by either comparing them, contrasting them, or both.
  • The purpose of writing a comparison or contrast essay is not to state the obvious but rather to illuminate subtle differences or unexpected similarities between two subjects.
  • The thesis should clearly state the subjects that are to be compared, contrasted, or both, and it should state what is to be learned from doing so.
  • Organize by the subjects themselves, one then the other.
  • Organize by individual points, in which you discuss each subject in relation to each point.
  • Use phrases of comparison or phrases of contrast to signal to readers how exactly the two subjects are being analyzed.

Objectives: By the end of this unit, you will be able to

  • Identify compare & contrast relationships in model essays
  • Construct clearly formulated thesis statements that show compare & contrast relationships
  • Use pre-writing techniques to brainstorm and organize ideas showing a comparison and/or contrast
  • Construct an outline for a five-paragraph compare & contrast essay
  • Write a five-paragraph compare & contrast essay
  • Use a variety of vocabulary and language structures that express compare & contrast essay relationships

Example Thesis: Organic vegetables may cost more than those that are conventionally grown, but when put to the test, they are definitely worth every extra penny.

Graphic Showing Organization for Comparison Contrast Essay

Sample Paragraph:

Organic grown tomatoes purchased at the farmers’ market are very different from tomatoes that are grown conventionally. To begin with, although tomatoes from both sources will mostly be red, the tomatoes at the farmers’ market are a brighter red than those at a grocery store. That doesn’t mean they are shinier—in fact, grocery store tomatoes are often shinier since they have been waxed. You are likely to see great size variation in tomatoes at the farmers’ market, with tomatoes ranging from only a couple of inches across to eight inches across. By contrast, the tomatoes in a grocery store will be fairly uniform in size. All the visual differences are interesting, but the most important difference is the taste. The farmers’ market tomatoes will be bursting with flavor from ripening on the vine in their own time. However, the grocery store tomatoes are often close to being flavorless. In conclusion, the differences in organic and conventionally grown tomatoes are obvious in color, size and taste.

Creative Commons Attribution

We use cookies to enhance our website for you. Proceed if you agree to this policy or learn more about it.

  • Essay Database >
  • Essay Examples >
  • Essays Topics >
  • Essay on Appeal

Advertisement Comparison Essay Example

Type of paper: Essay

Topic: Appeal , Feeling , Apple , Steve Jobs , Love , Microsoft , Supreme Court , Emotions

Published: 02/17/2020


The area of advertising has long been a place of interest and continued research. This essay will examine three separate advertisements in order to identify both the connections and the feelings that these advertisements evoke. In order to determine the full impact of the wide range of stimulus that surrounds each one of us, examining and identifying the elements that comprise an effective advertisement will illustrate the strengths and detriments of these approaches. In the end, this essay will examine effect, implementation and overall impact with the stated goal of finding the strengths and weaknesses associated with each advertising strategy. /> The advertisement created by McDonalds (Google.com 1) featuring a picture of the iconic Big Mac raises a number of feelings. The overall theme of the ad uses the colours of dark red to accentuate the food offering. By proclaiming in a bold print that the person should “Stop Staring at me, like I’m some Piece of Meat”, the ad both touches on the taboo of continued reading as well as the element of humour in order to present the burger in a manner both appealing and socially acceptable. Secondarily, the ad goes on the use the question “Are you Mac enough” to incite a feeling of challenge that many may find appealing. Further the use of the slogan “Piece of Meat” continues to evoke that range of feelings that the burger needs to be faced and eaten. The caption at the bottom of the ad “You can look but you can’t touch” continues on to build a feeling of enticement in the prospective buyer. Each of the elements of this ad from the colour, to the design and lettering and the slogan is specifically designed to incite the feelings of challenge and the concept of “come and prove it”. This form of advertising will make the low quality of the fast food industry a little more fun. The approach used by the Apple Company to advertise its Apple Nano Chrome continues to play on the concept of personality in order to achieve the needed interest (Apple 1). With the most striking element of the effort centred on the colour, the wide range of potential choices is brought up front and centre. This approach evokes a feeling of being able to determine every element of the choice that I get to make, I like that a lot. Further, incorporated on the screens of each of the pictured models is a rendition of a cultural icon that allows for a relatable quality to the proffered device. The very words of the title “The Colours of Music” are indicative of individual choice, specifically made to evoke a feeling of control and power over the entire process from beginning to end. The manner in which the picture is framed from the grey on one end to the vibrant red on the other end, adds depth and consideration to the ad, evoking a real feeling of quality and thoughtfulness. The advertisement put together by Microsoft to promote their Visual Studio offering incorporates many of the same elements of personality centred advertisement as the others (Microsoft 1). The picture of the man, admittedly slightly geeky, in glasses and collared shirts, evokes an image of computer professionalism from the very start. Utilizing the words “Your Potential” in a caption next to the picture makes the feeling of possibility come to the foreground. This new tool from Microsoft is designed to appeal to the professional designer, and in order to do that it must appeal to the core desires of the target population, skill and education. The accompanying picture of the classroom full of students continues to build on the perception of added potential in the product. Each of the students is happy, which makes me happy because they are obviously using this product in a meaningful way. The motto engraved above the little girls “With the right tools we believe childlike dreams can become real.” Brings about a feeling of positive and happiness that this tool is necessary in order for me to be able to create to the full range of potential.” Unlike the previous two advertisements, this Apple ad reaches beyond the physical and digs down in the personality traits that are required to become really good at something.

This essay has examined three advertisements in order to find the similarities and differences with each approach. Both the McDonalds and the Apple ad tended to appeal to the more physical elements of the persons personality with the Microsoft Ad was designed to appeal to the more professional set. Yet, each one of these evokes positive images in their effort to build consumer interest. They use the same tools on different areas of a person’s psychology to achieve similar results. It remains the focus and the product that determines which area that needs to be targeted. Different products will appeal to separate areas. In the end, it will be the most effective means of reaching a person that proves the best advertising method.

Works cited

"Mcdonalds ad" Google.com, 2013. Web. 12 Oct 2013. "One of my habits is to visit www. Microsoft .com one a week, and here it " Microsoft, 2013. Web. 12 Oct 2013. "APPLE AD: NANO CHRM by ~kurtss on deviantART." Apple, 2013. Web. 12 Oct 2013.


Cite this page

Share with friends using:

Removal Request

Removal Request

Finished papers: 2962

This paper is created by writer with

ID 270440701

If you want your paper to be:

Well-researched, fact-checked, and accurate

Original, fresh, based on current data

Eloquently written and immaculately formatted

275 words = 1 page double-spaced

submit your paper

Get your papers done by pros!

Other Pages

Free essay on st augustine confessions, sample article review on toyota company recent crisis and business strategic management, methodology research paper sample, understanding of the west literature comparison term paper samples, relationship between civilization and nature essays example, norfolk southern railroad company research papers examples, good gem essay example, platoon movie reviews examples, childhood obesity causes and solutions research paper examples, budgeting analysis and report of massachusetts research papers examples, free essay on the table below identifies two stocks their stock codes spheres of action their, critical thinking on education v apprenticeship, good example of course work on policy sector drug use in the united states, good example of essay on how does ethic consideration matter to me as a leader, sample essay on bp and sustainability, free argumentative essay on new approaches against drunk driving, good cabbage butterflys mouthparts essay example, good example of entrepreneurial leadership report, learn to craft article reviews on macroeconomics with this example, macroeconomics article review sample, essay on analyse poes creation of atmosphere in the cask of amontillado, good essay about japan tourism pre and post tsunami, false advertising essays, fun loving essays, nursing management essays, goopy essays, miranda rights essays, flumes essays, intermediate accounting essays, problem statement essays, contract theory essays, social work practice essays, emtala essays, scope of practice essays, jaworski essays, big george essays, lazear essays, good qualities essays, nonbeliever essays, sinc essays, angus essays, lally essays.

Password recovery email has been sent to [email protected]

Use your new password to log in

You are not register!

By clicking Register, you agree to our Terms of Service and that you have read our Privacy Policy .

Now you can download documents directly to your device!

Check your email! An email with your password has already been sent to you! Now you can download documents directly to your device.

or Use the QR code to Save this Paper to Your Phone

The sample is NOT original!

Short on a deadline?

Don't waste time. Get help with 11% off using code - GETWOWED

No, thanks! I'm fine with missing my deadline

  • Grades 6-12
  • School Leaders

Don't Miss the Grand Prize: A $2,500 Office Depot/OfficeMax Card!

34 Compelling Compare and Contrast Essay Examples

Topics cover education, technology, pop culture, sports, animals, and more.

advertisement comparison essay

Do your writers need some inspiration? If you’re teaching students to write a compare and contrast essay, a strong example is an invaluable tool. This round-up of our favorite compare and contrast essays covers a range of topics and grade levels, so no matter your students’ interests or ages, you’ll always have a helpful example to share. You’ll find links to full essays about education, technology, pop culture, sports, animals, and more. (Need compare-and-contrast essay topic ideas? Check out our big list of compare and contrast essay topics! )

What is a compare and contrast essay?

  • Education and parenting essays
  • Technology essays
  • Pop culture essays
  • Historical and political essays
  • Sports essays
  • Lifestyle essays
  • Healthcare essays
  • Animal essays

When choosing a compare and contrast essay example to include on this list, we considered the structure. A strong compare and contrast essay begins with an introductory paragraph that includes background context and a strong thesis. Next, the body includes paragraphs that explore the similarities and differences. Finally, a concluding paragraph restates the thesis, draws any necessary inferences, and asks any remaining questions.

A compare and contrast essay example can be an opinion piece comparing two things and making a conclusion about which is better. For example, “Is Tom Brady really the GOAT?” It can also help consumers decide which product is better suited to them. Should you keep your subscription to Hulu or Netflix? Should you stick with Apple or explore Android? Here’s our list of compare and contrast essay samples categorized by subject.

Education and Parenting Compare and Contrast Essay Examples

Private school vs. public school.

Sample lines: “Deciding whether to send a child to public or private school can be a tough choice for parents. … Data on whether public or private education is better can be challenging to find and difficult to understand, and the cost of private school can be daunting. … According to the most recent data from the National Center for Education Statistics, public schools still attract far more students than private schools, with 50.7 million students attending public school as of 2018. Private school enrollment in the fall of 2017 was 5.7 million students, a number that is down from 6 million in 1999.”

Read the full essay: Private School vs. Public School at U.S. News and World Report

Homeschool vs. Public School: How Home Schooling Will Change Public Education

Homeschool vs. Public School: How Home Schooling Will Change Public Education

Sample lines: “Home schooling, not a present threat to public education, is nonetheless one of the forces that will change it. If the high estimates of the number of children in home schools (1.2 million) is correct, then the home-schooling universe is larger than the New York City public school system and roughly the size of the Los Angeles and Chicago public school systems combined. … Critics charge that three things are wrong with home schooling: harm to students academically; harm to society by producing students who are ill-prepared to function as democratic citizens and participants in a modern economy; and harm to public education, making it more difficult for other parents to educate their children. … It is time to ask whether home schooling, charters, and vouchers should be considered parts of a broad repertoire of methods that we as a society use to educate our children.”

Read the full essay: Homeschool vs. Public School: How Home Schooling Will Change Public Education at Brookings

Which parenting style is right for you?

Sample lines: “The three main types of parenting are on a type of ‘sliding scale’ of parenting, with permissive parenting as the least strict type of parenting. Permissive parenting typically has very few rules, while authoritarian parenting is thought of as a very strict, rule-driven type of parenting.”

Read the full essay: What Is Authoritative Parenting? at Healthline

Masked Education? The Benefits and Burdens of Wearing Face Masks in Schools During the Pandemic

Sample lines: “Face masks can prevent the spread of the virus SARS-CoV-2. … However, covering the lower half of the face reduces the ability to communicate. Positive emotions become less recognizable, and negative emotions are amplified. Emotional mimicry, contagion, and emotionality in general are reduced and (thereby) bonding between teachers and learners, group cohesion, and learning—of which emotions are a major driver. The benefits and burdens of face masks in schools should be seriously considered and made obvious and clear to teachers and students.”

Read the full essay: Masked Education? The Benefits and Burdens of Wearing Face Masks in Schools During the Pandemic at National Library of Medicine

To Ban or Not: What Should We Really Make of Book Bans?

To Ban or Not: What Should We Really Make of Book Bans?

Sample lines: “In recent years, book bans have soared in schools, reaching an all-time high in fall 2022. … The challenge of balancing parent concerns about ‘age appropriateness’ against the imperative of preparing students to be informed citizens is still on the minds of many educators today. … Such curricular decision-making  should  be left to the professionals, argues English/language arts instructional specialist Miriam Plotinsky. ‘Examining texts for their appropriateness is not a job that noneducators are trained to do,’ she wrote last year, as the national debate over censorship resurged with the news that a Tennessee district banned the graphic novel  Maus  just days before Holocaust Remembrance Day.”

Read the full essay: To Ban or Not: What Should We Really Make of Book Bans? at Education Week

Technology Compare and Contrast Essay Examples

Netflix vs. hulu 2023: which is the best streaming service.

Sample lines: “Netflix fans will point to its high-quality originals, including  The Witcher ,  Stranger Things ,  Emily in Paris ,  Ozark , and more, as well as a wide variety of documentaries like  Cheer ,  The Last Dance ,  My Octopus Teacher , and many others. It also boasts a much larger subscription base, with more than 222 million subscribers compared to Hulu’s 44 million. Hulu, on the other hand, offers a variety of extras such as HBO and Showtime—content that’s unavailable on Netflix. Its price tag is also cheaper than the competition, with its $7/mo. starting price, which is a bit more palatable than Netflix’s $10/mo. starting price.”

Read the full essay: Netflix vs. Hulu 2023: Which is the best streaming service? at TV Guide

Kindle vs. Hardcover: Which is easier on the eyes?

Kindle vs. Hardcover: Which is easier on the eyes?

Sample lines: “In the past, we would have to drag around heavy books if we were really into reading. Now, we can have all of those books, and many more, stored in one handy little device that can easily be stuffed into a backpack, purse, etc. … Many of us still prefer to hold an actual book in our hands. … But, whether you use a Kindle or prefer hardcover books or paperbacks, the main thing is that you enjoy reading. A story in a book or on a Kindle device can open up new worlds, take you to fantasy worlds, educate you, entertain you, and so much more.”

Read the full essay: Kindle vs. Hardcover: Which is easier on the eyes? at Books in a Flash

iPhone vs. Android: Which is better for you?

Sample lines: “The iPhone vs. Android comparison is a never-ending debate on which one is best. It will likely never have a real winner, but we’re going to try and help you to find your personal pick all the same. iOS 17 and Android 14—the latest versions of the two operating systems—both offer smooth and user-friendly experiences, and several similar or identical features. But there are still important differences to be aware of. … Owning an iPhone is a simpler, more convenient experience. There’s less to think about. … Android-device ownership is a bit harder. … Yet it’s simultaneously more freeing, because it offers more choice.”

Read the full essay: iPhone vs. Android: Which is better for you? at Tom’s Guide

Cutting the cord: Is streaming or cable better for you?

Sample lines: “Cord-cutting has become a popular trend in recent years, thanks to the rise of streaming services. For those unfamiliar, cord cutting is the process of canceling your cable subscription and instead, relying on streaming platforms such as Netflix and Hulu to watch your favorite shows and movies. The primary difference is that you can select your streaming services à la carte while cable locks you in on a set number of channels through bundles. So, the big question is: should you cut the cord?”

Read the full essay: Cutting the cord: Is streaming or cable better for you? at BroadbandNow

PS5 vs. Nintendo Switch

PS5 vs. Nintendo Switch

Sample lines: “The crux of the comparison comes down to portability versus power. Being able to migrate fully fledged Nintendo games from a big screen to a portable device is a huge asset—and one that consumers have taken to, especially given the Nintendo Switch’s meteoric sales figures. … It is worth noting that many of the biggest franchises like Call of Duty, Madden, modern Resident Evil titles, newer Final Fantasy games, Grand Theft Auto, and open-world Ubisoft adventures like Assassin’s Creed will usually skip Nintendo Switch due to its lack of power. The inability to play these popular games practically guarantees that a consumer will pick up a modern system, while using the Switch as a secondary device.”

Read the full essay: PS5 vs. Nintendo Switch at Digital Trends

What is the difference between Facebook and Instagram?

Sample lines: “Have you ever wondered what is the difference between Facebook and Instagram? Instagram and Facebook are by far the most popular social media channels used by digital marketers. Not to mention that they’re also the biggest platforms used by internet users worldwide. So, today we’ll look into the differences and similarities between these two platforms to help you figure out which one is the best fit for your business.”

Read the full essay: What is the difference between Facebook and Instagram? at SocialBee

Digital vs. Analog Watches—What’s the Difference?

Sample lines: “In short, digital watches use an LCD or LED screen to display the time. Whereas, an analog watch features three hands to denote the hour, minutes, and seconds. With the advancement in watch technology and research, both analog and digital watches have received significant improvements over the years. Especially in terms of design, endurance, and accompanying features. … At the end of the day, whether you go analog or digital, it’s a personal preference to make based on your style, needs, functions, and budget.”

Read the full essay: Digital vs. Analog Watches—What’s the Difference? at Watch Ranker

AI Art vs. Human Art: A Side-by-Side Analysis

Sample lines: “Art has always been a reflection of human creativity, emotion, and cultural expression. However, with the rise of artificial intelligence (AI), a new form of artistic creation has emerged, blurring the lines between what is created by human hands and what is generated by algorithms. … Despite the excitement surrounding AI Art, it also raises complex ethical, legal, and artistic questions that have sparked debates about the definition of art, the role of the artist, and the future of art production. … Regardless of whether AI Art is considered ‘true’ art, it is crucial to embrace and explore the vast possibilities and potential it brings to the table. The transformative influence of AI art on the art world is still unfolding, and only time will reveal its true extent.”

Read the full essay: AI Art vs. Human Art: A Side-by-Side Analysis at Raul Lara

Pop Culture Compare and Contrast Essay Examples

Christina aguilera vs. britney spears.

Christina Aguilera vs. Britney Spears- compare and contrast essay example

Sample lines: “Britney Spears vs. Christina Aguilera was the Coke vs. Pepsi of 1999 — no, really, Christina repped Coke and Britney shilled for Pepsi. The two teen idols released debut albums seven months apart before the turn of the century, with Britney’s becoming a standard-bearer for bubblegum pop and Aguilera’s taking an R&B bent to show off her range. … It’s clear that Spears and Aguilera took extremely divergent paths following their simultaneous breakout successes.”

Read the full essay: Christina Aguilera vs. Britney Spears at The Ringer

Harry Styles vs. Ed Sheeran

Sample lines: “The world heard our fantasies and delivered us two titans simultaneously—we have been blessed with Ed Sheeran and Harry Styles. Our cup runneth over; our bounty is immeasurable. More remarkable still is the fact that both have released albums almost at the same time: Ed’s third, Divide , was released in March and broke the record for one-day Spotify streams, while Harry’s frenziedly anticipated debut solo, called Harry Styles , was released yesterday.”

Read the full essay: Harry Styles versus Ed Sheeran at Belfast Telegraph

The Grinch: Three Versions Compared

Sample lines: “Based on the original story of the same name, this movie takes a completely different direction by choosing to break away from the cartoony form that Seuss had established by filming the movie in a live-action form. Whoville is preparing for Christmas while the Grinch looks down upon their celebrations in disgust. Like the previous film, The Grinch hatches a plan to ruin Christmas for the Who’s. … Like in the original Grinch, he disguises himself as Santa Claus, and makes his dog, Max, into a reindeer. He then takes all of the presents from the children and households. … Cole’s favorite is the 2000 edition, while Alex has only seen the original. Tell us which one is your favorite.”

Read the full essay: The Grinch: Three Versions Compared at Wooster School

Historical and Political Compare and Contrast Essay Examples

Malcolm x vs. martin luther king jr.: comparison between two great leaders’ ideologies .

Sample lines: “Although they were fighting for civil rights at the same time, their ideology and way of fighting were completely distinctive. This can be for a plethora of reasons: background, upbringing, the system of thought, and vision. But keep in mind, they devoted their whole life to the same prospect. … Through boycotts and marches, [King] hoped to end racial segregation. He felt that the abolition of segregation would improve the likelihood of integration. Malcolm X, on the other hand, spearheaded a movement for black empowerment.”

Read the full essay: Malcolm X vs. Martin Luther King Jr.: Comparison Between Two Great Leaders’ Ideologies  at Melaninful

Contrast Between Obama and Trump Has Become Clear

Contrast Between Obama and Trump Has Become Clear

Sample lines: “The contrast is even clearer when we look to the future. Trump promises more tax cuts, more military spending, more deficits and deeper cuts in programs for the vulnerable. He plans to nominate a coal lobbyist to head the Environmental Protection Agency. … Obama says America must move forward, and he praises progressive Democrats for advocating Medicare for all. … With Obama and then Trump, Americans have elected two diametrically opposed leaders leading into two very different directions.”

Read the full essay: Contrast Between Obama and Trump Has Become Clear at Chicago Sun-Times

Sports Compare and Contrast Essay Examples

Lebron james vs. kobe bryant: a complete comparison.

Sample lines: “LeBron James has achieved so much in his career that he is seen by many as the greatest of all time, or at least the only player worthy of being mentioned in the GOAT conversation next to Michael Jordan. Bridging the gap between Jordan and LeBron though was Kobe Bryant, who often gets left out of comparisons and GOAT conversations. … Should his name be mentioned more though? Can he compare to LeBron or is The King too far past The Black Mamba in historical rankings already?”

Read the full essay: LeBron James vs. Kobe Bryant: A Complete Comparison at Sportskeeda

NFL: Tom Brady vs. Peyton Manning Rivalry Comparison

NFL: Tom Brady vs. Peyton Manning Rivalry Comparison

Sample lines: “Tom Brady and Peyton Manning were largely considered the best quarterbacks in the NFL for the majority of the time they spent in the league together, with the icons having many head-to-head clashes in the regular season and on the AFC side of the NFL Playoffs. Manning was the leader of the Indianapolis Colts of the AFC South. … Brady spent his career as the QB of the AFC East’s New England Patriots, before taking his talents to Tampa Bay. … The reality is that winning is the most important aspect of any career, and Brady won more head-to-head matchups than Manning did.”

Read the full essay: NFL: Tom Brady vs. Peyton Manning Rivalry Comparison at Sportskeeda

The Greatest NBA Franchise Ever: Boston Celtics or Los Angeles Lakers?

Sample lines: “The Celtics are universally considered as the greatest franchise in NBA history. But if you take a close look at the numbers, there isn’t really too much separation between them and their arch-rival Los Angeles Lakers. In fact, you can even make a good argument for the Lakers. … In 72 seasons played, the Boston Celtics have won a total of 3,314 games and lost 2,305 or a .590 winning mark. On the other hand, the Los Angeles Lakers have won 3,284 of 5,507 total games played or a slightly better winning record of .596. … But while the Lakers have the better winning percentage, the Celtics have the advantage over them in head-to-head competition.”

Read the full essay: The Greatest NBA Franchise Ever: Boston Celtics or Los Angeles Lakers? at Sport One

Is Soccer Better Than Football?

Sample lines: “Is soccer better than football? Soccer and football lovers have numerous reasons to support their sport of choice. Both keep the players physically fit and help to bring people together for an exciting cause. However, soccer has drawn more numbers globally due to its popularity in more countries.”

Read the full essay: Is Soccer Better Than Football? at Sports Brief

Lifestyle Choices Compare and Contrast Essay Examples

Mobile home vs. tiny house: similarities, differences, pros & cons.

Mobile Home vs. Tiny House: Similarities, Differences, Pros & Cons

Sample lines: “Choosing the tiny home lifestyle enables you to spend more time with those you love. The small living space ensures quality bonding time rather than hiding away in a room or behind a computer screen. … You’ll be able to connect closer to nature and find yourself able to travel the country at any given moment. On the other hand, we have the mobile home. … They are built on a chassis with transportation in mind. … They are not built to be moved on a constant basis. … While moving the home again *is* possible, it may cost you several thousand dollars.”

Read the full essay: Mobile Home vs. Tiny House: Similarities, Differences, Pros & Cons at US Mobile Home Pros

Whole Foods vs. Walmart: The Story of Two Grocery Stores

Sample lines: “It is clear that both stores have very different stories and aims when it comes to their customers. Whole Foods looks to provide organic, healthy, exotic, and niche products for an audience with a very particular taste. … Walmart, on the other hand, looks to provide the best deals, every possible product, and every big brand for a broader audience. … Moreover, they look to make buying affordable and accessible, and focus on the capitalist nature of buying.”

Read the full essay: Whole Foods vs. Walmart: The Story of Two Grocery Stores at The Archaeology of Us

Artificial Grass vs. Turf: The Real Differences Revealed

Sample lines: “The key difference between artificial grass and turf is their intended use. Artificial turf is largely intended to be used for sports, so it is shorter and tougher. On the other hand, artificial grass is generally longer, softer and more suited to landscaping purposes. Most homeowners would opt for artificial grass as a replacement for a lawn, for example. Some people actually prefer playing sports on artificial grass, too … artificial grass is often softer and more bouncy, giving it a feel similar to playing on a grassy lawn. … At the end of the day, which one you will choose will depend on your specific household and needs.”

Read the full essay: Artificial Grass vs. Turf: The Real Differences Revealed at Almost Grass

Minimalism vs. Maximalism: Differences, Similarities, and Use Cases

Minimalism vs. Maximalism: Differences, Similarities, and Use Cases- compare and contrast essay example

Sample lines: “Maximalists love shopping, especially finding unique pieces. They see it as a hobby—even a skill—and a way to express their personality. Minimalists don’t like shopping and see it as a waste of time and money. They’d instead use those resources to create memorable experiences. Maximalists desire one-of-a-kind possessions. Minimalists are happy with duplicates—for example, personal uniforms. … Minimalism and maximalism are about being intentional with your life and belongings. It’s about making choices based on what’s important to you.”

Read the full essay: Minimalism vs. Maximalism: Differences, Similarities, and Use Cases at Minimalist Vegan

Vegetarian vs. Meat Eating: Is It Better To Be a Vegetarian?

Sample lines: “You’ve heard buzz over the years that following a vegetarian diet is better for your health, and you’ve probably read a few magazine articles featuring a celeb or two who swore off meat and animal products and ‘magically’ lost weight. So does ditching meat automatically equal weight loss? Will it really help you live longer and be healthier overall? … Vegetarians appear to have lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, lower blood pressure  and lower rates of hypertension and type 2 diabetes than meat eaters. Vegetarians also tend to have a lower body mass index, lower overall cancer rates and lower risk of chronic disease. But if your vegetarian co-worker is noshing greasy veggie burgers and fries every day for lunch, is he likely to be healthier than you, who always orders the grilled salmon? Definitely not!”

Read the full essay: Vegetarian vs. Meat Eating: Is It Better To Be a Vegetarian? at WebMD

Healthcare Compare and Contrast Essay Examples

Similarities and differences between the health systems in australia & usa.

Sample lines: “Australia and the United States are two very different countries. They are far away from each other, have contrasting fauna and flora, differ immensely by population, and have vastly different healthcare systems. The United States has a population of 331 million people, compared to Australia’s population of 25.5 million people.”

Read the full essay: Similarities and Differences Between the Health Systems in Australia & USA at Georgia State University

Universal Healthcare in the United States of America: A Healthy Debate

Universal Healthcare in the United States of America: A Healthy Debate

Sample lines: “Disadvantages of universal healthcare include significant upfront costs and logistical challenges. On the other hand, universal healthcare may lead to a healthier populace, and thus, in the long-term, help to mitigate the economic costs of an unhealthy nation. In particular, substantial health disparities exist in the United States, with low socio-economic status segments of the population subject to decreased access to quality healthcare and increased risk of non-communicable chronic conditions such as obesity and type II diabetes, among other determinants of poor health.”

Read the full essay: Universal Healthcare in the United States of America: A Healthy Debate at National Library of Medicine

Pros and Cons of Physician Aid in Dying

Sample lines: “Physician aid in dying is a controversial subject raising issues central to the role of physicians. … The two most common arguments in favor of legalizing AID are respect for patient autonomy and relief of suffering. A third, related, argument is that AID is a safe medical practice, requiring a health care professional. … Although opponents of AID offer many arguments ranging from pragmatic to philosophical, we focus here on concerns that the expansion of AID might cause additional, unintended harm through suicide contagion, slippery slope, and the deaths of patients suffering from depression.”

Read the full essay: Pros and Cons of Physician Aid in Dying at National Library of Medicine

Animals Compare and Contrast Essay Examples

Compare and contrast paragraph—dogs and cats.

Compare and Contrast Paragraph—Dogs and Cats- compare and contrast essay example

Sample lines: “Researchers have found that dogs have about twice the number of neurons in their cerebral cortexes than what cats have. Specifically, dogs had around 530 million neurons, whereas the domestic cat only had 250 million neurons. Moreover, dogs can be trained to learn and respond to our commands, but although your cat understands your name, and anticipates your every move, he/she may choose to ignore you.”

Read the full essay: Compare and Contrast Paragraph—Dogs and Cats at Proofwriting Guru via YouTube

Giddyup! The Differences Between Horses and Dogs

Sample lines: “Horses are prey animals with a deep herding instinct. They are highly sensitive to their environment, hyper aware, and ready to take flight if needed. Just like dogs, some horses are more confident than others, but just like dogs, all need a confident handler to teach them what to do. Some horses are highly reactive and can be spooked by the smallest things, as are dogs. … Another distinction between horses and dogs … was that while dogs have been domesticated , horses have been  tamed. … Both species have influenced our culture more than any other species on the planet.”

Read the full essay: Giddyup! The Differences Between Horses and Dogs at Positively Victoria Stilwell

Exotic, Domesticated, and Wild Pets

Sample lines: “Although the words ‘exotic’ and ‘wild’ are frequently used interchangeably, many people do not fully understand how these categories differ when it comes to pets. ‘A wild animal is an indigenous, non-domesticated animal, meaning that it is native to the country where you are located,’ Blue-McLendon explained. ‘For Texans, white-tailed deer, pronghorn sheep, raccoons, skunks, and bighorn sheep are wild animals … an exotic animal is one that is wild but is from a different continent than where you live.’ For example, a hedgehog in Texas would be considered an exotic animal, but in the hedgehog’s native country, it would be considered wildlife.”

Read the full essay: Exotic, Domesticated, and Wild Pets at Texas A&M University

Should Zoos Be Banned? Pros & Cons of Zoos

Should Zoos Be Banned? Pros & Cons of Zoos

Sample lines: “The pros and cons of zoos often come from two very different points of view. From a legal standard, animals are often treated as property. That means they have less rights than humans, so a zoo seems like a positive place to maintain a high quality of life. For others, the forced enclosure of any animal feels like an unethical decision. … Zoos provide a protected environment for endangered animals, and also help in raising awareness and funding for wildlife initiatives and research projects. … Zoos are key for research. Being able to observe and study animals is crucial if we want to contribute to help them and repair the ecosystems. … Zoos are a typical form of family entertainment, but associating leisure and fun with the contemplation of animals in captivity can send the wrong signals to our children.”

Read the full essay: Should Zoos Be Banned? Pros & Cons of Zoos at EcoCation

Do you have a favorite compare and contrast essay example? Come share in the We Are Teachers HELPLINE group on Facebook .

Plus, if you liked these compare and contrast essay examples check out intriguing compare and contrast essay topics for kids and teens ..

A good compare and contrast essay example, like the ones here, explores the similarities and differences between two or more subjects.

You Might Also Like

First day of school vs. the last day of school.

80 Intriguing Compare and Contrast Essay Topics for Kids and Teens

Android vs. iPhone? Capitalism vs. communism? Hot dog vs. taco? Continue Reading

Copyright © 2024. All rights reserved. 5335 Gate Parkway, Jacksonville, FL 32256

helpful professor logo

5 Compare and Contrast Essay Examples (Full Text)

A compare and contrast essay selects two or more items that are critically analyzed to demonstrate their differences and similarities. Here is a template for you that provides the general structure:

compare and contrast essay format

A range of example essays is presented below.

Compare and Contrast Essay Examples

#1 jean piaget vs lev vygotsky essay.

1480 Words | 5 Pages | 10 References

(Level: University Undergraduate)

paget vs vygotsky essay

Thesis Statement: “This essay will critically examine and compare the developmental theories of Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky, focusing on their differing views on cognitive development in children and their influence on educational psychology, through an exploration of key concepts such as the role of culture and environment, scaffolding, equilibration, and their overall implications for educational practices..”

#2 Democracy vs Authoritarianism Essay

democracy vs authoritarianism essay

Thesis Statement: “The thesis of this analysis is that, despite the efficiency and control offered by authoritarian regimes, democratic systems, with their emphasis on individual freedoms, participatory governance, and social welfare, present a more balanced and ethically sound approach to governance, better aligned with the ideals of a just and progressive society.”

#3 Apples vs Oranges Essay

1190 Words | 5 Pages | 0 References

(Level: 4th Grade, 5th Grade, 6th Grade)

apples vs oranges essay

Thesis Statement: “While apples and oranges are both popular and nutritious fruits, they differ significantly in their taste profiles, nutritional benefits, cultural symbolism, and culinary applications.”

#4 Nature vs Nurture Essay

1525 Words | 5 Pages | 11 References

(Level: High School and College)

nature vs nurture essay

Thesis Statement: “The purpose of this essay is to examine and elucidate the complex and interconnected roles of genetic inheritance (nature) and environmental influences (nurture) in shaping human development across various domains such as physical traits, personality, behavior, intelligence, and abilities.”

#5 Dogs vs Cats Essay

1095 Words | 5 Pages | 7 Bibliographic Sources

(Level: 6th Grade, 7th Grade, 8th Grade)

Thesis Statement: “This essay explores the distinctive characteristics, emotional connections, and lifestyle considerations associated with owning dogs and cats, aiming to illuminate the unique joys and benefits each pet brings to their human companions.”

How to Write a Compare and Contrast Essay

I’ve recorded a full video for you on how to write a compare and contrast essay:

Get the Compare and Contrast Templates with AI Prompts Here

In the video, I outline the steps to writing your essay. Here they are explained below:

1. Essay Planning

First, I recommend using my compare and contrast worksheet, which acts like a Venn Diagram, walking you through the steps of comparing the similarities and differences of the concepts or items you’re comparing.

I recommend selecting 3-5 features that can be compared, as shown in the worksheet:

compare and contrast worksheet

Grab the Worksheet as Part of the Compare and Contrast Essay Writing Pack

2. Writing the Essay

Once you’ve completed the worksheet, you’re ready to start writing. Go systematically through each feature you are comparing and discuss the similarities and differences, then make an evaluative statement after showing your depth of knowledge:

compare and contrast essay template

Get the Rest of the Premium Compare and Contrast Essay Writing Pack (With AI Prompts) Here

How to Write a Compare and Contrast Thesis Statement

Compare and contrast thesis statements can either:

  • Remain neutral in an expository tone.
  • Prosecute an argument about which of the items you’re comparing is overall best.

To write an argumentative thesis statement for a compare and contrast essay, try this AI Prompts:

💡 AI Prompt to Generate Ideas I am writing a compare and contrast essay that compares [Concept 1] and [Concept2]. Give me 5 potential single-sentence thesis statements that pass a reasonable judgement.

Ready to Write your Essay?

compare and contrast essay pack promotional image

Take action! Choose one of the following options to start writing your compare and contrast essay now:

Read Next: Process Essay Examples

compare and contrast examples and definition

Chris Drew (PhD)

Dr. Chris Drew is the founder of the Helpful Professor. He holds a PhD in education and has published over 20 articles in scholarly journals. He is the former editor of the Journal of Learning Development in Higher Education. [Image Descriptor: Photo of Chris]

  • Chris Drew (PhD) https://helpfulprofessor.com/author/chris-drew-phd/ 15 Top Stakeholders in Education
  • Chris Drew (PhD) https://helpfulprofessor.com/author/chris-drew-phd/ The Six Principles of Andragogy (Malcolm Knowles)
  • Chris Drew (PhD) https://helpfulprofessor.com/author/chris-drew-phd/ What are Pedagogical Skills? - 15 Examples
  • Chris Drew (PhD) https://helpfulprofessor.com/author/chris-drew-phd/ 44 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Examples

Leave a Comment Cancel Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

advertisement comparison essay

Writing Academic Essays: Tips and Support: Compare and Contrast Essay

  • Informative Process Analysis
  • Cause and Effect Essay
  • Compare and Contrast Essay
  • Argumentative Essay
  • Newspapers, Databases & Articles
  • MLA Help, Grammar and Writing

Compare/Contrast Essay

  • Writing a Compare & Contrast Essay (video)

Compare and Contrast

Compare and Contrast two things

Identify the argument

  • What makes this paper argumentative?
  • "Better" may be defined in different ways, depending on your argument.
  • It should be clear to your readers that you have chosen one subject over the other and why you have done so.


Introduction of two subjects for comparison (Paragraph 1). The Introductory paragraph explains to your readers why they will want to compare the two subjects, and reviews for them the points of comparison.

  • Paragraph two introduces and explains point 1 for comparison and discusses how it applies to both subjects; i.e. apples and oranges.
  • Paragraph three introduces and explains point 2 for comparison and discusses how it applies to both subjects.
  • Paragraph  four introduces and explains point 3 for comparison and discusses how it applies to both subjects.

Conclusion of essay, highlighting the similarities and differences of the two subjects and giving overall recommendations as to which one is superior (better) for the audience.

Choose a topic you know a great deal about and can discuss at length. Think of your skills, hobbies, and interests.

  • Could you compare two cell phones to propose to the audience which one you think is a better buy/faster for sending videos and pics/easier to use?
  • How about two novels by the same or different authors? Which one is clearly better, and WHY?
  • What types of exercises to target abdominal muscles?
  • Which residence hall is better to live in - closer to the gym, closer to the lake, closer to San Antonio?
  • << Previous: Cause and Effect Essay
  • Next: Argumentative Essay >>
  • Last Updated: May 28, 2024 4:38 PM
  • URL: https://slulibrary.saintleo.edu/essays_writing
  • Search Menu
  • Sign in through your institution
  • Advance articles
  • Themed Collections
  • Editor's Choice
  • Ilona Kickbusch Award
  • Supplements
  • Author Guidelines
  • Submission Online
  • Open Access Option
  • Self-Archiving Policy
  • About Health Promotion International
  • Editorial Board
  • Advertising and Corporate Services
  • Journals on Oxford Academic
  • Books on Oxford Academic

Health Promotion International

Article Contents

Introduction, supplementary material.

  • < Previous

Advertising appeals effectiveness: a systematic literature review

ORCID logo

  • Article contents
  • Figures & tables
  • Supplementary Data

Murooj Yousef, Sharyn Rundle-Thiele, Timo Dietrich, Advertising appeals effectiveness: a systematic literature review, Health Promotion International , Volume 38, Issue 4, August 2023, daab204, https://doi.org/10.1093/heapro/daab204

  • Permissions Icon Permissions

Positive, negative and coactive appeals are used in advertising. The evidence base indicates mixed results making practitioner guidance on optimal advertising appeals difficult. This study aims to identify the most effective advertising appeals and it seeks to synthesize relevant literature up to August 2019. Following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses framework a total of 31 studies were identified and analyzed. Emotional appeals, theory utilization, materials, results and quality were examined. Across multiple contexts, results from this review found that positive appeals were more often effective than coactive and negative appeals. Most studies examined fear and humour appeals, reflecting a literature skew towards the two emotional appeals. The Effective Public Health Practice Project framework was applied to assess the quality of the studies and identified that there remains opportunity for improvement in research design of advertising studies. Only one-third of studies utilized theory, signalling the need for more theory testing and application in future research. Scholars should look at increasing methodological strength by drawing more representative samples, establishing strong study designs and valid data collection methods. In the meantime, advertisers are encouraged to employ and test more positive and coactive advertising appeals.

Advertising appeals have witnessed an increase in research interest and scholarly attention in recent years. Studies investigate appeal effectiveness [e.g. ( Jordan et al. , 2015 ; Lee, 2018 )] and to a lesser extent systematic and meta-analytic studies attempting to synthesize results are evident ( O’Keefe and Jensen, 2009 ; Jenkin et al. , 2014 ; Hornik et al. , 2016 ). These studies however are limited in their focus [e.g. fear appeals ( Tannenbaum et al. , 2015 ; Esrick et al. , 2019 )], context [e.g. disease detection behaviours ( O’Keefe and Jensen, 2009 )], media type, [e.g. mass media ( Elder et al. , 2004 )] and comparison of general advertising appeal types [e.g. rational vs. emotional (fear and humour) vs. metaphor appeals ( Hornik et al. , 2017 )]. Taken together, a review of the literature indicates clear gaps requiring an evidence review focussed on synthesizing studies seeking to examine positive versus negatively framed advertising appeal effectiveness that are context free, not media specific, includes rational as well as emotional studies of different emotional valances (positive, negative and coactive), and extends the range of emotions examined beyond fear and humour which is heavily investigated in the literature. Given that negatively framed appeals dominate behaviour change and prevention studies, a systematic literature review that explores the effectiveness of different advertising approaches is important, timely and called for [e.g. ( Williams et al. , 2004 ; Armstrong, 2010 ; Hornik et al. , 2016 )].

Hornik et al. (Hornik et al. , 2016 ) based their meta-analytic review on rational, emotional (i.e. fear, humour and sex) and metaphor advertising appeals, limiting their results to specific appeal types. The current study seeks to build on their study, extending investigation to other appeals (e.g. coactive) to ascertain the extent these have been used effectively to deliver behaviour change. Following Hornik et al. (Hornik et al. , 2016 ), we argue that positive emotional advertising appeals are more effective in changing behaviour than negative and rational advertising appeals. However, in contrast to their study, we do not follow their general classification of appeals (i.e. rational, emotional and metaphor), but rather we include a wider set of studies that look at rational, emotional, positive, negative and coactive advertising appeals in different campaign contexts (e.g. social and commercial).

Advertising appeals

An advertising appeal refers to the use of persuasion strategies to attract attention, create relevance and memorability, raise awareness and induce action ( Armstrong, 2010 ). An advertising message can appeal to one’s cognition (i.e. rational appeals), emotions (i.e. emotional appeals) or both. Rational appeals rely on arguments, reason and facts to create persuasion ( Dahlen et al. , 2010 ). In contrast, emotional appeals seek to induce certain emotions in the audience to make the message memorable and more persuasive to take action ( Dahlen et al. , 2010 ). The emotional versus rational debate has been widely discussed with scholars exploring effectiveness in different advertising aims, contexts, business types and target audiences [see, e.g. ( Mattila, 1999 ; Matthes and Wonneberger, 2014 ; Akpinar and Berger, 2017 ; Moran and Bagchi, 2019 )]. Two recent meta-analytic studies identified that consumers respond more favourably to emotional appeals than they do to rational appeals ( Hornik et al. , 2016 , 2017 ).

Effectiveness of different emotional appeals utilized in advertising messages has also received attention. Emotional appeals can be classified as positive, negative or coactive based on the valance of emotion employed. Each emotional valence exerts different effects on judgement and therefore affects perceptions and behaviours differently ( Lerner and Keltner, 2000 ). The literature reports mixed results for advertising effectiveness when it comes to positive versus negative emotional appeals. For example, while fear appeals were found to generate defensive reactions ( Witte and Allen, 2000 ) and result in a boomerang effect for young adults ( Lennon et al. , 2010 ), other studies found negative appeals to be effective in creating behaviour change when compared to positive and neutral appeals ( Struckman‐Johnson et al. , 1994 ; Small and Verrochi, 2009 ; Tay, 2011 ; Sun, 2015 ). Neutral appeals are discussed mainly in charity advertising [see, e.g. ( Small and Verrochi, 2009 )], where positive and negative appeals are compared to neutral (no emotion) ads.

Positive emotional appeals are explored in the literature to a lesser extent reflecting their limited use in advertising campaigns focussed on health prevention and related contexts ( Tay, 2005 ; Dunstone et al. , 2017 ). Inducing positive emotions through advertising messages was found to yield more positive attitudes to the advertisement ( Lau-Gesk and Meyers-Levy, 2009 ), higher liking of the message ( Hornik et al. , 2017 ) and a stronger impact on behaviour than negative emotional appeals in multiple contexts such as safe driving ( Plant et al. , 2017 ), reducing binge drinking among college students ( Lee, 2018 ), encouraging environmental friendly behaviour ( Wang et al. , 2017 ; Skurka et al. , 2018 ), health behaviour ( Jordan et al. , 2015 ; Vaala et al. , 2016 ) and anti-cyber bullying ( Alhabash et al. , 2013 ). However, positive emotional appeals were found to be less effective for highly involved consumers ( Yoon and Tinkham, 2013 ) and for female audiences ( Noble et al. , 2014 ) when compared to low involved and male audiences respectively.

Recently there has been an interest in the literature in the use of coactive emotional appeals that seek to induce both positive and negative emotions simultaneously ( Nabi, 2015 ; Yoon, 2018 ). It is hypothesized that the use of a threat-relief emotional message by combining emotions like fear and humour will result in a stronger persuasion outcome ( Nabi, 2015 ). Positive emotions have the ability to reduce the defensive reactions that negative appeals generate, making them more effective in changing behaviour ( Mukherjee and Dubé, 2012 ; Bennett, 2015 ). Eckler and Bolls and Alhabash et al. found coactive appeals ( Eckler and Bolls, 2011 ; Alhabash et al. , 2013 ) to have a stronger impact than negative appeals but their work also indicated that coactive appeals are weaker than positive appeals. No known systematic or meta-analytic review has synthesized the effectiveness of coactive advertising appeals, signalling the need for a review study.

Emotion can be defined as the psychological reaction to an event, a memory and specific types of media ( Allen et al. , 2005 ). Emotions are usually provoked by an internal stimulus that generates a strong short-term reaction influencing one’s attitudes towards something ( Scherer, 2005 ). Wu et al. report that being exposed to an advertisement ( Wu et al. , 2018 ), even a very short exposure, will induce both strong and weak emotions. The type of emotions used in an advertisement will have different results for the audience. Using neural signal tools like heartrate monitors, Kaye et al. (Kaye et al. , 2016 ) found that negative advertisements stimulate respondents while positive advertisements result in a more relaxed feeling.

RQ1. Which emotional advertising appeal is more effective in creating behaviour change across different contexts?

There is no recent systematic review that looks beyond the context of advertising (e.g. health) and valance of emotions (e.g. fear appeals) to understand the effectiveness of positive versus negative and coactive advertising appeals. The aims of this systematic review study are two-fold. First, to highlight the most effective advertising appeal based on empirical research findings utilizing behavioural (e.g. driving speed) or behavioural proxy (e.g. intentions) measures up to August 2019. Second, this review analyses the quality of published studies in the field based on the Effective Public Health Practice Project (EPHPP) protocol to guide future research.

emotional appeals or emotion* based advertis* AND appeal* AND advertis* or public service announcement or psa or message or communication or strategy or promot* or campaign or experiment

In total, 2384 records were initially identified (see Figure 1 for a flowchart of the search process adopted). Due to the magnitude and focus of each database and its alignment with the search terms, there was variance in the number of records produced from each database. The downloaded records were collated using Endnote. First, all duplicate records were removed leaving a total of 1507 unique records. Second, unqualified records including conference and government reports, unidentifiable full text, as well as records not in English were removed. Finally, titles and abstracts of remaining records were assessed and classified into the exclusion criteria categories: studies using non advertising materials (e.g. news articles), non-emotional based advertising, non-experimental studies (e.g. content analysis and literature reviews), studies exploring only one type of appeal (i.e. negative, positive, mixed or rational), rational versus emotional appeal studies, message framing studies (e.g. gain vs. loss frame), studies lacking behaviour or intention measures of effectiveness.

Systematic search diagram using PRISMA process.

Systematic search diagram using PRISMA process.

After application of the exclusion criteria, a total of 25 articles undertaking a direct comparative evaluation of the effectiveness of positive and negative appeals were identified. Next, backward and forward searching using authors’ names, Google Scholar and reference lists were completed. A further six articles were identified. In total, 31 articles were analysed. The full list of papers can be found in Supplementary Appendix A .

Data extraction and analysis

The included studies were analysed in terms of (i) the employed materials, (ii) study characteristics and results and, (iii) study quality.

Employed materials and media

Each study’s stimulus was screened to determine the type of media (e.g. video, print, audio), the type of emotion (e.g. fear, guilt, happiness), the target issue (e.g. health behaviour, safe driving, environmental behaviour) and the type of appeals tested (e.g. positive, negative, coactive, rational appeals). This categorized studies based on the type of stimulus used to identify patterns and examine appeal effectiveness.

Study characteristics and results

The 31 identified studies were analysed based on their sample size, sample characteristics (e.g. age and gender), data collection methods (e.g. self-report or objective measures), data collection time points (e.g. post exposure only, pre and post exposure or after a delayed period of time), the employed theory (if any) and mediators and moderator measures of effectiveness. Study outcome measures that were set to warrant inclusion in the review were restricted to behaviour or behavioural intention measures. Studies were excluded if an outcome evaluation was not undertaken to examine advertising effectiveness. For included studies, results were categorized based on the most effective appeal, namely (i) positive, (ii) negative, (iii) no difference/inconclusive or (iv) mixed if positive and negative appeals were found to be effective for different cohorts.

Quality assessment

The quality of the included studies was assessed using the EPHPP quality assessment tool for quantitative studies ( Effective Public Health Practice Project, 2019 ). The EPHPP tool is suitable for evaluating multiple study designs ( Deeks et al. , 2003 ) and has been used to assess the quality of advertising studies in previous reviews ( Becker and Midoun, 2016 ). The assessment tool is valid ( Thomas et al. , 2004 ; Jackson and Waters, 2005 ) and suitable for use in systematic reviews examining effectiveness ( Deeks et al. , 2003 ). Each study was rated using six EPHPP criteria: (i) selection bias—how representative the sample is of the target population; (ii) study design—the likelihood of bias due to the allocation process in the study; (iii) confounders—the extent to which groups were balanced at baseline with respect to confounding variables; (iv) blinding—whether participants were aware of the study objectives and researchers participating in the study were aware of each group participation status; (v) data collection—whether study measures were valid and reliable and (vi) withdrawals and drop outs—the percentage of participants remaining in the study at the final data collection period in all groups ( Thomas et al. , 2004 ). Each individual aspect is rated as weak, moderate or strong and an overall rating is applied to each study ( Thomas et al. , 2004 ). All studies assessed through the EHPHH tool were rated by two researchers and inter-reliability scores exceeded the 80% threshold. Discrepancies were discussed and resolved with all three authors.

Description of included studies

In total, 31 studies qualified for inclusion. More than half of studies were from the United States [ n = 18; e.g. ( Alhabash et al. , 2013 ; Bleakley et al. , 2015 )], followed by Australia [ n = 5; e.g. ( Noble et al. , 2014 ; Kaye et al. , 2016 )], the rest ( n = 8) were from Canada ( Tay, 2011 ), United Kingdom ( Eckler and Bolls, 2011 ), Germany ( Jäger and Eisend, 2013 ), Belgium ( Faseur and Geuens, 2010 ), Netherlands ( Hendriks et al. , 2014 ), China ( Wang et al. , 2017 ), Taiwan ( Wu et al. , 2018 ) and South Korea ( Sun, 2015 ) (see Figure 2 for study locations). Most studies addressed social issues ( n = 28) such as safe driving ( Lewis et al. , 2008 ; Taute et al. , 2011 ; Tay, 2011 ; Jäger and Eisend, 2013 ; Previte et al. , 2015 ; Kaye et al. , 2016 ; Plant et al. , 2017 ), charity donations ( Small and Verrochi, 2009 ; Faseur and Geuens, 2010 ; Kemp et al. , 2013 ; Cao and Jia, 2017 ; Zemack-Rugar and Klucarova-Travani, 2018 ), health ( Struckman‐Johnson et al. , 1994 ; Lee and Ferguson, 2002 ; Passyn and Sujan, 2006 ; Hendriks et al. , 2014 ; Bleakley et al. , 2015 ; Jordan et al. , 2015 ; Vaala et al. , 2016 ; Thainiyom and Elder, 2017 ; Lee, 2018 ), the environment ( Yoon and Tinkham, 2013 ; Noble et al. , 2014 ; Wang et al. , 2017 ; Skurka et al. , 2018 ), organ donation ( Rodrigue et al. , 2014 ; Sun, 2015 ) and cyberbullying ( Alhabash et al. , 2013 ). Three studies were undertaken in commercial settings with authors examining toothbrush, influenza vaccine, alcohol, cars and insurance advertisements ( Brooker, 1981 ; Eckler and Bolls, 2011 ; Wu et al. , 2018 ) (see Figure 3 ).

Location of included studies.

Location of included studies.

Studies by targeted issue.

Studies by targeted issue.

Most studies looked at positive versus negative advertising appeals [ n = 19; e.g. ( Kemp et al. , 2013 ; Kaye et al. , 2016 )], only two studies included positive, negative and coactive appeals ( Eckler and Bolls, 2011 ; Alhabash et al. , 2013 ), while the rest incorporated a rational [ n = 8; e.g. ( Sun, 2015 ; Skurka et al. , 2018 )] or neutral appeal [ n = 2 ( Small and Verrochi, 2009 ; Zemack-Rugar and Klucarova-Travani, 2018 ); see Figure 4 ] in their tests. In terms of emotions, fear versus humour was most frequently examined with 12 (38%) studies comparing the two emotions [e.g. ( Tay, 2011 ; Vaala et al. , 2016 )]. Of all tested emotional appeals, fear was the most studied appeal (48%) followed by humour (45%). Positive emotions such as pride ( Kemp et al., 2013 ; Noble et al. , 2014 ; Wang et al. , 2017 ), hope ( Rodrigue et al. , 2014 ; Thainiyom and Elder, 2017 ), love ( Previte et al. , 2015 ) and a range of negative emotions such as disgust ( Hendriks et al. , 2014 ), anger ( Rodrigue et al. , 2014 ), shame ( Previte et al. , 2015 ), regret ( Taute et al. , 2011 ) and guilt ( Noble et al. , 2014 ) were also considered. Seven studies did not specify which positive and negative emotions were tested ( Faseur and Geuens, 2010 ; Eckler and Bolls, 2011 ; Alhabash et al. , 2013 ; Sun, 2015 ; Kaye et al. , 2016 ; Plant et al. , 2017 ; Wu et al. , 2018 ).

Studies by the tested appeals.

Studies by the tested appeals.

Only three studies utilized objective data collection tools. Objective outcome data included GPS speed trackers ( Kaye et al. , 2016 ), driving stimulators ( Plant et al. , 2017 ) and donation amounts ( Small and Verrochi, 2009 ). The rest of the studies relied on self-reported measures [ n = 28; e.g. ( Jäger and Eisend, 2013 ; Skurka et al. , 2018 ; Wu et al. , 2018 )]. The majority of studies ( n = 24) collected data post exposure only [e.g. ( Taute et al. , 2011 ; Sun, 2015 )]. Four studies included a post exposure and a follow-up data collection time point after a delayed period of time ( Passyn and Sujan, 2006 ; Lewis et al. , 2008 ; Hendriks et al. , 2014 ; Plant et al. , 2017 ). Two studies collected data pre and post exposure ( Rodrigue et al. , 2014 ; Previte et al. , 2015 ) and only one study collected data at pre, post and follow-up time points ( Kaye et al. , 2016 ).

Only 35% of studies were guided by theories. Theories that were reported included the Elaboration Likelihood Model ( Lewis et al. , 2008 ), Extended Parallel Process Model ( Tay, 2011 ), Theory of Planned Behaviour ( Hendriks et al. , 2014 ), Affect as Information Theory ( Taute et al. , 2011 ) and other theories (see Supplementary Appendix A ).

Study outcomes

The aim of this systematic review was to highlight effective advertising appeals. This is based on the ability of the appeal to influence behaviour or behavioural intentions significantly ( P < 0.05) in the desired direction (e.g. reduce drink driving). The results of the 31 included studies indicate that positive advertising appeals are slightly more effective than negative and coactive advertising appeals. It is important to note there is evidence of effectiveness for all appeal types and each context and target audience differ in appeal effectiveness requiring pre-testing and examination prior appeal consideration. Thirty-five per cent ( n = 11) of studies reported positive appeals to be more effective ( Brooker, 1981 ; Eckler and Bolls, 2011 ; Alhabash et al. , 2013 ; Rodrigue et al. , 2014 ; Previte et al. , 2015 ; Sun, 2015 ; Plant et al. , 2017 ; Wang et al. , 2017 ; Lee, 2018 ; Wu et al. , 2018 ; Zemack-Rugar and Klucarova-Travani, 2018 ), while 26% ( n = 8) reported negative appeals to have a stronger persuasion effect than positive appeals ( Struckman‐Johnson et al. , 1994 ; Small and Verrochi, 2009 ; Tay, 2011 ; Hendriks et al. , 2014 ; Noble et al. , 2014 ; Bleakley et al. , 2015 ; Kaye et al. , 2016 ). Nineteen per cent of studies ( n = 6) showed mixed results. Where mixed results were reported the mixed outcomes occurred as a result of range of factors including gender ( Kemp et al. , 2013 ; Thainiyom and Elder, 2017 ), connection to others ( Faseur and Geuens, 2010 ), prior attitudes ( Jäger and Eisend, 2013 ), time of assessment after exposure ( Lewis et al. , 2008 ), issue involvement ( Yoon and Tinkham, 2013 ) and psychological involvement ( Cao and Jia, 2017 ). Five studies (16%) did not find any significant differences in effectiveness between positive and negative appeals ( Passyn and Sujan, 2006 ; Thainiyom and Elder, 2017 ; Skurka et al. , 2018 ). Finally, only one study reported inconclusive results due to unrepresentative sample ( Lee and Ferguson, 2002 ). Figure 5 showcase results of the included studies.

Results supporting different appeals effectiveness or reporting mixed, indifferent or inconclusive results.

Results supporting different appeals effectiveness or reporting mixed, indifferent or inconclusive results.

A quality assessment of the identified papers was conducted using the EPHPP tool (see Supplementary Appendix B ). Of the 31 included studies, 26 were assessed as weak in the global rating, five were assessed as moderate and none were assessed as strong. Selection bias was likely in many studies due to the use of student samples or bias to a geographical area. Only one study was somewhat likely to have a representative sample ( Skurka et al. , 2018 ). Five studies included a control group and randomly allocated participants into experimental groups (e.g. positive and negative stimuli) therefore these were assessed as strong in terms of study design ( Struckman‐Johnson et al. , 1994 ; Bleakley et al. , 2015 ; Jordan et al. , 2015 ; Vaala et al., 2016 ; Skurka et al. , 2018 ). Six were assessed as moderate ( Lewis et al. , 2008 ; Hendriks et al. , 2014 ; Previte et al. , 2015 ; Sun, 2015 ; Kaye et al. , 2016 ; Plant et al. , 2017 ), while the rest ( n = 20) were weak due to their cross sectional nature [e.g. ( Alhabash et al. , 2013 ; Jäger and Eisend, 2013 )].

In terms of confounders, about one-third of studies ( n = 10, 32%) reported either no baseline differences between groups or controlled for at least 80% of relevant confounders resulting in a strong rating. The rest of the studies ( n = 21) did not report potential confounders or account for confounds during analysis and were therefore assessed as weak [e.g. ( Alhabash et al. , 2013 ; Bleakley et al. , 2015 ; Lee, 2018 )]. Only two studies (10%) clearly reported that both the assessors and participants were not blinded in the experiment resulting in a weak rating ( Rodrigue et al. , 2014 ; Plant et al. , 2017 ). The rest of the studies ( n = 29, 87%) were rated as moderate as it was not clear if the participants and assessors were blinded or not. In terms of data collection methods, over half of the included studies ( n = 19, 61%) did not provide evidence of the validity of the reported measures and were therefore assessed as weak.

Two studies were assessed as moderate in their data collection method as they reported on validity but not reliability of the measures ( Jordan et al. , 2015 ; Plant et al. , 2017 ), while the rest ( n = 10, 32%) were rated strong for providing evidence of the validity and reliability of the reported outcomes measures [e.g. ( Kemp et al. , 2013 ; Noble et al. , 2014 ; Sun, 2015 ; Kaye et al. , 2016 )]. For the retention rate of participants, only two programs were assessed as strong with more than 80% completing the experiment ( Kaye et al. , 2016 ; Plant et al. , 2017 ). The rest were rated as moderate due to the lack of retention rate reporting [e.g. ( Jäger and Eisend, 2013 )], low completion rate [e.g. ( Rodrigue et al. , 2014 ; Jordan et al. , 2015 )] or due to the post exposure nature of studies where retention rate is not applicable [e.g. ( Faseur and Geuens, 2010 )].

The aims of this study were two-fold. This study aimed to identify which appeal type (positive, negative and/or coactive) was most likely to change social and commercial behaviour and to assess the quality of studies reported in peer review literature. This is the first known systematic review that is not limited to an emotion, appeal type, context or media. Our findings extend understanding in three key ways. First, this article extends understanding of appeal effectiveness with consideration of the effectiveness of coactive appeals. Second, it examines the extent of theory and emotion use in the included studies. Third, it assesses study quality identifying how researchers can enhance the evidence base by improving study quality.

Positive, negative or coactive?

Consistent with the literature ( Jenkin et al. , 2014 ; Hornik et al. , 2016 ) our findings confirm a slight persuasive advantage of positive advertising appeals over negative appeals. Positive appeals are able to increase consumers’ perceived response efficacy more than negative appeals ( Zemack-Rugar and Klucarova-Travani, 2018 ); help consumers realize the rewards of the promoted behaviour [e.g. moderate alcohol consumption ( Previte et al. , 2015 )]; induce positive attitudes—more than negative and coactive appeals—and therefore affect behavioural intentions positively ( Eckler and Bolls, 2011 ; Wang et al. , 2017 ). According to studies synthesized in the present review, positive appeals yield higher acceptance of the advertising message ( Alhabash et al. , 2013 ) by creating a positive climate in which messages may be received ( Brooker, 1981 ), reducing reactance [e.g. skipping, ignoring, backlash or resisting ( Wu et al. , 2018 )] and increasing message liking ( Lee, 2018 ). Further outcomes accruing from positive appeals include illustration of positive benefits of the promoted behaviour by inducing empathy and reducing guilt ( Rodrigue et al. , 2014 ).

Negative appeals dominate social change practice and while evidence for effectiveness exists, there appears to be less support in comparison to positive and coactive appeals based on this study’s findings. Mixed results were also evident in other studies. For example, Kemp et al. argued that positive appeals are ( Kemp et al. , 2013 ) more persuasive with a male audience than a female audience, while Jäger and Eisend found participants with less ( Jäger and Eisend, 2013 ) favourable prior attitudes produce higher change in intentions to drink drive when exposed to positive emotional appeals.

The effectiveness of coactive appeals compared to single appeals was examined by 2 of the 31 included studies. Their findings suggest coactive appeals are less effective than positive appeals and more effective than negative appeals ( Eckler and Bolls, 2011 ; Alhabash et al. , 2013 ). Positive appeals require less cognitive processing, generate a general sense of pleasantness, are more likable and facilitate positive attitudes towards the advertisement making the advertised behaviour more appealing and taking action more tempting. On the contrary, the more negative an ad is, the less likable it is and the less likely viewers are to take action (i.e. share on social media). Therefore, coactive emotional appeals come in the middle, they are more effective than negative appeals but less effective than positive appeals ( Alhabash et al. , 2013 ). Interestingly, the two studies including coactive appeals in their experiments focused on viral sharing behaviour. Taking the target behaviour in consideration, their results can be interpreted more specifically. Previous studies found both emotional valence and arousal to affect content sharing and virality of advertisements ( Berger, 2011 ; Berger and Milkman, 2012 ). More specifically, content that are emotionally arousing (either positive or negative) are more likely to be shared with others than those less arousing. Furthermore, ads that are more positive in nature are more likely to be shared than negative ads ( Berger and Milkman, 2012 ). Moreover, the use of positive emotions along with negative emotions helps reduce the defensive responses of the audience resulting in a higher persuasion effect ( Mukherjee and Dubé, 2012 ). Hence, the studies included in this systematic review found coactive appeals to be more effective than negative appeals. When testing behaviour beyond sharing and virality, Yousef et al (2021) found positive appeals and coactive appeals to have similar effect on behaviour. Target audience plays a role in different appeals effectiveness, including coactive appeals. Studying advertising effect on young adults road safety perceptions and behaviour intentions, Yousef et al (2021) found coactive appeals to be more effective than single emotional appeals. The limited and mixed evidence for coactive appeals effectiveness is mainly due to the limited studies including such appeals in their experiments. More evidence is needed to determine coactive appeals effectiveness in other contexts and behaviours.

Applying theories and moving beyond fear and humour appeals

Over the years, advertising researchers have been under pressure to deliver relevant and practical findings that practitioners can follow and utilize ( Pitt et al. , 2005 ). It is argued that advertising research has formulated theories with ‘a high level of generality’ which makes them difficult to apply in practice ( Cornelissen and Lock, 2002 ). As a corollary, and due to the empirical nature of the included studies, these issues may have led to the limited application of theoretical frameworks. Pitt et al. (Pitt et al. , 2005 ) found only a minority of papers published in an 11-year period made explicit use of theories. Our findings confirm their research with more than half of the included studies lacking a theoretical base. Examples exist indicating how and where theory has been applied by researchers in intervention design, recruitment, implementation and evaluation [see ( Willmott et al. , 2019 )]. For example, Wadsworth and Hallam (Wadsworth and Hallam, 2010 ) applied social cognitive theory to an e-communication intervention identifying which theoretical constructs led to a physical activity increase. Theory did not only inform their study but was tested, refined and built on by the authors. This type of theory application can enhance study outcomes, better inform future research and systematically identify which theories are effective and for which audiences ( Willmott et al. , 2019 ).

Similarly, limited studies explored emotions beyond the heavily investigated emotions of fear and humour. Little is known about how other emotions effectiveness such as anger, disgust, guilt, love, joy and pride appeals deliver (or not) behavioural change. This reinforces past studies which have identified the limited use of emotions in advertising messages ( Tay, 2005 ; Dunstone et al. , 2017 ), not because other emotions are less effective but because there is limited evidence of effectiveness. When studies explore more emotions, new evidence emerges enabling practitioners to innovate and capture the attention of their audience. For example, Previte et al. ( Previte et al. , 2015 ) found a persuasive advantage for love and happiness (two emotions that are rarely examined in the advertising literature) over fear and shame appeals in moderate drinking advertising message, highlighting the potential of other emotions to yield desired results.

Enhancing study rigour to deliver a stronger evidence base for advertising effectiveness

Study quality assessment frameworks provide tools to assess the quality of research. The stronger the study, the more the policy, practitioner and research community can rely on the study findings. This study applied the EPHPP quality assessment tool ( Effective Public Health Practice Project, 2019 ) to assess study quality. Of particular concern is that no one study overall was rated as strong in the current review. In general, the methodological quality of the included studies was low. In the absence of strong evidence any conclusions drawn in the present evidence review and earlier meta-analytic and systematic literature reviews should be interpreted with caution until stronger study designs emerge. Within the present review notable, methodological problems included selection biases, weak study designs and invalid data collection methods.

A common issue with sampling is the use of student samples and samples from a specific region for convenience, resulting in selection bias. While calls for adoption of probability sampling procedures in the academic literature have been made ( Plant et al. , 2011 ; Sarstedt et al. , 2018 ), limited adoption of non-probability sampling is evident. In the absence of replication across samples or regions his reduces the generality of these studies making them bound to their sample and regional characteristics. Furthermore, the use of cross-sectional study designs contributed to the overall weak rating for most studies in this review. Including only a post-test immediately after exposure to the tested advertisements can lead to different result compared to testing over a delayed period of time ( Lewis et al. , 2008 ) making the results incomplete and the findings less comprehensive. Researchers are encouraged to include more than one time point for data collection to measure behaviour change over time. Finally, the validity and reliability of data collection methods used in the included studies are mostly weak. This is a reflection of the limited use of theories, with more studies bringing in their own measures without testing their validity or reliability before conducting their evaluations. Future research should focus on increasing the validity of their studies by utilizing previously validated measures from the literature ( David and Rundle-Thiele, 2018 ). This makes the study easier to replicate and its findings more reliable. Taken together, future research should aim to address these issues and improve the methodological quality of advertising evaluation studies to enhance empirical evidence.


This study is restricted by several important limitations, which should be considered when interpreting the findings. First, the study is limited by the search parameters utilized and the study quality frameworks applied. For example, the review only includes studies that empirically test advertising appeal effectiveness (positive, negative, coactive), using behavioural measures (e.g. purchase intentions) that have been published in peer-reviewed English literature. Hence studies that rely on other measures (e.g. attitudes) or evaluate other message tactics (e.g. framing) and non-English and non-peer-reviewed studies, were excluded. Grey literature may contribute important information and future studies may benefit from examining these sources. The study focused mainly on emotional appeals, hence rational appeals were not included. Future reviews should compare rational and emotional appeals for more comprehensive findings. Second, due to the heterogeneity in the tested appeals, study populations and reporting of results, a meta-analysis was not possible, and a qualitative description of study outcomes was provided. Few studies included effect sizes and odds ratios, limiting our ability to compare effectiveness for the different advertising appeals. Third, results of the current review are collected from different contexts and behaviours and generalization of findings cannot be extended beyond this review. Moreover, pre-tests should be carried out before adopting any advertising appeal for any specific context, behaviour and target audience. Finally, based on the quality assessment of the included studies there is a clear absence of strong rigour experiments, hence any conclusions drawn in the present review should be interpreted with caution.

Future research

Future research should examine appeals effectiveness by utilising and applying advertising theories, investigating emotions beyond fear and humour in advertising appeals, increase the strength of their studies by following EPHPP guidelines, or other study quality frameworks, to design rigorous experiments and ensure that valid replicable analysis is reported. More effort should be made to draw representative samples, ensuring valid data collection methods and designing strong experiments that test effectiveness pre, post and after a delayed period of time following exposure. Furthermore, more studies should include coactive appeals in their evaluations to confirm their effectiveness compared to single appeal use as only a limited number of studies explored this type of appeal.

Future systematic literature reviews should build on this study by including other advertising tactics such as non-emotional appeals and gain and loss framing which can provide a wider picture of advertising effectiveness. Moving forward, consensus on advertising effectiveness outcome measures should be generated by the advertising research community. By agreeing on standard outcome measures, as occurs in tobacco control research, the research community could then advance understanding further via meta-analyses. Any effort that can reduce data transformation practices will serve to ensure synthesis studies can advance knowledge through delivery of the highest quality research that can inform policy and advertising practices.

This systematic review examined advertising appeals effectiveness based on the literature up to August 2019. Our findings support previous meta-analytic reviews in confirming positive appeals effectiveness over negative appeals. We extend on their findings however by including coactive advertising appeals. Across different contexts and behaviours, this review found positive appeals to be effective more often than negative appeals and coactive appeals. When all three appeals are studied, evidence suggest coactive appeals are more effective than negative appeals and less effective than positive appeals. Specifically, this review highlighted the scarce of theory use in advertising research signalling the need for more attention to embed theory into advertising design and evaluation. Moreover, a major concern raised by this review is the quality of the published papers. A greater focus should be made by authors to utilize valid data collection methods, representative samples and strong study designs. This research has contributed to a better understanding of advertising appeal effectiveness and may be of interest to policy makers, advertising professionals and designers and researchers who are interested in maximizing return on investment.

Supplementary material is available at Health Promotion International online.

Akpinar E. , Berger J. ( 2017 ) Viral marketing works best with emotional appeals . Journal of Marketing Research , 54 , 318 – 330 .

Google Scholar

Alhabash S. , McAlister A. R. , Hagerstrom A. , Quilliam E. T. , Rifon N. J. , Richards J. I. ( 2013 ) Between likes and shares: effects of emotional appeal and virality on the persuasiveness of anticyberbullying messages on Facebook . Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking , 16 , 175 – 182 .

Allen C. T. , Machleit K. A. , Schultz Kleine S. , Sahni Notani A. ( 2005 ) A place for emotion in attitude models . Journal of Business Research , 58 , 494 – 499 .

Armstrong J. S. ( 2010 ) Persuasive Advertising: Evidence-Based Principles . Palgrave Macmillan, London .

Google Preview

Becker S. J. , Midoun M. M. ( 2016 ) Effects of direct-to-consumer advertising on patient prescription requests and physician prescribing: a systematic review of psychiatry-relevant studies . The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry , 77 , e1293 – e1300 .

Bennett R. ( 2015 ) Individual characteristics and the arousal of mixed emotions: consequences for the effectiveness of charity fundraising advertisements . International Journal of Nonprofit & Voluntary Sector Marketing , 20 , 155 – 209 .

Berger J. ( 2011 ) Arousal increases social transmission of information . Psychological Science , 22 , 891 – 893 .

Berger J. , Milkman K. L. ( 2012 ) What makes online content viral? Journal of Marketing Research , 49 , 192 – 205 .

Bleakley A. , Jordan A. B. , Hennessy M. , Glanz K. , Strasser A. , Vaala S. ( 2015 ) Do emotional appeals in public service advertisements influence adolescents’ intention to reduce consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages? Journal of Health Communication , 20 , 938 – 948 .

Brooker G. ( 1981 ) A comparison of the persuasive effects of mild humor and mild fear appeals . Journal of Advertising , 10 , 29 – 40 .

Cao X. , Jia L. ( 2017 ) The effects of the facial expression of beneficiaries in charity appeals and psychological involvement on donation intentions . Nonprofit Management and Leadership , 27 , 457 – 473 .

Cornelissen J. P. , Lock A. R. ( 2002 ) Advertising research and its influence on managerial practice . Journal of Advertising Research , 42 , 50 – 55 .

Dahlen M. , Lange F. , Smith T. ( 2010 ) Marketing communications: a brand narrative approach. John Wiley & Sons, United States, New Jersey.

David P. , Rundle-Thiele S. ( 2018 ) Social marketing theory measurement precision: a theory of planned behaviour illustration . Journal of Social Marketing , 8 , 182 – 201 .

Deeks J. J. , Dinnes J. , D’Amico R. , Sowden A. J. , Sakarovitch C. , Song F. , et al. ; European Carotid Surgery Trial Collaborative Group . ( 2003 ) Evaluating non-randomised intervention studies . Health Technology Assessment (Winchester, England) , 7 , iii, 1 – 173 .

Dunstone K. , Brennan E. , Slater M. D. , Dixon H. G. , Durkin S. J. , Pettigrew S. et al.  ( 2017 ) Alcohol harm reduction advertisements: a content analysis of topic, objective, emotional tone, execution and target audience . BMC Public Health , 17 , 13 .

Eckler P. , Bolls P. ( 2011 ) Spreading the virus: emotional tone of viral advertising and its effect on forwarding intentions and attitudes . Journal of Interactive Advertising , 11 , 1 – 11 .

Effective Public Health Practice Project . ( 2019 ) Quality assessment tool for quantitative studies. http://www.ephpp.ca/tools.html .

Elder R. W. , Shults R. A. , Sleet D. A. , Nichols J. L. , Thompson R. S. , Rajab W , et al.  ( 2004 ) Effectiveness of mass media campaigns for reducing drinking and driving and alcohol-involved crashes: a systematic review . American Journal of Preventive Medicine , 27 , 57 – 65 .

Esrick J. , Kagan R. G. , Carnevale J. T. , Valenti M. , Rots G. , Dash K. ( 2019 ) Can scare tactics and fear-based messages help deter substance misuse: a systematic review of recent (2005–2017) research, Drugs-Education Prevention and Policy , 26 , 209 – 218 .

Estrada Y. , Lee T. K. , Huang S. , Tapia M. I. , Velazquez M. R. , Martinez M. J. et al.  ( 2017 ) Parent-centered prevention of risky behaviors among hispanic youths in Florida . American Journal of Public Health , 107 , 607 – 613 .

Faseur T. , Geuens M. ( 2010 ) Communicating the right emotion to generate help for connected versus unconnected others . Communication Research , 37 , 498 – 521 .

Hendriks H. , van den Putte B. , de Bruijn G. J. ( 2014 ) Changing the conversation: the influence of emotions on conversational valence and alcohol consumption . Prevention Science , 15 , 684 – 693 .

Hornik J. , Ofir C. , Rachamim M. ( 2016 ) Quantitative evaluation of persuasive appeals using comparative meta-analysis . The Communication Review , 19 , 192 – 222 .

Hornik J. , Ofir C. , Rachamim M. ( 2017 ) Advertising appeals, moderators, and impact on persuasion: a quantitative assessment creates a hierarchy of appeals . Journal of Advertising Research , 57 , 305 – 318 .

Jackson N. , Waters E ; Promotion Guidelines for Systematic Reviews in Health and Taskforce Public Health . ( 2005 ) Criteria for the systematic review of health promotion and public health interventions . Health Promotion International , 20 , 367 – 374 .

Jäger T. , Eisend M. ( 2013 ) Effects of fear-arousing and humorous appeals in social marketing advertising: the moderating role of prior attitude toward the advertised behavior . Journal of Current Issues & Research in Advertising , 34 , 125 – 134 .

Jenkin G. , Madhvani N. , Signal L. , Bowers S. ( 2014 ) A systematic review of persuasive marketing techniques to promote food to children on television . Obesity Reviews , 15 , 281 – 293 .

Jordan A. , Bleakley A. , Hennessy M. , Vaala S. , Glanz K. , Strasser A. A. ( 2015 ) Sugar-sweetened beverage-related public service advertisements and their influence on parents . American Behavioral Scientist , 59 , 1847 – 1865 .

Kaye S. A. , Lewis I. , Algie J. , White M. J. ( 2016 ) Young drivers’ responses to anti-speeding advertisements: comparison of self-report and objective measures of persuasive processing and outcomes . Traffic Injury Prevention , 17 , 352 – 358 .

Kemp E. , Kennett-Hensel P. A. , Kees J. ( 2013 ) Pulling on the heartstrings: examining the effects of emotions and gender in persuasive appeals . Journal of Advertising , 42 , 69 – 79 .

Lau-Gesk L. , Meyers-Levy J. ( 2009 ) Emotional persuasion: when the valence versus the resource demands of emotions influence consumers’ attitudes . Journal of Consumer Research , 36 , 585 – 599 .

Lee M. J. ( 2018 ) College students’ responses to emotional anti-alcohol abuse media messages: should we scare or amuse them? Health Promotion Practice , 19 , 465 – 474 .

Lee M. J. , Ferguson M. A. ( 2002 ) Effects of anti-tobacco advertisements based on risk-taking tendencies: realistic fear vs. vulgar humor . Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly , 79 , 945 – 963 .

Lennon R. , Rentfro R. , Bay O. ( 2010 ) Social marketing and distracted driving behaviors among young adults: the effectiveness of fear appeals . Academy of Marketing Studies Journal , 14 , 95 – 113 .

Lerner J. S. , Keltner D. ( 2000 ) Beyond valence: Toward a model of emotion-specific influences on judgement and choice . Cognition & Emotion , 14 , 473 – 493 .

Lewis I. , Watson B. , White K. M. ( 2008 ) An examination of message-relevant affect in road safety messages: should road safety advertisements aim to make us feel good or bad? Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour , 11 , 403 – 417 .

Matthes J. , Wonneberger A. ( 2014 ) The skeptical green consumer revisited: testing the relationship between green consumerism and skepticism toward advertising . Journal of Advertising , 43 , 115 – 127 .

Mattila A. S. ( 1999 ) Do emotional appeals work for services? International Journal of Service Industry Management , 10 , 292 – 306 .

Moher D. , Liberati A. , Tetzlaff J. , Altman D. G. ; PRISMA Group . ( 2009 ) Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement . Annals of Internal Medicine , 151 , 264 – 269 .

Moran N. , Bagchi R. ( 2019 ) The power of emotional benefits: examining the role of benefit focus on donation behavior . Journal of Advertising , 48 , 284 – 291 .

Mukherjee A. , Dubé L. ( 2012 ) Mixing emotions: the use of humor in fear advertising . Journal of Consumer Behaviour , 11 , 147 – 161 .

Nabi R. L. ( 2015 ) Emotional flow in persuasive health messages . Health Communication , 30 , 114 – 124 .

Noble G. , Pomering A. , W. Johnson L. ( 2014 ) Gender and message appeal: their influence in a pro-environmental social advertising context . Journal of Social Marketing , 4 , 4 – 21 .

O’Keefe D. J. , Jensen J. D. ( 2009 ) The relative persuasiveness of gain-framed and loss-framed messages for encouraging disease detection behaviors: a meta-analytic review . Journal of Communication , 59 , 296 – 316 .

Passyn K. , Sujan M. ( 2006 ) Self accountability emotions and fear appeals: motivating behavior . Journal of Consumer Research , 32 , 583 – 589 .

Pitt L. F. , Berthon P. , Caruana A. , Berthon J.-P. ( 2005 ) The state of theory in three premier advertising journals: a research note . International Journal of Advertising , 24 , 241 – 249 .

Plant B. , Reeza F. , Irwin J. D. ( 2011 ) A systematic review of how anti-speeding advertisements are evaluated . Journal of the Australasian College of Road Safety , 22 , 18 .

Plant B. R. C. , Irwin J. D. , Chekaluk E. ( 2017 ) The effects of anti-speeding advertisements on the simulated driving behaviour of young drivers . Accident; Analysis and Prevention , 100 , 65 – 74 .

Previte J. , Russell-Bennett R. , Parkinson J. ( 2015 ) Shaping safe drinking cultures: evoking positive emotion to promote moderate-drinking behaviour . International Journal of Consumer Studies , 39 , 12 – 24 .

Rodrigue J. R. , Fleishman A. , Vishnevsky T. , Fitzpatrick S. , Boger M. ( 2014 ) Organ donation video messaging: differential appeal, emotional valence, and behavioral intention . Clinical Transplantation , 28 , 1184 – 1192 .

Sarstedt M. , Bengart P. , Shaltoni A. M. , Lehmann S. ( 2018 ) The use of sampling methods in advertising research: a gap between theory and practice . International Journal of Advertising , 37 , 650 – 663 .

Scherer K. R. ( 2005 ) What are emotions? And how can they be measured? Social Science Information , 44 , 695 – 729 .

Skurka C. , Niederdeppe J. , Romero-Canyas R. , Acup D. ( 2018 ) Pathways of influence in emotional appeals: benefits and tradeoffs of using fear or humor to promote climate change-related intentions and risk perceptions . Journal of Communication , 68 , 169 – 193 .

Small D. A. , Verrochi N. M. ( 2009 ) The face of need: facial emotion expression on charity advertisements . Journal of Marketing Research , 46 , 777 – 787 .

Struckman‐Johnson C. , Struckman‐Johnson D. , Gilliland R. C. , Ausman A. ( 1994 ) Effect of persuasive appeals in AIDS PSAs and condom commercials on intentions to use condoms 1, Journal of Applied Social Psychology , 24 , 2223 – 2244 .

Sun H. J. ( 2015 ) A study on the development of public campaign messages for organ donation promotion in Korea . Health Promotion International , 30 , 903 – 918 .

Tannenbaum M. B. , Hepler J. , Zimmerman R. S. , Saul L. , Jacobs S. , Wilson K. et al.  ( 2015 ) Appealing to fear: a meta-analysis of fear appeal effectiveness and theories . Psychological Bulletin , 141 , 1178 – 1204 .

Taute H. A. , McQuitty S. , Sautter E. P. ( 2011 ) Emotional information management and responses to emotional appeals . Journal of Advertising , 40 , 31 – 43 .

Tay R. ( 2005 ) The effectiveness of enforcement and publicity campaigns on serious crashes involving young male drivers: are drink driving and speeding similar? Accident; Analysis and Prevention , 37 , 922 – 929 .

Tay R. ( 2011 ) Drivers’ perception of two seatbelt wearing advertisements with different emotional appeals and cultural settings . Journal of the Australasian College of Road Safety , 22 , 82 .

Thainiyom P. , Elder K. ( 2017 ) Emotional Appeals in HIV Prevention Campaigns: unintended stigma effects . American Journal of Health Behavior , 41 , 390 – 400 .

Thomas B. H. , Ciliska D. , Dobbins M. , Micucci S. ( 2004 ) A process for systematically reviewing the literature: providing the research evidence for public health nursing interventions . Worldviews on Evidence-Based Nursing , 1 , 176 – 184 .

Vaala S. E. , Bleakley A. , Hennessy M. , Jordan A. B. ( 2016 ) Weight stigmatization moderates the effects of sugar-sweetened beverage-related PSAs among US parents . Media Psychology , 19 , 534 – 560 .

Wadsworth D. D. , Hallam J. S. ( 2010 ) Effect of a web site intervention on physical activity of college females . American Journal of Health Behavior , 34 , 60 – 69 .

Wang J. M. , Bao J. , Wang C. C. , Wu L. C. ( 2017 ) The impact of different emotional appeals on the purchase intention for green products: The moderating effects of green involvement and Confucian cultures . Sustainable Cities and Society , 34 , 32 – 42 .

Williams C. L. , Grechanaia T. , Romanova O. , Komro K. A. , Perry C. L. , Farbakhsh K. ( 2001 ) Russian-American partners for prevention: adaptation of a school-based parent-child programme for alcohol use prevention . European Journal of Public Health , 11 , 314 – 321 .

Williams J. D. , Lee W.-N. , Haugtvedt C. P. ( 2004 ) Diversity in Advertising: Broadening the Scope of Research Directions . Psychology Press, Hove, East Sussex, United Kingdom .

Willmott T. , Pang B. , Rundle-Thiele S. , Badejo A. ( 2019 ) Reported theory use in electronic health weight management interventions targeting young adults: a systematic review . Health Psychology Review , 13 , 295 – 317 .

Witte K. , Allen M. ( 2000 ) A meta-analysis of fear appeals: implications for effective public health campaigns . Health Education & Behavior , 27 , 591 – 615 .

Wu C. H. , Sundiman D. , Kao S. C. , Chen C. H. ( 2018 ) Emotion induction in click intention of picture advertisement: a field examination . Journal of Internet Commerce , 17 , 356 – 382 .

Yoon H. J. ( 2018 ) Using humour to increase effectiveness of shameful health issue advertising: testing the effects of health worry level . International Journal of Advertising , 37 , 914 – 936 .

Yoon H. J. , Tinkham S. F. ( 2013 ) Humorous threat persuasion in advertising: The effects of humor, threat intensity, and issue involvement . Journal of Advertising , 42 , 30 – 41 .

Yousef M. , Dietrich T. , Rundle-Thiele S. ( 2021 ) Social advertising effectiveness in driving action: a study of positive, negative and coactive appeals on social media . International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 18 , 5954 .

Yousef M. , Dietrich T. , Torrisi G. ( 2021 ) Positive, negative or both? Assessing emotional appeals effectiveness in anti-drink driving advertisements . Social Marketing Quarterly , 27 , 195 – 212 .

Zemack-Rugar Y. , Klucarova-Travani S. ( 2018 ) Should donation ads include happy victim images? The moderating role of regulatory focus . Marketing Letters , 29 , 421 – 434 .

Supplementary data

Email alerts, citing articles via.

  • Recommend to Your Librarian
  • Journals Career Network


  • Online ISSN 1460-2245
  • Print ISSN 0957-4824
  • Copyright © 2024 Oxford University Press
  • About Oxford Academic
  • Publish journals with us
  • University press partners
  • What we publish
  • New features  
  • Open access
  • Institutional account management
  • Rights and permissions
  • Get help with access
  • Accessibility
  • Advertising
  • Media enquiries
  • Oxford University Press
  • Oxford Languages
  • University of Oxford

Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide

  • Copyright © 2024 Oxford University Press
  • Cookie settings
  • Cookie policy
  • Privacy policy
  • Legal notice

This Feature Is Available To Subscribers Only

Sign In or Create an Account

This PDF is available to Subscribers Only

For full access to this pdf, sign in to an existing account, or purchase an annual subscription.

advertisement comparison essay

How Does Netflix Compare to Hulu, Max, and More in 2024?

Quick links, netflix with ads is still really cheap, other platforms make password sharing easier, it's still hard to beat the netflix library, netflix has equal downloading and a couple of unique reminders, device compatibility is about equal across the board.

  • The ad-supported plan makes Netflix the cheapest streaming platform among popular competitors.
  • Sharing passwords became more expensive due to Netflix's crackdownothers still allow sharing.
  • Despite price hikes and clamping down on sharing, Netflix's library and features still make it worth keeping.

Like most streaming platforms, Netflix has been cracking down on password sharing and increasing the price of its plans. So, is it worth keeping the OG streaming staple on your roster? The platform still holds up pretty strong against the competition.

With streaming costs constantly on the rise , keeping up with the latest water-cooler shows can really start to hurt your wallet. If you're culling your list of subscriptions, however, Netflix might just make the cut based on price alone. The ad-supported Netflix plan is still the cheapest content package when compared to the most popular competitors.

Take a look at the price of Netflix when compared to Hulu, Max, Amazon Prime Video, and Apple TV+ .

One area where Netflix doesn't outshine other services is password sharing. Sure, you can find a way to share your login with people outside your home, but it's going to cost you . The platform started to really crack down on password sharing in summer 2023 , and by the end of the year, they kicked people off of plans unless they were paid "Extra Members."

To share an account with Netflix, you'll have to pay for the Standard plan at $15.49 per month, plus an extra $7.99 per month per Extra Member. You can add up to two people who don't live with you. Even then, you can only watch on two devices at a time . To allow four devices simultaneously streaming, you'll need the Premium plan at $22.99 per month plus $7.99 per Extra Member.

The bottom line is that it very quickly makes less sense to share Netflix than it does for your friends and family just to get your own ad-supported plans.

As of March 2024, Hulu also stopped letting people outside your household share your password . By contrast, Disney+, Max, Amazon Prime Video, Paramount+, Peacock, and Apple TV+ still let you share a password and create a profile for people who don't live with you. If you're trying to keep costs low by sharing an account, Netflix is more foe than friend.

As of January 2023, Statista reported that Netflix had more available titles than every major streamer besides Amazon Prime Video . At that time, Netflix had just over 7,300 titles, which were just about evenly split between movies and TV shows. Meanwhile, Amazon Prime Video had over 7,400 titles, Hulu had about 6,400, and Max had just 4,200.

Of course, having a lot of titles available doesn't mean they're good. Luckily, Statista also compares the quality of TV shows available. As of January 2024, Netflix had the most "high quality" TV shows of all streamers, based on the IMdB ratings for available shows.

When it comes to movies, Netflix comes in third behind Max and Prime Video for the number of high-quality titles. If you're looking for blockbuster titles and good original films, Netflix may not be your best bet. However, it does have many titles that fit the "quality" category with ratings between 6-7.5 on IMdB.

Netflix, Hulu, Prime Video, Max, and Apple TV+ all allow you to download some titles and watch them offline . This feature could occupy quite a bit of memory on the device where you download them, but it's still a convenient feature. It's worth noting that Hulu only offers this function for people who pay for a "No Ads" plan.

While Netflix doesn't necessarily stand out when it comes to downloads, it does have the cheapest plan to allow it.

Meanwhile, if you want to know what's coming up on a streaming platform, Netflix has the best functionality. There is an entire tab on the home screen for "New and Popular" content (the title of the tab may vary depending on your device). If you see something that piques your interest, you can set a reminder.

Enabling push notifications on a smartphone or tablet means Netflix will send a pop-up to your device when a certain title is available. Netflix must be installed on the device. You can also enable email notifications. Hulu allows you to set reminders for new TV shows and movies, but you can't customize them for certain titles like you can with Netflix.

Netflix also has a "Browse by Languages" tab in its menu, which makes it easier to find titles in Italian, Japanese, Dutch, and more.

Most streaming services are compatible with the same popular devices. This includes smart TVs, streaming devices, phones, computers, tablets, and gaming consoles.

There are a few exceptions. For example, Netflix and Prime Video are compatible with Vestel Smart TVs, whereas their competitors are not. And, Max is compatible with Cox Contour 2 and Cox Contour Stream Player devices.

The following devices are compatible with most streaming apps, including Netflix:

Before you assume a particular streaming platform is compatible with your device, you should also check the streamer's website to make sure your device model will work. For instance, Hulu will only work on Apple TVs that are 4th generation or newer.

So, is Netflix still worth it in 2024? The platform still stacks up to its main competitors, especially when it comes to price and number of titles. For people who value choice above all else, Netflix can only be beaten by Amazon Prime Video. If you're all about that password sharing life to cut costs, on the other hand, Netflix doesn't come in clutch. Still, overall, Netflix is worth keeping around for many viewers.

How Does Netflix Compare to Hulu, Max, and More in 2024?

  • Share full article


Supported by

Guest Essay

Jamie Raskin: How to Force Justices Alito and Thomas to Recuse Themselves in the Jan. 6 Cases

A white chain in the foreground, with the pillars of the Supreme Court Building in the background.

By Jamie Raskin

Mr. Raskin represents Maryland’s Eighth Congressional District in the House of Representatives. He taught constitutional law for more than 25 years and was the lead prosecutor in the second impeachment trial of Donald Trump.

Many people have gloomily accepted the conventional wisdom that because there is no binding Supreme Court ethics code, there is no way to force Associate Justices Samuel Alito and Clarence Thomas to recuse themselves from the Jan. 6 cases that are before the court.

Justices Alito and Thomas are probably making the same assumption.

But all of them are wrong.

It seems unfathomable that the two justices could get away with deciding for themselves whether they can be impartial in ruling on cases affecting Donald Trump’s liability for crimes he is accused of committing on Jan. 6. Justice Thomas’s wife, Ginni Thomas, was deeply involved in the Jan. 6 “stop the steal” movement. Above the Virginia home of Justice Alito and his wife, Martha-Ann Alito, flew an upside-down American flag — a strong political statement among the people who stormed the Capitol. Above the Alitos’ beach home in New Jersey flew another flag that has been adopted by groups opposed to President Biden.

Justices Alito and Thomas face a groundswell of appeals beseeching them not to participate in Trump v. United States , the case that will decide whether Mr. Trump enjoys absolute immunity from criminal prosecution, and Fischer v. United States , which will decide whether Jan. 6 insurrectionists — and Mr. Trump — can be charged under a statute that criminalizes “corruptly” obstructing an official proceeding. (Justice Alito said on Wednesday that he would not recuse himself from Jan. 6-related cases.)

Everyone assumes that nothing can be done about the recusal situation because the highest court in the land has the lowest ethical standards — no binding ethics code or process outside of personal reflection. Each justice decides for him- or herself whether he or she can be impartial.

Of course, Justices Alito and Thomas could choose to recuse themselves — wouldn’t that be nice? But begging them to do the right thing misses a far more effective course of action.

The U.S. Department of Justice — including the U.S. attorney for the District of Columbia, an appointed U.S. special counsel and the solicitor general, all of whom were involved in different ways in the criminal prosecutions underlying these cases and are opposing Mr. Trump’s constitutional and statutory claims — can petition the other seven justices to require Justices Alito and Thomas to recuse themselves not as a matter of grace but as a matter of law.

The Justice Department and Attorney General Merrick Garland can invoke two powerful textual authorities for this motion: the Constitution of the United States, specifically the due process clause, and the federal statute mandating judicial disqualification for questionable impartiality, 28 U.S.C. Section 455. The Constitution has come into play in several recent Supreme Court decisions striking down rulings by stubborn judges in lower courts whose political impartiality has been reasonably questioned but who threw caution to the wind to hear a case anyway. This statute requires potentially biased judges throughout the federal system to recuse themselves at the start of the process to avoid judicial unfairness and embarrassing controversies and reversals.

The constitutional and statutory standards apply to Supreme Court justices. The Constitution, and the federal laws under it, is the “ supreme law of the land ,” and the recusal statute explicitly treats Supreme Court justices like other judges: “Any justice, judge or magistrate judge of the United States shall disqualify himself in any proceeding in which his impartiality might reasonably be questioned.” The only justices in the federal judiciary are the ones on the Supreme Court.

This recusal statute, if triggered, is not a friendly suggestion. It is Congress’s command, binding on the justices, just as the due process clause is. The Supreme Court cannot disregard this law just because it directly affects one or two of its justices. Ignoring it would trespass on the constitutional separation of powers because the justices would essentially be saying that they have the power to override a congressional command.

When the arguments are properly before the court, Chief Justice John Roberts and Associate Justices Amy Coney Barrett, Neil Gorsuch, Ketanji Brown Jackson, Elena Kagan, Brett Kavanaugh and Sonia Sotomayor will have both a constitutional obligation and a statutory obligation to enforce recusal standards.

Indeed, there is even a compelling argument based on case law that Chief Justice Roberts and the other, unaffected justices should raise the matter of recusal on their own (or sua sponte). Numerous circuit courts have agreed with the Eighth Circuit that this is the right course of action when members of an appellate court are aware of “ overt acts ” of a judge reflecting personal bias. Cases like this stand for the idea that appellate jurists who see something should say something instead of placing all the burden on parties in a case who would have to risk angering a judge by bringing up the awkward matter of potential bias and favoritism on the bench.

But even if no member of the court raises the issue of recusal, the urgent need to deal with it persists. Once it is raised, the court would almost surely have to find that the due process clause and Section 455 compel Justices Alito and Thomas to recuse themselves. To arrive at that substantive conclusion, the justices need only read their court’s own recusal decisions.

In one key 5-to-3 Supreme Court case from 2016, Williams v. Pennsylvania, Justice Anthony Kennedy explained why judicial bias is a defect of constitutional magnitude and offered specific objective standards for identifying it. Significantly, Justices Alito and Thomas dissented from the majority’s ruling.

The case concerned the bias of the chief justice of Pennsylvania, who had been involved as a prosecutor on the state’s side in an appellate death penalty case that was before him. Justice Kennedy found that the judge’s refusal to recuse himself when asked to do so violated due process. Justice Kennedy’s authoritative opinion on recusal illuminates three critical aspects of the current controversy.

First, Justice Kennedy found that the standard for recusal must be objective because it is impossible to rely on the affected judge’s introspection and subjective interpretations. The court’s objective standard requires recusal when the likelihood of bias on the part of the judge “is too high to be constitutionally tolerable,” citing an earlier case. “This objective risk of bias,” according to Justice Kennedy, “is reflected in the due process maxim that ‘no man can be a judge in his own case.’” A judge or justice can be convinced of his or her own impartiality but also completely missing what other people are seeing.

Second, the Williams majority endorsed the American Bar Association’s Model Code of Judicial Conduct as an appropriate articulation of the Madisonian standard that “no man can be a judge in his own cause.” Model Code Rule 2.11 on judicial disqualification says that a judge “shall disqualify himself or herself in any proceeding in which the judge’s impartiality might reasonably be questioned.” This includes, illustratively, cases in which the judge “has a personal bias or prejudice concerning a party,” a married judge knows that “the judge’s spouse” is “a person who has more than a de minimis interest that could be substantially affected by the proceeding” or the judge “has made a public statement, other than in a court proceeding, judicial decision or opinion, that commits or appears to commit the judge to reach a particular result.” These model code illustrations ring a lot of bells at this moment.

Third and most important, Justice Kennedy found for the court that the failure of an objectively biased judge to recuse him- or herself is not “harmless error” just because the biased judge’s vote is not apparently determinative in the vote of a panel of judges. A biased judge contaminates the proceeding not just by the casting and tabulation of his or her own vote but by participating in the body’s collective deliberations and affecting, even subtly, other judges’ perceptions of the case.

Justice Kennedy was emphatic on this point : “It does not matter whether the disqualified judge’s vote was necessary to the disposition of the case. The fact that the interested judge’s vote was not dispositive may mean only that the judge was successful in persuading most members of the court to accept his or her position — an outcome that does not lessen the unfairness to the affected party.”

Courts generally have found that any reasonable doubts about a judge’s partiality must be resolved in favor of recusal. A judge “shall disqualify himself in any proceeding in which his impartiality might reasonably be questioned.” While recognizing that the “challenged judge enjoys a margin of discretion,” the courts have repeatedly held that “doubts ordinarily ought to be resolved in favor of recusal.” After all, the reputation of the whole tribunal and public confidence in the judiciary are both on the line.

Judge David Tatel of the D.C. Circuit emphasized this fundamental principle in 2019 when his court issued a writ of mandamus to force recusal of a military judge who blithely ignored at least the appearance of a glaring conflict of interest. He stated : “Impartial adjudicators are the cornerstone of any system of justice worthy of the label. And because ‘deference to the judgments and rulings of courts depends upon public confidence in the integrity and independence of judges,’ jurists must avoid even the appearance of partiality.” He reminded us that to perform its high function in the best way, as Justice Felix Frankfurter stated, “justice must satisfy the appearance of justice.”

The Supreme Court has been especially disposed to favor recusal when partisan politics appear to be a prejudicial factor even when the judge’s impartiality has not been questioned. In Caperton v. A.T. Massey Coal Co. , from 2009, the court held that a state supreme court justice was constitutionally disqualified from a case in which the president of a corporation appearing before him had helped to get him elected by spending $3 million promoting his campaign. The court, through Justice Kennedy, asked whether, quoting a 1975 decision, “under a realistic appraisal of psychological tendencies and human weakness,” the judge’s obvious political alignment with a party in a case “poses such a risk of actual bias or prejudgment that the practice must be forbidden if the guarantee of due process is to be adequately implemented.”

The federal statute on disqualification, Section 455(b) , also makes recusal analysis directly applicable to bias imputed to a spouse’s interest in the case. Ms. Thomas and Mrs. Alito (who, according to Justice Alito, is the one who put up the inverted flag outside their home) meet this standard. A judge must recuse him- or herself when a spouse “is known by the judge to have an interest in a case that could be substantially affected by the outcome of the proceeding.”

At his Senate confirmation hearing, Chief Justice Roberts assured America that “Judges are like umpires.”

But professional baseball would never allow an umpire to continue to officiate the World Series after learning that the pennant of one of the two teams competing was flying in the front yard of the umpire’s home. Nor would an umpire be allowed to call balls and strikes in a World Series game after the umpire’s wife tried to get the official score of a prior game in the series overthrown and canceled out to benefit the losing team. If judges are like umpires, then they should be treated like umpires, not team owners, team fans or players.

Justice Barrett has said she wants to convince people “that this court is not comprised of a bunch of partisan hacks.” Justice Alito himself declared the importance of judicial objectivity in his opinion for the majority in the Dobbs v. Jackson Women’s Health Organization decision overruling Roe v. Wade — a bit of self-praise that now rings especially hollow.

But the Constitution and Congress’s recusal statute provide the objective framework of analysis and remedy for cases of judicial bias that are apparent to the world, even if they may be invisible to the judges involved. This is not really optional for the justices.

I look forward to seeing seven members of the court act to defend the reputation and integrity of the institution.

Jamie Raskin, a Democrat, represents Maryland’s Eighth Congressional District in the House of Representatives. He taught constitutional law for more than 25 years and was the lead prosecutor in the second impeachment trial of Donald Trump.

The Times is committed to publishing a diversity of letters to the editor. We’d like to hear what you think about this or any of our articles. Here are some tips . And here’s our email: [email protected] .

Follow the New York Times Opinion section on Facebook , Instagram , TikTok , WhatsApp , X and Threads .

advertisement comparison essay

Journal of Materials Chemistry C

Discrete and dimeric chiral plasmonic nanorods: intrinsic chirality and extrinsic chirality †.

ORCID logo

* Corresponding authors

a Key laboratory of Material Physics, Ministry of Education, School of Physics and Microelectronics, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China E-mail: [email protected] , [email protected]

b Institute of Quantum Materials and Physics, Henan Academy of Sciences, Zhengzhou 450046, China

c School of Mechanical Engineering, Chengdu University, Chengdu 610000, China

d Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, and School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China

The recent progress in chemical synthetic methodologies has facilitated the fabrication of discrete plasmonic nanoparticles exhibiting chiral characteristics on their surface. In comparison to conventional gold nanorods (NRs), such structures possess strong plasmonic circular dichroism response, making them highly suitable for various applications involving circularly polarized light. Although the intrinsic and extrinsic chirality of chiral nanostructures produced by the assembly with chiral ligands have been explored both experimentally and theoretically, the investigation into the influencing factors of the intrinsic and extrinsic chirality of discrete chiral Au NRs (dc-Au NRs) has been relatively limited. Herein, we conducted a comprehensive investigation using full-wave electromagnetic simulations to explore the influence of various structural parameters (such as helical depth, width, and numbers of the helical pitches) on the intrinsic and extrinsic chirality of dc-Au NRs. Additionally, we examined the chiral surface plasmon resonance coupling and the corresponding chiral near-field by studying the cross-like assembly of dc-Au NR dimers. These findings serve as valuable guidance for future experimental and theoretical research on chiral plasmonic nanostructures and their applications involving circularly polarized light.

Graphical abstract: Discrete and dimeric chiral plasmonic nanorods: intrinsic chirality and extrinsic chirality

  • This article is part of the themed collections: Journal of Materials Chemistry C Emerging Investigators 2024 and Journal of Materials Chemistry C HOT Papers

Supplementary files

  • Supplementary information PDF (1400K)

Article information

Download citation, permissions.

advertisement comparison essay

Discrete and dimeric chiral plasmonic nanorods: intrinsic chirality and extrinsic chirality

W. Fu, J. Chen, S. Zhang, G. Zheng and Y. Zhang, J. Mater. Chem. C , 2024, Advance Article , DOI: 10.1039/D4TC01258E

To request permission to reproduce material from this article, please go to the Copyright Clearance Center request page .

If you are an author contributing to an RSC publication, you do not need to request permission provided correct acknowledgement is given.

If you are the author of this article, you do not need to request permission to reproduce figures and diagrams provided correct acknowledgement is given. If you want to reproduce the whole article in a third-party publication (excluding your thesis/dissertation for which permission is not required) please go to the Copyright Clearance Center request page .

Read more about how to correctly acknowledge RSC content .

Social activity

Search articles by author.

This article has not yet been cited.



  1. An Analysis Of Two Print Based Advertisement Free Essay Example

    advertisement comparison essay

  2. Mass media advertisement comparison marketing essay

    advertisement comparison essay

  3. Advertisement Comparison Essay

    advertisement comparison essay

  4. Advertising Comparative Essay

    advertisement comparison essay


    advertisement comparison essay

  6. What is Comparative Advertising? [+ Examples]

    advertisement comparison essay


  1. Write a short essay on Advertisements

  2. Essay on Advertisement in English

  3. What Is Advertisement Essay In English

  4. Food in Commercials VS Food in Reality😮🤮| Tv Ads VS Reality Pt 25 |#shorts #tvadsreality #viral

  5. What is an Advertisement Essay, Paragraph or short note in English Cursive Writing

  6. Advertisement Evaluation Essay Background


  1. 9 Comparative Advertising Examples to Help You Get Ahead

    3. Allstate vs. everyone else. Though perhaps not as overtly comparative as Apple's Mac vs. PC campaign, Allstate's wildly successful Mayhem campaign is an example of comparative advertising nonetheless. Taking a page from the Apple playbook, Allstate uses a human actor to personify a non-human entity—in this case, the non-human entity is ...

  2. Comparing and Contrasting in an Essay

    Making effective comparisons. As the name suggests, comparing and contrasting is about identifying both similarities and differences. You might focus on contrasting quite different subjects or comparing subjects with a lot in common—but there must be some grounds for comparison in the first place. For example, you might contrast French ...

  3. Two Advertisement Analysis: [Essay Example], 955 words

    Advertisement 1: Nike. The first advertisement I will analyze is a print ad from Nike, a global leader in athletic footwear and apparel. The ad features a powerful image of a female athlete running, with the slogan "Just Do It" prominently displayed. The ad is visually striking, with bold, vibrant colors and dynamic composition.

  4. Drafting Your Ad Analysis

    4. Don't forget the text! While you should not write every word in the ad in your description, especially if there are lengthy paragraphs, you should include a brief overview of the text. ie placement, basic overview Again, you'll be able to give specific quotes that are relevant to your analysis in the body of your paper. 5.

  5. Comparing and Contrasting

    One of the most common is the comparison/contrast essay, in which you focus on the ways in which certain things or ideas—usually two of them—are similar to (this is the comparison) and/or different from (this is the contrast) one another. By assigning such essays, your instructors are encouraging you to make connections between texts or ...

  6. How to Write a Compare and Contrast Essay [Outline, Tips and Topics]

    4.1 Comparison Essay Outline Example. 5 Tips to Write a Compare and Contrast Essay. 5.1 Comparison Essay Format. 6 Bringing It All Together. As we navigate our lives, we can't help but notice the elements in our environment, whether it's the latest car, a fashion trend, or even some experiences. Think about your favorite Mexican restaurant ...

  7. How to Write a Comparative Essay (with Pictures)

    2. Use a mixed paragraphs method. Address both halves of the comparison in each paragraph. This means that the first paragraph will compare the first aspect of each subject, the second will compare the second, and so on, making sure to always address the subjects in the same order.

  8. How to Write a Compare and Contrast Essay

    1. Pick Two Subjects to Compare and Contrast. A compare and contrast assignment will ask you, unsurprisingly, to compare and contrast two things. In some cases, the assignment question will make this clear. For instance, if the assignment says "Compare how Mozart and Beethoven use melody," you will have a very clear sense of what to write ...

  9. What Is a Compare and Contrast Essay? Simple Examples ...

    A compare and contrast essay is a type of analytical essay that explores the similarities and differences between two subjects. We guide you through one with some examples. ... Advertisement Compare and Contrast Essay Example. You have a pretty solid idea of how to write a compare and contrast essay, but it doesn't hurt to see what a compare ...

  10. How to Write a Compare and Contrast Essay

    1. Begin by Brainstorming With a Venn Diagram. The best compare and contrast essays demonstrate a high level of analysis. This means you will need to brainstorm before you begin writing. A Venn diagram is a great visual tool for brainstorming compare and contrast essay topics.

  11. How to Write a Compare and Contrast Essay (with Pictures)

    4. Outline your body paragraphs based on point-by-point comparison. This is the more common method used in the comparison and contrast essay. [6] You can write a paragraph about each characteristic of both locations, comparing the locations in the same paragraph.

  12. ReadWriteThink: Student Materials: Comparison and Contrast Guide

    The Comparison and Contrast Guide outlines the characteristics of the genre and provides direct instruction on the methods of organizing, gathering ideas, and writing comparison and contrast essays.

  13. Free Advertisement Essay Examples and Topic Ideas

    Tell about its aim and target audience. Then describe the main points and how it impacts people, providing your opinion. Write about the influence of advertising and your own impression. To make it easier for you to decide on a topic for your advertising essay, our team has created a list of ideas for you.

  14. 4.2: Comparison and Contrast Essays

    Sample Comparison-and-Contrast Essays. A South African Storm. By Allison Howard - Peace Corps Volunteer: South Africa (2003-2005) It's a Saturday afternoon in January in South Africa. When I begin the 45-minute walk to the shops for groceries, I can hear thunder cracking in the distance up the mountain in Mageobaskloof.

  15. A Comparison of Two Advertisements Essay examples

    A Comparison of Two Advertisements Essay examples. Advertising is a way of publicizing a product that you want to sell. There are many of different things to advertise, such as clothes, shoes, cars, watches etc. Advertising promotes the latest goods that are out in the shops. Advertising effects me everyday because every time I see a ...

  16. Advertisements Analysis and Comparison

    1 hour! Advertisements Analysis and Comparison Essay. When it comes to ensuring the commercial/aesthetic appeal of an advertised product, it is crucially important to remain thoroughly aware of what accounts for the specifics of the targeted audience's consumer-behavior. In their turn, these specifics are best discussed within the context of ...

  17. 4.1: Introduction to Comparison and Contrast Essay

    The key to a good compare-and-contrast essay is to choose two or more subjects that connect in a meaningful way. Comparison and contrast is simply telling how two things are alike or different. The compare-and-contrast essay starts with a thesis that clearly states the two subjects that are to be compared, contrasted, or both.

  18. Advertisement Comparison Essays

    Read Essay On Advertisement Comparison and other exceptional papers on every subject and topic college can throw at you. We can custom-write anything as well! We use cookies to enhance our website for you. Proceed if you agree to this policy or learn more about it. I agree. HIRE A WRITER;

  19. Advertisement Comparison Essay

    Advertisement Comparison Essay. Decent Essays. 662 Words. 3 Pages. Open Document. The world is run by advertisements. Advertisements are an essential part of businesses and influences millions of people in their everyday choices. They are used to showcase certain products to the common people. A strong ad can result in many people purchasing a ...

  20. 34 Compelling Compare and Contrast Essay Examples

    Compare and Contrast Paragraph—Dogs and Cats. Sample lines: "Researchers have found that dogs have about twice the number of neurons in their cerebral cortexes than what cats have. Specifically, dogs had around 530 million neurons, whereas the domestic cat only had 250 million neurons.

  21. Comparing Two Advertisements Essay

    1633. Cite. View Full Essay. Advertisements for the Same Product Advertisement is basically a one-way communication means that is geared towards informing probable customers regarding a product and/or service and how and where to find the product and/or service. Advertisements usually contain a persuasive message through an identified sponsor.

  22. 5 Compare and Contrast Essay Examples (Full Text)

    Here they are explained below: 1. Essay Planning. First, I recommend using my compare and contrast worksheet, which acts like a Venn Diagram, walking you through the steps of comparing the similarities and differences of the concepts or items you're comparing. I recommend selecting 3-5 features that can be compared, as shown in the worksheet:

  23. Compare and Contrast Essay

    Introduction of two subjects for comparison (Paragraph 1). The Introductory paragraph explains to your readers why they will want to compare the two subjects, and reviews for them the points of comparison. Paragraph two introduces and explains point 1 for comparison and discusses how it applies to both subjects; i.e. apples and oranges.

  24. Advertising appeals effectiveness: a systematic literature review

    INTRODUCTION. Advertising appeals have witnessed an increase in research interest and scholarly attention in recent years. Studies investigate appeal effectiveness [e.g. (Jordan et al., 2015; Lee, 2018)] and to a lesser extent systematic and meta-analytic studies attempting to synthesize results are evident (O'Keefe and Jensen, 2009; Jenkin et al., 2014; Hornik et al., 2016).

  25. Opinion

    Step Aside, DNA. RNA Has Arrived. Dr. Cech is a biochemist and the author of the forthcoming book "The Catalyst: RNA and the Quest to Unlock Life's Deepest Secrets," from which this essay is ...

  26. Opinion

    America's Military Is Not Prepared for War — or Peace. Mr. Wicker, a Republican, is the ranking member of the U.S. Senate Armed Services Committee. "To be prepared for war," George ...

  27. In the 'Demandingly Joyful Company' of Socrates and Plato

    Re " Higher Education Needs More Socrates and Plato ," by Ezekiel J. Emanuel and Harun Küçük (Opinion guest essay, nytimes.com, May 19): I applaud Professors Emanuel and Küçük and their ...

  28. How Does Netflix Compare to Hulu, Max, and More in 2024?

    The ad-supported plan makes Netflix the cheapest streaming platform among popular competitors. Sharing passwords became more expensive due to Netflix's crackdownothers still allow sharing.

  29. Opinion

    Judge David Tatel of the D.C. Circuit emphasized this fundamental principle in 2019 when his court issued a writ of mandamus to force recusal of a military judge who blithely ignored at least the ...

  30. Discrete and dimeric chiral plasmonic nanorods: intrinsic chirality and

    The recent progress in chemical synthetic methodologies has facilitated the fabrication of discrete plasmonic nanoparticles exhibiting chiral characteristics on their surface. In comparison to conventional gold nanorods (NRs), such structures possess strong plasmonic circular dichroism response, making them highly Journal of Materials Chemistry C HOT Papers Journal of Materials Chemistry C ...